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food crops


PPFS-VG-11

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits

4/13/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 3



ID-232

Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide, 2021-22

4/8/2021 (reprinted)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, John Strang, Shawn Wright

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 180



PPFS-FR-S-5

Strawberry Anthracnose Fruit and Crown Rot

3/22/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 293 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-16

Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck of Apple

1/26/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a common late summer disease complex. The resulting superficial blemishes do not cause fruit decay, but they can reduce market value for commercial produce. Infections of the waxy cuticle can also shorten storage life, as it allows for accelerated desiccation during refrigerated storage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 682 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-7

Fruit Diseases of Cucurbits

1/26/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 315 kb
Pages: 5



PR-779

2020 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/18/2020 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Win Dunwell, Bob Perry, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Snyder, John Strang

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmer markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. Evaluation of varieties is a continuing necessity and allows us to provide the most up to date information in communications with vegetable growers. The vegetable variety trial results are the basis for updating the recommendations in our Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36).

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, science and technology, vegetables
Size: 6.06 mb
Pages: 40



PPFS-VG-6

Bacterial Canker of Tomato

11/14/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Bacterial canker is a potentially serious disease of tomato that can occur in commercial plantings and home gardens. This infectious disease is capable of spreading rapidly, resulting in devastating losses. It is a particularly difficult disease to manage because not only is there no cure, but the pathogen can be hard to eradicate once it has been introduced into a greenhouse, garden, or field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 392 kb
Pages: 4



ID-260

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Peach in Kentucky

6/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky peach plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 20.77 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-FR-S-30

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Strawberry Production

5/27/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-S-28

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Brambles Production

5/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 347 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-T-27

Brown Rot of Peach

4/17/2020 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Erica Wood

Brown rot is the most devastating disease of peach in Kentucky. The disease affects both commercial and backyard orchards. Crop losses occur primarily as a result of fruit decay; however, blossom blight is also part of the disease cycle. All stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) are susceptible to brown rot.

Departments: Hopkins County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-27

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Grape Production

3/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 7



PR-762

2019 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Daniel Becker, Win Dunwell, Rachel Rudolph, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmer markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.Evaluation of varieties is a continuing necessity and allows us to provide the most up to date information in communications with vegetable growers. The vegetable variety trial results are the basis for updating the recommendations in our Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 6.67 mb
Pages: 34



HO-82

Rootstocks for Kentucky Fruit Trees

10/15/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, John Strang, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Most fruit trees that can be grown in Kentucky do not come true from seed. For example, a tree grown from a Golden Delicious apple seed will produce an apple tree, but the fruit will have different characteristics than Golden Delicious in color, taste, and shape. This is why fruit trees are reproduced by asexual propagation, such as budding and grafting.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 250 kb
Pages: 6



NEP-221

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Peppers

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Peppers are generally easy to grow and provide good summer crops that you can eat raw or cooked to add flavor to many foods. There are many different types of peppers, which are set apart by their shape or spiciness (heat), and most will grow well in Kentucky. Many heirloom, or vintage, varieties exist as well.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.65 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 398 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-2

Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 306 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-24

Bitter Rot of Apple

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-25

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 986 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-26

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-S-18

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 407 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-21

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-23

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 351 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-24

Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-25

Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-26

Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 230 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-18

Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Beth Wilson

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Pulaski County
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-20

Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-21

Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-22

Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 890 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-23

Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 458 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-VG-1

Black Rot of Crucifers

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Davis, Emily Pfeufer

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga.

Departments: Clark County, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 227 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-10

Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 327 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-11-QF

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Steve Osborne, Kenny Seebold

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 2



ID-254

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky

6/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 36



PPFS-FR-T-14

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases

6/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 401 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-24

Biological Products for Tomato Disease Management

6/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Disease management products with biologically-based active ingredients are often labeled for numerous diseases, but can vary markedly in their efficacy. This Extension publication summarizes factors to consider when choosing biological controls and data available pertaining to tomato disease management efficacy.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, nursery and landscape, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 268 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-19

Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 337 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-8

Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 431 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-19

Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 995 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-20

Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 896 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-21

Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 874 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-22

Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 460 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-23

Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 788 kb
Pages: 2



PR-757

2018 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Krista Jacobsen, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 6.84 mb
Pages: 44



CCD-CP-114

Pumpkins

12/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The name "pumpkin" is commonly applied to any plant in the taxonomically diverse Cucurbita genus that produces the characteristic yellow to orange, round fruit. Pumpkin cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata and C. mixta.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



ID-235

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky

10/17/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Obrycki, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, Shubin Saha, Shawn Wright

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, high tunnel, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.94 mb
Pages: 28



ID-251

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky

9/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-5

Elderberry

9/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-121

Summer Squash

9/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-98

Field-grown Tomatoes

8/3/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 861 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-14

Pawpaw

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-3

Asian and European Pears

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-133

Heirloom Beans

7/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Heirloom beans are vintage varieties of the warm-season crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) that have been handed down from generation to generation. There is a long tradition of saving bean seed in Appalachia, and heirloom beans are sought by customers at Kentucky farmers markets. Heirloom bean varieties, often named after particular areas or families, appeal to buyers because of both taste characteristics and cultural heritage.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-135

Figs

7/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Figs are harvested for both fresh consumption and processing. There are three main types of cultivated Ficus carica: Common, San Pedro and Smyrna. Common figs produce fruit parenthocarpically, without any pollination. Smyrna figs require pollen transfer from male trees that produce small caprifigs for fruit growth. Pollen transfer is obtained by the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.), a species unable to survive the southern U.S. winter temperatures. San Pedro figs are intermediate between the two; a minor summer "breba" crop will set without fertilization but the later main crop requires pollination by the fig wasp. The common fig is the only type suggested for cultivation in the southern U.S.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-122

Sweet Corn

7/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-123

Sweet Potato

7/16/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The terms "sweet potato" and "yam" are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 810 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-134

Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky

6/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-4

Blackberries

6/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-57

Greenhouse Tomatoes

6/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, greenhouse, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-10

Jujube and Aronia

6/6/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 832 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-132

Heirloom Tomatoes

6/6/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most popular of heirloom vegetables, which are vintage varieties preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. Heirloom tomato purchases grew in popularity as consumers sought flavorful, historic varieties. Many heirloom tomato varieties have unique coloration and appearance, but poor shipping characteristics, giving heirloom tomatoes an advantage for local sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-PFS-3

Dehydrating Fruits and Vegetables for Home Use

6/6/2018 (new)
Authors: Felix Akharume, Michael Montross, Paul Vijayakumar

Many farm-harvested or market-purchased fresh fruits and vegetables are consumed fresh or frozen, with little to none utilized as dry products; in general, dried fruits and vegetables are purchased directly from the market whenever needed. With the wide availability of tabletop kitchen equipment for fruit and vegetable processing (mechanical cutters, slicers, homemade dehydrators, blenders, etc.), consumers and small farmers with excess harvest or unsold fresh products can take the opportunity to process their fresh fruits and vegetables into dried snacks for direct use or sale at a farmer's market. The advantage of these dried products is their stable shelf life, versatility, and overall value addition. Dried products can be used at any time (6-12 months) with little or no loss in quality and can be used as intermediate goods in other products such as breakfast cereals. This publication presents easy-to-follow guidelines and conditions for processing selected fruits and vegetables into dried products.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-PFS series)
Tags: crops and plants, food and nutrition, food crops, food science, fruits, nursery and landscape, vegetables
Size: 693 kb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-87

Bell Peppers

5/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-88

Broccoli

5/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-104

Microgreens

5/8/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 819 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-102

Kohlrabi

5/7/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is a cool-season annual cole crop that is related to broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Kohlrabi originated in northern Europe in the 16th century. It forms a round globe just above the soil line with leaves emerging in a spiral from the stem. The edible portion is actually an enlarged stem, not root tissue. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw or cooked. In flavor, it is like a mild, sweet broccoli stem or turnip. Once the thick skin is peeled off, the crisp flesh can be eaten like a carrot often with a dip or in salads. It can be boiled, braised, used in soups and stews, made into home fries and even pies. In Kentucky, kohlrabi does well in the spring but is best as a fall crop.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-113

Potatoes

4/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-101

Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers

4/13/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 823 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-106

Okra

3/20/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 762 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-91

Cauliflower

3/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-129

Pecans

3/7/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The pecan and Eastern black walnut are Kentucky's most significant nut crops. Commercial pecan plantings are located near Paducah and Henderson, and native pecan groves have long been harvested near the Mississippi River. Only northern pecan cultivars are recommended for cultivation in Kentucky, as the state's usual growing season is not long enough for southern pecan varieties to mature. The established popularity of pecans with consumers could offer potential for producers willing to carefully establish pecan plantings on appropriate sites.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, nuts
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-96

Ethnic Vegetables: Asian

3/2/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-MP-4

Roadside Farm Markets

2/23/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

A roadside farm market is sometimes distinguished from a roadside stand by location and hours. The term "roadside farm market" can refer to those markets located in permanent facilities at the farm or food manufacturing location; they are typically open most of the year. Roadside stand, by contrast, is a more general term referring to those markets that may be located off the farm and are seasonal in operation.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-7

Physoderma Brown Spot

2/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Brenda Kennedy, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 743 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-131

Eggplant

1/22/2018 (reviewed)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



PR-739

2017 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2017 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, Bob Geneve, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Emily Pfeufer, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. The 2017 Fruit and Vegetable Crops re-search report includes results for 16 projects.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 7.21 mb
Pages: 46



PPFS-FR-S-17

Cane Diseases of Brambles

11/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 299 kb
Pages: 5



ID-149

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates

10/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, John Strang, Tim Woods, Shawn Wright

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: business and records, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, production practices
Size: 265 kb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-116

Romaine Lettuce

10/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 692 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-117

Root Crops

10/4/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-120

Specialty Melons

9/20/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-55

Stevia

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 791 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-62

High Tunnel Tomatoes

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-130

Malabar Spinach

8/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-90

Cabbage

8/25/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 725 kb
Pages: 2



HO-116

Wine Distribution for Small Farm Wineries in Kentucky

8/22/2017 (new)
Authors: Ryan Baumgardner, Seth DeBolt

Small farm wineries in the state of Kentucky face a major issue when they look to expand, through wholesale distribution, into retail outlets. Like many states, Kentucky uses a "three-tier system" of distribution, where wineries must sell their product to a distributor, who then can legally sell the product to retailers. But because small- to medium-sized wineries rarely produce a volume that is attractive to major brand distributors, their products either don't make it to the retail shelves, or are placed suboptimally for their target market. Here, we look at ways to address this issue in order to help promote the wine industry from the wholesale point-of-view.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 173 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-95

English and Edible Pod Peas

8/16/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-93

Cucumber

8/15/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-FS-6

Three-Year Average Prices and Quantities at Kentucky Produce Auctions: 2014-2016

8/15/2017 (new)
Authors: Martin Bechu, Alex Butler, Brett Wolff, Tim Woods

This report compares average volumes and prices for 18 crops from two major Kentucky produce auctions for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags: business and records, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 22



CCD-CP-100

Heirloom Vegetables

7/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 652 kb
Pages: 4



SR-111

Economic Analysis of the University of Kentucky Community Supported Agriculture Organic Vegetable Production System

7/12/2017 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Dillon, Tiffany Thompson, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Farms marketing through a vegetable CSA are complex businesses facing many operational and economic challenges. To be economically viable, CSA farms must achieve the appropriate match of crops, equipment, and labor with farm size and number of CSA members. A diverse array of vegetable crops are typically grown with unique requirements for crop production, pest management, harvest, and post-harvest handling. An extensive suite of skills, tools, and equipment are required to produce these crops efficiently, and mechanization becomes critical as the number of acres in production increases.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture
Series: Special Report (SR series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, research, vegetables
Size: 6.50 mb
Pages: 28



CCD-CP-60

High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs

7/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 893 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-63

Hydroponic Lettuce

6/30/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, food crops, hydroponics, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-FS-5

Vegetable Transplant Production

6/22/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-1

Community Supported Agriculture

5/25/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)is relatively new to the United States, beginning in Massachusetts in 1986 and growing to 60 CSA farms in the U.S. in 1990. The CSA structure grew significantly in popularity among both producers and consumers during the 2000s; by 2009, as many as 6,000 farms were operating a CSA. The 2015 USDA Local Food Marketing Practices Survey reported 7,398 farms nationally selling by CSA for a sales value of $226 million. There were nearly 60 CSAs listed for Kentucky, in 2016, in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture CSA directory. The CSA marketing channel continues to increase in popularity, moving to new demographics besides the original core affluent urban consumer.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 3.30 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-103

Leafy Greens

5/3/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-11

Juneberries

4/19/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-128

Black Walnuts

4/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-107

Onions

4/12/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-85

Baby Corn

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 688 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-86

Baby Vegetables

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 975 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-124

Tomatillo

3/1/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 3



PR-721

2016 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2016 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Jessica Bessin, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Patty Lucas, Sean Lynch, Shubin Saha, Alexis Sheffield, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, John Walsh, Neil Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.80 mb
Pages: 40



CCD-CP-79

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-83

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-110

Organic Sweet Corn

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 604 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-111

Organic Tomatoes

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 566 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-20

Sweet Cherries

11/14/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-12

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries

11/3/2016 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 799 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-99

Garlic and Elephant Garlic

9/27/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 593 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-97

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic

9/13/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 617 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-53

Ginseng

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, food crops, nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 967 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-94

Edamame

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 598 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-81

Maple Syrup

8/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-109

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens

8/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-66

Chinese Chestnuts

7/18/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 594 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-6

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 193 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-7

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Steve Isaacs, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 119 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-BG-8

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 340 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-BG-9

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 336 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-17

Plums

7/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-78

Beekeeping and Honey Production

6/30/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 934 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-18

Raspberries

6/9/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 713 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-108

Organic Asparagus

6/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-1

Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky

5/2/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 389 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-84

Asparagus

5/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 542 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-22

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 236 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-T-6

Cherry Leaf Spot

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-T-3

Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



ID-233

Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses

12/22/2015 (new)
Authors: Shubin Saha

Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 465 kb
Pages: 6



PR-706

2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/21/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Emily Pfeufer, Shubin Saha, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.54 mb
Pages: 44



PPFS-FR-T-1

Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 887 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-4

Black Knot

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 784 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-8

Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits

11/1/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 207 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-5

Apple Rust Diseases

8/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 813 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-92

Celery and Celeriac

6/8/2015 (new)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 635 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-19

Blueberry Root Rot

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 3



ID-227

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky

1/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 33.00 mb
Pages: 32



ID-225

Organic Corn Production in Kentucky

1/15/2015 (new)
Authors: Chad Lee, Will Martin, Sam McNeill, Lee Meyer, Michael Montross, Edwin Ritchey, Tom Sikora

The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: alternative practices, corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 30



PR-688

2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/7/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Julie Beale, Lucas Hanks, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Tracey Parriman, Shubin Saha, Nancy Savage, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

The 2014 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in three counties in Kentucky, including: Mason, Shelby, and Spencer.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 42



CCD-CP-126

Winter Squash

12/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 668 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-BG-5

Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns

11/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 332 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-18

Blackleg and Bacterial Soft Rot of Potato

10/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Blackleg and soft rot are bacterial diseases that cause heavy losses in Kentucky potato patches in some years. These diseases may result in missing hills when seed pieces are destroyed or the sprouts decay before they emerge from the ground. Serious rotting of tubers in potato hills and in storage can also occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 707 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-MP-5

Roadside Stands

9/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Roadside stand is generic term for a type of marketing site in which a farm producer sells directly to consumers. A roadside stand is a seasonal, temporary or semi-temporary structure that may be located on or off the farm. A roadside stand may be distinguished from a roadside market in that the latter is usually a permanent structure that is often open year-round.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 774 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-89

Brussels Sprouts

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Currently there is little production of brussels sprouts in Kentucky. Much of the commercial production for brussels sprouts produced in the United States is concentrated in California. The Census of Agriculture reported that two Kentucky farms harvested brussels sprouts in the 2012 growing season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-17

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 636 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-2

Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-3

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-BG-4

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-13

Organic Blueberries

8/20/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 633 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-105

Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)

7/21/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 612 kb
Pages: 3



ID-172s

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky

7/9/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 5.60 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-82

Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms

7/3/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-3

Pick-Your-Own (U-Pick) Marketing

6/30/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Pick-Your-Own (PYO), also referred to as U-Pick, occurs when farmers "invite the public onto the farm to harvest their own food."1 Producers searching for new crops, combined with a growing Kentucky population, renewed interest in PYO during the past 20 years.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-7

Grapes

6/23/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 694 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-8

Marketing Asian Produce in Kentucky

6/19/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Burgeoning Asian populations and consumer interest in Asian cuisine helped stimulate increased interest in purchasing fresh Asian vegetables to prepare at home, a trend expected to continue. Caucasian consumers tend to prefer value-added and processed vegetables, but there are market niches for fresh Asian vegetables. Kentucky producers have received inquiries to source edamame (vegetable soybean) and daikon (Chinese radish) at wholesale quantities.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 758 kb
Pages: 6



ID-184

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky

6/3/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 16



ID-210

Midwest Blueberry Production Guide

5/12/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Tom Barnes, Cheryl Kaiser, Chris Smigell, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 58



ID-219

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky

5/7/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-MP-2

Marketing Via the Internet

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

The Internet can be utilized in a variety of marketing strategies. Producers may sell their products online through e-commerce, use a website to take orders for their goods, or simply advertise their operation through a "billboard" type website. Social media and blogs provide yet another way the Internet can be used for promoting a farm enterprise. The increase in access to Web-based services through handheld devices makes many customers more immediately accessible to products and services.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 442 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-15

Tomato Wilt Problems

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are two fungal diseases that cause similar wilts in tomato. Fusarium wilt tends to be more common during warm weather, while Verticillium wilt is found more often when temperatures are cool. Both diseases share similar symptoms and can be hard to tell apart visually; laboratory tests are often needed for an accurate diagnosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 2.07 mb
Pages: 4



ID-21

Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky

4/29/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-8

High Tunnel Brambles

4/7/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 619 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-61

High Tunnel Strawberries

4/4/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 528 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-6

Selling Farm Products at Farmers Markets

3/25/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Farmers markets are used by Kentucky growers of all farm sizes and scales. "Market gardeners" often tend less than an acre of land for selling strictly at the local farmers market. On the other hand, some of Kentucky's largest orchards use local farmers markets as a retail outlet during the fall to command a premium price for their crop.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 811 kb
Pages: 6



HO-110

Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses

3/14/2014 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek

Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, production practices, sustainabable agriculture
Size: 5.95 mb
Pages: 17



PR-673

2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/8/2014 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Kenny Seebold, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.49 mb
Pages: 44



PPFS-GEN-5

Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation

8/1/2013 (new)
Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 723 kb
Pages: 3



ID-216

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky

7/22/2013 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 5.30 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-48

White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn

7/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 344 kb
Pages: 2



ID-133

Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens, 2013

5/6/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Tim Coolong, Rick Durham, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 425 kb
Pages: 8



HO-109

Sustainable Production Systems: Efficient Wholesale Nursery Layout

1/31/2013 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek

This publication provides the framework for planning and implementing efficient wholesale nursery layout. Concepts and ideas presented here are applicable to new construction or the modification of an existing nursery. A basic approach toward creating efficient systems will be discussed as well as common nursery activities that may require consideration during the planning stages. Functional areas will be defined, and a framework for understanding the relationships between these functional areas will be presented.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: alternative practices, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, production practices, sustainabable agriculture
Size: 4.00 mb
Pages: 10



PR-656

2012 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/6/2012 (new)
Authors: Ben Abell, Angela Anandappa, Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Ty Cato, Tim Coolong, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Zheng Wang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Mark Williams, Neil Wilson, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Tim Woods, Shang-Ho Yang

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2012 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and several demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in more than 15 counties in Kentucky. Research was conducted by faculty and staff from several departments within the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture including: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Agricultural Economics. This report also includes collaborative research projects conducted with faculty and staff at Kentucky State University.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 47



CCD-CP-65

Sprouts

10/23/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, other crops
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-16

Black Rot of Grape

10/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 555 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-119

Southernpean (Cowpea)

8/28/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 432 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-12

Fire Blight

8/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-13

Apple Scab

8/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 486 kb
Pages: 3



HO-104

Growing Tree Fruits: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 16

3/12/2012 (new)
Authors: John Strang

Growing tree fruits and/or nuts can provide a great deal of satisfaction, but it takes a commitment to care for your trees year-round.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 14



CCD-CP-6

Gooseberries and Currants

2/27/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



ID-195

Sweetpotato Production for Kentucky

2/21/2012 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Sarah Fannin, Kenny Seebold, Tim Woods

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a member of the morningglory or Convolvulaceae family. Sweetpotatoes have their origins in tropical America, with early remains having been found in Panama, Peru and Mexico. A perennial plant in their native regions, they are typically killed by frost when grown in a temperate climate. Sweetpotatoes are true roots and not tubers as is the case with the Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Because they are true roots they will continue to grow and enlarge as long as the plant continues to grow.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 16



PPFS-GEN-3

Damping-off of Vegetables and Herbaceous Ornamentals

2/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Damping-off can occur on any herbaceous crop grown from seed, including vegetables, ornamentals, and field crops. Seeds, seedlings, and young plants may be affected, resulting in poor stands in home gardens, greenhouses, and commercial fields. Losses to damping-off can be severe, especially when cool, wet weather prevails at seeding or seed emergence.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 288 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-15

Sample Submission Protocol for Diagnosis of Thousand Cankers Disease in Walnut

2/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a fatal disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra), and most recently, butternut (Juglans cinerea). The disease complex involves a fungus that is carried to trees by the walnut twig beetle, causing numerous cankers on branches and killing trees 5 to 6 years after infection. The disease complex is widespread in the western U.S., and has recently been identified in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 361 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-112

Peanuts

1/25/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 620 kb
Pages: 4



PR-626

2011 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/20/2011 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Steve Berberich, Ric Bessin, Jessica Cole, Tim Coolong, Vaden Fenton, Lucas Hanks, John Hartman, June Johnston, Sara Long, Logan Minter, Janet Pfeiffer, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Zheng Wang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

The 2011 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and several demonstration trials. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools, which they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Kentucky State University, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 53



PPFS-VG-12

Yellow Vine Decline of Cucurbits

8/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold

Symptoms of yellow vine decline begin to appear approximately 2 weeks before fruit maturity. The disease may appear initially as stunting of plants and/or intense yellowing of foliage, followed by a slow decline in plant health. In some cases, a sudden collapse of vines may occur with no other symptoms. Vascular tissue (phloem) from crowns of affected plants is often discolored, appearing light brown rather than a healthy translucent green.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 454 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SV-1

2011 Regional Wine Grape Marketing and Price Outlook

7/20/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

Wine grape producers in the Southeast benefited from a rapid increase in the number of wineries in the region during the 1990s and early 2000s. The steady winery growth indicates continued expansion and demand for winegrapes. This survey was conducted in early 2011 to better understand how business practices are developing among wineries in Kentucky and six contiguous states---Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Virginia, and Missouri.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Surveys: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SV series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 205 kb
Pages: 6



ENT-67

An IPM Identification Guide for Natural Enemies of Vegetable Pests

5/16/2011 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Obrycki

Natural enemies play a crucial role in the management of insect and other arthropod pests of vegetable crops grown throughout Kentucky. The control they exert on pest populations is realized on every farm every day. Often the value of natural enemies may be overlooked or taken for granted, but as a group they slow the buildup of pest populations and keep some pests from reaching economic levels.

Departments: Entomology
Series: Entomology (ENT series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 24



ID-172

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky

4/29/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 32



PPFS-VG-13

Late Blight of Tomato

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Late blight is an extremely important and damaging disease of tomatoes and potatoes, and can be found nearly anywhere these crops are produced. Total crop failures are common with this disease. In the United States, significant losses occur each year--mainly in northeastern and north-central states. However, serious outbreaks have been reported in the southeastern U.S. as well.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 565 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-14

Recognizing Late Blight on Tomato Seedlings

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Tomato seedlings that have late blight when transplanted can serve as sources of inoculum (spores) that can spread to nearby gardens and commercial plantings, so every measure should be taken to prevent these plants from making it to the field. The added threat is that sources of disease are introduced early in the tomato production season, magnifying the potential for heavy losses in seasons that favor late blight.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 436 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-8

Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Gummy stem blight is an important disease of cucurbits in many parts of Kentucky. Under conditions favorable to disease development, commercial growers and home gardeners may experience heavy losses. This disease can occur at any point in plant growth, from seedling stage to fruit in storage. Gummy stem blight is the name given to the disease when leaves and stems are infected. Muskmelon (cantaloupe), cucumber, and watermelon are most commonly affected by this phase of the disease. Black rot refers to the same disease on fruit; it is seen less often than the foliar phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 584 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-4

Phytophthora Blight of Cucurbits and Peppers

3/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Under ideal conditions, Phytophthora blight is an aggressive, fast moving disease that can cause extensive losses. This disease has become increasingly problematic on cucurbits and solanaceous crops in the United States. During the past decade, Phytophthora blight has been causing significant losses in several major vegetable production areas of the U.S. In Kentucky, serious outbreaks have been reported on summer squash, winter squash, cucumbers, watermelons, and peppers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 544 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-37

Organic Corn for Feed or Food

2/14/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: alternative practices, corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 467 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-115

Rhubarb

12/20/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 747 kb
Pages: 2



PR-608

2010 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/20/2010 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Sandra Bastin, Julie Beale, Steve Berberich, Ric Bessin, Bob Caudle, Jennie Condra, Tim Coolong, Leighia Eggett, Vaden Fenton, Lucas Hanks, John Hartman, Nathan Howell, Kelly Jackson, June Johnston, Chlodys Johnstone, Patrick Kelley, Katie Kittrell, Janet Lensing, Amy Lentz Poston, Sara Long, Patty Lucas, Sean Lynch, Logan Minter, John Obrycki, Janet Pfeiffer, Sutapa Roy, Marc Ruberg, Rebecca Schnelle, Delia Scott, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Sarah Vanek, Jeff Wheeler, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2010 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 34 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 20 counties in Kentucky.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Kentucky State University, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 70



HO-6

Peach Cultivar Performance

6/14/2010 (major revision)
Authors: John Strang, Dwight Wolfe

The commercial success of a peach orchard depends largely on selecting cultivars that will perform reliably and meet market needs. Although many fruit and tree characteristics are presented in this report, the final cultivar selection should be determined by the grower. A grower may be influenced by soil type, local climate, or marketing methods and prefer a cultivar that is not a general favorite. Growers should have test plots of two to four trees of new cultivars to help them judge the performance in their orchard.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 275 kb
Pages: 6



ID-77

Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky

4/22/2010 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, John Strang

Kentucky is generally well suited for growing nut trees. Northern pecans, black walnuts, heartnuts, hickory nuts, hardy Persian walnuts (Carpathian strain), American hazelnuts, and Chinese chestnuts all grow well in the state. Although most nut trees are grown by hobbyists and backyard gardeners, several varieties appear to have potential for commercial production, particularly some of the USDA pecan selections and some Chinese chestnut varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 24



PR-603

2009 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/11/2009 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Tim Coolong, Vaden Fenton, John Hartman, Ryan Hays, Otto Hoffman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, June Johnston, Terry Jones, Amy Lentz Poston, Sara Long, Brandon O'Daniel, Janet Pfeiffer, Rebecca Schnelle, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, Crystal Sparks, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Richard Warner, Jeff Wheeler, John Wilhoit, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

The 2009 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report includes results for more than 45 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 19 counties in Kentucky. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools that they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 850 kb
Pages: 56



PR-572

2008 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, Vaden Fenton, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Wuyang Hu, Dewayne Ingram, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Paul Vincelli, Richard Warner, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 800 kb
Pages: 72



PPFS-FR-S-14

Fruit Rots of Grape

10/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 358 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-S-13

Downy Mildew of Grape

9/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 282 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-7

Phytophthora Root Rot of Brambles

7/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Brambles that are subjected to wet soil conditions or periods of flooding are often predisposed to Phytophthora root rot. Excess water not only promotes susceptibility of roots to this disease, but also aids the fungus in moving to new infection sites. Phytophthora root rot is primarily a disease of raspberries; however, it can also occur on blackberries.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 296 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-8

Strawberry Fruit Rots

6/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky's typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 274 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-10

Blueberry Diseases

1/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, John Hartman, Sara Long

Kentucky blueberry growers sometimes experience plant and crop losses due to diseases. While most losses are due to root rot, or to stem and twig canker diseases, fruit rots and nutritional problems can also reduce yields. With good crop management, most blueberry diseases can be avoided.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 292 kb
Pages: 4



PR-555

2007 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

11/29/2007 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong, Tom Cottrell, Courtney Flood, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Wuyang Hu, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Richard Warner, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 92



HO-87

Vineyard Site Selection in Kentucky Based on Climate and Soil Properties

10/5/2007 (new)
Authors: Kaan Kurtural, Patsy Wilson

Commercial wine grapes have recently emerged as an alternative crop in Kentucky after laws evolved encouraging private entrepreneurs to invest in vineyards and small farm wineries many decades after prohibition shut down the industry. Grapes grown in Kentucky are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses that reduce crop yields and quality or kill grapevines. Damaging winter temperatures, spring frosts, and higher than optimal growing temperatures occur regularly. Despite these challenges, grape growing is a successful enterprise in many areas of the state.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, soil and land
Size: 290 kb
Pages: 6



HO-88

Viticultural Regions and Suggested Cultivars in Kentucky

9/14/2007 (new)
Authors: Kaan Kurtural, Patsy Wilson

Grapes grown in Kentucky are subject to environmental stresses that reduce crop yield and quality, and injure and kill grapevines. Damaging critical winter temperatures, late spring frosts, short growing seasons, and extreme summer temperatures all occur with regularity in regions of Kentucky. However, despite the challenging climate, certain species and cultivars of grapes are grown commercially in Kentucky. The aim of this bulletin is to describe the macroclimatic features affecting grape production that should be evaluated in the site selection process and to shorten the trial and error process of finding the best cultivar and climate match.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 6



HO-86

Crop Estimation in Vineyards

8/15/2007 (new)
Authors: Kaan Kurtural, Brandon O'Daniel

Viticulture is becoming a successful alternative cropping system in Kentucky due to the increased demand for locally grown grapes and their profitability. However, the sustainability of the industry is hindered by insufficient experience on estimating crop size of hybrid and vinifera cultivars in a region that is subject to frequent damaging winter and spring temperatures.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 307 kb
Pages: 4



HO-16

Strawberry Production in Kentucky

2/25/2007 (minor revision)
Authors: Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, John Strang

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 340 kb
Pages: 10



HO-85

Honeyvine Milkweed Control in Tree Fruits, Small Fruits, and Grapes

1/19/2007 (new)
Authors: Joe Masabni

Honeyvine milkweed is a perennial weed commonly found in Kentucky fields, groves, and orchards. In general, honeyvine milkweed is a difficult weed to control due to its extensive taproot system and rapid growth rate. It is especially difficult to control in permanent crop situations such as plantings of apples, blueberries, and grapes. This is due to the fact that soil tillage is not practiced in orchards, blueberry fields, or vineyards, which would otherwise destroy the root system of honeyvine milkweed and prevent it from getting established.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 320 kb
Pages: 8



PR-538

2006 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/15/2006 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Dan Potter, Brent Rowell, Amanda Sears, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 82



PR-521

2005 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/30/2005 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Brent Rowell, Christopher Schardl, Amanda Sears, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Paul Vincelli, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.56 mb
Pages: 98



HO-15

Growing Blackberries and Raspberries in Kentucky

11/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Gerald Brown, Terry Jones, John Strang

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 325 kb
Pages: 12



HO-39

Reproducing Fruit Trees by Graftage Budding and Grafting

11/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Leonard Stoltz, John Strang

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 789 kb
Pages: 8



ID-156

Bt Basics for Vegetable Integrated Pest Management

8/1/2005 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Brent Rowell

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 655 kb
Pages: 8



ID-156A

Growers' Guide to Bt

8/1/2005 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Brent Rowell

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 478 kb
Pages: 4



HO-60

Growing Highbush Blueberries in Kentucky

3/15/2005 (reprinted)
Authors: John Strang

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 403 kb
Pages: 12



PR-504

2004 Fruit and Vegetable Report

12/15/2004 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Shane Bogle, Gerald Brown, John Hartman, Bob Houtz, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 74



PPFS-FR-S-4

Raspberry Fruit Rots

7/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman

Rainy summer and fall weather in Kentucky can provide ideal conditions for fruit decay diseases of raspberries. The most damaging are the fungal diseases gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and soft rot, or leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.). Both diseases are favored by long periods of wet fruit and foliage, and by high humidity levels. During some parts of the season, fruit rots account for up to 50% loss of potential harvest, and additional losses after harvest.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, pests, plant diseases
Size: 181 kb
Pages: 2



PR-488

2003 Fruit and Vegetable Report

12/15/2003 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Bob Houtz, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1 kb
Pages:



PR-470

2002 Fruit and Vegetable Report

1/3/2003 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 65



PR-452

2001 Fruit and Vegetable Report

1/4/2002 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 437 kb
Pages: 60



ID-139

A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky

9/30/2001 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Morris Bitzer, J.D. Green, Jim Herbek, Greg Ibendahl, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Lloyd Murdock, Paul Vincelli, Ken Wells

The corn grown in Kentucky is used mainly for livestock feed and as a cash crop. As a cash crop sold from the farm, corn ranks third behind tobacco and soybeans but is the number one row crop in terms of acreage. Because the cost of producing an acre of corn is high and the value per bushel has declined in recent years, producers must manage and market their corn crop more carefully for adequate profits. The goal of this publication is to serve as a guide for corn production strategies that focus on efficient use of resources and provide the principles and practices for obtaining maximum, profitable corn yields.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 639 kb
Pages: 64



ID-137

Total Quality Assurance Apple Production: Best Management Practices

5/1/2001 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Joe O'Leary, John Strang

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 271 kb
Pages: 4



PR-436

Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report 2000

12/3/2000 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Joe O'Leary, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 768 kb
Pages: 57



ID-134

Marketing Options for Commercial Vegetable Growers

9/7/2000 (reprinted)
Authors: Brent Rowell, Tim Woods

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 598 kb
Pages: 8



ID-126

Growing Grapes in Kentucky

4/30/2000 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, John Hartman, Terry Jones, John Strang, Dwight Wolfe

Kentucky has a long record of good grape production. As a home fruit crop or commercial crop, grapes have many benefits. Grapevines are relatively inexpensive and easy to propagate. They reach full bearing potential in four years and bear annually. The many varieties of grapes can be consumed fresh or used to make grape juice, jams, jellies, and wine. Grapes are also easy to manage. Vines are trained on trellises or arbors and easily can be sprayed using small equipment for control of insects and diseases.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 238 kb
Pages: 24



IP-58C

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Vegetables

3/15/2000 (new)
Authors: Betty King, Janet Tietyen-Mullins, Steven Vickner

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: Interprogram (IP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 90 kb
Pages: 4



IP-58D

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Fruits

3/15/2000 (new)
Authors: Betty King, Janet Tietyen-Mullins, Steven Vickner

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: Interprogram (IP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 89 kb
Pages: 4



PR-423

Fruit and Vegetable Crop Research Report 1999

12/31/1999 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 712 kb
Pages: 43



PR-410

Fruit and Vegetable Program: 1998 Research Report

12/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, George Duncan, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Sue Nokes, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

The emphases in our research program reflect industry-defined needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world generating information applicable to Kentucky. Although the purpose of this publication is to report research results, the report also highlights our Extension program and Undergraduate and Graduate degree programs that address the needs of the horticultural industries.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 335 kb
Pages: 46



ID-93

Midwest Tree Fruit Pest Management Handbook

11/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, John Strang

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 3 kb
Pages:



ENT-59

Cutworm Management in Corn

3/1/1994 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin

Departments: Entomology
Series: Entomology (ENT series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 175 kb
Pages: 4



IP-9

Food Safety Pesticide Residues in Grains, Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts

9/1/1992 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Jim Martin

Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interprogram (IP series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, vegetables
Size: 16 kb
Pages:



ID-107

Understanding Produce Marketing for Kentucky's Direct Markets

8/1/1991 (new)
Authors: Forrest Stegelin, John Strang, Randy Weckman

Departments: Agricultural Communications, Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, vegetables
Size: 19 kb
Pages:



ID-86

Using Drought-Stressed Corn Harvesting, Storage, Feeding, Pricing and Marketing

8/1/1988 (new)
Authors: Donna Amaral-Phillips, Fred Benson, Morris Bitzer, Bill Crist, George Heersche, John Johns, Lee Meyer

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 32 kb
Pages:



ID-36

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2022-23

11/26/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Erica Fealko, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Rachel Rudolph, Shawn Wright

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 22.00 mb
Pages: 128