University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

Grouped by Series

College publications are given 2-part "pub numbers" that are used to identify them. The first part (the prefix) is a set of letters that indicates which series the document belongs to. A series is a grouping of documents that share similar content.

The second part of the pub number is just a sequential number.

Animal and Food Sciences Publications

Managing Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Precision dairy farming is the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators of individual animals to improve management strategies and farm performance.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | PDF: 1872 kb

Crossbreeding Considerations in Sheep
Crossbreeding is the mating of individuals from different breeds. To a certain extent, it is a simple concept, but embarking upon a crossbreeding program, in sheep or any other livestock species, involves long-term decisions. The primary benefits of a crossbreeding program are heterosis and breed complementarity.
50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,680 words | PDF: 677 kb

Inbreeding in Sheep
Inbreeding is broadly defined as the mating of individuals that are related. Strictly speaking, however, all animals within a breed are related. So, in a sense, every purebred sheep producer practices some degree of inbreeding. In most cases this relationship is very slight. Therefore, inbreeding is more practically defined as the mating of individuals more closely related than the average of the breed. This practice includes mating brother to sister, sire to daughter and son to dam.
50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,809 words | PDF: 896 kb

Sheep Breeding: Heritability, EBVs, EPDs, and the NSIP
Genetic improvement in a flock depends on the producer's ability to select breeding sheep that are genetically superior for traits of economic importance. This is complicated by the fact that an animal's own performance is not always a true indicator of its genetic potential as a parent.
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 2,618 words | PDF: 1082 kb

Keeping and Using Flock Performance Records
Performance records serve as the cornerstone of any good livestock management program. Unfortunately, the task of collecting, maintaining and using performance records is the one area of livestock production in general that gets the least attention. This fact sheet provides ten reasons why all sheep producers need to keep performance records on their flocks. Then, some ways of maintaining and using those records are discussed.
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,390 words | PDF: 890 kb

Basic Sheep Genetics
Genetics is the science of heredity. It seeks to explain differences and similarities exhibited by related individuals. The application of genetics to livestock improvement is known as animal breeding. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide a refresher course on basic genetics and to show how knowledge of genetics can be used to improve sheep production.
50 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,064 words | PDF: 465 kb

An Introduction to Sheep
The information in this fact sheet was developed to provide a quick reference to the most frequently asked questions about sheep and sheep production.
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,221 words | PDF: 1072 kb

Proper Handling and Transportation of Eggs for Sale at Kentucky Farmer's Markets
Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. This publication will give you the information and guidelines in the proper handling and transportation of eggs for sale.
Web only | 2 pages | 799 words | PDF: 1275 kb

So You Want to Produce Your Own Eggs?
Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock. This publication will give you the information you need decide if producing your own eggs is right for you.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,161 words | PDF: 3047 kb

Reading a Feed Tag
Feed stores carry a variety of feed types. How do you chose which to buy? You need to read the feed tag. A lot of information is on a feed tag that can help you make your selection and this publication breaks it down for you.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,671 words | PDF: 181 kb

Mineral and Protein Blocks and Tubs for Cattle
Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs. Since there are differences in the blocks and tubs being marketed today, familiarity with how to compare products and determine their differences will enable producers to decide which product best fits their needs.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,891 words | PDF: 159 kb

Is Creep Feeding Lambs a Profitable Undertaking?
Creep feeding is a technique of providing feed to nursing lambs to supplement the milk they consume. Creep-fed lambs grow faster than noncreep-feds and are more aggressive in nursing ewes. This aggression stimulates greater ewe milk production which, in turn, increases creep feed intake because these lambs will be bigger at a given age. Typically, the creep diet is a grain-protein supplement mixture and is made available in an area constructed so lambs can enter, but ewes cannot. Some situations when it may be economical to creep feed are described in this document.
300 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,940 words | PDF: 309 kb

How to Make a Country Ham
Country hams can be found in grocery stores and specialty shops throughout Southeast and on the internet. Nonetheless, there are some do-it-yourselfers who want to start their own family traditions. Country hams are not difficult to make. The process requires a few easy-to-find ingredients and a secure storage area. Country hams are made in three steps: curing, salt equalization, and aging. These steps are outlined in the manual.
100 printed copies | 9 pages | 4,433 words | PDF: 6791 kb

Stereotypic Behavior in Horses: Weaving, Stall Walking, and Cribbing
Many stabled horses perform a variety of repetitive behaviors such as weaving, stall walking, cribbing, headshaking and pawing. These behaviors have been called many different names including stereotypic behavior, stereotypies, stereotypes, obsessive compulsive disorders, vices and habits. Although it may be difficult to know why exactly each horse performs these vices, there may be specific causal factors for these activities in the horse. These behaviors are not simply learned and not simply inherited, but may be a mixture of both. Studies show that some families of horses have a higher prevalence of certain vices, which suggests heritability and genetic components. However, the tendency to perform the behavior only becomes apparent when other risk factors are also in place.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,401 words | PDF: 480 kb

Expected Progeny Differences: Trait Definitions and Utilizing Percentile Tables
Expected progeny differences (EPDs) are useful tools in providing the best estimate of the genetic value of a particular animal as a parent. Differences in EPDs between parents of the same breed predict the performance differences of their future offspring if environmental factors are the same. EPD values should not be compared between breeds; for example, you should not compare an Angus bull's weaning weight EPD with a Simmental bull's weaning weight EPD. Most established breeds have EPDs for calving ease, growth, maternal, and carcass traits. When used properly, producers can make genetic improvements to their herd through parental selection. This publication is intended to help producers better understand EPDs and how one might use them in selection of replacement animals.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,781 words | PDF: 370 kb

Processing Chickens
When processing poultry, remember that you are producing a perishable food product that will eventually be consumed by people. The goal is to produce a safe, nutritious product.
Web only | 7 pages | 3,190 words | PDF: 3105 kb

Raising Guinea Fowl
Guinea fowl are rough, vigorous, hardy, and mostly disease-free game birds. They are increasing in popularity for a variety of reasons.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,750 words | PDF: 730 kb

Pre-Investment Considerations for Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Precision dairy farming involves the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual animals. The primary goals of precision dairy farming are to 1) maximize individual animal performance, 2) detect diseases early, and 3) minimize the use of medication through preventive health measures.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,858 words | PDF: 270 kb

Stall Bases: Are Your Cows Comfortable?
Cow comfort generally refers to minimizing animal stress in order to maximize milk production and animal well-being. Lying behavior plays a critical role in the production, profitability, and well-being of dairy cattle. The potential economic impact of increased production, reduced lameness, improved milk quality, reduced culling rates, and increased longevity are immense.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,703 words | PDF: 640 kb

Common External Parasites of Poultry
Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,817 words | PDF: 839 kb

Selecting Feeds for Horses
Feeds should be selected with the nutrient requirements of the horse in mind, recognizing that requirements vary with the life stage of the horse (growing, pregnant, lactating, working, idle). Feeds for horses should always be clean and free from toxins. Feeds should also promote gastrointestinal health. The large intestine (cecum and colon) of the digestive tract contains a diverse population of beneficial microbes that can easily be upset by poor feed selection. In nature horses will spend more than 50% of their time grazing; therefore, feed that promotes similar feeding behavior may be desirable. Once appropriate feeds have been selected, it is important that they are fed in the correct amounts using good feeding management strategies.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,082 words | PDF: 1450 kb

Avian Muscular System
If you raise poultry for meat, it is always a good idea to have an understanding of the muscular system of poultry so you can better understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
Web only | 2 pages | 766 words | PDF: 1887 kb

Avian Digestive System
An understanding of the avian digestive system is essential to developing an effective and economical feeding program for your poultry flock. Knowledge of avian anatomy, and what the parts normally look like, will also help you to recognize when something is wrong and take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,879 words | PDF: 2065 kb

Avian Skeletal System
All animals have a skeleton to allow them to stand up and to protect their internal organs and tissues. The avian skeletal system looks similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, but there are some important differences.
Web only | 2 pages | 836 words | PDF: 310 kb

Avian Female Reproductive System
Anyone raising poultry for eggs, whether for eating or for incubation, should have an understanding of the reproductive system. This will help them understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,250 words | PDF: 914 kb

Avian Respiratory System
Knowledge of avian anatomy and what the parts normally look like will help you to recognize when something is wrong and to take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,304 words | PDF: 200 kb

Avian Male Reproductive System
The avian male reproductive system is all inside the bird, unlike the males of mammalian species which have their reproductive systems outside of the body. This is one of the really remarkable things about birds; the sperm remain viable at body temperature.
Web only | 2 pages | 678 words | PDF: 843 kb

Selecting Ducks
As with many domesticated species, ducks are selected for different purposes, primarily meat or egg production. They are also valued for their feathers and down. It is important to choose a breed of duck that best suits your particular needs.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,311 words | PDF: 758 kb

Selecting Turkeys
Raising wild turkeys is illegal in some states, including Kentucky. The prohibition includes domestic strains of wild birds. The law is meant to protect native populations of wild turkeys. Learn more about selecting the right breed of turkey in this publication.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,675 words | PDF: 664 kb

Selecting Geese
Size, behavior and egg production vary according to breed, and the right breed of goose for your flock will depend on what you intend to use them for. This publication will help you decide on the right breed for you.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,822 words | PDF: 663 kb

Development of the Chick
Poultry eggs are part of a unique reproductive system. The egg serves to protect and provide nutrients to the developing embryo. Since the embryo receives no additional nutrients from the hen, the egg must contain all the nutrients essential for life. Nutrients are found in the yolk, the albumen, and the shell of the egg. The egg is a convenient, self-contained package for studying embryology.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,151 words | PDF: 700 kb

Poultry Production Troubleshooting
When investigating a problem with a poultry flock, the questions in this publication can help you determine the cause and possible solution.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,649 words | PDF: 272 kb

Poultry Producer Liability
As more and more producers begin to have small- or medium-sized poultry operations the issue of liability and responsibility has become a concern. It is important producers are aware of what is expected of them by consumers and society as a whole.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,554 words | PDF: 270 kb

Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?
Egg production in a chicken flock follows a typical curve. While the curve is similar for most breeds of chickens, the specific numbers can vary significantly, especially with regards to age at first egg, peak production rate, and egg weight.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,399 words | PDF: 400 kb

How Much Will My Chickens Eat?
Before purchasing chicks (or chickens) it is important to consider the cost of keeping them. Much of this cost is in the feed they consume. So the key question is, "How much will my chickens eat?" Chickens need a complete feed that contains protein (with the right balance of amino acids), energy, vitamins, and minerals. Today we know more about the nutritional requirements of chickens than any other animal. The amount of feed they need will depend on several factors.
Web only | 3 pages | 2,070 words | PDF: 320 kb

Selecting the Right Chicken Breed
Many factors should be considered before selecting a chicken breed for your flock, whether you are planning to start a new flock or to add to an existing one. You might be looking for a meat breed, an egg breed, or perhaps a breed that performs reasonably well at both (referred to as a dual-purpose breed). Perhaps you just want a pet or chickens to show at exhibitions.
Web only | 3 pages | 2,290 words | PDF: 300 kb

Making a Hoop Pen for Pasture Poultry
Interest in pasture poultry production has been on the rise. This kind of poultry production typically involves housing the birds in a bottomless pen that is placed on pasture and moved at regular intervals. The flock has access to the pasture (plants and any associated insects) while providing them some protection from predators.
Web only | 8 pages | 2,254 words | PDF: 4600 kb

Help! My Horse is Too Thin!
As we understand more about the impact that emaciation has on animal health, it is imperative that we strive to keep our horses at an optimum body condition.
Web only | 4 pages | 3,162 words | PDF: kb

Help! My Horse is Too Fat!
As we understand more about the impact that obesity has on animal health, it is imperative that we strive to keep our horses at an optimum body condition.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,833 words | PDF: 413 kb

Distillers Grain Coproducts for Beef Cattle
Feeding distillers grains derived from the production of spirits or ethanol for fuel is an acceptable practice for beef cattle production. The use of these products as both an energy and a protein supplement has been beneficial as the cereal grain prices have increased making these coproducts more cost competitive.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,485 words | PDF: 231 kb

Feeding the Broodmare: Four Easy Steps
The nutritional needs of broodmares change as they go through the stages of reproduction. This publication begins with nutritional strategies to enhance the likelihood a mare will become pregnant, then it discusses feeding management of the mare during pregnancy and lactation, and it ends with some nutritional considerations for the post-weaning period.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,998 words | PDF: 1750 kb

Preventing Barn Fire: Tips for Horse Owners
Every year, close to 200 horses are reported to have died in barn fires in the United States. Although less frequent than house fires, barn fires are more common than we would like. Many barn fires could be prevented by good barn design/construction, strict personnel policies, and clear directives about how the barn and equipment should be maintained.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,943 words | PDF: 1300 kb

Horses and Rain
Spring is a very rainy season in Kentucky. With a lot of rain comes a lot of mud, and in some places, floods. If you own horses, you need to be aware of some problems that arise when you have too much rain in a short period of time.
Web only | 2 pages | 951 words | PDF: 200 kb

Marketing Lamb and Goat Meat to Hispanic Retail Outlets
Because of minority populations immigrating into Kentucky, the level of lamb and goat consumption could grow exponentially within the next few years. Minority populations are expected to reach 235.7 million out of a total U.S. population of 439 million, or 53 percent of the total U.S. population, by 2030. These statistics indicate a growing market for meat processors and sheep and goat products.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,442 words | PDF: 200 kb

Equine Infectious Anemia
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, lethargy, inappetence (lack of appetite) and anemia (low red blood cell count).
Web only | 2 pages | 1,500 words | PDF: 169 kb

Anthrax in Horses
Horses become infected with anthrax either through ingestion, inhalation or skin penetration by biting flies or injury, especially when animals are exposed to soil or carcasses of infected animals.
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 210 kb

How Much Meat to Expect from a Carcass: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Freezer Meats
Consumers who buy freezer meat should understand the difference between the paid weight and the amount of meat they will put in the freezer. To avoid misunderstandings, meat processors should be able to explain to customers the approximate amount of meat to expect from a beef, pork, or lamb carcass, the best ways to have meat wrapped for the freezer, and the amount of freezer space necessary to store large amounts of meat.
Web only | 2 pages | - | PDF: 200 kb

Opportunities for Improved Cow Comfort through Freestall Barn Renovations
A properly managed and designed freestall barn can support high levels of milk production and animal well-being. Mismanaged or poorly designed freestalls can contribute to mastitis, lameness, hock abrasions, and injuries. Through years of experience observing and studying cow behavior in freestall barns, farmers, researchers, and engineers have refined recommendations for freestall design and management. In addition, as cow size has increased so has the amount of resting space required within a freestall, effectively changing the recommendations for freestall dimensions.
250 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 4985 kb

A Consumer Guide to Country of Origin Labeling
Since March 2009, all retail red meats, seafood and shellfish, and fruits and vegetables must contain a "Country of Origin Label," or COOL--designed to further inform consumers on the origins of their food.
Web only | 2 pages | - | PDF: 115 kb

Core Vaccination Program and Infectious Disease Control for Horses

1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 240 kb

FAQs About the Retail Meat Case, Part 2: Basic Meats 101

250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 145 kb

FAQs About the Retail Meat Case, Part 1: Hamburger

250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 144 kb

Botulism: A Deadly Disease That Can Affect Your Horse

500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 192 kb

Heaves in Horses

2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 531 kb

The Use of Methyl Bromide to Control Insects in Country Hams in the Southeastern U.S.

250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 250 kb

A Consumer's and Producer's Guide to Organic and Natural Meats

200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 147 kb

Beef Sire Selection Manual
In principle, genetic improvement is a straight-forward exercise that results from using above-average selection candidates as the parents of the next generation. In practice, the devil is in the details. Both bull breeders and bull buyers need to consider their breeding objectives, defining the list of traits that need to be modified to advance the towards their goal.
5000 printed copies | 89 pages | - | PDF: 2140 kb

Crossbreeding for the Commercial Beef Producer

500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 442 kb

Judging Performance Classes

Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 142 kb

Preparing and Giving Oral Reasons

Web only | 38 pages | - | PDF: 406 kb

Beef Sire Selection Recommendations

500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 86 kb

Protocols for Synchronizing Estrus in Yearling Heifers

2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 66 kb

Strategies to Improve Reproductive Efficiency of Heifers

2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 23 kb

Managing Body Condition to Improve Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cows

2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 158 kb

Feeding and Managing Baby Calves from Birth to 3 Months of Age

Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 172 kb

Planning the Yearly Forage and Commodity Needs for a Dairy Herd

500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 126 kb

Selection and Management Practices to Increase Consistency in Beef Cattle

5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 78 kb

Assessing Sow Body Condition

1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 257 kb

Teasing Mares

1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 1217 kb

Feeding and Managing the Far-Off Dry Cow

1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 294 kb

Trace Mineral Supplementation for Kentucky Beef Cows

1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 96 kb

Using Nutrition to Improve Immunity Against Disease: Copper, Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamin E

1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 114 kb

Boar Selection - Using Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)

1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 14 kb

Manipulation of the Estrous Cycle in Swine

1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 337 kb

Pasture for Dairy Cattle: Challenges and Opportunities

1000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 184 kb

Keeping Production Records for the Beef Herd

2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 145 kb

Feeding and Managing the Weanling Pig

2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 67 kb

Management of Swine Mating

2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 98 kb

Feeding Growing-Finishing Pigs to Maximize Lean Growth Rate

2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 96 kb

Methods of Identification for Horses
In today's competitive world of equine sports, proper identification has become a top priority. Thorough and effective identification ensures that the horse being bought, sold, raced, or bred is indeed the horse it is claimed to be. Many methods are used to identify a horse, including markings, cowlicks, chestnuts, tattooing, freeze branding, blood typing, DNA typing, and microchip identification.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,789 words | PDF: 340 kb

Managing Considerations in Beef Heifer Development

2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 320 kb

Equine Feeding Management

3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 146 kb

Pelvic Measurements and Calving Difficulty

2000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | PDF: 243 kb

Using Expected Progeny Differences
One of the most important decisions a cattle operator makes is selecting breeding animals to go into the cattle herd. Basing that decision on the genetic merit of the animal, not just the outward appearance, is critical to the herd's long-term performance.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,008 words | PDF: 248 kb

Mastitis and Its Control

1000 printed copies | 14 pages | - | PDF: 79 kb

Balancing Rations for Dairy Cows

500 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 23 kb

Role of Nutrition on Reproductive Performance

500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 191 kb

Accomplishing a Sound Dairy Nutritional Program

500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 223 kb

Using Byproducts to Feed Dairy Cattle

Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 158 kb

More Milk = More Feed

500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 195 kb

Should You Be Feeding Fat to Your Dairy Cows?

300 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 189 kb

Using Mga to Shorten the Beef Breeding Season

5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 129 kb

Using the Dart Ration Computer Program to Answer Nutrition Questions About Dairy Cattle

30 printed copies | 18 pages | - | PDF: 210 kb

Sheep Identification Systems

1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 8 kb

Sheep Foot Care and Diseases

1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb

Colic in Horses
Among the species of domestic livestock, the horse is the species that most commonly suffers from colic, which is a general term for abdominal pain. Colic is one of the leading causes of death in horses and should be of concern for horse owners.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,636 words | PDF: 200 kb

Producing and Marketing High Quality Wool

3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb

Developing a Sheep Enterprise

1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb

Rabies in Horses
Rabies in the horse is a relatively uncommon disease. Although the number of confirmed rabies cases in horses is low, the potential for human exposure makes it important to discuss the causes of rabies and its diagnosis, treatment, and control. It is noteworthy that the American Association of Equine Practitioners and the American Veterinary Medical Association include rabies as one of the diseases for which horses should be vaccinated every year.
Web only | 2 pages | - | PDF: 170 kb

Forages for Horses

10000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 201 kb

Economical Alternative Feeds for Sheep

5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb

Horse Judging Manual

1000 printed copies | 28 pages | - | PDF: 992 kb

Basic Horse Nutrition

10000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 243 kb

Improving Preweaning Survival of Pigs

3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 9 kb

Factors Affecting Feed Conversion in Growing-Finishing Swine

3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 23 kb

Growth Promoting Implants for Beef Cattle
Utilization of growth-promoting implants in the beef cattle industry provides an opportunity for improving production efficiency. Within the animal, they promote protein synthesis, resulting in a 10 to 30% increase in growth along with a 5 to 10% improvement in feed efficiency.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 225 kb

Balancing Rations

2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 32 kb