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crops and plants


ID-269

Using Electric Offsets as Part of Fencing Systems

8/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Chris Teutsch

The objective of this publication is to provide practical tips for installing electrified offsets that can effectively control livestock and extend the life of new and existing fencing.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 4.90 mb
Pages: 4



PR-796

2021 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Phillip Shine, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale, and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties continually are being de-veloped by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 1.64 mb
Pages: 20



AEN-160

Decision Aid for Estimating the Cost of Using a Drone in Production Agriculture

6/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Gabriel Abdulai, Joshua Jackson, Karla Ladino

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), commonly known as drones, play an increasingly important role in production agriculture. UAS are already widely used in agriculture for monitoring livestock, inspecting fence lines, and evaluating crops and pastures (e.g., yield, quality, nutrients, water stress, pest pressure, disease impact). The cost of using a UAS will depend on a variety of factors, including platform-based capabilities, maintenance, and insurance. As with any investment, the economic benefit derived from using a UAS should be determined prior to purchase.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 9



AGR-172

Weed Management in Grass Pastures, Hayfields, and Other Farmstead Sites, 2021

5/19/2021 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

Weeds can reduce the quantity and the stand life of desirable forage plants in pastures and hayfields. These unwanted plants are often more aggressive than existing or desired forage species and compete for light, water, and nutrients. Weeds can also diminish the quality and palatability of the forage available for livestock grazing, and certain weed species are potentially poisonous to grazing animals. Therefore, it may be desirable to initiate weed management strategies that reduce the impact of weeds on forage production.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, pests, weeds
Size: 660 kb
Pages: 16



PPFS-GH-8

Managing Tobamoviruses in Greenhouse Production

5/13/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Tobamoviruses, including tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the new tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), can be persistent in greenhouses and other protected cropping environments. Herbaceous ornamentals, vegetables, and tobacco can be affected by tobamoviruses. Once introduced into a site, these viruses can spread rapidly, reducing plant quality and yields. Prevention and careful sanitation are important to maintaining a virus-free production environment for current and future crops.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, greenhouse, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 980 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-18

Edema

5/10/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, John Hartman

Edema is a non-parasitic disorder which, under the right environmental conditions, can affect a wide variety of herbaceous plants. We most frequently observe this problem on indoor plants, such as dracaena, geranium and schefflera. Edema tends to be more of a problem in greenhouses, but it may also occur on plants grown in homes and offices. Field and garden grown crops, such as cabbage, may also be affected.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 770 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-4

Greenhouse Sanitation

5/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kenny Seebold

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 640 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-263

Growing Wheat for Forage

4/14/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Wheat is a multipurpose crop that can be used for cover crops, stored forage or grazing. As much as 25% of Kentucky's wheat acreage is not harvested as grain but used for cover crop or forage production. Wheat has excellent winter hardiness and can be sown later in the fall than barley. Wheat is a good choice for planting following corn or soybean harvest to capture residual nitrogen, build soil organic matter and prevent erosion. Wheat provides high quality, early spring growth, but has limited fall growth compared to grazing types of cereal rye.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-11

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits

4/13/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 3



ID-232

Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide, 2021-22

4/8/2021 (reprinted)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, John Strang, Shawn Wright

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 180



AGR-232

Crabgrass

4/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Crabgrass possesses significant potential for supplying high quality summer forage although it is considered a weed by many. A primary advantage of crabgrass is that it is well adapted to Kentucky and occurs naturally in most summer pastures, especially those that have been overgrazed. It is also highly palatable and a prolific re-seeder. Planting an improved variety of crabgrass is recommended because the production of naturally-occurring ecotypes varies greatly. Crabgrass is best utilized by grazing.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses
Size: 428 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-48

Bermudagrass: A Summer Forage in Kentucky

4/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Bermudagrass can be used successfully as part of a livestock forage program to supplement summer production of cool-season grasses. It is high-yielding, sod-forming, warm-season perennial grass that is most productive on well-drained, fertile soils. Bermudagrass is widely grown in the southern United States for pasture and hay.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: animals, cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, nutrition and health, production practices
Size: 2.05 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-86

Growing Lespedeza in Kentucky for Cattle, Sheep and Goats

4/6/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual and perennial lespedezas are grown in Kentucky for pasture, hay, and soil stabilization. Lespedezas are warm season legumes that complement cool-season grasses in both pasture and hay situations. They are more tolerant of less fertile, more acid soils, but have lower yield potential than other forage legumes such as red clover and alfalfa.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes
Size: 1.85 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-264

Improving Kentucky Small Ruminant Pastures

4/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Krista Lea, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

For many small ruminants, quality pasture can provide almost all nutrients needed for maintenance or light work for much of the year. Pasture reduces the cost of keeping livestock while minimizing impacts on the environment. Below are some guidelines for improving pastures.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses
Size: 1.14 mb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-11

Juniper Twig Blights

3/29/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Carrie Spry

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-3

Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals

3/25/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



ASC-245

Feeding Soybeans to Beef Cattle

3/24/2021 (new)
Authors: Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Various factors such as delayed planting, early frost, drought or suppressed market prices may lead one to consider feeding soybeans to cattle. Soybeans can be fed to beef cattle as an energy and protein source. Depending upon the stage of development, soybeans will have varying degrees of feed value and a feed test for nutrient content is recommended.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, livestock, nutrition and health, production practices, soybeans
Size: 308 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-207

Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky Pastures, 2021

3/23/2021 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

A guide to the identification and control of broadleaf weeds in Kentucky pastures.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, pests, weeds
Size: 3.90 mb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-5

Strawberry Anthracnose Fruit and Crown Rot

3/22/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 293 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-14

Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases

3/20/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-11

Drone Fungicide Applications in Corn

3/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Pat Hardesty, Nick Roy, Kiersten Wise

Foliar fungicide applications occur commonly in corn to manage foliar diseases such as gray leaf spot. University of Kentucky research indicates that the most effective application timing for both foliar disease control and yield benefits is at tasseling/early silking (VT/R1). Because of the height of corn at this growth stage, these applications are typically applied aerially, with fixed wing or helicopter aircraft. However, many Kentucky fields are small, surrounded by trees or other obstacles to aircraft, meaning that fungicide application is not an option in these areas.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, garden and landscape, grain crops, pests, plant diseases
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 3



NEP-227

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Beets

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Beets, planted in the spring, grow well in Kentucky. They are easy to grow and quick to mature. Both the roots and the leaves are edible.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-228

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Radishes

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Radishes are easy and fast to grow and only take up a little space. Radish roots are low in calories and high in vitamins C, K, and B6. Because they require little time and space, radishes are great vegetables for children to grow. This publication will discuss only spring radishes.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-2

Seedling Diseases of Corn

3/8/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases
Size: 160 kb
Pages: 2



PPA-50

Drone Fungicide Applications in Corn

3/5/2021 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Pat Hardesty, Nick Roy, Kiersten Wise

Drone technology has improved in recent years and has also become more accessible. In Kentucky, commercial drone fungicide application is now an option in several areas. Drones specifically designed to apply products can potentially be used to apply fungicide in fields that are not accessible to other aircraft. This publication describes experiments to determine if drone fungicide applications can reduce foliar diseases in corn and discusses factors to consider when using drone technology to apply fungicides.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 300 kb
Pages: 2



ID-128

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2021

3/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Rachel Rudolph, Mark Williams, Shawn Wright

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 4.80 mb
Pages: 56



PPFS-AG-C-10

Northern Corn Leaf Blight

2/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) is a significant foliar corn disease in Kentucky. This disease has been damaging in the United States Corn Belt since the early 1900s, but has increased in severity and prevalence throughout the U.S., including Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and signs of NCLB, conditions that favor disease development, and management methods to reduce impact on yield.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, garden and landscape, grain crops, pests, plant diseases
Size: 800 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-262

Utilizing Drought Stressed Soybeans for Forage

2/10/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch, Katherine VanValin

Although soybeans are commonly grown as a grain crop, they can be grazed or harvested as either a hay or silage crop. This most commonly occurs when the grain potential of the soybean crop has been reduced by drought, hail damage, or early frost. A realistic forage yield expectation for drought stressed soybeans would be 1.5 to 2.0 tons of dry matter per acre. The objective of this article is to provide practical tips for successfully, grazing, conserving and feeding drought stressed soybeans.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 380 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-T-13

Managing Spring Dead Spot in Bermudagrass

2/4/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 816 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-16

Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck of Apple

1/26/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a common late summer disease complex. The resulting superficial blemishes do not cause fruit decay, but they can reduce market value for commercial produce. Infections of the waxy cuticle can also shorten storage life, as it allows for accelerated desiccation during refrigerated storage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 682 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-7

Fruit Diseases of Cucurbits

1/26/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 315 kb
Pages: 5



PR-795

2020 Soybean Yield and Quality Contest

1/26/2021 (new)
Authors: Danny Adams, Matt Adams, Samantha Anderson, Ricky Arnett, Daniel Carpenter, Graham Cofield, Meagan Diss, Greg Drake, Colby Guffey, Clint Hardy, Carrie Knott, Leann Martin, Jason Phillips, Paul Andrew Rideout, Glen Roberts, Ben Rudy, Michelle Simon, Darrell Simpson, Mike Smith

In Kentucky, farmers grow soybeans in two common soybean production systems: full season and double crop. Farmers plant full season soybeans in the spring and harvest them that fall, so they have harvested one crop in one calendar year. Farmers plant double crop soybeans after wheat harvest in June. These soybeans are harvested later that fall, making them the second crop harvested in the same calendar year. Both systems are important to the overall production of soybean in Kentucky. Therefore, in 1980, an annual soybean yield contest was initiated in Kentucky to document the agronomic practices utilized by producers.

Departments: Boone County, Butler County, Clinton County, Daviess County, Fulton County, Graves County, Green County, Hardin County, Henderson County, Larue County, Logan County, Muhlenberg County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Simpson County, Trigg County, Union County, Wayne County
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans
Size: 984 kb
Pages: 12



ID-268

Kentucky Grain Crop Production at a Glance

1/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, John Grove, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Sam McNeill, Edwin Ritchey, Raul Villanueva, Kiersten Wise

A quick resource on grain crop production.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops
Size: 370 kb
Pages: 8



ID-268P

Kentucky Grain Crop Production at a Glance (poster)

1/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, John Grove, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Sam McNeill, Edwin Ritchey, Raul Villanueva, Kiersten Wise

A quick resource on grain crop production. NOTE: This poster is 25 x 38 inches. ID-268 is the booklet-sized version.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops
Size: 191 kb
Pages: 1



AGR-173

Baling Forage Crops for Silage

1/11/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage may be stored for winter feeding when pasture production is limited, for use in confinement feeding systems, or for cash hay. Dry hay is the most popular storage method since it stores well for long periods and is better suited to cash sale and shipping than high moisture forages. However, silage may be more suitable in situations where hay curing is difficult. It is possible to make high quality silage or haylage using long (unchopped) forage crops baled with large round balers, although balers may need modification to handle wet material.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops
Size: 957 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-158

Raised Wicking Bed

1/8/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A raised bed is an excellent addition to many backyard gardens. A modification of this design may be of interest to gardeners. A raised wicking bed is a self-contained method for growing vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers. The bed provides a built-in water reservoir that allows plants to water themselves. The design is ideal for individuals who are new to gardening, but experienced gardeners will find it helpful as well. The greatest benefit of this system is that it provides control of the water supply to the plants within the defined area.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, practices, structures
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-S-6

Rust Diseases of Brambles

1/5/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jessica Sayre

The three most important rust diseases occurring on brambles in Kentucky are cane and leaf rust, late rust, and orange rust. The most destructive of these diseases is orange rust, which is ultimately lethal to plants. Once infected, entire plants must be removed and destroyed. In contrast, cane and leaf rust, along with late rust, are not lethal to plants and can be managed using cultural practices and fungicides. Distinguishing between these rust diseases is critical for proper management.

Departments: Harrison County, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 5



PR-779

2020 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/18/2020 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Win Dunwell, Bob Perry, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Snyder, John Strang

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmer markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. Evaluation of varieties is a continuing necessity and allows us to provide the most up to date information in communications with vegetable growers. The vegetable variety trial results are the basis for updating the recommendations in our Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36).

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, science and technology, vegetables
Size: 6.06 mb
Pages: 40



AGR-259

Multi-SOA Pre-emergence Herbicides for Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp Control

12/17/2020 (new)
Authors: Travis Legleiter

Waterhemp and Palmer amaranth are among the most troublesome and hard to control weeds in soybean fields in Kentucky. Both species have spread across the state over the past ten to fifteen years. Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides [Group 2] and glyphosate [Group 9] is widespread in both species, while PPO-resistance [Group 14] is continually spreading especially in waterhemp. Herbicide manufacturers have developed several herbicide premix formulations targeted at controlling waterhemp and Palmer amaranth that contain multiple effective sites of action, thus farmers have options to choose from.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, weeds
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-255

Strategies for Reclaiming Hay Feeding Areas

12/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch

Hoof damage from livestock during the winter months can result in almost complete disturbance of desired vegetation and soil structure in and around hay feeding areas. Even well-designed hay feeding pads will have significant damage at the edges where animals enter and leave. Highly disturbed areas create perfect growing conditions for summer annual weeds like spiny pigweed and cocklebur. Weed growth is stimulated by lack of competition from a healthy and vigorous sod and the high fertility from the concentrated area of dung, urine, and rotting hay. The objective of this publication is to outline strategies for rapidly establishing stands of desirable forage species on these areas.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, production practices
Size: 985 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-25

Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato - Disease Management for Commercial Grower

12/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Early blight and Septoria leaf spot are the most common fungal diseases of tomato in Kentucky. Often occurring together, these diseases can significantly reduce yields during seasons with humid, wet weather.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-260

Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp Control in Corn and Soybean

12/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Travis Legleiter

Understanding the biology of a weed is the first step in implementing an effective weed control program. This is especially true with Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), as understanding their emergence patterns, competitiveness, adaptability, and seed production all need to be considered when developing a control program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, soybeans, weeds
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



ID-160

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2021-2022

12/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Ric Bessin, Lowell Bush, Ann Fisher, J.D. Green, Bob Miller, Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer, Edwin Ritchey, Wayne Sanderson, Will Snell

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, tobacco
Size: 41,507.63 mb
Pages: 88



PR-792

2020 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past twenty years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, research, variety trials
Size: 3.20 mb
Pages: 28



PR-794

2020 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/7/2020 (new)
Authors: Dalton Mertz, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2019 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 3.48 mb
Pages: 29



PR-791

2020 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/4/2020 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2013-2019 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, teff, and cereal crops. Cool season annual grasses (specifically cereal crops) are also used as forages crops for hay, baleage or grazing. The cereal crops used in this report are wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and triticale (Triticum secale).

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 3.10 mb
Pages: 30



AGR-252

Soil Sampling Pastures and Hayfields

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Edwin Ritchey, Chris Teutsch

Adequate soil fertility in pastures and hayfields is key to maintaining productivity and optimizing profitability. Soil testing is the basis of well-designed fertilization and liming programs. In order to develop effective programs, soil samples must be collected in a manner that results in an accurate representation of each pasture or hayfield area. The objective of this publication is to provide guidelines that, when followed, result in representative soil samples.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 480 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-254

Grain Drill Calibration: Don't Make a Mistake--CALIBRATE!

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Jessica Buckman, Chris Teutsch

Grain drill calibration is a critical, yet often ignored part of successful forage establishment and pasture renovation. Planting lower seed rates than recommended can result in thin stands that are susceptible to weed encroachment. Planting more than the recommended seeding rate is undesirable due to increased seed costs. The following calibration method can be applied across a wide range of grain drill types and manufacturers and minimizes the need to carry out detailed mathematical calculations.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-257

Hay Sampling: Strategies for Getting a Good Sample

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Jordyn Bush, Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Chris Teutsch

Knowing the nutritional quality of forage and hay is an integral part of a profitable and efficient livestock operation. Accurate estimation of forage quality starts with obtaining a representative sample of the forage to be fed. Proper sampling technique is critical. Hay is preserved in different packages ranging from the small square bale weighing 40-50 lb to the large square bale weighing more than 1500 lb. In Kentucky, most hay is packaged in large round bales weighing between 500 and 1500 lb. Wrapped bale silage is also gaining popularity and should be sampled in a similar manner to large round hay bales with the exceptions listed here.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, production practices
Size: 5.16 mb
Pages: 3



ID-262

Considerations for Utilizing Frozen Small Grains for Forage

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott, Chris Teutsch, Katherine VanValin

Once wheat and other small grains adapt to cooler weather in the fall, they are relatively tolerant of cold temperatures and freeze injury. Frost injury in the spring normally occurs when February and March are unusually warm and small grains initiate growth earlier than normal or from an unusually late frost event. Freezing temperatures during sensitive growth stages can significantly impact grain yield. In some cases, the impact on yield can be moderate to severe.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, farm crops, livestock
Size: 429 kb
Pages: 4



PR-784

2020 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

12/1/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. Much of the tall fescue in Kentuckys infected with an internal fungus (endophyte) that produces ergot alkaloids and results in decreased weight gains in growing ruminants and lower pregnancy rates in breeding stock, especially in hot weather. Varieties are now available that are free of this fungal endophyte or infected with a nontoxic endophyte. Varieties in the latter group are also referred to as "novel" or "friendly" endophyte varieties, because their endophyte improves stand survival without creating animal production problems.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 14



PR-789

2020 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/1/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the bromegrasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 12



PR-790

2020 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/1/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 704 kb
Pages: 128



PR-783

2020 Orchardgrass Report

11/24/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 699 kb
Pages: 8



PR-787

2020 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

11/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 4



PR-788

2020 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

11/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 393 kb
Pages: 4



PR-785

2020 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

11/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, science and technology, variety trials
Size: 550 kb
Pages: 6



PR-786

2020 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. Perennial ryegrass can be used as a short-lived hay or pasture plant and has growth characteristics similar to tall fescue. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 14



PR-793

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2020

11/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Nick Roy, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky. Corn hybrids were evaluated for silage performance on cooperating farms. Representatives from seed companies submitted hybrids of their choosing. Most companies submitted only two (2) hybrids. One company supplies a third hybrid that serves as a check.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 275 kb
Pages: 4



PR-780

2020 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 18



PR-781

2020 Alfalfa Report

11/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 10



PR-782

2020 Red and White Clover Report

11/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield and persistence data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. Tables 14 and 15 show a summary of all clover varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website at forages.ca.uky.edu contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 8



PPFS-VG-6

Bacterial Canker of Tomato

11/14/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Bacterial canker is a potentially serious disease of tomato that can occur in commercial plantings and home gardens. This infectious disease is capable of spreading rapidly, resulting in devastating losses. It is a particularly difficult disease to manage because not only is there no cure, but the pathogen can be hard to eradicate once it has been introduced into a greenhouse, garden, or field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 392 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-6

Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2021

11/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green, Travis Legleiter

The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, production practices, small grains, soybeans, weeds
Size: 6.60 mb
Pages: 140



HO-108

Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry

11/6/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green in-dustry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2018 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 300 kb
Pages: 4



HO-124

Water Use and Water Footprint in Container-Grown Nursery and Greenhouse Crops

10/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

The objective of this publication is to define the analytical terms that characterize water management and present case studies to illustrate those terms. The comparison of water use and water footprint among specialty crop growers is not only affected by the production system (including species and management strategies) but by geography and season. This document builds upon published models of representative plant production systems. These models include container production using recycled water in the mid-Atlantic, Ohio Valley, southwest, and Pacific northwest regions of the U.S. and greenhouse production implementing rainfall capture and overhead and ebb/flood irrigation strategies in the southeast.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, production practices
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 8



AEN-157

Self-Watering Wicking Container

10/28/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A wicking container is a self-contained method for growing vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers. This container provides a built-in water reservoir that allows a plant to self-irrigate. The design is ideal for individuals who are new to gardening or have limited space, but is also used by seasoned gardeners. The greatest benefit of the system is that it provides the plant with control of its water supply, which helps free up more of the gardener's time.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, practices, structures
Size: 3.80 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-261

Double Crop Soybean Production in Kentucky

10/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott

The double crop soybean system was pioneered in Kentucky. Traditionally, double crop soybean are planted in June following harvest of a small grain: wheat, barley, and in some cases cereal rye. Since the early 2000's, about 25% of the total soybean production in Kentucky has been double crop soybean. Many agronomic management strategies are similar between double crop soybean and full season soybean: soybean planted in the spring following corn from the previous year. However, there are certain management strategies that are important for double crop soybean, which not only increase yield potential but also offer opportunities to increase profitability.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 427 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-256

Identification of Palmer Amaranth, Waterhemp and Other Pigweed Species

10/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Travis Legleiter

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) are two species of the Amaranthus family that have enveloped the corn and soybean growing landscape of the United State over the past decade. Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth first began infesting western Kentucky along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers in the early 2000's and has spread along the rivers and into the uplands over the last two decades. The introduction and spread of waterhemp had not been as widespread in Kentucky, although a rapid spread of waterhemp over the last 5 to 10 years has been noted especially in central Kentucky. Both Amaranthus species can be very difficult to control in soybean and corn due to herbicide resistance. The first step in effectively managing or controlling both species is to properly identify them when they first invade your fields. Early management decisions when Palmer amaranth and waterhemp first invade is key to long-term control.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, weeds
Size: 2.21 mb
Pages: 2



HO-89

Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries, 2020

10/5/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and re-gional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2018, 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners. Information is presented relative to employment, plant types sold, product types, markets and marketing channels, sales methods and marketing practices, advertising expenditures, integrated pest management practices, water sources, and irrigation methods.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, greenhouse, production practices
Size: 569 kb
Pages: 11



AGR-258

Production of Connecticut Broadleaf Cigar Wrapper Tobacco in Kentucky and Tennesse

9/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Bob Pearce

There has been recent interest from tobacco dealers in purchasing Connecticut Broadleaf tobacco produced in Kentucky and Tennessee. Connecticut Broadleaf has traditionally been grown in areas of the Connecticut River Valley in Connecticut and Massachusetts. However, decreased production in this area along with increased demand for natural leaf cigar wrappers has caused tobacco dealers to pursue other tobacco-producing areas for this type. At first glance, Connecticut Broadleaf tobacco resembles dark air-cured tobacco, but generally has enhanced leaf quality characteristics that can increase its potential value for use as cigar binders and wrappers.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, tobacco
Size: 806 kb
Pages: 4



NEP-225

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Broccoli

9/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Broccoli is a cool-season plant in the same family as cabbage and cauliflower. It, and others in the same family, is known as a cole crop. Broccoli can be grown in both the fall and the spring and can be eaten many ways.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.38 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-226

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Kale

9/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

In recent years, kale has been a "super food" because of the ways it can benefit our health. Kale contains many vitamins like A, K and C. It promotes heart health and can help prevent cancer. Kale is a cool-season crop and may be among the first vegetables you harvest from your garden.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.97 mb
Pages: 4



HO-126

Consumer Horticulture Benefits for Businesses, Workplaces, and Employees

9/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham

Consumer Horticulture is the cultivation, use, and enjoyment of plants, gardens, landscapes and related horticultural items to the bene?t of individuals, communities, and the environment. These activities rely on the understanding and application of the art and science of horticulture. Consumer horticulture doesn't just impact our lives in terms of our homes, families, and communities. It also intersects with business and industry both in terms of the overall economy as well as the workplace environment that can improve the economic bottom line as well as the health and well-being of employees. In this publication we will focus on ways plants enhance the attractiveness of businesses and how their placement in the workplace may increase the productivity and wellbeing of employees.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape
Size: 2.36 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-T-6

Necrotic Ringspot and Summer Patch in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns

9/11/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Necrotic ring spot and summer patch are two patch diseases that can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. In addition to bluegrass, certain fine-leaved fescues are susceptible.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 793 kb
Pages: 4



NEP-222

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Summer Squash

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Summer squash is a low-growing, bush-type squash. Examples are yellow (straight and crookneck), scalloped, and zucchini. They are fast growing and well-liked garden crops.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.96 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-223

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Collards

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Collards (or collard greens) are quick and easy to grow. They can be planted in early spring and can withstand frosty weather. They can also be planted later in the summer to mature in the fall after weather becomes cooler.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 3.21 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-224

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Tomatoes

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Tomatoes are a popular summer crop that many consider to be a basic part of the home garden. However, growing tomatoes can require more labor compared to other vegetables, but the results can be very rewarding.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 3.53 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-253

Identifying Freeze Damage in Wheat

8/11/2020 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott

Wheat and other small grains can be damaged when air temperatures fall below certain thresholds for two or more continuous hours. These temperatures do not necessarily mean that damage will occur. Rather, these temperatures are general guidelines of when damage may occur. It is important that the crop be scouted to determine the extent of the damage, if any.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 4.50 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-153

How Understanding and Managing Soil Organic Matter Can Improve Beef Cattle Production

8/6/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Steve Higgins

Beef cattle production is directly affected by soils, but active soil management is limited. Most producers' soil management decisions are limited to submitting a soil sample, getting the analysis back, and then applying the tons of fertilizer or lime recommended at the bottom of the sheet. Meanwhile, producers request assistance to reduce or eliminate mud, weeds, gully erosion, and compaction (if they have identified compacted ground). Occasionally, producers don't have enough forage or hay to get cattle through drought or winter because of low forage production. These issues may have little to do with soil fertility but instead be directly related to soil properties.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, livestock, soil and land
Size: 143 kb
Pages: 2



AEN-154

Land and Water Use Planning Applied to a Pasture-based Beef Operation

8/6/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A typical cow-calf grazing operation needs to feed and water cattle on a daily basis. Ideally, this is accomplished by rotating cattle from field to field and providing them with a convenient source of water to drink. Cattle operations can better manage cattle when facilities are designed to meet the needs of cattle and the producer. Land use-planning can increase production and reduce production costs.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, livestock, soil and land
Size: 884 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-GH-7

Cleaning and Sanitizing Commercial Greenhouse Surfaces

8/3/2020 (new)
Authors: Samantha Anderson, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Josh Knight, W. Garrett Owen

Greenhouse and nursery sanitation practices help prevent the introduction and spread of plant diseases and pests, as well as eliminate safety hazards. In general, being proactive in maintaining a clean growing environment will often be less expensive and more effective than reacting to a disease or pest issue after it emerges.

Departments: Graves County, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, garden and landscape, greenhouse, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-152

Building a Hoop Barn

7/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Joshua Jackson

Hoop barns are a cost-effective alternative to pole barns. For example, a farmer might choose a hoop barn when deciding to expand hay sales, or for providing cover for costly equipment. Hoop barns have the additional benefit of being a construction project that can be done by the farmer (and a group of friends), which can provide an additional cost savings. This publication goes through the steps involved by following the construction of two hoop barns built by a local farmer. In this case, hoop barns were built to increase the farm's hay storage capacity.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 8.14 mb
Pages: 14



AGR-18

Grain, Forage, and Cover Crop Guide

7/8/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Erin Haramoto, Jimmy Henning, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Ray Smith

A quick resource on agronomic management of grain, forage, and cover crops.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops
Size: 506 kb
Pages: 12



PPFS-OR-W-28

Laurel Wilt Disease and Redbay Ambrosia Beetle

7/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Tyler Dreaden, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Laurel wilt is a newly discovered fungal disease that presents a major threat to sassafras in Kentucky. The disease was first detected in the U.S. in 2003 and in southwestern Kentucky in 2019. Currently, laurel wilt is known to occur in eleven southeastern states bordered by Kentucky (north), North Carolina (east), Florida (south), and Texas (west). Research is ongoing to determine the impact and distribution of both the laurel wilt fungus and the redbay ambrosia beetle that carries it.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, insect pests, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.58 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-18P

Grain, Forage, and Cover Crop Guide (poster)

7/7/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Erin Haramoto, Jimmy Henning, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Ray Smith

A quick resource on agronomic management of grain, forage, and cover crops. NOTE: This poster is 25 x 38 inches. AGR-18 is the booklet-sized version.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops
Size: 277 kb
Pages: 1



PR-778

2020 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Phillip Shine, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance trials is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale, spelt, and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties continually are being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 1.93 mb
Pages: 20



PPFS-GEN-17

Cleaning and Disinfecting Home Garden Tools and Equipment

6/26/2020 (new)
Authors: Kara Back, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger

Dirty tools, containers, and surfaces come as no surprise to home gardeners (Figure 1). Rinsing with water to remove obvious soil or plant residues is a common practice. However, this type of basic cleaning can fail to remove microscopic plant pathogens that can remain on surfaces. Tools, containers, shoes, and surfaces should also be disinfected to remove fungal, bacterial, and viral plant pathogens to prevent transmission to healthy plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 707 kb
Pages: 4



NEP-219s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Preparando Su Huerto

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Una buena tierra es la base para un huerto saludable. La tierra suministra nutrientes a las plantas para el crecimiento y el apoyo para las raices. Una buena tierra ayuda a producir verduras saludables.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 8



NEP-220s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Los Ejotes

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Los ejotes son faciles de sembrar y rapidos de producir cuando se recogen mientras todavia estan verdes o inmaduro. Ellos son aun mas nutritivos cuando se les permite madurar ligeramente para producir frijoles verdes "shelly beans".

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.25 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-221s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Los Pimientos

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Los pimientos son relativamente faciles de cultivar y pueden proporcionar una cosecha consistente durante todo el verano. Puede comerlos crudos o cocidos para agregar sabor a muchos alimentos.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.62 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-251

Quick Identification Tips for Turfgrasses Commonly Grown in Kentucky

6/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Species of both warm- and cool-season turfgrasses are grown in Kentucky. Identification of these grasses is critical for implementation of proper management practices. Grass identification is commonly performed by observing specific parts of the plant. For a review of the parts of the grass plant, see AGR-216: 'Turfgrasses of Kentucky'. The objective of this extension publication is to provide concise identification tips to properly identify Kentucky turfgrasses.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.10 mb
Pages: 4



ID-260

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Peach in Kentucky

6/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky peach plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 20.77 mb
Pages: 28



PR-777

2019 Soybean Yield and Quality Contest

6/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Matt Adams, Danny Adams, Matt Futrell, Clint Hardy, Curt Judy, Carrie Knott, Leann Martin, Tyler Miller, Michelle Simon, Darrell Simpson, Mike Smith

In Kentucky, farmers grow soybeans in two common soybean production systems: full season and double crop. Farmers plant full season soybeans in the spring and harvest them that fall, so they have harvested one crop in one calendar year. Farmers plant double crop soybeans after wheat harvest in June. These soybeans are harvested later that fall, making them the second crop harvested in the same calendar year. Both systems are important to the overall production of soybean in Kentucky. Identifying management practices that maximize yield of each system is a vital step in identifying the most profitable management systems for Kentucky. Therefore, in 1980, an annual soybean yield contest was initiated in Kentucky to document the agronomic practices utilized by producers.

Departments: Boone County, Christian County, Daviess County, Hardin County, Henderson County, Lincoln County, Logan County, Muhlenberg County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Todd County, Wayne County
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans
Size: 985 kb
Pages: 12



PPFS-FR-S-30

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Strawberry Production

5/27/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 6



AEN-150

Understanding Soil Mechanics to Improve Beef Cattle Winter-Feeding Areas and Production

5/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Steve Higgins

Understanding soil mechanics and management in winter-feeding areas could improve beef cattle production, with less effort on the producer and cattle. This publication is intended to guide evaluating soil strength for winter-feeding areas, the pollution potential of winter-feeding areas, and to provide solutions for correcting structural deficiencies and reducing mud on both the ground and on the cattle.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, livestock, soil and land
Size: 93 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-28

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Brambles Production

5/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 347 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-250

Remediation of the Fragipan Using Annual Ryegrass

4/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Dottie Call, John Grove, A.D. Karathanasis, Chris Matocha, Lloyd Murdock

The fragipan is a naturally occurring restrictive soil horizon that virtually stops water movement and root growth through the soil. It is commonly located 18-32 inches below the surface of most of Kentucky's fragipan soils. The dense nature of this layer is due to the cementation and binding of the soil particles with a silicate rich amorphous aluminosilicate in association with iron. The binding agents seal the pores and pack soil particles close together. The fragipan is found in 2.7 million acres in Kentucky, and about 50 million acres in the United States.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, soil and land
Size: 5.68 mb
Pages: 8



PPFS-FR-T-27

Brown Rot of Peach

4/17/2020 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Erica Wood

Brown rot is the most devastating disease of peach in Kentucky. The disease affects both commercial and backyard orchards. Crop losses occur primarily as a result of fruit decay; however, blossom blight is also part of the disease cycle. All stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) are susceptible to brown rot.

Departments: Hopkins County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-7

Target Spot and Frogeye Leaf Spot of Field-grown Tobacco

3/31/2020 (new)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Target spot and frogeye leaf spot are the major fungal leaf spot diseases of tobacco grown in Kentucky. Burley and dark tobacco are susceptible to these leaf spot diseases; however, dark tobacco tends to be affected to a lesser extent than burley. Yield losses to target spot can exceed 50% in some years; frogeye reduces yields up to 30%, but can affect quality so severely that cured leaf may be declined. Integrated approaches, including good greenhouse production practices, crop rotation, and timely fungicide applications, will optimize management of these diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, pests, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-1

Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations, 2020-2021

3/18/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey

Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nutrient management, production practices, soil and land
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 29



PPFS-AG-T-6

Black Shank of Tobacco

3/9/2020 (new)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Black shank is one of the most important diseases of burley and dark tobacco in Kentucky. It tends to cause the greatest losses in fields with a history of black shank, during seasons with a wet to moderate early season followed by a dry August. Management is dependent on the successful combination of crop rotation, resistant varieties, and soil-directed fungicide applications.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, pests, plant diseases, production practices, tobacco
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-27

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Grape Production

3/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-9

Peach Fruit Diseases

3/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach fruit diseases can cause significant losses in yield and quality in commercial and home orchards. Often these diseases go unnoticed until late in the season or at harvest. Although there are no curative treatments for infected fruit, many diseases can be prevented using cultural practices and (optional) fungicides. Accurate diagnosis, however, is critical to determine the best management practices and to prevent future losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 915 kb
Pages: 4



PR-767

2019 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

3/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, science and technology, variety trials
Size: 521 kb
Pages: 6



AGR-248

The Fate of Nitrogen Applied to Kentucky Turfgrass

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The quality of Kentucky's surface and ground waters are of utmost importance to flora and fauna living in these waters. The growth of flora and fauna is directly related to the amount of available nutrients in these waters. In addition, we use these waters as the primary source of drinking water for ourselves and our families. A wide range of compounds may be found in these waters, the most common of which may be nitrate (NO3-). The sources of nitrogen (N) may include, but are not limited to, atmospheric deposition, septic tanks, effluent water disposal, agricultural fertilization, and landscape fertilization. The objective of this publication is to identify and describe the sources and potential fates of N applied to Kentucky turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 748 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-249

Potassium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Potassium (K) is an essential plant element and is the most abundant mineral, macro-nutrient in turfgrass after nitrogen (N). Sufficient concentrations of K are important to maximize turfgrass tolerance to stresses caused by temperature, drought, traffic, and salinity. Understanding the function, soil content, and fertilizer forms of K is essential to creating an efficient nutrient management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 286 kb
Pages: 3



AEN-147

Structures for Beef Cattle

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Livestock housing, whether simple or sophisticated, must perform the required functions. It should meet the thermal and physical needs of the animal; it should provide a place to store and feed materials without damage or loss; it should increase the performance of cattle; and, it should allow the producer to conduct all chores associated with cattle production efficiently. A building can contribute to management efficiency and animal performance, which itself is defined by productivity, health and welfare. The building should create optimum environmental conditions for cattle by providing light, air flow, appropriate flooring, space, and ventilation.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, equipment and structures, livestock, production practices
Size: 956 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-245

Nitrogen for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is required by turfgrass in larger quantities than any other mineral nutrient because the plant demand for N is high and the supply of N from the natural environment is normally low. In instances where N is not applied according to the University of Kentucky recommendations, applied N can increase the risk of surface and ground water contamination. The objective of this document is to describe the function of N in turfgrass, explain how soil and tissue tests can be used to manage N applications, and to describe the various N fertilizer sources available for application to turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 168 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-247

Manganese for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Manganese (Mn) is a common component of micronutrient packages applied to turfgrass and has been documented to result in increased greening of turfgrass. In order to effectively manage Mn applications, it is important to understand the function of Mn in turfgrass, the dynamics of Mn in the soil, and the various forms of Mn available for turfgrass applications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 879 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-T-4

Anthracnose in Commercial Turfgrass

2/13/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of intensely managed turfgrass, such as creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass, on golf course putting greens. Outbreaks are generally induced by environmental conditions or cultural practices that result in stress to the turf. The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 527 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-145

Designing or Reworking Your Cattle-handling Facilities: A Checklist for Success

2/3/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Joshua Jackson

Cattle-handling facilities should be designed to match the management goals of the operation. The safety of workers and cattle should be the highest priority when designing or reworking a handling facility. A well-designed facility will make working cattle faster, safer, less labor intensive, and less frustrating.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, equipment and structures, livestock, production practices
Size: 126 kb
Pages: 4



PR-776

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2019

1/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Matthew Campbell, Chad Lee, Linda McClanahan, Nick Roy

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky. Corn hybrids were evaluated for silage performance on cooperating farms. Representatives from seed companies submitted hybrids of their choosing. Most companies submitted only two (2) hybrids. One company supplies a third hybrid that serves as a check.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Mason County, Mercer County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 228 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-246

Iron for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/20/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Iron (Fe) is commonly applied using granular or foliar sources to enhance turfgrass color. Iron applications can result in darker green turfgrass as a result of increased Fe uptake or Fe oxidation on the leaf surface. In many cases, Fe results in no turfgrass response at all. Understanding the dynamics of Fe both in the plant and in the soil can enhance your nutrient management programs. The objective of this publication is to explain the function of Fe within the plant, describe the Fe sources available for turfgrasses, and identify which Fe fertilizers are most effective.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-242

Calcium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calcium (Ca) is the dominant cation in all soils of agronomic importance and Kentucky soils are no different. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Ca. Consequently, Ca deficiency in Kentucky turfgrasses is extremely rare, and the probability of observing a Ca response on golf courses, home lawns, sod production, or sports fields is very low. Applying Ca fertilizers to artificially increase soil Ca above the level necessary for proper plant growth normally does not result in an increase in plant uptake because Ca uptake is genetically controlled. Regardless, Ca is commonly applied in both granular and liquid forms.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 112 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-243

Magnesium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Magnesium is an essential element for all plants. Soluble magnesium (Mg) exists in soils primarily as Mg2+, a positively charged divalent cation. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Mg and, thus, Mg applications to turfgrass are normally unnecessary. However, turfgrasses grown in sand-based rootzones, such as golf course putting greens and sand-based sports fields, are prone to Mg deficiency. When Mg is necessary, it is essential to understand the function of Mg in the plant, the dynamics of Mg in the soil, and the forms of Mg fertilizers.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 826 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-244

Phosphorus for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and a common component of many turfgrass nutrition programs. Although P application can improve turfgrass quality in some soils, most soils of Kentucky already have adequate plant-available P to support healthy turfgrass growth. What is the function of P within the plant, and how much P is required to sustain acceptable turfgrass in Kentucky? Also, if P applications are necessary, when and how should P be applied?

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 481 kb
Pages: 4



PR-774

2019 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/18/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, research, variety trials
Size: 1.26 mb
Pages: 28



PR-773

2019 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2013-2019 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, teff, and cereal crops. Cool season annual grasses (specifically cereal crops) are also used as forages crops for hay, baleage or grazing. The cereal crops used in this report are wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and triticale (Triticum secale).

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 28



PR-762

2019 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Daniel Becker, Win Dunwell, Rachel Rudolph, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmer markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.Evaluation of varieties is a continuing necessity and allows us to provide the most up to date information in communications with vegetable growers. The vegetable variety trial results are the basis for updating the recommendations in our Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 6.67 mb
Pages: 34



PR-771

2019 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the bromegrasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.12 mb
Pages: 12



PR-772

2019 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 8



PR-769

2019 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 354 kb
Pages: 4



PR-770

2019 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 451 kb
Pages: 6



PR-765

2019 Orchardgrass Report

11/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 767 kb
Pages: 8



PR-768

2019 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. Perennial ryegrass can be used as a short-lived hay or pasture plant and has growth characteristics similar to tall fescue. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 16



PR-775

2019 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

11/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Joshua Duckworth, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2019 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 2.95 mb
Pages: 28



PR-763

2019 Alfalfa Report

11/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 8



PR-764

2019 Red and White Clover Report

11/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield and persistence data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. Tables 14 and 15 show a summary of all clover varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website at forages.ca.uky.edu contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 873 kb
Pages: 8



PR-766

2019 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

11/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. Much of the tall fescue in Kentuckys infected with an internal fungus (endophyte) that produces ergot alkaloids and results in decreased weight gains in growing ruminants and lower pregnancy rates in breeding stock, especially in hot weather. Varieties are now available that are free of this fungal endophyte or infected with a nontoxic endophyte. Varieties in the latter group are also referred to as "novel" or "friendly" endophyte varieties, because their endophyte improves stand survival without creating animal production problems

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 12



AEN-144

Four Beef Cattle Barn Flooring Options: A Case Study

11/21/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Barn floor design is critical to the physical and thermal comfort, health and safety of cattle. Generally speaking, barn flooring is the surface on which an animal stands, lies down, and excretes its urine and manure. Therefore, to meet animal needs, it must be durable, not slippery, and well drained, as well as comfortable, warm, and dry. In addition to providing animal comfort, the flooring should easily be cleaned. No single material, from concrete to soil, meets all of these specifications.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: animals, beef cattle, crops and plants, equipment and structures, livestock, production practices
Size: 3.55 mb
Pages: 3



PPA-1

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2020

11/19/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 34



HO-111

Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management

10/24/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 157 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-12

Brown Patch in Home Lawns and Commercial Turfgrass

10/21/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Brown patch, also known as Rhizoctonia blight, is a common disease of turfgrass. All cultivated grasses grown in Kentucky can be affected; however, this disease is usually only destructive in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Fine fescues (hard fescue, creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, and sheep fescue) are all moderately susceptible to the disease. Occasionally, Kentucky bluegrass lawns can be affected by brown patch, although this grass is less susceptible than others.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 4



HO-82

Rootstocks for Kentucky Fruit Trees

10/15/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, John Strang, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Most fruit trees that can be grown in Kentucky do not come true from seed. For example, a tree grown from a Golden Delicious apple seed will produce an apple tree, but the fruit will have different characteristics than Golden Delicious in color, taste, and shape. This is why fruit trees are reproduced by asexual propagation, such as budding and grafting.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 250 kb
Pages: 6



PR-761

2019 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

10/15/2019 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Matthew Piersawl, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-GEN-1

Crown Gall

10/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Embry, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-241

Improved Turfgrass Varieties Can Reduce Your Environmental Impact

8/29/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Turfgrasses have many benefits, but oftentimes people question if pesticides, fertilizers, and water are justified to sustain a quality turfed area. Although these inputs have long been required to produce thick and dark green turfgrass, some turfgrass breeders have focused on improving the genetics of turfgrasses to produce high quality turf with fewer inputs. Improved turfgrass varieties with increased density, better color, deeper rooting, and improved disease resistance through improved breeding can reduce the overall environmental footprint. Many people select a turfgrass species and variety based on cost, but choosing an improved variety can reduce environment risk and overall maintenance costs in the long-run.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-52

Selecting the Right Grass for Your Kentucky Lawn

8/29/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The best grass for your lawn is not necessarily the one you like the best, but the one that is best adapted to where you live and will take less work and fewer inputs (water, fertilizer, pesticides). Many people think that since Kentucky is the "Bluegrass State," it's best to grow Kentucky bluegrass across our state. Actually, Kentucky bluegrass is only marginally adapted to our climate and can require more inputs to keep an appealing lawn than some other choices. In general, Kentucky bluegrass can be an option for parts of central and eastern Kentucky, while zoysiagrass may be a better option in western Kentucky. Tall fescue is adapted to the entire state so is a good choice for most locations. Perennial ryegrasses and fine fescues are occasionally useful in different areas of the state, depending on specific conditions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.46 mb
Pages: 7



NEP-219

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Preparing Your Garden

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

This publication provides easy to follow advice on how to start and maintain your garden. For specific fruit and vegetable guides, refer to the NEP "Grow your own" series.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 7



NEP-220

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Green Beans

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Green beans are easy to grow and fairly quick to produce when picked while still green or immature. They are even more nutritious when allowed to slightly mature to produce "shelly" beans. Pole beans in the garden are often popular with children since the bean vines on their supports create great hiding places.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-221

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Peppers

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Peppers are generally easy to grow and provide good summer crops that you can eat raw or cooked to add flavor to many foods. There are many different types of peppers, which are set apart by their shape or spiciness (heat), and most will grow well in Kentucky. Many heirloom, or vintage, varieties exist as well.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.65 mb
Pages: 4



HO-117

Guide to Landscape Appraisal of Tree Species in Kentucky Landscapes

8/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain

This publication is intended to aid professionals in determining the value of species in Kentucky (the Commonwealth). This valuation method is not appropriate for valuation of shrubs, forest trees, pasture trees, trees being used for income (i.e. orchards, nursery production, Christmas tree production, etc.). It is solely for trees that are an integral part of a formal, managed landscape.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: mb
Pages:



ID-253

Species Failure Profile for Trees Common to the Ohio River Valley

8/23/2019 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Bill Fountain

Tree failures, especially in urban and recreational areas can result in harm to human life and property. While this is rare, it is important to recognize that the environmental and sociological benefits provided by trees significantly outweighs the limited risks presented by trees. This is especially true when defects and species profiles that increase the potential for failure can be observed or detected. Many of these defects are associated with certain species. This is referred to as the species failure profile.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 320 kb
Pages: 8



ID-194

Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7

8/22/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Jessica Bessin, Rick Durham, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, Andrea Stith, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Stacy White, Erica Wood

For those with a green thumb, growing plants may seem easy. However, when plant problems arise, determining the cause of these issues can be difficult. Developing the skills necessary to determine the cause of a plant problem takes experience and time. The steps involved in the diagnostic process first require analysis of information regarding the history of the symptomatic plant and the surrounding area. Plant symptoms and signs provide additional evidence to aid in determination of a possible cause.

Departments: Barren County, Bell County, Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Franklin County, Hopkins County, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 28



AGR-240

Cover Crop Benefits and Challenges in Kentucky

8/7/2019 (new)
Authors: Chad Lee, Hanna Poffenbarger, Dan Quinn

A cover crop is a plant species that is grown between cash crops primarily to provide cropping system services rather than to produce a harvestable product. Services provided by cover crops include soil health improvement, soil conservation, nutrient release and capture, and weed suppression. However, like any management practice, cover crops also have challenges and limitations. This publication is intended to provide an overview of cover crop use in Kentucky and the challenges and benefits of this practice.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops
Size: 4.82 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-S-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 398 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-2

Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 306 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-24

Bitter Rot of Apple

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-25

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 986 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-26

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 7



ID-255

BerryCare: Building a Blackberry Community

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

So you've heard how blackberries are good for your health. Growing blackberry bushes as a garden project can be quite rewarding, especially if you do it as a group. Your local Cooperative Extension Office or non-profit organization may have the perfect place for planting the bushes where berries can be shared with an identified community. With a little sunshine and good drainage, the right variety, and proper blackberry plant care, a group can work towards a successful harvest.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape
Size: 1.87 mb
Pages: 3



ID-256

BerryCare: When Blackberries and Other Berries are in Season

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

Blackberries are fresh and in season during the mid summer months. But this does not mean you cannot eat them year round. In addition to buying frozen berries during the winter months, you can also plan ahead and freeze your berries when they're in season. Frozen berries are just as healthy and easy to use as fresh.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape
Size: 2.14 mb
Pages: 4



ID-257

BerryCare: Protection from Pollution with Phytonutrient-Rich Berries

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

Pollution in the environment cannot always be avoided. However, eating for good health may help reduce the effects of pollution in the body. Choosing more nutritious foods, such as those high in phytonutrients, may reduce oxidative stress and protect the body from the negative health effects of pollution.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape
Size: 2.28 mb
Pages: 4



PR-760

2019 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Matthew Piersawl, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The 2019 soft red winter wheat growing season ended with Kentucky farmers harvesting approximately 340,000 acres of the 450,000 acres planted, for a total production of 26.2 million bushels of grain. An average yield of 77 bushels per acre was estimated by NASS. The acreage not harvested for grain was primarily used for forage production and cover cropping.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 2.25 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-AG-C-9

Curvularia Leaf Spot

7/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Curvularia leaf spot is a corn disease that was reported for the first time in the United States in Louisiana in 2017, and was confirmed in Kentucky in 2018. While the impact of Curvularia leaf spot in Kentucky is not yet known, this disease causes yield loss in tropical areas, and is considered to be one of the most important diseases of corn in China. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and foliar diseases that have similar symptoms.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-5

Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, pests, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 473 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-18

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 407 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-21

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-23

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 351 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-24

Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-25

Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-26

Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 230 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-18

Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Beth Wilson

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Pulaski County
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-20

Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-21

Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-22

Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 890 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-23

Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 458 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GEN-15

Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

Departments: County Extension, Franklin County, Hardin County, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 3.38 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-2

Reducing the Risk of Resistance to Fungicides Used to Control Diseases of Turfgrasses

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Fungicides can be an important tactic in an overall integrated program for turf disease control. In order to insure that products available today remain available in the future, golf course superintendents should be aware of the need to use fungicides in ways that minimize the risk of fungicide resistance.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-1

Black Rot of Crucifers

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Davis, Emily Pfeufer

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga.

Departments: Clark County, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 227 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-10

Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 327 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-11-QF

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Steve Osborne, Kenny Seebold

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 2



AEN-141

Maps for Farm Planning

6/18/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser

Planning and design are critical steps when modernizing a farm to meet the current and future operational needs. Farm renovations and redevelopment must always consider the cost/benefit of changes, while staying consistent with good agricultural practice guidelines that conserve labor and the resources of the farm. The process of developing a farm map will be used to guide producers on the concepts and considerations necessary to make decisions related to planning renovations and developing new infrastructure on the farm.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 1.32 mb
Pages: 4



ID-254

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky

6/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 36



HO-123

What Is a Carbon Footprint and How Does It Relate to Landscape Plants?

6/10/2019 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a product or activity. The objective of this publication is enhance the reader's understanding of carbon footprint (CF) terminology and the science underlying its determination. Having such an understanding is necessary for managers and developers to minimize the negative environmental impacts of new product development and assess positive or negative cradle-to-grave life-cycle impacts. Life cycle assessment has been used to characterize the CF of representative field-grown and container-grown landscape plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-T-14

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases

6/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 401 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-24

Biological Products for Tomato Disease Management

6/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Disease management products with biologically-based active ingredients are often labeled for numerous diseases, but can vary markedly in their efficacy. This Extension publication summarizes factors to consider when choosing biological controls and data available pertaining to tomato disease management efficacy.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 268 kb
Pages: 2



HO-122

Go with the Flow: Simple Calculations for Drip Irrigation

5/10/2019 (new)
Authors: Brent Rowell

While drip irrigation is relatively easy, information about drip irrigation is often more complicated and confusing than it needs to be. Well-meaning professors and engineers use terms like "head" and "flow rate" without explaining exactly what they mean and how they are used. And it's often difficult to get help planning a small farm system in states without large irrigated acreages and irrigation traditions. The purpose of this bulletin is to help farmers understand the simple calculations involved in designing a small drip irrigation system.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-7

Kentucky Turfgrass Disease Calendar

5/1/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

A graphic representation showing the times of year that diseases of cool-season grasses are likely.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 161 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-19

Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 337 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-7

Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 491 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-GEN-8

Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 431 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-19

Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 995 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-20

Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 896 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-21

Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 874 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-22

Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 460 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-23

Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 788 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-239

Calibrating Boom Sprayers for Turf Applications

3/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved is too confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. Whereas, over applying can be bad for the environment, damage the grass, and wastes money. There are several methods for calibrating sprayers. Choose the one that makes the most sense to you. Three different methods are described below. All these methods are reliable and will provide very similar application accuracy.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 1.08 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-27

Canker Sampling of Trees and Woody Ornamentals

3/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cankers on woody plants can result in dieback, decline, structural failure, or plant death. Cankers form when plant pathogens enter woody tissues. Plants stressed by poor planting practices, improper maintenance, extreme weather, insect damage, mechanical damage, or other wounds are at increased risk for infection by canker causing pathogens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-T-7

Using Prediction Models to Manage Diseases in Fruit

1/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Evan Tate, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Numerous plant diseases impact fruit crops throughout Kentucky. Factors such as plant growth stage, as well as rainfall, temperature, and other weather conditions, can be used to determine risk for plant disease. Prediction models are critical tools for growers, as they allow for protective management strategies to be deployed when disease risk is high. Use of these models can provide growers with cost savings, as unnecessary chemical applications are eliminated when risk of infection is low.

Departments: Hancock County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.59 mb
Pages: 4



PR-759

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2018

12/18/2018 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Matthew Campbell, Chad Lee, Linda McClanahan, Nick Roy, Julia Santoro, Will Stallard

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Lincoln County, Mason County, Mercer County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, other crops, research, variety trials
Size: 196 kb
Pages: 4



PR-757

2018 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Krista Jacobsen, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 6.84 mb
Pages: 44



PR-758

2018 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/11/2018 (new)
Authors: Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2018 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions. Forty soybean tests were planted in 2018 in Kentucky, at the eight test locations shown below. However, due to weed pressure, one location was discontinued.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials
Size: 2.90 mb
Pages: 26



CCD-CP-114

Pumpkins

12/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The name "pumpkin" is commonly applied to any plant in the taxonomically diverse Cucurbita genus that produces the characteristic yellow to orange, round fruit. Pumpkin cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata and C. mixta.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



PR-753

2018 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/5/2018 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 24



PR-754

2018 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/5/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, research, variety trials
Size: 3.10 mb
Pages: 28



PR-752

2018 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

11/30/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 859 kb
Pages: 8



PR-748

2018 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/27/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties. Tables 15, 16, and 17 show summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 17 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 16



PR-749

2018 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

11/27/2018 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season. Table 5 shows a summary of all alfalfa varieties tested in Kentucky during the last 18 years.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 350 kb
Pages: 4



PR-750

2018 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

11/27/2018 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure. Table 10 shows a summary of all white clover varieties tested in Kentucky during the last 15 years.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 504 kb
Pages: 6



PR-751

2018 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

11/27/2018 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.45 mb
Pages: 14



PR-743

2018 Alfalfa Report

11/19/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties. Tables 14 and 15 (Roundup Ready varieties) shows a summary of all alfalfa varieties tested in Kentucky during the past 16 years. The UK Forage Extension website, at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage, contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states as well as a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 12



PR-744

2018 Red and White Clover Report

11/19/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield and persistence data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. Tables 12 and 13 show a summary of all clover varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 925 kb
Pages: 8



AGR-238

Establishing and Managing Bermudagrasses in the Transition Zone

11/12/2018 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Bermudagrasses have been successfully grown on athletic fields and golf courses in the transition zone for many years. Although each year some level of winterkill threat exists, bermudagrass remains an excellent surface for golf and sports. Seeded varieties of bermudagrasses have been the most common choices in Kentucky due to the availability of seed of good varieties as well as the ease of planting seed versus living plant material. There are, however, several outstanding vegetative bermudagrass cultivars that are adapted to the transition zone.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 3



PR-756

2018 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

10/26/2018 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, M.W. Piersawl

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 2.83 mb
Pages: 28



ID-235

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky

10/17/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Obrycki, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, Shubin Saha, Shawn Wright

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, high tunnel, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.94 mb
Pages: 28



PR-741

2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

10/11/2018 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Jennie Condra, Emily Dobbs, Win Dunwell, Bob Geneve, Dewayne Ingram, Brenda Kennedy, Katie Kittrell, Janet Lensing, Sara Long, Susmitha Nambuthiri, John Obrycki, Dan Potter, Nicole Ward Gauthier

The 2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report includes research in the areas of production and economics, ecology, and pest control.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, research
Size: 2.23 mb
Pages: 20



ID-251

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky

9/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-5

Elderberry

9/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-121

Summer Squash

9/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-8

Diplodia Leaf Streak

9/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Diplodia leaf streak of corn is a disease that has become more prevalent in Kentucky in recent years. It is commonly observed in fields in western Kentucky and is easily confused with other corn foliar diseases. Small, round, dark brown-to-tan lesions are first observed on leaves. Dark concentric rings may be observed in the center of early lesions at the infection site on the leaf. These lesions expand lengthwise in long streaks from the infection point and form elongated elliptical lesions. In severe cases, lesions can coalesce to blight large areas of affected leaves.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-98

Field-grown Tomatoes

8/3/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 861 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-16

Southern Blight

8/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Southern blight affects hundreds of different plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals, and fruit. This disease is also known as southern stem blight, basal stem rot, Sclerotium blight, crown rot, and white mold (not to be confused with Sclerotinia white mold). Depending on host plant, production system, and environmental conditions, the severity of this disease can vary from a minor problem on isolated plants to extensive damage causing significant crop losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-20

Boxwood Blight

8/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Boxwood blight is a disease of boxwood (Buxus spp.), causing rapid defoliation and plant dieback. The fungal disease is particularly devastating to American boxwood cultivars, which can defoliate within a week and die within one growing season. Plants are eventually weakened by repeated defoliation and dieback, and resulting plant stress and consequent colonization by secondary invaders result in plant death.

Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-14

Pawpaw

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-3

Asian and European Pears

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-133

Heirloom Beans

7/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Heirloom beans are vintage varieties of the warm-season crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) that have been handed down from generation to generation. There is a long tradition of saving bean seed in Appalachia, and heirloom beans are sought by customers at Kentucky farmers markets. Heirloom bean varieties, often named after particular areas or families, appeal to buyers because of both taste characteristics and cultural heritage.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-135

Figs

7/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Figs are harvested for both fresh consumption and processing. There are three main types of cultivated Ficus carica: Common, San Pedro and Smyrna. Common figs produce fruit parenthocarpically, without any pollination. Smyrna figs require pollen transfer from male trees that produce small caprifigs for fruit growth. Pollen transfer is obtained by the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.), a species unable to survive the southern U.S. winter temperatures. San Pedro figs are intermediate between the two; a minor summer "breba" crop will set without fertilization but the later main crop requires pollination by the fig wasp. The common fig is the only type suggested for cultivation in the southern U.S.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



ID-250

An Introduction to Industrial Hemp and Hemp Agronomy

7/20/2018 (new)
Authors: Rich Mundell, David Williams

Cannabis sativa is a summer annual plant that is strongly photoperiod-sensitive (flowers according to day length/photoperiod; not physiological maturity). It is mostly dioecious in that male and female flowers occur on separate plants (i.e. there are both male plants and female plants). However, there are also several monoecious commercial varieties (male and female flower parts on the same plant). Different plant parts are harvested for specific purposes, and modern day hemp may be produced for one or more purposes. Depending on the harvestable component of interest, (i.e. fiber, grain or cannabinoids) male plants and/or pollen might be vitally necessary or completely unwanted.

Departments: KTRDC, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, other crops
Size: 3.17 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-122

Sweet Corn

7/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-123

Sweet Potato

7/16/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The terms "sweet potato" and "yam" are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 810 kb
Pages: 3



PR-742

2018 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/3/2018 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, M.W. Piersawl, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The 2018 soft red winter wheat growing season ended with Kentucky farmers harvesting approximately 300,000 acres of the 440,000 acres planted, for a total production of 24 million bushels of grain. An average yield of 80 bushels per acre was estimated by NASS, but that figure may be reduced due to the shorter seed filling period associated with persistent high temperatures in May. The acreage not harvested for grain was primarily used for forage production and cover cropping.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 560 kb
Pages: 24



CCD-CP-134

Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky

6/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-4

Blackberries

6/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-57

Greenhouse Tomatoes

6/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, greenhouse, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



ID-249

A Comprehensive Guide to Soybean Management in Kentucky

6/7/2018 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Bradley, J.D. Green, John Grove, Greg Halich, Erin Haramoto, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Josh McGrath, Sam McNeill, Javier Reyes, Edwin Ritchey, Montse Salmeron, Jordan Shockley, Claire Venard, Raul Villanueva, Ole Wendroth, Kiersten Wise, Xi Zhang

This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 38.99 mb
Pages: 84



CCD-CP-10

Jujube and Aronia

6/6/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 832 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-132

Heirloom Tomatoes

6/6/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most popular of heirloom vegetables, which are vintage varieties preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. Heirloom tomato purchases grew in popularity as consumers sought flavorful, historic varieties. Many heirloom tomato varieties have unique coloration and appearance, but poor shipping characteristics, giving heirloom tomatoes an advantage for local sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-PFS-3

Dehydrating Fruits and Vegetables for Home Use

6/6/2018 (new)
Authors: Felix Akharume, Michael Montross, Paul Vijayakumar

Many farm-harvested or market-purchased fresh fruits and vegetables are consumed fresh or frozen, with little to none utilized as dry products; in general, dried fruits and vegetables are purchased directly from the market whenever needed. With the wide availability of tabletop kitchen equipment for fruit and vegetable processing (mechanical cutters, slicers, homemade dehydrators, blenders, etc.), consumers and small farmers with excess harvest or unsold fresh products can take the opportunity to process their fresh fruits and vegetables into dried snacks for direct use or sale at a farmer's market. The advantage of these dried products is their stable shelf life, versatility, and overall value addition. Dried products can be used at any time (6-12 months) with little or no loss in quality and can be used as intermediate goods in other products such as breakfast cereals. This publication presents easy-to-follow guidelines and conditions for processing selected fruits and vegetables into dried products.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-PFS series)
Tags: crops and plants, food and nutrition, food crops, food science, fruits, nursery and landscape, vegetables
Size: 693 kb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-87

Bell Peppers

5/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-88

Broccoli

5/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-104

Microgreens

5/8/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 819 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-102

Kohlrabi

5/7/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is a cool-season annual cole crop that is related to broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Kohlrabi originated in northern Europe in the 16th century. It forms a round globe just above the soil line with leaves emerging in a spiral from the stem. The edible portion is actually an enlarged stem, not root tissue. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw or cooked. In flavor, it is like a mild, sweet broccoli stem or turnip. Once the thick skin is peeled off, the crisp flesh can be eaten like a carrot often with a dip or in salads. It can be boiled, braised, used in soups and stews, made into home fries and even pies. In Kentucky, kohlrabi does well in the spring but is best as a fall crop.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



AGR-148

Weed Control in Alfalfa and Other Forage Legume Crops

4/23/2018 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green, Travis Legleiter

The importance of weed control in forage production should not be overlooked, especially when you consider the high investment associated with alfalfa and other legume forages. Weeds reduce forage yield by competing for water, sunlight, and nutrients. In addition to yield losses, weeds can also lower forage quality, increase the incidence of disease and insect problems, cause premature stand loss, and create harvesting problems. Some weeds are unpalatable to livestock or, in some cases, may be poisonous.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, pests, weeds
Size: 528 kb
Pages: 12



CCD-CP-113

Potatoes

4/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-101

Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers

4/13/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 823 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-70

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

4/9/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-8

Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2018

4/1/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Will Barlow, Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer

The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, pests, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 295.34 mb
Pages: 7



AGR-175

Forage Identification and Use Guide

3/28/2018 (reprinted)
Authors: David Ditsch, Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. They provide most of the feed for beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and wildlife. In addition, forage crops play a critical role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. The purpose of this publication is to provide both agronomic and identification information on several forage grasses and legumes.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops
Size: 9.10 mb
Pages: 28



CCD-CP-106

Okra

3/20/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 762 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-236

Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands

3/19/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Dixon, Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Wide fluctuations in springtime temperature are common in Kentucky. Late freezing temperatures in the spring can cause damage to alfalfa depending on how far along it is in breaking dormancy. This publication provides information on the effect of low spring temperatures on both established and new alfalfa stands that have begun growth, as well as a method of predicting sensitivity to late frosts or freezes.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-91

Cauliflower

3/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 2



CCD-SP-9

Starting a Nursery Business

3/14/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 860 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-129

Pecans

3/7/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The pecan and Eastern black walnut are Kentucky's most significant nut crops. Commercial pecan plantings are located near Paducah and Henderson, and native pecan groves have long been harvested near the Mississippi River. Only northern pecan cultivars are recommended for cultivation in Kentucky, as the state's usual growing season is not long enough for southern pecan varieties to mature. The established popularity of pecans with consumers could offer potential for producers willing to carefully establish pecan plantings on appropriate sites.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, nuts
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-206

Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15

3/5/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, A.J. Powell

Turf is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface. Quality lawns greatly increase the economic and sociological value of urban homes. They beautify and reduce the often harsh urban environment by decreasing noise, glare, heat, dust, and mud. Lawns and other recreational turf areas are an integral part of our daily activities.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 22



AGR-229

Warm Season Annual Grasses in Kentucky

3/5/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

In Kentucky, cool-season grasses produce ample forage in the spring and fall, but high temperatures and short-term drought stress often limits growth during the summer months. Warm-season annual grasses can fill this gap with relatively high quality forage when properly managed. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of the various summer annuals for Kentucky.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses
Size: 1.32 mb
Pages: 3



AGR-235

Baleage: Frequently Asked Questions

3/5/2018 (new)
Authors: Mike Collins, Dennis Hancock, Jimmy Henning, Brandon Sears, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Baled silage, or "baleage", is an excellent method for forage harvest, storage and feed efficiency. Baled silage allows forage to be harvested at higher whole plant moisture levels than required for dry hay. Baleage is ideal for spring cuttings of annual and perennial forages when seasonally frequent rainfall events provide little opportunity for properly curing dry hay. Many producers who want to harvest high quality small grain crops have found baleage to be a good fit for their operation.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, other crops
Size: 145 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-237

Grass Options for Athletic Fields in the Transition Zone

3/2/2018 (new)
Authors: Nicole Mundell

There are several grasses that will grow in the transition zone, but none all that well. Our summers are often too hot for cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and our winters are often too cold for warm-season grasses like bermudagrass. Keep in mind, however, that the problem with most poor athletic fields is not grass selection, but rather over use, lack of maintenance, and/or use when field is wet or cannot recover.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 2.32 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-96

Ethnic Vegetables: Asian

3/2/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-AG-T-2

Managing Rhizoctonia Damping-off and Target Spot in the Float System

3/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Damping-off and target spot occur each year in tobacco transplant crops in Kentucky. These diseases can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, pests, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 727 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-T-3

Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System

3/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky, causing a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease tend to be rare but can occur if care is not taken to minimize risk of disease development and reduce spread after it appears.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, pests, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 666 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-4

Roadside Farm Markets

2/23/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

A roadside farm market is sometimes distinguished from a roadside stand by location and hours. The term "roadside farm market" can refer to those markets located in permanent facilities at the farm or food manufacturing location; they are typically open most of the year. Roadside stand, by contrast, is a more general term referring to those markets that may be located off the farm and are seasonal in operation.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-230

Forage Sorghum

2/19/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage sorghum is the tallest of the summer annuals, reaching 6 to 15 feet in height and is best harvested as silage. Taller varieties produce high forage yield but can lodge, making them difficult to harvest mechanically. Some varieties have been developed that are shorter with increased resistance to lodging. Forage sorghums, like corn, are harvested once per season by direct chopping. While forage sorghum yields are similar to corn, they are lower in energy. The primary advantage of utilizing sorghum for silage production is its greater drought tolerance.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses
Size: 567 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-231

Pearl Millet

2/19/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

The primary benefits of pearl millet are that it does not contain prussic acid and is not susceptible to the sugarcane aphid. Dwarf varieties are available, which are leafier and better suited for grazing.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses
Size: 1.18 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-233

Foxtail Millet

2/19/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Foxtail millet (German millet) is a fine-stemmed summer annual used mainly for emergency hay or pasture for cattle. It is the lowest yielding of the summer annual grasses since it will not regrow after cutting. It can also be used as a smoother crop when transitioning to other perennial forage crops. Foxtail millet is also commonly used for wildlife plantings to produce food and cover for doves, quail, and other birds.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses
Size: 960 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-234

Sudangrass and Sorghum-sudangrass Hybrids

2/19/2018 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are developed by crossing sorghum with true sudangrass. The result is an annual grass that resembles sudangrass, but has coarser stems, taller growth habit, and higher yields. Like sudangrass, hybrids will regrow after grazing if growth is not limited by environmental factors. The coarse stems are difficult to cure as dry hay, therefore these grasses are best utilized for grazing, chopped silage and baleage.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses
Size: 785 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-F-10

Possible Causes of Yellowing Alfalfa

2/16/2018 (new)
Authors: Chris Teutsch, Paul Vincelli, Kiersten Wise

During spring, several leaf spotting diseases--including Leptosphaerulina (Lepto) leaf spot and spring black stem/leaf spot--are common in alfalfa. Leaf spotting diseases result in distinct round to elongated spots that sometimes have a dark margin. Very wet weather in spring and early summer favor activity of leaf spotting diseases in first and second cuttings. Wet and humid weather during summer favor other leaf spotting and blighting diseases. All leaf spots and blights weaken plants, but alfalfa often outgrows the damage in later cuttings. Maintain a regular cutting schedule, cutting at 30- to 35-day intervals.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, pests, plant diseases
Size: 754 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-7

Physoderma Brown Spot

2/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Brenda Kennedy, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 743 kb
Pages: 2



HO-120

Off the Grid: Ultra-Low Pressure Drip Irrigation and Rainwater Catchment for Small Plots and High Tunnels

1/24/2018 (new)
Authors: Krista Jacobsen, Brent Rowell

All forms of irrigation need a push or pressure to move water from its source to its destination. Water sources include wells, springs, lakes, creeks, canals, rivers, cisterns, elevated tanks, or municipal water supplies. The amount of pressure or push required depends on many things including the height water must be lifted, length and size of the delivery pipe(s), crop and size of the area to be irrigated, and the distance water needs to be moved from the source to the field, greenhouse, or tunnel.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 9.42 mb
Pages: 12



ID-248

Gardening in Small Spaces

1/24/2018 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Ashley Osborne

Although most would agree that gardening is a worthwhile endeavor, traditional gardening with long neat rows spaced 3 or 4 feet apart to allow cultivation by a tractor or tiller may not be feasible for everyone. Individuals that live in urban areas, especially those living in townhomes, condominiums, and apartments may not have the outdoor space needed for this conventional style of gardening. In addition, those with limited mobility may not be able to establish and maintain this type of garden. For many, raised bed gardening and container gardening may be a more practical and manageable choice for those gardening in small spaces and those with limited mobility.

Departments: Ag Programs, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.14 mb
Pages: 8



ENT-70

Pesticides and Pesticide Safety: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 10

1/23/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Lee Townsend

"Pest" is not a biological term for an organism's environmental role as are the words plant, herbivore, predator, and scavenger. It is a term for an organism that is either causing damage or is somewhere where it's not wanted. Pests can include plants, insects and their relatives, and microorganisms that cause plant diseases. Often, pests are a problem because we use cultural practices or create conditions favoring organisms that they feed on, compete with, or infect the desirable species.

Departments: Entomology
Series: Entomology (ENT series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, insect pests, pests
Size: 310 kb
Pages: 10



AGR-205

Weed Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 20

1/22/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

Every garden has weeds, and every gardener wonders what to do about them. Gardening involves lots of small decisions that can have a cumulative effect on those weed problems. This chapter will explore the origin of weeds, their adaptation and impact, and the techniques you can use to manage weeds in your landscape.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, pests, weeds
Size: 965 kb
Pages: 14



CCD-CP-131

Eggplant

1/22/2018 (reviewed)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



PR-737

2017 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/20/2017 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 2.13 mb
Pages: 20



PR-738

2017 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/20/2017 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, research, variety trials
Size: 2.85 mb
Pages: 24



PR-735

2017 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/18/2017 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 12



PR-736

2017 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/13/2017 (new)
Authors: Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 725 kb
Pages: 8



PR-733

2017 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 413 kb
Pages: 4



PR-734

2017 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 4



PR-740

2017 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/7/2017 (new)
Authors: Brandon Roberts, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2017 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions. Forty soybean tests were planted in 2017 in Kentucky, at the eight test locations.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials
Size: 3.48 mb
Pages: 31



PR-732

2017 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

12/6/2017 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties. Tables 14, 15, and 16 show summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 17 years. The UK Forage Extension website at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage contains electronic versions of all forage variety test-ing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.35 mb
Pages: 16



PR-739

2017 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2017 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, Bob Geneve, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Emily Pfeufer, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. The 2017 Fruit and Vegetable Crops re-search report includes results for 16 projects.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 7.21 mb
Pages: 46



PR-729

2017 Orchardgrass Report

12/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties. Table 11 shows a summary of all orchardgrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website, at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage, contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and from a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 833 kb
Pages: 8



PR-730

2017 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

12/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties. Tables 15 and 16 show a summary of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 17 years. The UK Forage Extension Web site at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 12



PR-731

2017 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

12/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky. Tables 10 and 11 show summaries of all timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website, at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage, contains forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 542 kb
Pages: 6



PR-727

2017 Alfalfa Report

11/29/2017 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties. Tables 14 and 15 (Roundup Ready varieties) shows a summary of all alfalfa varieties tested in Kentucky during the past 16 years. The UK Forage Extension website, at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage, contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states as well as a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.53 mb
Pages: 12



PR-726

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2017

11/28/2017 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Matthew Campbell, Chad Lee, Linda McClanahan, Nick Roy, Will Stallard

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Lincoln County, Mason County, Mercer County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, research, variety trials
Size: 341 kb
Pages: 4



PR-728

2017 Red and White Clover Report

11/27/2017 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield and persistence data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. Tables 13 and 14 show a summary of all clover varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 757 kb
Pages: 6



HO-119

Reducing Heat Stress to Container-Grown Plants

11/14/2017 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

Production of plants in containers offer many advantages over field production. Shorter production cycles, larger numbers of plants per acre, and the ability to continuously market and ship plants are among those advantages. However, there are some disadvantages including more intense cultural practices, a relatively short window of optimum marketability due to container size restrictions, and rapid daily temperature fluctuations within the container substrate (growing medium). This publication will provide information about plant response to high root-zone temperatures, identify critical temperatures, describe the factors that influence temperature fluctuations, and suggest cultural practices to reduce heat stress in container-grown plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.24 mb
Pages: 6



PR-725

2017 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/2/2017 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Brandon Roberts

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 2.92 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-FR-S-17

Cane Diseases of Brambles

11/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 299 kb
Pages: 5



ID-149

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates

10/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, John Strang, Tim Woods, Shawn Wright

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: business and records, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, production practices
Size: 265 kb
Pages: 20



PPFS-AG-C-5

Diplodia Ear Rot

10/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Diplodia ear rot can reduce yield and grain quality by damaging kernels, lowering grain test weight, and reducing grain fill. Incidence of affected ears in the field can vary from 1% or 2% to as high as 80%. Although mycotoxins have been associated with Diplodia ear rot in South America and South Africa, there have been no reports of livestock feeding issues due to mycotoxins linked to Diplodia ear rot in the United States.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 990 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-6

Holcus Leaf Spot

10/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Holcus leaf spot, a bacterial disease, can be seen sporadically in Kentucky cornfields, and it is challenging to diagnose. This publication describes the disease symptoms, conditions that favor disease, and how to distinguish holcus spot from herbicide injury that can mimic this disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 889 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-116

Romaine Lettuce

10/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 692 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-117

Root Crops

10/4/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 4



HO-118

A Beginners Guide to Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky: Plans and Preparations

10/2/2017 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Ken Hunter, Bethany Pratt, John Strang

Begin by thinking about vegetables you and your family like to eat. Then think about what you want to grow. Some vegetables will grow better in Kentucky than others because of the average daily temperatures and amount of rainfall. It is also important to learn about the needs of each vegetable variety you are thinking about planting in your garden. Does it grow better in sun or shade? How much water does it need? What type of soil does it grow best in? Is it a cool season crop or a warm season crop?

Departments: County Extension, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Jefferson County
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-120

Specialty Melons

9/20/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 3



ID-244

Landscape Site Assessment

9/6/2017 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain

The most common reason trees and shrubs fail to perform as anticipated is that their cultural requirements differ from the site characteristics. People often plant things they know and love from a distant state, purchase because they are on sale, or find attractive but don't understand the environmental requirements. In some cases, a site can be easily modified to make it more suitable for a desired species. Most of the time, it is difficult or impossible to change the site characteristics enough for the plant to thrive. Appropriate watering is essential for establishment of recently transplanted trees and shrubs. This becomes even more important (and challenging) for plants poorly matched to their sites. Selecting plant species that will thrive under particular site conditions is an easier and less expensive option. The first step in doing this is to understand the site where you plan to plant.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 125 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-55

Stevia

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 791 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-62

High Tunnel Tomatoes

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-130

Malabar Spinach

8/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-90

Cabbage

8/25/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 725 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-76

Woody Cuts

8/22/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 909 kb
Pages: 3



HO-116

Wine Distribution for Small Farm Wineries in Kentucky

8/22/2017 (new)
Authors: Ryan Baumgardner, Seth DeBolt

Small farm wineries in the state of Kentucky face a major issue when they look to expand, through wholesale distribution, into retail outlets. Like many states, Kentucky uses a "three-tier system" of distribution, where wineries must sell their product to a distributor, who then can legally sell the product to retailers. But because small- to medium-sized wineries rarely produce a volume that is attractive to major brand distributors, their products either don't make it to the retail shelves, or are placed suboptimally for their target market. Here, we look at ways to address this issue in order to help promote the wine industry from the wholesale point-of-view.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 173 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-95

English and Edible Pod Peas

8/16/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-93

Cucumber

8/15/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-FS-6

Three-Year Average Prices and Quantities at Kentucky Produce Auctions: 2014-2016

8/15/2017 (new)
Authors: Martin Bechu, Alex Butler, Brett Wolff, Tim Woods

This report compares average volumes and prices for 18 crops from two major Kentucky produce auctions for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags: business and records, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 22



PPFS-OR-W-26

Volutella Blight of Boxwood

8/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses
Size: 1.57 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-6

Flowering Dogwood Diseases

8/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Sarah Stolz, Nicole Ward Gauthier

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-100

Heirloom Vegetables

7/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 652 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-71

Garden Mums

7/13/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



SR-111

Economic Analysis of the University of Kentucky Community Supported Agriculture Organic Vegetable Production System

7/12/2017 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Dillon, Tiffany Thompson, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Farms marketing through a vegetable CSA are complex businesses facing many operational and economic challenges. To be economically viable, CSA farms must achieve the appropriate match of crops, equipment, and labor with farm size and number of CSA members. A diverse array of vegetable crops are typically grown with unique requirements for crop production, pest management, harvest, and post-harvest handling. An extensive suite of skills, tools, and equipment are required to produce these crops efficiently, and mechanization becomes critical as the number of acres in production increases.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture
Series: Special Report (SR series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, research, vegetables
Size: 6.50 mb
Pages: 28



CCD-CP-60

High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs

7/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 893 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-25

Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine

7/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, trees
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-63

Hydroponic Lettuce

6/30/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, food crops, hydroponics, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 4



PPA-47

Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities

6/28/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: crops and plants, science and technology
Size: 5.89 mb
Pages: 16



PR-724

2017 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

6/28/2017 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Brandon Roberts, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 2.36 mb
Pages: 24



CCD-FS-5

Vegetable Transplant Production

6/22/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-SP-8

Propagation Nursery

6/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-228

Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone

5/31/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Bermudagrass is an excellent choice for use on athletic fields throughout the transition zone (which includes Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and Missouri) because of its tolerance to close cutting heights, summer vigor, positive traction characteristics for athletes, resistance to divoting and ability to withstand and recover from significant traffic during active growth. The major limitation to successful bermudagrass persistence in transition zone locations is a general lack of cold tolerance and susceptibility to winterkill.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 6.63 mb
Pages: 10



CCD-MP-1

Community Supported Agriculture

5/25/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)is relatively new to the United States, beginning in Massachusetts in 1986 and growing to 60 CSA farms in the U.S. in 1990. The CSA structure grew significantly in popularity among both producers and consumers during the 2000s; by 2009, as many as 6,000 farms were operating a CSA. The 2015 USDA Local Food Marketing Practices Survey reported 7,398 farms nationally selling by CSA for a sales value of $226 million. There were nearly 60 CSAs listed for Kentucky, in 2016, in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture CSA directory. The CSA marketing channel continues to increase in popularity, moving to new demographics besides the original core affluent urban consumer.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 3.30 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-FS-4

Weed Management

5/12/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, weeds
Size: 2.70 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-103

Leafy Greens

5/3/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-H-1

Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals

5/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 19



CCD-CP-127

Lavender

4/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 897 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-11

Juneberries

4/19/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-128

Black Walnuts

4/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-SP-5

Container Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-SP-6

Field Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-107

Onions

4/12/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-85

Baby Corn

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 688 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-86

Baby Vegetables

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 975 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-30

Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands

4/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Ray Smith, Tina Tillery, Paul Vincelli

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, pests, plant diseases
Size: 253 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-130

Soybean Production in Kentucky

3/22/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee

Soybean seed quality is very important for crop establishment. In general, seed quality is an indicator of a seed's ability to produce a seedling in field conditions and includes both seed germination and seed vigor. Most producers are familiar with seed germination since they have seen it on a seed tag. Fewer are familiar with seed vigor.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-124

Tomatillo

3/1/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-227

Identifying Canola Growth Stages

2/6/2017 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott

To effectively manage canola in Kentucky, the ability to identify key developmental growth stages is important. The most common canola growth stage system describes developmental stages. Several canola growth stages are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, oil crops
Size: 7.33 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-SP-7

Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production

1/31/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Dewayne Ingram

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 918 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-225

Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017

1/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: mb
Pages: 96



PPFS-AG-C-4

Stewart's Wilt of Corn

1/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Emily Pfeufer

Historically, Stewart's wilt of corn has resulted in losses for corn producers. Although this disease still occurs occasionally, it has become less prevalent in recent years in Kentucky and surrounding states. Stewart's wilt has been known by other names, such as bacterial leaf blight, Stewart's leaf blight, and maize bacteriosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.45 mb
Pages: 3



AGR-226

Identification and Control of Henbit and Purple Deadnettle

12/30/2016 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, Gregg Munshaw

Most of the winter annual broadleaf weeds are distinguishable from each other and thus fairly easy to key out or identify. However, there are two that show up each spring that often get people scratching their heads as to which is which--is it purple deadnettle? Or is it henbit? There are several similarities between these weeds--both are members of the mint family, both have square stems, both have sparsely hairy oval- to egg-shaped leaves, leaves of both are opposite, and both have small purple flowers that appear in the axils of the upper leaves during the spring.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, weeds
Size: 5.38 mb
Pages: 4



ID-240

What Is Your Tree Worth?

12/22/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 903 kb
Pages: 5



ID-241

After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant

12/22/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 247 kb
Pages: 5



PR-709

2016 Alfalfa Report

12/13/2016 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highestyielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.75 mb
Pages: 12



PR-710

2016 Red and White Clover Report

12/13/2016 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.02 mb
Pages: 8



PR-721

2016 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2016 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Jessica Bessin, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Patty Lucas, Sean Lynch, Shubin Saha, Alexis Sheffield, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, John Walsh, Neil Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.80 mb
Pages: 40



PR-722

2016 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/9/2016 (new)
Authors: Joshua Duckworth, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties sold in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2016 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 4.61 mb
Pages: 36



PR-719

2016 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/6/2016 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.62 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-79

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-83

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 7



PR-713

2016 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

12/5/2016 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Management is similar to that for other cool-season grasses. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish. This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 594 kb
Pages: 6



PR-714

2016 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

12/5/2016 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication. The severe winter of 2013-2014 showed those varieties that are not adapted to Kentucky. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass. Their use in Kentucky is still limited since they do not survive as long as tall fescue but some of the newer varieties are more adapted to Kentucky environmental conditions. This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties, as well as summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.81 mb
Pages: 16



PR-711

2016 Orchardgrass Report

11/30/2016 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is welladapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 754 kb
Pages: 8



PR-712

2016 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

11/30/2016 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Tall fescue is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. All bromegrasses have several advantages over tall fescue, including retaining quality as they mature and better growth during dry weather, but they are generally less well adapted in Kentucky. This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties, including summaries of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.13 mb
Pages: 10



CCD-CP-110

Organic Sweet Corn

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 604 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-111

Organic Tomatoes

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 566 kb
Pages: 6



PR-717

2016 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

11/18/2016 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.24 mb
Pages: 12



PR-718

2016 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

11/18/2016 (new)
Authors: Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: animals, cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, horses, research, variety trials
Size: 842 kb
Pages: 8



ID-238

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky

11/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 10.03 mb
Pages: 28



PR-715

2016 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

11/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 397 kb
Pages: 4



PR-716

2016 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

11/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 440 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-20

Sweet Cherries

11/14/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-58

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

11/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, production practices
Size: 503 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-12

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries

11/3/2016 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 799 kb
Pages: 5



PR-708

2016 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

10/24/2016 (new)
Authors: Ron Curd, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Brandon Roberts

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 2.90 mb
Pages: 24



AEC-100

Post-Harvest Management: The Economics of Grain Transportation

10/13/2016 (new)
Authors: Jordan Shockley

While transporting grain to the market may be the last input cost in the production of grain, it is a critical decision a producer has to make, especially when margins are thin. Determining which market to sell your grain (if you have options) can be a complex decision, as the market that provides the highest price is not always the most profitable price.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Agricultural Economics (AEC series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 458 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-MISC-7

Genetically Engineered Crops: A Review of Concerns and Benefits

10/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Genetically engineered crops are plants that have had their genetic material (DNA) purposefully manipulated in the laboratory to produce a particular beneficial outcome. These types of crops are often called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. Commercial genetically engineered crops are designed to have limited and precise genetic changes that provide one or more benefits to humans or the environment.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.26 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-223

Identifying Soybean Growth Stages

9/30/2016 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee

Accurate identification of soybean growth stages is important to maximize grain yield and profitability, because most management decisions are based upon the growth stage of soybean plants within the fields. Key features of soybean growth stages are highlighted within this guide.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 4.82 mb
Pages: 8



AGR-224

Identifying Wheat Growth Stages

9/30/2016 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott

Identifying growth stages of any crop is important to enable timely crop management decisions that maximize yields and profitability. There are several wheat growth stages that are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 5.27 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-99

Garlic and Elephant Garlic

9/27/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 593 kb
Pages: 3



ID-237

Soil Percolation: A Key to Survival of Landscape Plants

9/14/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain

Eighty to 90 percent of disease and insect problems on landscape plants can be traced back to soil problems. Plants must be adapted to the site if they are to meet our expectations of growing, remain healthy, and attractive.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, soil and land
Size: 3.29 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-97

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic

9/13/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 617 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-53

Ginseng

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 967 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-94

Edamame

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 598 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-81

Maple Syrup

8/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-222

Estimating Carrying Capacity of Cool Season Pastures in Kentucky Using Web Soil Survey

8/10/2016 (new)
Authors: Krista Lea, Ray Smith

While many factors influence how many animals a farm can carry, soil type has a major influence and should be considered when purchasing, leasing, planning, or managing livestock on pastures.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, soil and land
Size: 4.21 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-109

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens

8/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 6



AGR-50

Lawn Establishment in Kentucky

7/27/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 3.04 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-55

Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky

7/22/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 119 kb
Pages: 1



CCD-CP-66

Chinese Chestnuts

7/18/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 594 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-6

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 193 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-7

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Steve Isaacs, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 119 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-BG-8

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 340 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-BG-9

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 336 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-17

Plums

7/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 3



PR-707

2016 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Blazan Mijatovic, Gene Olson, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 2.24 mb
Pages: 24



CCD-CP-78

Beekeeping and Honey Production

6/30/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 934 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-18

Raspberries

6/9/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 713 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-108

Organic Asparagus

6/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-24

Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky

6/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 2.12 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-BG-1

Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky

5/2/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 389 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-84

Asparagus

5/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 542 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-54

Goldenseal

4/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 582 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-220

A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns

4/7/2016 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-22

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 236 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GEN-13

Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 388 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-46

Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6

3/2/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger, Robbie Smith, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 5.00 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-FR-T-6

Cherry Leaf Spot

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GH-1

Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Philip Konopka, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



ID-125

A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky

2/23/2016 (reprinted)
Authors: Bill Bruening, J.D. Green, John Grove, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Doug Johnson, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Lloyd Murdock, Doug Overhults, Greg Schwab, Lee Townsend, Dick Trimble, Dave Van Sanford

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 6.50 mb
Pages: 72



ID-234

Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky

2/8/2016 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Doug Johnson, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Edwin Ritchey

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 8



PPFS-FR-T-3

Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-14

Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.28 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-10

Black Spot of Rose

2/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Black spot is the most common and serious disease of roses in Kentucky. It is a problem in greenhouse production and outdoor plantings.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 350 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-OR-W-23

Shade Tree Anthracnose

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Sharon Flynt, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 869 kb
Pages: 4



ID-163

Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality

1/13/2016 (major revision)
Authors: David Ditsch, Josh McGrath, Lloyd Murdock, Edwin Ritchey, Frank Sikora

Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Regulatory Services
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, nutrient management, production practices, soil and land
Size: 485 kb
Pages: 6



ID-233

Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses

12/22/2015 (new)
Authors: Shubin Saha

Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 465 kb
Pages: 6



PR-706

2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/21/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Emily Pfeufer, Shubin Saha, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.54 mb
Pages: 44



PR-704

2015 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/15/2015 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 16



PR-700

2015 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/14/2015 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 525 kb
Pages: 6



PR-701

2015 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/14/2015 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 530 kb
Pages: 6



PR-702

2015 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/14/2015 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 12



PR-698

2015 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

12/10/2015 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Management is similar to that for other cool-season grasses. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish. This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 8



PR-703

2015 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/10/2015 (new)
Authors: Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: animals, cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, horses, research, variety trials
Size: 875 kb
Pages: 8



PR-697

2015 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

12/8/2015 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Tall fescue is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. All bromegrasses have several advantages over tall fescue, including retaining quality as they mature and better growth during dry weather, but they are generally less well adapted in Kentucky. This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties, including summaries of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.24 mb
Pages: 10



PR-699

2015 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

12/8/2015 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication. The severe winter of 2013-2014 showed those varieties that are not adapted to Kentucky. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass. Their use in Kentucky is still limited since they do not survive as long as tall fescue but some of the newer varieties are more adapted to Kentucky environmental conditions. This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties, as well as summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.88 mb
Pages: 16



PPFS-FR-T-1

Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 887 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-4

Black Knot

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 784 kb
Pages: 2



PR-693

2015 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Joshua Duckworth, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials
Size: 1.93 mb
Pages: 44



PR-694

2015 Alfalfa Report

11/23/2015 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highestyielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 10



PR-695

2015 Red and White Clover Report

11/23/2015 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 875 kb
Pages: 6



PR-696

2015 Orchardgrass Report

11/23/2015 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is welladapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 850 kb
Pages: 8



PPFS-FR-T-8

Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits

11/1/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 207 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-4

"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals

11/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Tracey Parriman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium.

Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 4



PR-692

2015 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

10/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Ron Curd, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 3.30 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-OR-W-1

Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi

9/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Traci Missun, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 2.95 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-67

Christmas Trees

8/18/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 492 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-216

Turfgrasses of Kentucky

8/17/2015 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 8.50 mb
Pages: 12



PPFS-FR-T-5

Apple Rust Diseases

8/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 813 kb
Pages: 5



ID-91s

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky

7/15/2015 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Cheryl Kaiser, Kenny Seebold

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.74 mb
Pages: 24



PR-690

2015 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/6/2015 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Ron Curd, Gene Olson, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 2.35 mb
Pages: 24



CCD-CP-92

Celery and Celeriac

6/8/2015 (new)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 635 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-219

Practicing Good Stewardship When Applying Herbicides for Pasture Weed Control

5/14/2015 (new)
Authors: J.D. Green

Various methods and strategies can be used to combat weed problems in pasture fields. These include mechanical and cultural practices such as mowing or clipping fields, maintaining a good soil fertility program, grazing methods, and other management practices that promote the growth of desirable forage grasses which in turn compete against weeds. Herbicides can be the best alternative to effectively control several troublesome broadleaf weeds. However, it is important to understand the proper use of herbicides and practice good stewardship.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, weeds
Size: 190 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-19

Blueberry Root Rot

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-H-10

Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Ray Tackett, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-OR-W-22

When White Pines Turn Brown: Common Problems of White Pines in Kentucky

4/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is a popular conifer in many Kentucky landscapes, although its use may be limited to loose, well-drained, pathogen-free soil. Often, needle browning is the primary symptom that alerts homeowners and nursery growers of health problems. In Kentucky, brown needles on white pine are often caused by one of the following three conditions: white pine decline, white pine root decline (Procerum root rot), or Phytophthora root rot.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.17 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-218

Herbicide Recommendations for Weed Control in Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns for Professional Applicators

3/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gregg Munshaw

The best method to control weeds is to grow a dense and healthy lawn. This objective should be primary for turf professionals. Lawn weed control is facilitated by identification of the turfgrass and weed species present. Not all herbicides will control all weeds, and not all herbicides are safe on all lawn grasses. This publication contains herbicide recommendations for licensed professionals. For information on weed control for non-professionals, see AGR 208: Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 240 kb
Pages: 4



PPA-41

Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers

3/9/2015 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 3.80 mb
Pages: 7



ID-227

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky

1/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 33.00 mb
Pages: 32



AGR-217

Determining Soil Texture by Feel

1/22/2015 (new)
Authors: Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey

Soil texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil. Texture influences almost every aspect of soil use, both in agricultural and engineering applications, and even how natural ecosystems function. Many scientists consider soil texture the most important soil property as it can influence soil/water relationships, gas exchange, and plant nutrition. Accurately determining soil texture in a lab requires time and money; therefore, it is often necessary to estimate soil texture in the field by feel, which can be very accurate if done correctly.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, soil and land
Size: 250 kb
Pages: 3



ID-225

Organic Corn Production in Kentucky

1/15/2015 (new)
Authors: Chad Lee, Will Martin, Sam McNeill, Lee Meyer, Michael Montross, Edwin Ritchey, Tom Sikora

The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: alternative practices, corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 30



PR-688

2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/7/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Julie Beale, Lucas Hanks, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Tracey Parriman, Shubin Saha, Nancy Savage, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

The 2014 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in three counties in Kentucky, including: Mason, Shelby, and Spencer.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 42



PPFS-OR-W-21

Diplodia Tip Blight of Pine

1/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, D.J. Scully, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Tip blight is a serious disease of landscape pines in Kentucky. Pines such as Austrian (Pinus nigra), Scots (P. sylvestris), and Mugo (P. mugo) are most commonly affected. Other landscape conifers occasionally may be affected by tip blight as well. Tip blight disease has not been found on eastern white pine (P. strobus).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.27 mb
Pages: 3



PR-689

2014 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/11/2014 (new)
Authors: Benjamin Abourjeily, Joshua Duckworth, Laura Jane Phelps, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased, objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions. Thirty soybean tests were planted in 2014 in Kentucky at the six test locations shown below. Planting dates and other information are shown in Table 1. Data for the maturity groups IV Early, IV Late and V at the Caldwell County location are not provided to avoid penalizing any variety (plots were damaged by a storm soon after planting).

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials
Size: 4.30 mb
Pages: 28



CCD-CP-126

Winter Squash

12/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 668 kb
Pages: 2



PR-686

2014 Summer Annual Grass Report

12/10/2014 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2011-2014 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, and teff.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.15 mb
Pages: 12



PR-684

2014 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2014 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue and orchardgrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and prairie brome can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 12



PR-685

2014 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2014 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: animals, cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, horses, research, variety trials
Size: 810 kb
Pages: 8



PR-682

2014 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/2/2014 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 550 kb
Pages: 4



PR-683

2014 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/2/2014 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of red and white clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 660 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-AG-F-9

Managing Diseases of Alfalfa

12/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Alfalfa can be a vigorous and productive forage crop for Kentucky farmers. Like all farm crops, however, alfalfa is subject to infectious diseases that can limit forage production. Managing these diseases is an important part of economical alfalfa production.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, pests, plant diseases
Size: 756 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-59

Hanging Baskets

11/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 631 kb
Pages: 4



PR-676

2014 Alfalfa Report

11/25/2014 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 12



PR-677

2014 Red and White Clover Report

11/24/2014 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 8



PR-678

2014 Orchardgrass Report

11/24/2014 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 855 kb
Pages: 8



PR-679

2014 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

11/24/2014 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.11 mb
Pages: 10



PR-680

2014 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

11/24/2014 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 676 kb
Pages: 6



PR-681

2014 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/24/2014 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 13



AGR-115

Irrigation Tips to Conserve Water and Grow a Healthy Lawn

11/11/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw

The goal of water conservation in the landscape does not need to be as drastic as eliminating all irrigation, but we should choose plant material wisely and decide if and when irrigation is necessary. This publication is designed to promote a healthy lawn through watering while promoting water conservation through best management practices. One of the easiest things you can do to reduce the need for irrigation in your yard is to plant species that naturally need less water. When choosing plants, remember that just because a particular plant is drought tolerant does not mean that it is suitable for Kentucky's climate.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 892 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-5

Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns

11/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 332 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-51

Improving Turf Through Renovation

11/3/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Often a poor lawn can be improved by using proper maintenance practices, including mowing, fertilizing, watering, and pest control. In some instances, however, portions of the lawn must be reseeded. Usually one of two methods is used to re-establish a lawn: conventional or renovation. The conventional method involves killing existing vegetation, tilling the soil, and replanting. The advantages of conventional tillage include more complete control of weeds and undesirable grass, a smoother soil surface, and the opportunity to improve the existing soil by adding organic matter and sand. Renovation involves replanting without completely tilling the soil and often without destroying all existing vegetation.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-54

Aerifying and Dethatching Lawns

11/3/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Lawns in Kentucky will occasionally suffer due to compacted (hard) soils and excessive thatch layers. Although most lawns will not have problems with these issues, you may occasionally need to dethatch or aerify (core) to maintain a high quality lawn.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 4



PR-675

2014 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/3/2014 (new)
Authors: Ron Curd, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 3.39 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-AG-S-24

Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015

11/1/2014 (reviewed)
Authors: Don Hershman

SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, pests, plant diseases
Size: 546 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-T-11

Disease Management in the Home Lawn

11/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

This publication describes lawn management practices that can help control diseases of turfgrasses commonly used in home lawns--Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and perennial ryegrass. You can control diseases of turfgrasses most effectively by using as many of the following lawn management practices as feasible.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.02 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-F-8

Kentucky Plant Disease Management Guide for Forage Legumes

10/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Disease management in forage legumes relies heavily on using disease-resistant varieties and employing sound agronomic practices. It is important to integrate both of these strategies into a comprehensive disease management program. Failure to consider one or the other will compromise the success of your efforts. The appropriate use of pesticides sometimes plays a significant role in managing certain diseases, but it is secondary to sound cultural practices and proper variety selection.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, pests, plant diseases
Size: 907 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-VG-18

Blackleg and Bacterial Soft Rot of Potato

10/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Blackleg and soft rot are bacterial diseases that cause heavy losses in Kentucky potato patches in some years. These diseases may result in missing hills when seed pieces are destroyed or the sprouts decay before they emerge from the ground. Serious rotting of tubers in potato hills and in storage can also occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 707 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-MP-5

Roadside Stands

9/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Roadside stand is generic term for a type of marketing site in which a farm producer sells directly to consumers. A roadside stand is a seasonal, temporary or semi-temporary structure that may be located on or off the farm. A roadside stand may be distinguished from a roadside market in that the latter is usually a permanent structure that is often open year-round.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 774 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-89

Brussels Sprouts

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Currently there is little production of brussels sprouts in Kentucky. Much of the commercial production for brussels sprouts produced in the United States is concentrated in California. The Census of Agriculture reported that two Kentucky farms harvested brussels sprouts in the 2012 growing season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-R-1

Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Carrie Knott

Interest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Canola Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-R series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-17

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 636 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-2

Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-3

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-BG-4

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-13

Organic Blueberries

8/20/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 633 kb
Pages: 6



ID-222

Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach

7/30/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 9.00 mb
Pages: 8



AGR-212

Fertilizing Your Lawn

7/22/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Lawns require fertilizer to remain healthy. Proper fertilization practices will lead to a thick, dark green, uniform lawn that is competitive against weed and disease invasions. The nutrients contained in fertilizers are necessary to support many processes occurring within the plants. If any essential nutrient is limiting, the plants will not perform at their highest level.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nutrient management, production practices
Size: 425 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-214

Liming Kentucky Lawns

7/22/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Edwin Ritchey

Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nutrient management, production practices
Size: 909 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-105

Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)

7/21/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 612 kb
Pages: 3



HO-112

Understanding Soilless Media Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management

7/17/2014 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

Although choosing or formulating media with optimum physical properties (such as pore air space and water holding capacity) for a given production environment and crop plant is important, this publication focuses on the chemical properties of soilless media determined with a laboratory test as conducted through the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service at the Division of Regulatory Services Soil Testing Laboratories.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, soil and land
Size: 252 kb
Pages: 4



PR-674

2014 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/11/2014 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Ron Curd, Gene Olson, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 2.70 mb
Pages: 24



ID-172s

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky

7/9/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 5.60 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-82

Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms

7/3/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



ID-50

Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems

7/1/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Jamie Dockery, Kristin Goodin, Cheryl Kaiser, Delia Scott, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeremy Williams

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 9.00 mb
Pages: 11



ID-89

How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants

7/1/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kathy Wimberly

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape
Size: 6.00 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-MP-3

Pick-Your-Own (U-Pick) Marketing

6/30/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Pick-Your-Own (PYO), also referred to as U-Pick, occurs when farmers "invite the public onto the farm to harvest their own food."1 Producers searching for new crops, combined with a growing Kentucky population, renewed interest in PYO during the past 20 years.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-7

Grapes

6/23/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 694 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-8

Marketing Asian Produce in Kentucky

6/19/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Burgeoning Asian populations and consumer interest in Asian cuisine helped stimulate increased interest in purchasing fresh Asian vegetables to prepare at home, a trend expected to continue. Caucasian consumers tend to prefer value-added and processed vegetables, but there are market niches for fresh Asian vegetables. Kentucky producers have received inquiries to source edamame (vegetable soybean) and daikon (Chinese radish) at wholesale quantities.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 758 kb
Pages: 6



ID-184

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky

6/3/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 16



ID-210

Midwest Blueberry Production Guide

5/12/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Tom Barnes, Cheryl Kaiser, Chris Smigell, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 58



ID-219

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky

5/7/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-27

Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy

5/5/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: animals, cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, nutrition and health, production practices
Size: 410 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-31

Grain Sorghum

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 496 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-64

Poinsettias

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 409 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-2

Marketing Via the Internet

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

The Internet can be utilized in a variety of marketing strategies. Producers may sell their products online through e-commerce, use a website to take orders for their goods, or simply advertise their operation through a "billboard" type website. Social media and blogs provide yet another way the Internet can be used for promoting a farm enterprise. The increase in access to Web-based services through handheld devices makes many customers more immediately accessible to products and services.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 442 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-GEN-10

Root-knot Nematode in Commercial and Residential Crops

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Root-knot nematode (RKN) is a soil-dwelling microscopic roundworm. This nematode is parasitic on numerous plants, including vegetables, fruits, field crops, ornamentals, and common weeds. RKN can occur in commercial and homeowner plantings. Frequently, the nematode interacts with other plant pathogens to form a disease complex in which the resulting disease is much more severe than that caused by either component alone. Root-knot nematode is particularly serious when high populations are allowed to build up due to continuous replanting of susceptible plants on the same site.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 917 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-19

Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Mike Klahr, Nicole Ward Gauthier

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 2.48 mb
Pages: 10



PPFS-VG-15

Tomato Wilt Problems

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are two fungal diseases that cause similar wilts in tomato. Fusarium wilt tends to be more common during warm weather, while Verticillium wilt is found more often when temperatures are cool. Both diseases share similar symptoms and can be hard to tell apart visually; laboratory tests are often needed for an accurate diagnosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 2.07 mb
Pages: 4



ID-21

Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky

4/29/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 20



AGR-213

Soybean Nutrient Management in Kentucky

4/24/2014 (new)
Authors: John Grove, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Edwin Ritchey

Soybean grows best on fertile soils. For decades, the University of Kentucky has conducted field studies to establish the relationship between soil nutrient supplies and soybean yield. Adequate soil fertility must be present so that yields are not limited.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, nutrient management, production practices, soybeans
Size: 1.02 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-72

Ornamental Corn

4/24/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 643 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-10

Organic Certification Process

4/14/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

Growers who plan to market their agricultural products as "organic" or "certified organic" must first be certified by a USDA accredited certifier. Certification, required by federal regulation, provides third party verification that the grower is complying with production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). Annual inspections and detailed record keeping are required for continuing certification. These strict regulations are meant to protect consumers by ensuring that all organic producers are adhering to the same set of uniform standards.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, organic production, production practices
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-8

High Tunnel Brambles

4/7/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 619 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-61

High Tunnel Strawberries

4/4/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 528 kb
Pages: 4



PA-9

Technology to Improve Sprayer Accuracy

3/26/2014 (new)
Authors: Tim Stombaugh

A number of new technologies have been introduced over the last several years aimed at improving the accuracy of spray application, but do they really work? The purpose of this document is to highlight the most common causes of application errors then discuss the array of new sprayer technologies that are becoming available, how they might affect application accuracy, and pitfalls involved in using them.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Precision Agriculture (PA series)
Tags:
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 10



AGR-211

Calibrating Fertilizer Spreaders for the Home Lawn

3/25/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

How much fertilizer should you use on your lawn? Too much can result in turf burn, wasted product and money, and potential environmental concerns. Too little will result in a low-density lawn that will not be attractive or competitive against weed invasions. To insure that you apply the proper amount of fertilizer to your lawn, you must calibrate your fertilizer spreader. You should calibrate your spreader each time you use a new (different) fertilizer because not all fertilizers have the same particle size or density. The information on the fertilizer bag is a good starting point for the calibration process but remember that spreaders can differ significantly. Calibrating your spreader will take a little bit of work, but the series of fairly simple steps below will help you complete the task.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nutrient management, production practices
Size: 2.90 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-6

Selling Farm Products at Farmers Markets

3/25/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Farmers markets are used by Kentucky growers of all farm sizes and scales. "Market gardeners" often tend less than an acre of land for selling strictly at the local farmers market. On the other hand, some of Kentucky's largest orchards use local farmers markets as a retail outlet during the fall to command a premium price for their crop.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 811 kb
Pages: 6



AGR-129

Soybean Variety Selection

3/20/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Edwin Ritchey

Soybean variety selection is one of the most important and most difficult management decisions a producer must make each year. It takes careful identification of the problems and needs of the production system. When done properly it increases the chance the variety will reach its full yield potential while eliminating costs for unnecessary traits, resulting in highly profitable returns.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 570 kb
Pages: 6



HO-110

Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses

3/14/2014 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek

Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, production practices, sustainabable agriculture
Size: 5.95 mb
Pages: 17



CCD-CP-35

Kura Clover

3/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes
Size: 389 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-11

Diagnosis of "No Disease"

3/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Extension Agents and growers may occasionally receive diagnostic reports from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory that indicate "no disease was found." One or both of the following explanations may account for the diagnosis of "No Disease."

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 867 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-9

Submitting Plant Specimens for Disease Diagnosis

3/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the many ways that the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and UK Cooperative Extension serve the citizens of Kentucky. This publication is designed to help growers collect and submit the best plant samples for an accurate diagnosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 2.31 mb
Pages: 7



AGR-210

Fertilizer Management in Alfalfa

1/8/2014 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Lloyd Murdock, Edwin Ritchey, Greg Schwab

Alfalfa is a high quality, valuable forage crop that can be successfully produced on most well-drained soils in Kentucky for hay, silage, and grazing. Fertilizing alfalfa can be uniquely challenging because it is a high-yielding crop that removes a tremendous amount of soil nutrients when compared to other crops grown in Kentucky. A thorough understanding of alfalfa's growth habits, nutrient requirements, and soil nutrient supply mechanisms is necessary to effectively manage fertilizer inputs and maximize profitability while minimizing environmental impact.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, nutrient management, production practices
Size: 4 kb
Pages: 4



PR-673

2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/8/2014 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Kenny Seebold, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.49 mb
Pages: 44



PPFS-AG-S-9

Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis

1/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases, soybeans
Size: 679 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-MISC-2

Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance

1/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Fungicides are important tools in modern crop production. Unfortunately, one of the risks of using these products is that fungi sometimes develop resistance to them. Resistance development is a concern because the products may become less effective--or even useless--for controlling resistant pathogens and pests. This is a concern for all pesticides, including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. This fact sheet is intended to help pesticide applicators better understand this process.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.33 mb
Pages: 10



PR-668

2013 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2013 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue and orchardgrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and prairie brome can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.15 mb
Pages: 10



PR-669

2013 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2013 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: animals, cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, horses, research, variety trials
Size: 940 kb
Pages: 8



PR-672

2013 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/2/2013 (new)
Authors: Joshua Duckworth, Laura Jane Phelps, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 28



PR-667

2013 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

11/25/2013 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of red and white clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 6



PR-670

2013 Summer Annual Grass Report

11/25/2013 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2009-2013 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, and teff.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 12



PR-666

2013 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

11/22/2013 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 4



PR-664

2013 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

11/19/2013 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 6



PR-665

2013 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/19/2013 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.75 mb
Pages: 16



PR-661

2013 Red and White Clover Report

11/18/2013 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 960 kb
Pages: 8



PR-662

2013 Orchardgrass Report

11/18/2013 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 8



PR-663

2013 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

11/18/2013 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 12



PR-660

2013 Alfalfa Report

11/15/2013 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.95 mb
Pages: 12



PR-659

2013 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/11/2013 (new)
Authors: Ron Curd, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 24



SR-107

Sensor Technology for Variable Rate Nitrogen Applications on Wheat in Kentucky: Recommendations and Verification

10/28/2013 (new)
Authors: Dottie Call, John James, Lloyd Murdock, Ole Wendroth

Nitrogen (N) applications on wheat using sensor-based technology can improve both N use efficiency and yields.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Special Report (SR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 812 kb
Pages: 6



ID-84

Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants

10/16/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Edwin Ritchey, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape
Size: 3.13 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-GEN-5

Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation

8/1/2013 (new)
Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 723 kb
Pages: 3



ID-216

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky

7/22/2013 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 5.30 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-75

Willows for Cuttings

7/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-48

White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn

7/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 344 kb
Pages: 2



PR-658

2013 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/12/2013 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Ron Curd, Gene Olson, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-AG-F-7

Rating Scale for Brown Stripe of Orchardgrass

7/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Leah Saylor, Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

As of right now, there is little published on how to assess foliar disease severity in forage grasses in order to determine the percentage which may be diseased. This publication provides a tool for visually determining the percentage of diseased foliar tissue in orchardgrass. It is based on the observation of individual leaves; however, it is hoped that eventually a rating system will be devised that provides disease percentages for entire plots.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, pests, plant diseases
Size: 566 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-4

Landscape Sanitation

7/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Amanda Sears, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home landscape plantings (Figure 1a), resulting in premature leaf drop, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 644 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-28

Corn for Grain and Silage

6/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 360 kb
Pages: 3



ID-52

What's Wrong with My Taxus?

6/5/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses
Size: 2.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-38

Popcorn and Blue Corn

6/4/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 532 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-17

Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants

6/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 681 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-39

Red and White Clover

5/28/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser

Red and white (ladino) clovers are high quality forage legumes with excellent feed value and animal palatability. Red clover (Trifolium pretense), a tall-growing and short-lived perennial, is used for hay, pasture, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitats. While white clover (Trifolium repens), a low-growing perennial, is best suited for grazing, it can also be used for soil improvement and reclaiming disturbed land.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes
Size: 512 kb
Pages: 2



ID-133

Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens, 2013

5/6/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Tim Coolong, Rick Durham, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 425 kb
Pages: 8



PPFS-AG-S-19

Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights

5/1/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, pests, plant diseases
Size: 856 kb
Pages: 6



ID-214

Mulching with Large Round Bales between Plastic-covered Beds

4/26/2013 (new)
Authors: Tim Coolong, Tim Stombaugh, John Wilhoit

Large round bales lend themselves very well to the application of mulching rows of vegetables because the bales can be unrolled to peel off layers that are about the right thickness for mulch. An innovative implement that offsets the bale so that it can be unrolled between the rows while the tractor straddles the row can make the practice of mulching with round bales considerably more efficient.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, production practices
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-23

Broomcorn

4/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 623 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-SP-4

Selected Resources and References for Commercial Greenhouse Operators

4/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

Books can be obtained from the publisher (known links are provided), by ordering through a local bookstore, or by ordering through an industry trade magazine (books are generally advertised in each issue). Book sources can also be located by searching the Internet using the title as the keyword.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape
Size: 553 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-209

Mowing Your Kentucky Lawn

4/15/2013 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Mowing is a recurring cutting of a portion of a grass shoot. Lawns are mowed to maintain topgrowth within a specific range, to control weed plants that are intolerant to mowing, or to sustain an ornamental turf. Mowing is usually thought of as the most simple of lawn maintenance practices; however, even though we perform it more than any other, it can result in mistakes.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-21

Alfalfa

4/2/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the highest yield potential and highest feeding values of all adapted perennial forage legumes. It is a versatile crop that may be used for pasture, hay, silage, green-chop, pellets, cubes, soil improvement, and soil conservation.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes
Size: 426 kb
Pages: 3



PR-657

Soybean Management Verification Program, 2012

3/29/2013 (new)
Authors: Jim Herbek, Chad Lee, Amanda Martin, Lloyd Murdock

The 2012 Soybean Management Verification Program (SoyMVP) enrolled 19 fields across Western Kentucky, providing ten direct comparisons between University of Kentucky recommendations and producers practices for soybean production. All fields were scouted weekly and recommendations were made on the university portion of the field based on established thresholds and observations from agronomic research. The objective of these comparisons is to validate university research and identify areas for more research.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials
Size: 2.30 mb
Pages: 48



CCD-CP-41

Specialty Soybeans

3/19/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser, Michael Vassalos

The first commercial use of soybean (Glycine max) was for its oil; however, this crop is now considered a valuable source of protein as well. Specialty or novel soybeans are used to produce various soyfoods of Asian origin, such as tofu, miso, soy sauce, natto, soymilk, and tempeh. Assorted health food snacks, energy foods, and cereals are also produced from specialty soybeans. Other uses include bean sprouts and soy nuts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes
Size: 922 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-40

Specialty Field Corns

3/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 512 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-18

Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants

3/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, pests, plant diseases
Size: 534 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-208

Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns

2/25/2013 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gregg Munshaw

The best defense against weed problems in home lawns is a healthy and dense lawn. In thick lawns, weed seeds may not germinate because light may never reach the soil surface. A thick lawn is competitive with weeds, keeping them from growing and reproducing. Developing a healthy and dense lawn comes from using cultural practices such as proper grass species and cultivar selection, proper mowing heights and fertilization, and other good management practices. The need for herbicides to control weeds in home lawns can be greatly reduced if the lawn is well maintained.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 390 kb
Pages: 6



ID-205

Drought-Stressed Corn Silage Valuation, 2012

2/6/2013 (new)
Authors: Kenny Burdine, Greg Halich, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Cory Walters

Extended dry conditions have impacted the corn crop severely in many areas of the state this year. As the condition of the corn crop deteriorates, many have been forced to look at salvage options such as cutting corn for silage and possibly hay for some fields. Due to the extreme weather conditions this year, this publication will focus on valuing drought-stressed corn silage.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 445 kb
Pages: 6



HO-109

Sustainable Production Systems: Efficient Wholesale Nursery Layout

1/31/2013 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek

This publication provides the framework for planning and implementing efficient wholesale nursery layout. Concepts and ideas presented here are applicable to new construction or the modification of an existing nursery. A basic approach toward creating efficient systems will be discussed as well as common nursery activities that may require consideration during the planning stages. Functional areas will be defined, and a framework for understanding the relationships between these functional areas will be presented.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, production practices, sustainabable agriculture
Size: 4.00 mb
Pages: 10



AEC-97

2012 Land Value and Cash Rent Survey

1/9/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Greg Halich, Sarah Lovett, Karen Pulliam

In January 2012, Agriculture and Natural Resource (ANR) agents were surveyed to estimate land values and rental rates for various types of farmland. This document summarizes the results from the agent survey. Dollar values are rounded to the nearest $5-$10 for rental rates and $100 for land values.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Agricultural Economics (AEC series)
Tags: crops and plants, soil and land
Size: 728 kb
Pages: 4



PR-651

2012 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/14/2012 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue and orchardgrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and prairie brome can be used in pasture systems. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 475 kb
Pages: 12



PR-652

2012 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/14/2012 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: animals, cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, horses, research, variety trials
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 8



PR-656

2012 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/6/2012 (new)
Authors: Ben Abell, Angela Anandappa, Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Ty Cato, Tim Coolong, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Zheng Wang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Mark Williams, Neil Wilson, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Tim Woods, Shang-Ho Yang

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2012 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and several demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in more than 15 counties in Kentucky. Research was conducted by faculty and staff from several departments within the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture including: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Agricultural Economics. This report also includes collaborative research projects conducted with faculty and staff at Kentucky State University.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 47



PR-649

2012 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/5/2012 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 670 kb
Pages: 8



PR-650

2012 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/5/2012 (new)
Authors: Joey Clark, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties are generally productive for two and a half to three years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures. It is a dominant forage legume in Kentucky because it is relatively easy to establish and has high forage quality, high yield, and animal acceptance.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 6



PR-653

2012 Summer Annual Grass Report

12/5/2012 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2007-2012 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, and teff.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 12



PR-655

2012 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/4/2012 (new)
Authors: Jessica Cole, Ron Curd, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased, objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials
Size: 3.39 mb
Pages: 28



PR-647

2012 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

12/3/2012 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage---after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 460 kb
Pages: 6



PR-646

2012 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

11/28/2012 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 10



PR-648

2012 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/28/2012 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 14



PR-643

2012 Alfalfa Report

11/26/2012 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 12



PR-644

2012 Red and White Clover Report

11/26/2012 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures. It is a dominant forage legume in Kentucky because it is relatively easy to establish and has high forage quality, yield, and animal acceptance.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 1.26 mb
Pages: 10



PR-645

2012 Orchardgrass Report

11/26/2012 (new)
Authors: David Ditsch, Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials
Size: 890 kb
Pages: 8



PR-642

2012 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/12/2012 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jessica Cole, Ron Curd, Chad Lee, Bill Pearce

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test has been conducted in an unbiased manner according to accepted agronomic practices.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials
Size: 978 kb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-47

Wheat

10/24/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 434 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-65

Sprouts

10/23/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-16

Black Rot of Grape

10/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 555 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-69

Edible Flowers

9/5/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 396 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-S-3

Downy Mildew of Soybean

9/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, crops and plants, farm crops, legumes, pests, plant diseases
Size: 538 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-119

Southernpean (Cowpea)

8/28/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 432 kb
Pages: 3



ID-203

Trees, Turf, and People

8/6/2012 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Gregg Munshaw

The shade trees and fruit trees that we treasure in our landscapes were originally adapted to growing in forests in close association with other trees. In the forest they can remain small for many years. As soon as there is an opening in the canopy allowing light to reach the forest floor they grow rapidly. This great height allows trees to assume a place of dominance over other plants; their trunks lift their leaves high into the air, allowing them to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight before it reaches other plants. Thus, trees grow tall and provide us with their much-appreciated shade.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees, turfgrass
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-12

Fire Blight

8/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops,