University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

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ANR Publications

Beginning a Sheep Operation
12/7/2018 (new)

Kentucky has the resources required for successful sheep production systems. The state has a vast forage production potential, under-utilized labor and facilities, and access to a well-established market. Many Kentucky farmers should consider the sheep enterprise and its benefits, particularly if they want to make more efficient use of their forages, labor, and facilities. In developing this enterprise, the following must be considered: feed supply, labor, facilities and equipment, foundation stock, and the production system. | ASC-238
50 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,595 words | - | PDF: 675 kb

Breeding Habits of the Ewe
12/7/2018 (new)

Reproduction is the beginning of a series of significant events involved in the production of lambs for market. Obviously, the higher the reproduction rate in ewes, the greater the chances of achieving maximum profit. A knowledge of the mating (breeding) habits of the ewe can improve the chances for higher reproductive rates, marketing more pounds of lamb per ewe, increasing the efficiency of labor use, and ultimately increasing the chances of greater profit. | ASC-237
50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,775 words | - | PDF: 700 kb

Urban Poultry
12/4/2018 (new)

The terms urban poultry and backyard poultry both refer to flocks kept on a residential lot. Keeping chickens in urban areas is becoming increasingly popular throughout the country. The main reasons given for keeping chickens are as pets and for egg production--pets with benefits. Small numbers of hens kept in the backyard can provide an urban family with entertainment, eggs, and fertilizer. For those with children, backyard poultry flocks can also teach them responsibility and be used for 4-H poultry projects. | ASC-241
web only | 6 pages | 4,608 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 2,240 kb

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2019-2020
12/4/2018 (major revision)

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco. | ID-160
6,000 printed copies | 84 pages | 68,090 words | 190 downloads | PDF: 4,150 kb

UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2019
11/26/2018 (minor revision)

The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information. | ID-196
2,400 printed copies | 32 pages | 5,598 words | - | PDF: 12,000 kb

Establishing and Managing Bermudagrasses in the Transition Zone
11/12/2018 (new)

Bermudagrasses have been successfully grown on athletic fields and golf courses in the transition zone for many years. Although each year some level of winterkill threat exists, bermudagrass remains an excellent surface for golf and sports. Seeded varieties of bermudagrasses have been the most common choices in Kentucky due to the availability of seed of good varieties as well as the ease of planting seed versus living plant material. There are, however, several outstanding vegetative bermudagrass cultivars that are adapted to the transition zone. | AGR-238
web only | 3 pages | 1,842 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 900 kb

Blanketing Horses: Do's and Don'ts
11/1/2018 (new)

Blanketing can be a hot-button topic among horse owners and caretakers. Some people are adamant about blanketing and some people are the exact opposite: unyielding about not-blanketing their horses in the winter. So the question remains, do horses NEED to be blanketed when the weather turns cold? | ASC-240
web only | 5 pages | 2,850 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb

Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2019
10/31/2018 (major revision)

The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here. | AGR-6
3,200 printed copies | 140 pages | - | 93 downloads | PDF: 2,254 kb

Warm Up Ring Etiquette
10/24/2018 (new)

While it is understood that the warm up ring is a chaotic place to be, warm up ring etiquette should be expected at every show, and taught in every lesson program. A good warm up is extremely important for the health of the horse, and it helps the rider and horse to get acclimated with the new environment. So in the name of having a more productive ride both in the warm up ring and then later in the show ring, there are some rules (sometimes untold rules) that everyone should follow. | ASC-239
web only | 2 pages | 1,213 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 210 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
10/17/2018 (major revision)

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance. | ID-235
2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 5,200 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,938 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky
9/13/2018 (new)

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings. | ID-251
2,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,827 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 2,500 kb

9/12/2018 (minor revision)

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit. | CCD-CP-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

Summer Squash
9/10/2018 (minor revision)

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining. | CCD-CP-121
web only | 3 pages | 1,057 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

A Start-Up Guide for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
8/31/2018 (new)

Step-by-step procedures so you can keep your dry kiln operation well-organized and running properly. | FOR-132
web only | 12 pages | 4,434 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,900 kb

A Checklist for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
8/31/2018 (new)

Drying air-dried hardwood lumber to the finished moisture content (MC) requires care and attention, but it's not difficult. This document describes the steps a kiln operator should follow to get the best lumber from his/her air-dried material. It will probably be most useful for operators of small kilns, but the principles are the same regardless of kiln size or type of kiln. | FOR-131
web only | 12 pages | 4,430 words | - | PDF: 2,400 kb

Highbush Blueberries
8/8/2018 (minor revision)

The Northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil is properly adjusted. With proper care, blueberry plants may remain productive for 40 years or more. | CCD-CP-9
web only | 4 pages | 1,675 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Field-grown Tomatoes
8/3/2018 (minor revision)

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price. | CCD-CP-98
web only | 3 pages | 1,268 words | - | PDF: 861 kb

7/31/2018 (minor revision)

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort. | CCD-CP-14
web only | 3 pages | 1,320 words | - | PDF: 778 kb

Asian and European Pears
7/31/2018 (minor revision)

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears. | CCD-CP-3
web only | 3 pages | 1,247 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb

7/25/2018 (new)

Figs are harvested for both fresh consumption and processing. There are three main types of cultivated Ficus carica: Common, San Pedro and Smyrna. Common figs produce fruit parenthocarpically, without any pollination. Smyrna figs require pollen transfer from male trees that produce small caprifigs for fruit growth. Pollen transfer is obtained by the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.), a species unable to survive the southern U.S. winter temperatures. San Pedro figs are intermediate between the two; a minor summer "breba" crop will set without fertilization but the later main crop requires pollination by the fig wasp. The common fig is the only type suggested for cultivation in the southern U.S. | CCD-CP-135
web only | 3 pages | 1,224 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Heirloom Beans
7/25/2018 (new)

Heirloom beans are vintage varieties of the warm-season crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) that have been handed down from generation to generation. There is a long tradition of saving bean seed in Appalachia, and heirloom beans are sought by customers at Kentucky farmers markets. Heirloom bean varieties, often named after particular areas or families, appeal to buyers because of both taste characteristics and cultural heritage. | CCD-CP-133
web only | 3 pages | 1,410 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb

An Introduction to Industrial Hemp and Hemp Agronomy
7/20/2018 (new)

Cannabis sativa is a summer annual plant that is strongly photoperiod-sensitive (flowers according to day length/photoperiod; not physiological maturity). It is mostly dioecious in that male and female flowers occur on separate plants (i.e. there are both male plants and female plants). However, there are also several monoecious commercial varieties (male and female flower parts on the same plant). Different plant parts are harvested for specific purposes, and modern day hemp may be produced for one or more purposes. Depending on the harvestable component of interest, (i.e. fiber, grain or cannabinoids) male plants and/or pollen might be vitally necessary or completely unwanted. | ID-250
web only | 6 pages | 3,294 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 3,173 kb

Sweet Corn
7/18/2018 (minor revision)

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content. | CCD-CP-122
web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Sweet Potato
7/16/2018 (minor revision)

The terms “sweet potato” and “yam” are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools. | CCD-CP-123
web only | 3 pages | 1,423 words | - | PDF: 810 kb

Days Suitable for Fieldwork in Kentucky
7/2/2018 (new)

Weather risk plays a unique role and influences many decisions made on the farm. Weather determines when you can get into the field and your ability to perform timely operations such as planting, fertilizing, spraying, and harvesting. Delays from weather events of time sensitive operations will result in substantial yield and economic losses. Therefore, having an expectation of the number of days suitable for fieldwork will allow producers to size farm machinery to mitigate such yield losses appropriately. | AEC-101
web only | 6 pages | 1,603 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 857 kb

Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky
6/25/2018 (new)

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth. | CCD-CP-134
web only | 4 pages | 1,676 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Consumers and Communities
6/25/2018 (new)

This publication is intended to assist consumers and community groups in learning about the value of landscape plants. Landscape plants play an important role in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home. Further, there is a growing body of scientific literature evaluating the critical role of trees in landscaping within urban and suburban environments like residential neighborhoods, commercial/industrial areas, and associated green infrastructure like park systems and green belts. One useful tool for articulating the functions landscape plants perform for us is the concept of ecosystem services. | HO-121
web only | 10 pages | 3,703 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 2,480 kb

6/18/2018 (minor revision)

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as ‘brambles’ or ‘caneberries.’ They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort. | CCD-CP-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Greenhouse Tomatoes
6/12/2018 (minor revision)

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise. | CCD-CP-57
web only | 4 pages | 1,415 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Soybean Management in Kentucky
6/7/2018 (new)

This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky. | ID-249
2,500 printed copies | 84 pages | 44,074 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 38,987 kb

Heirloom Tomatoes
6/6/2018 (new)

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most popular of heirloom vegetables, which are vintage varieties preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. Heirloom tomato purchases grew in popularity as consumers sought flavorful, historic varieties. Many heirloom tomato varieties have unique coloration and appearance, but poor shipping characteristics, giving heirloom tomatoes an advantage for local sales. | CCD-CP-132
web only | 3 pages | 1,825 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Jujube and Aronia
6/6/2018 (minor revision)

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale. | CCD-CP-10
web only | 4 pages | 2,168 words | - | PDF: 832 kb

Bell Peppers
5/17/2018 (minor revision)

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers. | CCD-CP-87
web only | 3 pages | 1,530 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

5/15/2018 (minor revision)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. | CCD-CP-88
web only | 3 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 786 kb

5/8/2018 (minor revision)

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish. | CCD-CP-104
web only | 3 pages | 1,340 words | - | PDF: 819 kb

5/7/2018 (minor revision)

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is a cool-season annual cole crop that is related to broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Kohlrabi originated in northern Europe in the 16th century. It forms a round globe just above the soil line with leaves emerging in a spiral from the stem. The edible portion is actually an enlarged stem, not root tissue. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw or cooked. In flavor, it is like a mild, sweet broccoli stem or turnip. Once the thick skin is peeled off, the crisp flesh can be eaten like a carrot often with a dip or in salads. It can be boiled, braised, used in soups and stews, made into home fries and even pies. In Kentucky, kohlrabi does well in the spring but is best as a fall crop. | CCD-CP-102
web only | 3 pages | 981 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb

What to Think About Before You Plant: Marketing Considerations for Kentucky Specialty Crop Growers
5/3/2018 (minor revision)

This publication poses questions that can benefit farmers who are considering planting a new crop. The publication is divided into the following six sections, with the majority of the content focused in the first two: 1) Market options by size and scale of production, 2) Conducting basic market research, 3) Certifications, 4) Insurance and risk management, 5) Management and labor needs, and 6) Resources needed beyond the field or garden. | CCD-FS-2
web only | 11 pages | 3,898 words | - | PDF: 8,700 kb

Weed Control in Alfalfa and Other Forage Legume Crops
4/23/2018 (major revision)

The importance of weed control in forage production should not be overlooked, especially when you consider the high investment associated with alfalfa and other legume forages. Weeds reduce forage yield by competing for water, sunlight, and nutrients. In addition to yield losses, weeds can also lower forage quality, increase the incidence of disease and insect problems, cause premature stand loss, and create harvesting problems. Some weeds are unpalatable to livestock or, in some cases, may be poisonous. | AGR-148
web only | 12 pages | 7,240 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 528 kb

4/17/2018 (minor revision)

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption. | CCD-CP-113
web only | 3 pages | 1,411 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers
4/13/2018 (minor revision)

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color. | CCD-CP-101
web only | 5 pages | 2,445 words | - | PDF: 823 kb

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
4/9/2018 (minor revision)

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products. | CCD-CP-70
web only | 3 pages | 1,594 words | - | PDF: 729 kb

Forage Identification and Use Guide
3/28/2018 (reprinted)

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. They provide most of the feed for beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and wildlife. In addition, forage crops play a critical role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. The purpose of this publication is to provide both agronomic and identification information on several forage grasses and legumes. | AGR-175
2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 3,500 words | 107 downloads | PDF: 9,100 kb

3/20/2018 (minor revision)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled. | CCD-CP-106
web only | 2 pages | 799 words | - | PDF: 762 kb

Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands
3/19/2018 (new)

Wide fluctuations in springtime temperature are common in Kentucky. Late freezing temperatures in the spring can cause damage to alfalfa depending on how far along it is in breaking dormancy. This publication provides information on the effect of low spring temperatures on both established and new alfalfa stands that have begun growth, as well as a method of predicting sensitivity to late frosts or freezes. | AGR-236
web only | 3 pages | 2,110 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 2,397 kb

3/15/2018 (minor revision)

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases. | CCD-CP-91
web only | 2 pages | 844 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Starting a Nursery Business
3/14/2018 (minor revision)

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success. | CCD-SP-9
web only | 5 pages | 2,442 words | - | PDF: 860 kb

3/7/2018 (new)

The pecan and Eastern black walnut are Kentucky's most significant nut crops. Commercial pecan plantings are located near Paducah and Henderson, and native pecan groves have long been harvested near the Mississippi River. Only northern pecan cultivars are recommended for cultivation in Kentucky, as the state's usual growing season is not long enough for southern pecan varieties to mature. The established popularity of pecans with consumers could offer potential for producers willing to carefully establish pecan plantings on appropriate sites. | CCD-CP-129
web only | 4 pages | 1,891 words | - | PDF: 647 kb

Baleage: Frequently Asked Questions
3/5/2018 (new)

Baled silage, or "baleage", is an excellent method for forage harvest, storage and feed efficiency. Baled silage allows forage to be harvested at higher whole plant moisture levels than required for dry hay. Baleage is ideal for spring cuttings of annual and perennial forages when seasonally frequent rainfall events provide little opportunity for properly curing dry hay. Many producers who want to harvest high quality small grain crops have found baleage to be a good fit for their operation. | AGR-235
web only | 4 pages | 2,625 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 145 kb

Warm Season Annual Grasses in Kentucky
3/5/2018 (new)

In Kentucky, cool-season grasses produce ample forage in the spring and fall, but high temperatures and short-term drought stress often limits growth during the summer months. Warm-season annual grasses can fill this gap with relatively high quality forage when properly managed. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of the various summer annuals for Kentucky. | AGR-229
2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,032 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 1,316 kb

Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15
3/5/2018 (major revision)

Turf is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface. Quality lawns greatly increase the economic and sociological value of urban homes. They beautify and reduce the often harsh urban environment by decreasing noise, glare, heat, dust, and mud. Lawns and other recreational turf areas are an integral part of our daily activities. | AGR-206
web only | 22 pages | 12,270 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Grass Options for Athletic Fields in the Transition Zone
3/2/2018 (new)

There are several grasses that will grow in the transition zone, but none all that well. Our summers are often too hot for cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and our winters are often too cold for warm-season grasses like bermudagrass. Keep in mind, however, that the problem with most poor athletic fields is not grass selection, but rather over use, lack of maintenance, and/or use when field is wet or cannot recover. | AGR-237
web only | 3 pages | 1,626 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 2,320 kb

Ethnic Vegetables: Asian
3/2/2018 (minor revision)

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as “oriental” vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-96
web only | 5 pages | 1,967 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky, causing a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease tend to be rare but can occur if care is not taken to minimize risk of disease development and reduce spread after it appears. | PPFS-AG-T-3
web only | 3 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 666 kb

Managing Rhizoctonia Damping-off and Target Spot in the Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

Damping-off and target spot occur each year in tobacco transplant crops in Kentucky. These diseases can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle. | PPFS-AG-T-2
web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 727 kb

Organic Regulations and Resources
2/28/2018 (new)

Two challenges for beginning organic crop production are meeting certified organic requirements and sourcing crop inputs that are approved for organic use. This fact sheet will summarize key considerations for meeting these challenges and list important sources of additional information for a producer interested in evaluating the feasibility of organic production on his or her farm. | CCD-FS-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,305 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb

Molting Small-Scale Commercial Egg Flocks in Kentucky
2/27/2018 (new)

Molting is a common event in the annual life cycle of most avian species. Each year chickens lose feathers and grow new ones, and this occurs in both wild and domestic birds. During molt, laying hens go out of egg production and feathers are replaced. Molting, regardless of what stimulates it, is more than just the replacement of the plumage. Hormonal and physiological changes occur as well. | ASC-236
web only | 2 pages | 1,077 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 280 kb

Roadside Farm Markets
2/23/2018 (minor revision)

A roadside farm market is sometimes distinguished from a roadside stand by location and hours. The term "roadside farm market" can refer to those markets located in permanent facilities at the farm or food manufacturing location; they are typically open most of the year. Roadside stand, by contrast, is a more general term referring to those markets that may be located off the farm and are seasonal in operation. | CCD-MP-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,757 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb

Sudangrass and Sorghum-sudangrass Hybrids
2/19/2018 (new)

Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are developed by crossing sorghum with true sudangrass. The result is an annual grass that resembles sudangrass, but has coarser stems, taller growth habit, and higher yields. Like sudangrass, hybrids will regrow after grazing if growth is not limited by environmental factors. The coarse stems are difficult to cure as dry hay, therefore these grasses are best utilized for grazing, chopped silage and baleage. | AGR-234
web only | 2 pages | 999 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 785 kb

Foxtail Millet
2/19/2018 (new)

Foxtail millet (German millet) is a fine-stemmed summer annual used mainly for emergency hay or pasture for cattle. It is the lowest yielding of the summer annual grasses since it will not regrow after cutting. It can also be used as a smoother crop when transitioning to other perennial forage crops. Foxtail millet is also commonly used for wildlife plantings to produce food and cover for doves, quail, and other birds. | AGR-233
web only | 2 pages | 665 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 960 kb

2/19/2018 (new)

Crabgrass possesses significant potential for supplying high quality summer forage although it is considered a weed by many. A primary advantage of crabgrass is that it is well adapted to Kentucky and occurs naturally in most summer pastures, especially those that have been overgrazed. It is also highly palatable and a prolific re-seeder. Planting an improved variety of crabgrass is recommended because the production of naturally-occurring ecotypes varies greatly. Crabgrass is best utilized by grazing. | AGR-232
web only | 2 pages | 803 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 428 kb

Pearl Millet
2/19/2018 (new)

The primary benefits of pearl millet are that it does not contain prussic acid and is not susceptible to the sugarcane aphid. Dwarf varieties are available, which are leafier and better suited for grazing. | AGR-231
web only | 2 pages | 681 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,183 kb

Forage Sorghum
2/19/2018 (new)

Forage sorghum is the tallest of the summer annuals, reaching 6 to 15 feet in height and is best harvested as silage. Taller varieties produce high forage yield but can lodge, making them difficult to harvest mechanically. Some varieties have been developed that are shorter with increased resistance to lodging. Forage sorghums, like corn, are harvested once per season by direct chopping. While forage sorghum yields are similar to corn, they are lower in energy. The primary advantage of utilizing sorghum for silage production is its greater drought tolerance. | AGR-230
web only | 2 pages | 926 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 567 kb

Possible Causes of Yellowing Alfalfa
2/16/2018 (new)

During spring, several leaf spotting diseases--including Leptosphaerulina (Lepto) leaf spot and spring black stem/leaf spot--are common in alfalfa. Leaf spotting diseases result in distinct round to elongated spots that sometimes have a dark margin. Very wet weather in spring and early summer favor activity of leaf spotting diseases in first and second cuttings. Wet and humid weather during summer favor other leaf spotting and blighting diseases. All leaf spots and blights weaken plants, but alfalfa often outgrows the damage in later cuttings. Maintain a regular cutting schedule, cutting at 30- to 35-day intervals. | PPFS-AG-F-10
web only | 4 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 754 kb

Marketing Fresh Produce to Food Retailers (Grocery Stores)
2/1/2018 (minor revision)

The food retail industry saw a renaissance of interest in local and regional sourcing of fresh fruits and vegetables during the 2000s. This interest came within an industry characterized by heavy investment in fewer and larger centralized distribution centers. Although the distribution center model remains prominent within the food retail industry, some retailers have created flexibility within their distribution models to answer consumer demand for local produce. Large retailers are also finding transportation and distribution cost savings by sourcing fresh produce items from new or expanding producers. Smaller chains and local grocers remain potential markets for fresh produce growers expanding to wholesale volumes. Producers of value-added produce products may also find local groceries a possible market for their product. | CCD-MP-20
web only | 4 pages | 1,737 words | - | PDF: 3,000 kb

Physoderma Brown Spot
2/1/2018 (new)

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management. | PPFS-AG-C-7
web only | 2 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 743 kb

Insects: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 8
1/29/2018 (minor revision)

Insects, spiders, mites, etc. are among the oldest and most numerous animals on Earth. Some species, like the house fly, occur in every county of the state, while others live in very specific areas, such as a western Kentucky wetland or an eastern Kentucky mountain meadow. Like it or not, insects have a major impact on our lives, health, and environment. Learning more about them can increase your enjoyment of nature and help you to manage problem species more effectively. | ENT-68
web only | 12 pages | 5,421 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 1,382 kb

Feeds and Feeding for Small-Scale Egg Production Enterprises
1/25/2018 (new)

Animals eat in order to get the energy and nutrients they need to live, grow and reproduce. Animals use energy to perform normal body functions such as breathing, walking, eating, digesting, and maintaining body temperature. Different types of nutrients provide energy as well as the building blocks needed for the development of bone, flesh, feathers, and eggs. These nutrients include: water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Each of these components is important and a deficit of even one can have serious health consequences for poultry. | ASC-233
web only | 12 pages | 5,611 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 2,536 kb

Raising Replacement Pullets for Small-Scale Egg Production
1/25/2018 (new)

Poultry producers who raise their own replacement pullets have better control over the growth, condition, and development of the flock. The quality of the pullet flock will have a direct effect on the subsequent level of egg production. The two most important quality factors for a replacement flock are proper body weight and uniformity. Pullet weight at 6 weeks of age has been shown to influence subsequent egg production. Once the pullets start to lay, it is too late to solve problems from poor nutrition or management during the pullet rearing period. | ASC-232
web only | 9 pages | 4,407 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb

Factors to Consider Before Starting a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise in Kentucky
1/25/2018 (new)

There are several things to consider before starting an egg production operation. The most important is market availability. Before you start production you need to have a market that your production can supply, in terms of both quantity of product and the price you need to get in order to be profitable. You will need to make sure that local regulations allow for poultry production on the land available to you. Cash flow is also an important consideration. A flock will require a considerable investment before the hens start to lay eggs to produce an income. You also need to have a way to deal with the manure produced, and any dead birds. You also need to have a plan for the hens after they have finished laying (referred to as spent hens). | ASC-230
web only | 4 pages | 2,113 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 126 kb

Marketing Fresh Produce to Restaurants
1/25/2018 (minor revision)

Sourcing and serving fresh produce from local farms remains a trend in the U.S. foodservice industry. The practice of sourcing locally grown fresh produce, first featured by niche and high-end restaurants, moved into mainstream foodservice distribution channels in the early 2000s. A focus on local food appears to be persisting into the 2020s. The National Restaurant Association's 2018 Culinary Forecast, based on surveys of nearly 700 chefs, identified hyper-local sourcing as the top restaurant concept trend, with local produce also among the Top 10 concept trends. | CCD-MP-21
web only | 5 pages | 2,260 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb

Off the Grid: Ultra-Low Pressure Drip Irrigation and Rainwater Catchment for Small Plots and High Tunnels
1/24/2018 (new)

All forms of irrigation need a push or pressure to move water from its source to its destination. Water sources include wells, springs, lakes, creeks, canals, rivers, cisterns, elevated tanks, or municipal water supplies. The amount of pressure or push required depends on many things including the height water must be lifted, length and size of the delivery pipe(s), crop and size of the area to be irrigated, and the distance water needs to be moved from the source to the field, greenhouse, or tunnel. | HO-120
400 printed copies | 12 pages | 3,615 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 9,416 kb

Gardening in Small Spaces
1/24/2018 (new)

Although most would agree that gardening is a worthwhile endeavor, traditional gardening with long neat rows spaced 3 or 4 feet apart to allow cultivation by a tractor or tiller may not be feasible for everyone. Individuals that live in urban areas, especially those living in townhomes, condominiums, and apartments may not have the outdoor space needed for this conventional style of gardening. In addition, those with limited mobility may not be able to establish and maintain this type of garden. For many, raised bed gardening and container gardening may be a more practical and manageable choice for those gardening in small spaces and those with limited mobility. | ID-248
web only | 8 pages | 6,239 words | 88 downloads | PDF: 1,141 kb

Pesticides and Pesticide Safety: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 10
1/23/2018 (minor revision)

"Pest" is not a biological term for an organism's environmental role as are the words plant, herbivore, predator, and scavenger. It is a term for an organism that is either causing damage or is somewhere where it's not wanted. Pests can include plants, insects and their relatives, and microorganisms that cause plant diseases. Often, pests are a problem because we use cultural practices or create conditions favoring organisms that they feed on, compete with, or infect the desirable species. | ENT-70
web only | 10 pages | 5,153 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 310 kb

Vertebrate Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 19
1/23/2018 (minor revision)

Most people enjoy watching wildlife around the home, whether it is birds at a feeder, butterflies on flowers, or the occasional deer or turkey wandering through the yard. In some instances, wildlife come into contact with humans and are in the wrong place at the wrong time. For the gardening enthusiast, this encounter can create conflict. | FOR-121
web only | 10 pages | 4,896 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 750 kb

Weed Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 20
1/22/2018 (minor revision)

Every garden has weeds, and every gardener wonders what to do about them. Gardening involves lots of small decisions that can have a cumulative effect on those weed problems. This chapter will explore the origin of weeds, their adaptation and impact, and the techniques you can use to manage weeds in your landscape. | AGR-205
web only | 14 pages | 6,440 words | 67 downloads | PDF: 965 kb

Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations, 2018-2019
1/22/2018 (major revision)

Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices. | AGR-1
web only | 24 pages | 11,300 words | 188 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

My Mare's in Heat: Predicting and Recognizing Signs of Estrus
1/22/2018 (new)

You have heard the term frequently that a mare is in heat, but what does it mean exactly? Heat is the layman’s term for showing signs of estrus. Whether you are planning to breed your mare or not her body will continue to prepare to be pregnant. | ASC-235
web only | 2 pages | 1,125 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 85 kb

Use of Biosecurity and Natural Remedies for the Prvention of Poultry Disease in "Natural" and "Organic" Flocks
1/22/2018 (new)

It is easier to prevent disease than it is to treat an outbreak. A biosecurity plan is essential to an effective health management plan. "Bio" refers to life and "Security" is protection. A biosecurity program for a poultry farm is a series of common-sense activities designed to keep disease (bacterial, viral, parasitic) out of the poultry flock. | ASC-234
web only | 6 pages | 3,526 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 157 kb

1/22/2018 (reviewed)

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson. | CCD-CP-131
web only | 3 pages | 919 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

Breed Selection for a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise
1/12/2018 (new)

Once you have decided you are going to go into egg production, you need to determine what breed of chicken will best suit your needs. A variety of different commercial breeds are available for use in small-scale commercial egg production operations. Most lay a brown-shelled egg, which is typically preferred by the people purchasing eggs produced in alterative production systems. Most of these commercial chickens are hybrids selected specifically for these systems. | ASC-231
web only | 5 pages | 1,023 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,280 kb

Marketing Regulations Affecting Small-scale Egg Producers in Kentucky
1/12/2018 (new)

It is important that you comply with all the laws and regulations with regards to the marketing of eggs. Eggs are capable of carrying bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis. As a result, eggs are considered a hazardous food and their sale is regulated. With regard to small-scale producers, if you sell more than 60 dozen eggs in any one week, you will require an egg handler's license. You will also need an egg handler's license if you sell to someone who sells eggs to someone else. This would include grocery stores, restaurants, or wholesalers. The same will hold true if you sell to a bakery, confectionary or ice-cream manufacturer. | ASC-229
web only | 4 pages | 1,756 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 267 kb

MarketReady Producer Training Program
12/15/2017 (minor revision)

The MarketReady Producer Training Program instructs producers in the key business functions that small farmers and ranchers must manage as they seek to develop supplier relationships with restaurants, grocers, wholesalers, and foodservice buyers, including schools. While significant opportunity exists to build on the demand for local products in local markets, many farmers are hesitant or unprepared to meet the transactional requirements expected by these buyers to manage their own food safety, insurance, product quality, and traceability risks. MarketReady addresses these issues. After training, producers will be prepared for business transactions when selling a variety of products including dairy, fruits, meats and vegetables. | CCD-MP-11
web only | 3 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2018-19
12/11/2017 (major revision)

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication. | ID-36
3,000 printed copies | 140 pages | 109,401 words | 106 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Blackberry Rosette (Double Blossom)
12/1/2017 (major revision)

Rosette disease, caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi, is a serious and destructive disease of blackberries in most parts of Kentucky. In some locations, growers have been forced out of growing blackberries because of rosette disease. | PPFS-FR-S-3
web only | 3 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 637 kb

Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation
11/21/2017 (new)

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area. | AEN-134
web only | 13 pages | 3,535 words | 151 downloads | PDF: 2,430 kb

2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Small-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet. Most of the worksheets assume all production is sold at the same price, but there is also a blank line for a second quantity/cost for users to add if desired, such as already done in sweet potatoes. | CCD-BG-11
web only | - | - | 25 downloads | Excel: 1,200 kb

2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Large-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-10
web only | 1 pages | - | 25 downloads | Excel: 1,600 kb

Reducing Heat Stress to Container-Grown Plants
11/14/2017 (new)

Production of plants in containers offer many advantages over field production. Shorter production cycles, larger numbers of plants per acre, and the ability to continuously market and ship plants are among those advantages. However, there are some disadvantages including more intense cultural practices, a relatively short window of optimum marketability due to container size restrictions, and rapid daily temperature fluctuations within the container substrate (growing medium). This publication will provide information about plant response to high root-zone temperatures, identify critical temperatures, describe the factors that influence temperature fluctuations, and suggest cultural practices to reduce heat stress in container-grown plants. | HO-119
web only | 6 pages | 3,953 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,240 kb

Rainwater Harvesting for Livestock Production Systems
11/7/2017 (new)

Abundant, clean drinking water is an essential nutrient for livestock. The obvious water source that is recommended by veterinarians is city water. However, city water has its drawbacks. City water distribution systems are often expensive to install and have a recurring usage charge. In some instances, city water is unavailable, may have inadequate pressure, or producers consider it too expensive to operate, forcing them to use streams and ponds to water livestock. Collecting rainwater from a catchment area, is a low cost, high quality alternative water source that can supplement traditional water distribution systems and improve the environmental quality of farming operations. Rainwater harvesting involves the collection of rainfall from rooftops or land based catchments systems for storage and distribution as needed. Capturing rainfall has the added benefit of improving water quality by reducing soil erosion and runoff. Strategically installed rainwater harvesting systems can be used to direct stormwater around sensitive areas of the farm where animal waste is present, thus reducing the potential for nutrient and pathogen delivery to nearby waterways. Rainwater harvesting and stormwater management techniques can also reduce the volume of water that must be managed in liquid manure management systems by diverting clean water away from manure pits and lagoons. | AEN-135
web only | 5 pages | 2,801 words | 60 downloads | PDF: 807 kb

Produce Food Safety: Packing and Storing
11/6/2017 (new)

: If you intend to sell your produce, you'll need to package it. Some growers immediately assume that they'll need a large, complicated packing shed with state-of-the art technology. Typically this is not the case, and for some situations you might not need a packing facility at all. Before we go into some of the best practices for managing a packing shed, you should first consider whether you need one at all. Many of the practices discussed in this publication will depend on the requirements of your buyer. The first step before making upgrades to your food safety infrastructure is to talk to your buyer--ask them how they expect products packaged, box sizes, and whether they expect the product to be washed. Do they currently expect a third-party Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) audit? Do they anticipate requiring one in the near future? As long as you are meeting all regulatory requirements and taking common sense steps to keep your produce safe, there is no need to exceed the expectations of your buyer. In the case of Farmers Markets and CSAs, the expectations for washing can be highly variable. | CCD-PFS-1
web only | 7 pages | 1,176 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb

Cane Diseases of Brambles
11/1/2017 (major revision)

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness. | PPFS-FR-S-17
web only | 5 pages | 800 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 299 kb

Snap Beans
10/24/2017 (minor revision)

The snap bean or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. Prior to the development of the stringless bean in the 1890s, snap beans were referred to as "string beans" because of the fiber or "string" running along the pod seam. While stringless beans are more common today, many consumers still prefer the flavor of the stringed types. | CCD-CP-118
web only | 3 pages | 1,176 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 668 kb

Risk Management in Specialty Crops: Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)
10/24/2017 (new)

The Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) is a financial assistance program provided through the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). The program provides producers of crops not eligible for crop insurance with some level of risk management when natural disasters cause crop low yields, crop losses or prevent crop planting. | CCD-FS-7
web only | 2 pages | 574 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Appropriate All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock
10/16/2017 (minor revision)

Many livestock producers would say that mud is a natural part of livestock production. But the creation of mud costs producers money and makes them less competitive. Livestock that walk through mud require more feed for energy but actually eat less because walking in mud requires more effort to get to feed and water. Therefore, mud decreases average daily gains. Mud accumulation on the coat increases the amount of energy needed to generate heat in the winter or to keep cool in the summer. Also, it can lower sale prices due to hanging tags. The creation of mud also increases animal stress and leads to a variety of health problems, including protozoan and bacterial infections. It is essential that livestock producers understand that mud hinders cost-efficient livestock production and efforts should be made to limit the creation of mud. This publication explains how mud is created and describes different types of hardened surfaces and pads that agricultural producers should use to reduce mud creation and ultimately increase production efficiency and protect natural resources. | AEN-115
web only | 8 pages | 3,441 words | 209 downloads | PDF: 2,730 kb

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates
10/11/2017 (minor revision)

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions. | ID-149
web only | 20 pages | 11,224 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 265 kb

Holcus Leaf Spot
10/11/2017 (new)

Holcus leaf spot, a bacterial disease, can be seen sporadically in Kentucky cornfields, and it is challenging to diagnose. This publication describes the disease symptoms, conditions that favor disease, and how to distinguish holcus spot from herbicide injury that can mimic this disease. | PPFS-AG-C-6
web only | 3 pages | 483 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 889 kb

Diplodia Ear Rot
10/11/2017 (new)

Diplodia ear rot can reduce yield and grain quality by damaging kernels, lowering grain test weight, and reducing grain fill. Incidence of affected ears in the field can vary from 1% or 2% to as high as 80%. Although mycotoxins have been associated with Diplodia ear rot in South America and South Africa, there have been no reports of livestock feeding issues due to mycotoxins linked to Diplodia ear rot in the United States. | PPFS-AG-C-5
web only | 3 pages | 514 words | - | PDF: 990 kb

Romaine Lettuce
10/10/2017 (minor revision)

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-116
web only | 4 pages | 1,753 words | - | PDF: 692 kb

Root Crops
10/4/2017 (minor revision)

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-117
web only | 4 pages | 1,728 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb

A Beginners Guide to Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky: Plans and Preparations
10/2/2017 (new)

Begin by thinking about vegetables you and your family like to eat. Then think about what you want to grow. Some vegetables will grow better in Kentucky than others because of the average daily temperatures and amount of rainfall. It is also important to learn about the needs of each vegetable variety you are thinking about planting in your garden. Does it grow better in sun or shade? How much water does it need? What type of soil does it grow best in? Is it a cool season crop or a warm season crop? | HO-118
web only | 7 pages | 2,832 words | 91 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Corn Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) developed ratings for how well fungicides control major corn diseases in the United States. The CDWG determined efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in the table by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations. Ratings are based on the product's level of disease control and does not necessarily reflect yield increases obtained from product application. A product's efficacy depends upon proper application timing, rate, and application method as determined by the product label and overall disease level in the field at the time of application. | PPA-49
web only | 2 pages | 690 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,120 kb

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Wheat Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

The North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA-184) has developed the following information about fungicide efficacy for the control of certain foliar diseases of wheat for use by the grain production industry in the United States. The efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in this table were determined by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations by the members of the committee. | PPA-48
web only | 2 pages | 649 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Pastured Poultry
9/21/2017 (new)

There has been an increased interest in pasture-raising poultry for both meat and egg production in the last decade. Raising poultry on pasture was a common occurrence until the latter half of the 20th century. Fresh forage provided an important ration balancing factor during the years before poultry nutritionists fully understood the required essential vitamins and minerals for growth and optimum meat and egg production. With the development of balanced rations, poultry no longer require access to pasture and year-round production of meat and eggs is possible. However, there are still some benefits from the lush forage, invertebrates, and exercise that pasture provides. In addition, we continue to learn more and more about the positive influence that fresh grasses and legumes have on fatty acid profiles and general bird health. As a result, there is an increased interest in pasture-raised poultry for both meat and eggs. | ID-247
web only | 7 pages | 4,900 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Specialty Melons
9/20/2017 (minor revision)

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations. | CCD-CP-120
web only | 3 pages | 1,431 words | - | PDF: 950 kb

Common External Parasites of Poultry
9/8/2017 (minor revision)

Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available. | ASC-206
web only | 4 pages | 1,817 words | 75 downloads | PDF: 839 kb

Landscape Site Assessment
9/6/2017 (new)

The most common reason trees and shrubs fail to perform as anticipated is that their cultural requirements differ from the site characteristics. People often plant things they know and love from a distant state, purchase because they are on sale, or find attractive but don't understand the environmental requirements. In some cases, a site can be easily modified to make it more suitable for a desired species. Most of the time, it is difficult or impossible to change the site characteristics enough for the plant to thrive. Appropriate watering is essential for establishment of recently transplanted trees and shrubs. This becomes even more important (and challenging) for plants poorly matched to their sites. Selecting plant species that will thrive under particular site conditions is an easier and less expensive option. The first step in doing this is to understand the site where you plan to plant. | ID-244
web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 125 kb

High Tunnel Tomatoes
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season." | CCD-CP-62
web only | 4 pages | 2,063 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

9/5/2017 (minor revision)

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf." | CCD-CP-55
web only | 4 pages | 1,145 words | - | PDF: 791 kb

The Unique Qualities of the Southern Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

Milk is a heavily regulated commodity, and therefore there are a large number of rules that pertain to its production and processing. These regulations are enforced within regional boundaries called federal milk marketing orders. Most milk marketing orders have similar regulations, but the Appalachian, Florida, and Southeast Orders are somewhat unique when it comes to diversion limits, transportation credits, and delivery day requirements. This publication will highlight these distinctive qualities of Southern milk marketing orders and how those qualities can influence production and processing in those orders. | AEC-ES-2017-12
web only | 10 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 551 kb

The History and Class Pricing of the Federal Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

The regulation of milk is an important part of the development of the milk industry and an understanding of the history of milk regulation is critical to understanding the pros and cons of the current industry. Additionally, to understand milk pricing it is important to understand the history of the federal milk marketing orders. This publication will provide information on how milk became regulated and how the class pricing system works. | AEC-ES-2017-13
web only | 11 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 283 kb

Body Condition Scoring Ewes
8/25/2017 (new)

Body condition scoring is a system of classifying breeding ewes on the basis of differences in body fat. While it is subjective, with practice it can be accurate enough to indicate the nutritional status of individual ewes as well as the entire flock. Thus, it allows the shepherd to identify, record, and adjust the feed intake of ewes determined to be thin, in average flesh, or fat. In the long run, this can save money for producers and/or prevent problems attributable to ewe condition. | ASC-228
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 1,567 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 2,200 kb

Malabar Spinach
8/25/2017 (new)

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade. | CCD-CP-130
printed copies | 3 pages | 1,133 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

8/25/2017 (minor revision)

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures. | CCD-CP-90
web only | 2 pages | 949 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 725 kb

Woody Cuts
8/22/2017 (minor revision)

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material. | CCD-CP-76
web only | 3 pages | 1,519 words | - | PDF: 909 kb

Wine Distribution for Small Farm Wineries in Kentucky
8/22/2017 (new)

Small farm wineries in the state of Kentucky face a major issue when they look to expand, through wholesale distribution, into retail outlets. Like many states, Kentucky uses a "three-tier system" of distribution, where wineries must sell their product to a distributor, who then can legally sell the product to retailers. But because small- to medium-sized wineries rarely produce a volume that is attractive to major brand distributors, their products either don't make it to the retail shelves, or are placed suboptimally for their target market. Here, we look at ways to address this issue in order to help promote the wine industry from the wholesale point-of-view. | HO-116
20 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,356 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 173 kb

English and Edible Pod Peas
8/16/2017 (minor revision)

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas. | CCD-CP-95
web only | 2 pages | 993 words | - | PDF: 647 kb

8/15/2017 (minor revision)

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption. | CCD-CP-93
web only | 3 pages | 1,120 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 729 kb

Three-Year Average Prices and Quantities at Kentucky Produce Auctions: 2014-2016
8/15/2017 (new)

This report compares average volumes and prices for 18 crops from two major Kentucky produce auctions for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons. | CCD-FS-6
web only | 22 pages | 1,705 words | - | PDF: 1,300 kb

8/11/2017 (minor revision)

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties. | CCD-CP-50
web only | 3 pages | 999 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 451,725 kb

American Persimmon
8/10/2017 (minor revision)

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow-growing, moderately sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which are high in tannins, have an undesirable astringent taste. Fully ripened fruit, which are golden orange to reddish and occasionally blue in color, are very sweet. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall. | CCD-CP-1
web only | 3 pages | 1,235 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 676 kb

Tire Tanks for Watering Livestock
8/8/2017 (new)

Kentucky's abundant forage and extensive stream system have helped the Commonwealth become the largest beef producing state east of the Mississippi River. While streams and ponds serve as a water source for many operations, livestock can quickly degrade soil and water quality by trampling streambanks and defecating and urinating in and around waterbodies. These actions increase sediment, pathogen, and nutrient loads to streams, rivers, and lakes which in turn can causes eutrophication. To help protect the health of Kentucky's soil and water, producers can implement best management practices (BMPs). These practices help reduce the sources of pollutants and/or the transport of pollutants to waterways. One such practice or BMP is limiting cattle access to streams and ponds. When producers exclude livestock access to stream and ponds and their associated riparian buffers, an alternative source of water is required. Automatic water fountains are one commonly used means of providing cattle with water from an alternate source. A water tank constructed using a heavy equipment tire may serve as a viable option for supplying livestock with an alternate source of water. | AEN-133
web only | 8 pages | 4,702 words | 112 downloads | PDF: 4,650 kb

Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
8/1/2017 (new)

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers. | PPFS-FR-S-26
web only | 2 pages | 419 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 230 kb

Volutella Blight of Boxwood
8/1/2017 (new)

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible. | PPFS-OR-W-26
web only | 4 pages | 226 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,568 kb

Flowering Dogwood Diseases
8/1/2017 (major revision)

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings. | PPFS-OR-W-6
web only | 6 pages | 586 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 500 kb

Measuring the Ph of Different Food Products
7/21/2017 (new)

The scientific scale for measuring how acidic or basic a substance is when it is dissolved in water is called pH. The pH scale runs from 0 - 14. 0 means it is very acidic, 7 means it is neither acidic nor basic, but just right in the middle like plain water (neutral), and 14 means it is very basic. If you are producing a food product that depends on the acidic components or ingredients of the product to extend its shelf life and ensure the safety of the product, monitoring the pH of food products is very important. Food safety is the biggest reason for monitoring pH, but pH also influences the quality of food products. | ID-246
web only | 2 pages | 1,743 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 365 kb

Heirloom Vegetables
7/17/2017 (minor revision)

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping | CCD-CP-100
web only | 4 pages | 1,769 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 652 kb

Garden Mums
7/13/2017 (minor revision)

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state. | CCD-CP-71
web only | 3 pages | 969 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs
7/11/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries. | CCD-CP-60
web only | 5 pages | 2,531 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 893 kb

Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine
7/1/2017 (new)

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky. | PPFS-OR-W-25
web only | 3 pages | 256 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,053 kb

Hydroponic Lettuce
6/30/2017 (minor revision)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water. | CCD-CP-63
web only | 4 pages | 1,872 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
6/28/2017 (minor revision)

In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication. | PPA-47
web only | 16 pages | 9,014 words | 62 downloads | PDF: 5,892 kb

Vegetable Transplant Production
6/22/2017 (new)

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise. | CCD-FS-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,351 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Regional Food Hubs
6/19/2017 (minor revision)

The term "regional food hub" has been devised by the USDA to refer to facilities that aid farmers in getting locally produced products to consumer markets. | CCD-MP-23
web only | 3 pages | 1,492 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Manejo Integrado de Plagas
6/15/2017 (reprinted)

La sociedad moderna demanda alimentos variados y de buena calidad, esto implica un reto para los agricultores de frutas, hortalizas y granos, ya que deben producir lo suficiente para obtener ganancias y al mismo tiempo, evitar la contaminacion del producto requerido por la poblacion. El Manejo Integrado de Plagas, es una herramienta importante en el manejo de los cultivos, ya que propone alternativas de control que no se limitan unicamente al uso de pesticidas, sino tambien, a tomar ventaja de los recursos existentes en el campo, tales como, organismos beneficos, plantas florales, biologia de la plaga, rotacion de cultivos, labores culturales apropiadas y otros mas que permiten manejar con perspectiva ambiental los problemas encontrados. | ID-181
1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | 9,096 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 651 kb

Propagation Nursery
6/5/2017 (minor revision)

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use. | CCD-SP-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb

Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone
5/31/2017 (new)

Bermudagrass is an excellent choice for use on athletic fields throughout the transition zone (which includes Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and Missouri) because of its tolerance to close cutting heights, summer vigor, positive traction characteristics for athletes, resistance to divoting and ability to withstand and recover from significant traffic during active growth. The major limitation to successful bermudagrass persistence in transition zone locations is a general lack of cold tolerance and susceptibility to winterkill. | AGR-228
web only | 10 pages | 4,267 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 6,633 kb

Community Supported Agriculture
5/25/2017 (major revision)

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)is relatively new to the United States, beginning in Massachusetts in 1986 and growing to 60 CSA farms in the U.S. in 1990. The CSA structure grew significantly in popularity among both producers and consumers during the 2000s; by 2009, as many as 6,000 farms were operating a CSA. The 2015 USDA Local Food Marketing Practices Survey reported 7,398 farms nationally selling by CSA for a sales value of $226 million. There were nearly 60 CSAs listed for Kentucky, in 2016, in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture CSA directory. The CSA marketing channel continues to increase in popularity, moving to new demographics besides the original core affluent urban consumer. | CCD-MP-1
web only | 8 pages | 4,511 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 3,300 kb

Weed Management
5/12/2017 (new)

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states. | CCD-FS-4
web only | 3 pages | 1,209 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb

Predator Management for Small-Scale Poultry Enterprises in Kentucky
5/4/2017 (new)

As urban expansion spreads, there is a loss of natural habitat for wildlife. Wildlife has come into closer contact with livestock operations, and some of these animals are predators of poultry. | ID-245
web only | 8 pages | 3,090 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 2,401 kb

Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (minor revision)

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge. | CCD-CP-103
web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals
5/1/2017 (new)

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s). | PPFS-OR-H-1
web only | 19 pages | 669 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 3,137 kb

Three-year Average Weekly Prices at Kentucky Farmers Markets: 2014-2016
4/27/2017 (new)

This report compares average prices for 17 crops from Kentucky farmers markets across the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons. Farmers markets are inherently difficult to track and compare. For example, vendors at markets from across the state sell the same products in a wide variety of units. Do you want to buy your beets by the pound, quart, bunch, or bulb? What about broccoli? By the head, pound, ounce, pint or "bag"? Beyond units, farmers markets also offer immense varietal and crop diversity, sold by vendors with a wide range of experience, in a variety of market conditions. These conditions, crops and other variables also change by season. For the first time, recognizing the caveats of slight crop differences and unit harmonization, we have assembled 3-year average prices in hopes of drawing out some trends in our Kentucky Farmers Market prices. | CCD-FS-3
web only | 10 pages | 626 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 422 kb

4/25/2017 (new)

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-127
web only | 3 pages | 1,339 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 897 kb

Black Walnuts
4/19/2017 (new)

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production. | CCD-CP-128
web only | 4 pages | 2,000 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 672 kb

4/19/2017 (minor revision)

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky | CCD-CP-11
web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 700 kb

Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap. | CCD-SP-6
web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season. | CCD-SP-5
web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb

4/12/2017 (major revision)

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions. | CCD-CP-107
web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 881 kb

Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli). | CCD-CP-86
web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 975 kb

Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization. | CCD-CP-85
web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 688 kb

Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands
4/10/2017 (minor revision)

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands. | PPA-30
web only | 2 pages | 1,222 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 253 kb

Hardwood Dry Kiln Operation: A Manual for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
4/6/2017 (new)

Green lumber is used mostly for local uses such as fence boards, barn siding and so forth. Lumber that will be glued or finished has to be dried, however, and that includes just about all the higher-value wood products used indoors such as flooring, furniture, wall paneling, cutting boards and so forth. Dry lumber can be used for more types of products and has greater marketability. Dry lumber is also worth more than green lumber. | FOR-128
web only | 114 pages | 31,161 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 11,025 kb

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2017
4/4/2017 (major revision)

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program. | PPA-1
web only | 32 pages | 21,555 words | 115 downloads | PDF: 1,926 kb

Irrigation Systems
4/3/2017 (new)

Irrigation is used in Kentucky for both specialty and row crops. Irrigation systems reduce risks of low profitability from low yields and crop stress. Drip irrigation, essential for producing many specialty crops, is used throughout the state on farms of all sizes. Overhead irrigation systems are concentrated in western Kentucky, where farms of 1,000 or more acres account for most of the annual acreage changes in Kentucky's irrigated farmland. This fact sheet focuses on drip irrigation, which increased in use as more Kentucky farms began specialty crop production. | CCD-FS-1
web only | 4 pages | 1,287 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb

Soybean Production in Kentucky
3/22/2017 (major revision)

Soybean seed quality is very important for crop establishment. In general, seed quality is an indicator of a seed's ability to produce a seedling in field conditions and includes both seed germination and seed vigor. Most producers are familiar with seed germination since they have seen it on a seed tag. Fewer are familiar with seed vigor. | AGR-130
web only | 6 pages | 4,076 words | 71 downloads | PDF: 1,395 kb

3/1/2017 (minor revision)

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky. | CCD-CP-124
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 680 kb

Identifying Canola Growth Stages
2/6/2017 (new)

To effectively manage canola in Kentucky, the ability to identify key developmental growth stages is important. The most common canola growth stage system describes developmental stages. Several canola growth stages are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability. | AGR-227
web only | 8 pages | 788 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 7,332 kb

Central Kentucky Backyard Stream Guide
2/1/2017 (new)

Many urban homeowners are not sure what to do about the stream in their backyard. Who owns it? How can I take care of it? What plants are good for my streambanks? These common questions lead to some confusing answers. This publication is designed to help the homeowner of a backyard stream appreciate this resource, protect personal property, and improve water quality and habitat. | ID-242
1,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,530 words | 123 downloads | PDF: 15,699 kb

Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production
1/31/2017 (minor revision)

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods. | CCD-SP-7
web only | 5 pages | 2,325 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 918 kb

Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Green Industry Professionals
1/23/2017 (new)

This publication is meant to assist green industry professionals in marketing and customer education efforts as they explore marketing their products and services to improve green infrastructure. Consumers are placing increasing value on and acknowledging the critical role that landscape plants play in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home. | HO-115
web only | 12 pages | 4,507 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 2,547 kb

Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017
1/19/2017 (new)

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University. | AGR-225
web only | 96 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: kb

Management of Wildlife and Domestic Animals on Your Farm: Good Agricultural Practices
1/10/2017 (new)

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) are necessary to ensure that fresh fruits and vegetables are harvested, handled, and packaged in a sanitary manner. Field crops are at a higher food safety risk than processed foods because of regular exposure to several sources of contamination, including soil, manure, human handling, domestic and wild animals, and water. While it is impossible to completely eliminate these risks, GAPs ensure that these risks are as small as possible when implemented correctly. | ID-243
150 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,023 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 908 kb

Stewart's Wilt of Corn
1/1/2017 (new)

Historically, Stewart's wilt of corn has resulted in losses for corn producers. Although this disease still occurs occasionally, it has become less prevalent in recent years in Kentucky and surrounding states. Stewart's wilt has been known by other names, such as bacterial leaf blight, Stewart's leaf blight, and maize bacteriosis. | PPFS-AG-C-4
web only | 3 pages | 1,079 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,445 kb

Identification and Control of Henbit and Purple Deadnettle
12/30/2016 (new)

Most of the winter annual broadleaf weeds are distinguishable from each other and thus fairly easy to key out or identify. However, there are two that show up each spring that often get people scratching their heads as to which is which---is it purple deadnettle? Or is it henbit? There are several similarities between these weeds---both are members of the mint family, both have square stems, both have sparsely hairy oval- to egg-shaped leaves, leaves of both are opposite, and both have small purple flowers that appear in the axils of the upper leaves during the spring. | AGR-226
web only | 4 pages | 812 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 5,381 kb

After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant
12/22/2016 (new)

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future. | ID-241
web only | 5 pages | 4,224 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 247 kb

What Is Your Tree Worth?
12/22/2016 (new)

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate. | ID-240
web only | 5 pages | 3,041 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 903 kb

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly. | CCD-CP-83
web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 786 kb

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here. | CCD-CP-79
web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 778 kb

Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales. | CCD-CP-111
web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 566 kb

Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth. | CCD-CP-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 604 kb

Extending Grazing and Reducing Stored Feed Needs
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

For most livestock producers, extending the grazing season for their animals, or otherwise filling gaps in pasture forage availability to reduce stored feed needs, should be a high priority objective. This publication outlines strategies that can be used in some or many areas to extend grazing and reduce stored feed needs, thus increasing profit. | AGR-199
2,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 72 downloads | PDF: 1,512 kb

Rotational Grazing
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

A rotational grazing program can generally be defined as use of several pastures, one of which is grazed while the others are rested before being regrazed. Continuous grazing is the use of one pasture for the entire grazing season. | ID-143
2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 108 downloads | PDF: 887 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings. | ID-238
1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb

Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (minor revision)

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-20
web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 881 kb

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (minor revision)

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus). | CCD-CP-58
web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 503 kb

Black Vulture Damage Control
11/11/2016 (new)

Vultures, as with all other wildlife, will take advantage of resources available to them, and unfortunately this behavior sometimes involves human dwellings or livestock operations. Fortunately, vultures respond well to relatively simple methods that discourage them from congregating or feeding in critical areas. | FOR-129
web only | 4 pages | 2,427 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,931 kb

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production. | CCD-CP-12
web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 799 kb

Marketing Crops to Schools and Institutions: An Overview
10/31/2016 (minor revision)

Schools and institutions have long been identified as potential markets for local and regional food crops. These markets have both generated greater interest and purchases during the past 20 years due to consumer interest, food and health policy initiatives, and changes in school and institutional purchasing and procurement systems. | CCD-MP-19
web only | 4 pages | 1,579 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 864 kb

Modeling Best Management Practices
10/20/2016 (new)

Understanding the effectiveness of BMPs based on their location in the watershed and in relation to different types of pollutants is an important part of protecting waterbodies. One way to do this is with the use of models. | AEN-132
web only | 3 pages | 1,386 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 652 kb

Post-Harvest Management: The Economics of Grain Transportation
10/13/2016 (new)

While transporting grain to the market may be the last input cost in the production of grain, it is a critical decision a producer has to make, especially when margins are thin. Determining which market to sell your grain (if you have options) can be a complex decision, as the market that provides the highest price is not always the most profitable price. | AEC-100
web only | 5 pages | 2,727 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 458 kb

Help! My Horse Roars! What Is Laryngeal Hemiplegia?
10/10/2016 (new)

Various ailments can affect the different parts of the larynx of horses. Diseases of the larynx can produce airway obstruction and sometimes dysphagia. Obstructive diseases, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, often produce an abnormal respiratory noise and, most important, they limit airflow, which leads to early fatigue and poor exercise performance. | ASC-226
web only | 4 pages | 2,122 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 402 kb

10/10/2016 (minor revision)

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long-lasting cut flowers. | CCD-CP-52
web only | 5 pages | 2,206 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
10/6/2016 (reprinted)

Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process. | ID-224
700 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 1,505 kb

Equine Metabolic Syndrome: Is My Horse Just Fat, or Is He Sick?
10/4/2016 (new)

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is an endocrine disorder that affects equids (horses, ponies, and donkeys) in three defining ways: they are obese and/or have localized fat deposits, they are in an insulin resistance (IR) state, now referred to as insulin dysregulation (ID), and they are predisposed to developing laminitis. | ID-239
web only | 3 pages | 1,558 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,473 kb

Genetically Engineered Crops: A Review of Concerns and Benefits
10/1/2016 (new)

Genetically engineered crops are plants that have had their genetic material (DNA) purposefully manipulated in the laboratory to produce a particular beneficial outcome. These types of crops are often called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. Commercial genetically engineered crops are designed to have limited and precise genetic changes that provide one or more benefits to humans or the environment. | PPFS-MISC-7
web only | 5 pages | 1,238 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,260 kb

Identifying Wheat Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

Identifying growth stages of any crop is important to enable timely crop management decisions that maximize yields and profitability. There are several wheat growth stages that are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability. | AGR-224
web only | 8 pages | 907 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 5,271 kb

Identifying Soybean Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

Accurate identification of soybean growth stages is important to maximize grain yield and profitability, because most management decisions are based upon the growth stage of soybean plants within the fields. Key features of soybean growth stages are highlighted within this guide. | AGR-223
web only | 8 pages | 1,382 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 4,815 kb

Foodborne Illness: Risks and Prevention
9/27/2016 (new)

In recent memory, there has been a considerable increase in food recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. To ensure food safety, everyone involved in the food production chain needs to understand the different factors that could contaminate food and lead to foodborne illness. | ASC-227
web only | 4 pages | 1,597 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 142 kb

Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (minor revision)

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves. | CCD-CP-99
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 593 kb

Planting Container-Grown Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

Many landscape plants are installed as container-grown (containerized) specimens. These, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and bareroot, are the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting. | HO-114
web only | 4 pages | 1,791 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 1,553 kb

Planting Bareroot Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

Many landscape plants can be installed as bareroot specimens. This method, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and container grown plants, one of the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting. | HO-113
web only | 4 pages | 1,846 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 1,441 kb

Soil Percolation: A Key to Survival of Landscape Plants
9/14/2016 (new)

Eighty to 90 percent of disease and insect problems on landscape plants can be traced back to soil problems. Plants must be adapted to the site if they are to meet our expectations of growing, remain healthy, and attractive. | ID-237
web only | 4 pages | 1,929 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 3,289 kb

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (minor revision)

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets. | CCD-CP-97
web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 617 kb

9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility. | CCD-CP-94
web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 598 kb

9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only. | CCD-CP-53
web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 967 kb

Maple Syrup
8/17/2016 (new)

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production. | CCD-CP-81
web only | 5 pages | 1,405 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Estimating Carrying Capacity of Cool Season Pastures in Kentucky Using Web Soil Survey
8/10/2016 (new)

While many factors influence how many animals a farm can carry, soil type has a major influence and should be considered when purchasing, leasing, planning, or managing livestock on pastures. | AGR-222
250 printed copies | 16 pages | 1,629 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 4,214 kb

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (minor revision)

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-109
web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 575 kb

Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
8/2/2016 (new)

Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production. | ID-236
web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | 95 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb

Lawn Establishment in Kentucky
7/27/2016 (major revision)

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established. | AGR-50
web only | 6 pages | 3,796 words | 81 downloads | PDF: 3,039 kb

Wildlife Benefits of Switchgrass Production in Kentucky
7/26/2016 (new)

Switchgrass is a versatile grass that can be utilized for forage or biomass production. Establishing and maintaining switchgrass is also beneficial to many types of wildlife by providing suitable habitat and cover. | AGR-221
web only | 4 pages | 1,568 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 385 kb

Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky
7/22/2016 (major revision)

Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them. | AGR-55
web only | 1 pages | 583 words | 80 downloads | PDF: 119 kb

Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (minor revision)

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production. | CCD-CP-66
web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 594 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-9
web only | 6 pages | 1,318 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 336 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,365 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 340 kb

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-7
web only | 5 pages | 1,094 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 119 kb

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky. | CCD-BG-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,177 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 193 kb

Kentucky MarketMaker
7/11/2016 (minor revision)

Kentucky MarketMaker is a web-based marketing aid adapted for Kentucky markets. The primary purpose of this resource is to provide a link between agricultural producers and potential buyers of food products. In addition to a searchable database of markets and growers, MarketMaker also contains a wealth of demographic and business data which can be summarized in a map-based format. | CCD-MP-10
web only | 2 pages | 802 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 963 kb

7/5/2016 (minor revision)

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried. | CCD-CP-17
web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 750 kb

Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
7/1/2016 (minor revision)

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet. | PPFS-FR-T-19
web only | 2 pages | 365 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 337 kb

Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (minor revision)

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops. | CCD-CP-78
web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 934 kb

6/21/2016 (minor revision)

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor and aroma to beer. | CCD-CP-80
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 967 kb

6/9/2016 (minor revision)

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes. | CCD-CP-18
web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 713 kb

Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
6/6/2016 (new)

The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals. | AEN-131
web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 516 kb

Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (minor revision)

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June. | CCD-CP-108
web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 513 kb

Backyard Berry Disease and Disease Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-S-25
web only | 4 pages | 1,260 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 1,037 kb

Backyard Grape Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-S-24
web only | 4 pages | 1,263 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,213 kb

Backyard Stone Fruit Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-T-22
web only | 4 pages | 1,234 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 890 kb

Backyard Apple Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-T-21
web only | 4 pages | 1,311 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 1,013 kb

Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky
6/1/2016 (new)

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame. | PPFS-OR-W-24
web only | 5 pages | 1,627 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 2,118 kb

Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky
5/2/2016 (minor revision)

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management. | CCD-BG-1
web only | 6 pages | 1,128 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 389 kb

5/1/2016 (minor revision)

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June. | CCD-CP-84
web only | 4 pages | 1,387 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 542 kb

4/15/2016 (minor revision)

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species. | CCD-CP-54
web only | 4 pages | 1,799 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 582 kb

A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns
4/7/2016 (new)

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors. | AGR-220
web only | 2 pages | 1,018 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 600 kb

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table). | PPFS-FR-S-23
web only | 1 pages | 323 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 351 kb

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table). | PPFS-FR-S-22
web only | 1 pages | 152 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 236 kb

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table). | PPFS-FR-S-21
web only | 1 pages | 197 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 280 kb

Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides
4/1/2016 (new)

A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers. | PPFS-FR-S-20
web only | 3 pages | 599 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 427 kb

Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs. | PPFS-FR-T-20
web only | 2 pages | 472 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 672 kb

Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. | PPFS-FR-T-18
web only | 4 pages | 1,284 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 626 kb

Fungicides for Tree Fruits
4/1/2016 (new)

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-92, or by contacting county Extension agents. | PPFS-FR-T-11
web only | 3 pages | 894 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 124 kb

Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent. | PPFS-GEN-13
web only | 3 pages | 2,173 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 388 kb

Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21. | PPFS-GEN-8
web only | 2 pages | 554 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 431 kb

Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides
4/1/2016 (minor revision)

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices. | PPFS-GEN-7
web only | 5 pages | 1,312 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 491 kb

Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents. | PPFS-GH-3
web only | 3 pages | 737 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 118 kb

Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents. | PPFS-OR-W-14
web only | 3 pages | 734 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 118 kb

How to Select and Buck Logs for Railroad Ties
3/4/2016 (new)

As of 2014, railroads were purchasing in the neighborhood of 25 million wooden ties each year, so the railroad tie industry can be a reliable market for loggers and sawmillers. Prices for green ties are viewed as good compared to lower-grade lumber, though actual market prices depend on immediate demand, competing lumber prices, distance from the seller to the treating plant, and tie quality and species. If you're a logger reading this article, you'll learn to make better decisions about how to select trees and logs for crossties and switch ties, and you'll be able to buck them so that they're worth more money overall. | FOR-122
web only | 9 pages | 4,194 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb

Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
3/4/2016 (minor revision)

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment. | ID-211
web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | 165 downloads | PDF: 3,600 kb

Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6
3/2/2016 (major revision)

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants. | PPA-46
web only | 24 pages | 5,749 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 5,000 kb

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents. | PPFS-FR-S-18
web only | 5 pages | 1,450 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 407 kb

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents. | PPFS-FR-S-15
web only | 3 pages | 885 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 398 kb

Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet
3/1/2016 (new)

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers. | PPFS-FR-T-23
web only | 1 pages | 181 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 458 kb

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents. | PPFS-FR-T-15
web only | 3 pages | 576 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 385 kb

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents. | PPFS-FR-T-14
web only | 3 pages | 1,047 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 401 kb

Cherry Leaf Spot
3/1/2016 (new)

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury. | PPFS-FR-T-6
web only | 1 pages | 311 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 500 kb

Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape
3/1/2016 (new)

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information. | PPFS-GEN-15
web only | 6 pages | 1,109 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 3,377 kb

Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread. | PPFS-GH-1
web only | 6 pages | 2,233 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,494 kb

Managing Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass
3/1/2016 (new)

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well. | PPFS-OR-T-13
web only | 4 pages | 1,638 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 816 kb

Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
2/25/2016 (new)

Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm. | AEN-130
web only | 7 pages | 3,539 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb

Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2016
2/24/2016 (minor revision)

The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage. | PPFS-AG-T-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,980 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 295 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months. | ID-125
1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb

Measuring Discharge in Wadeable Streams
2/9/2016 (new)

Knowing the amount of water flowing in a stream can improve management practices such as those related to streambank erosion, pollutant loading and transport, and flood control. Streamflow or discharge is defined as the volume of water moving past a specific point in a stream for a fixed period of time. | AEN-129
web only | 4 pages | 1,273 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 2,288 kb

Sediment Fingerprinting
2/9/2016 (new)

Sediments in waterbodies cause a number of problems such as harming aquatic habitats, filling reservoirs, and worsening flooding. High amounts of sediment in the water inhibit the ability of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates to move, breathe, hunt and reproduce. Accumulated sediments in reservoirs reduces their useful life and increases costs associated with maintenance. Streams experiencing such sediment buildup carry less water during storm events. | AEN-128
web only | 4 pages | 1,721 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,506 kb

Hydrologic Modeling
2/9/2016 (new)

Increased levels of urbanization result in reductions in the amount of rainfall that infiltrates and evapotranspires and increases the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. These changes can result in flooding, streambank erosion, and water quality degradation. Hydrologic models are useful in understanding watersheds and how changes in a watershed can affect hydrology. Hydrologic models can predict the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff under different scenarios. | AEN-127
web only | 5 pages | 2,704 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 844 kb

Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
2/8/2016 (new)

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations. | ID-234
web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb

Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky Pastures
2/4/2016 (reprinted)

A guide to the identification and control of broadleaf weeds in Kentucky pastures. | AGR-207
7,500 printed copies | 2 pages | 250 words | 156 downloads | PDF: 4,200 kb

2/4/2016 (minor revision)

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers. | CCD-CP-26
web only | 3 pages | 1,155 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 922 kb

Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple
2/1/2016 (new)

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards. | PPFS-FR-T-3
web only | 3 pages | 785 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,003 kb

Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms
2/1/2016 (new)

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths. | PPFS-GEN-14
web only | 5 pages | 1,611 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 1,283 kb

Shade Tree Anthracnose
2/1/2016 (new)

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens. | PPFS-OR-W-23
web only | 4 pages | 1,279 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 869 kb

Black Spot of Rose
2/1/2016 (reviewed)

Black spot is the most common and serious disease of roses in Kentucky. It is a problem in greenhouse production and outdoor plantings. | PPFS-OR-W-10
web only | 1 pages | 344 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality
1/13/2016 (major revision)

Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall. | ID-163
web only | 6 pages | 2,749 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 485 kb

Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden
1/1/2016 (new)

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. | PPFS-VG-23
web only | 2 pages | 822 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 788 kb

Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden
1/1/2016 (new)

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein. | PPFS-VG-22
web only | 2 pages | 841 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 460 kb

Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden
1/1/2016 (new)

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases. | PPFS-VG-21
web only | 2 pages | 981 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 874 kb

Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses
12/22/2015 (new)

Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations. | ID-233
web only | 6 pages | - | 56 downloads | PDF: 465 kb

The First Separation of Softwood Species
12/21/2015 (new)

Just making the separation between softwoods and hardwoods doesn't help much in identifying wood species; that would be sort of like identifying children by their hair color. Let's look at the next level of wood features that you need to be able to recognize. | FOR-127
web only | 6 pages | 2,711 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 4,200 kb

Grain Patterns and Growth Rings
12/21/2015 (new)

Frequently you need to be able to observe wood cells from a particular perspective, and you will need to know where to look for different features on your sample. It's also very helpful to develop a kind of "visual vocabulary" that will let you match a term with a corresponding mental image, and the information in this chapter will start you on your way. | FOR-126
web only | 3 pages | 1,527 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Distinguishing Softwoods from Hardwoods
12/21/2015 (new)

Softwood and hardwood trees are made up of different types of cells. With just a little magnification, it's easy to see that softwood growth rings look different from hardwood growth rings. Additionally, growth rings don't look the same for all of the trees, and the growth ring appearance is one of the things we will look at to identify wood. | FOR-125
web only | 4 pages | 1,722 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb

First Steps in Identifying Wood
12/21/2015 (new)

Wood samples need to be identified for all sorts of reasons, and they come in all shapes, sizes and conditions. I've received samples that were sound, samples that were waterlogged, samples that were rotted or otherwise degraded, painted samples, furniture samples, even samples containing wood preservatives. Most of the samples I receive have a North American origin, but I also receive pieces from art museums and antique dealers that can originate from just about anywhere. This sometimes means that identifying the sample by a common name alone doesn't provide enough information. | FOR-124
web only | 8 pages | 4,482 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,980 kb

Introduction to Wood Structure and Characteristics
12/21/2015 (new)

Knowing how to identify unknown pieces of wood using a hand lens is the only skill you will need for most situations---and that's the purpose behind most of this manual. A section at the end about how to identify wood using a microscope is available should you want to develop your wood identification expertise. | FOR-123
web only | 4 pages | 2,540 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry
12/16/2015 (major revision)

The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green-industry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2013 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky. | HO-108
web only | 3 pages | 1,841 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 152 kb

Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries
12/16/2015 (major revision)

The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and regional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners. | HO-89
web only | 10 pages | 3,937 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 399 kb

Black Knot
12/1/2015 (new)

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible. | PPFS-FR-T-4
web only | 2 pages | 617 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 784 kb

Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets
12/1/2015 (new)

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums. | PPFS-FR-T-1
web only | 3 pages | 667 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 887 kb

Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden
12/1/2015 (new)

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants. | PPFS-VG-20
web only | 2 pages | 781 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 896 kb

Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden
12/1/2015 (new)

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen. | PPFS-VG-19
web only | 2 pages | 854 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 995 kb

Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits
11/1/2015 (minor revision)

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease. | PPFS-FR-T-8
web only | 2 pages | 559 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 207 kb

"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals
11/1/2015 (new)

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium. | PPFS-OR-W-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,199 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,362 kb

Industrial Hemp: Legal Issues
9/24/2015 (minor revision)

Industrial hemp was widely grown in the United States from the Colonial Period until the mid-1800s. During that time, Kentucky established itself as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. After the Civil War, hemp production declined in Kentucky, as well as in other areas of the country. Production temporarily resumed as part of the war effort during World War II. However, once the war was over, acreages dwindled until U.S. production ended in 1958. However, the last couple of decades have brought a renewed interest in commercial hemp as an alternative or supplementary crop. As the pro-hemp movement has spread, a number of states, including Kentucky, have passed laws favoring its production, generally in connection with scientific, economic, and environmental research studies. | CCD-CP-32
web only | 3 pages | 1,072 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 803 kb

Industrial Hemp Production
9/23/2015 (minor revision)

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs. | CCD-CP-33
web only | 6 pages | 2,682 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Managing Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
9/22/2015 (new)

Precision dairy farming is the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators of individual animals to improve management strategies and farm performance. | ASC-225
web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 1,872 kb

Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi
9/1/2015 (new)

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves. | PPFS-OR-W-1
web only | 7 pages | 1,947 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 2,953 kb

Christmas Trees
8/18/2015 (minor revision)

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor. | CCD-CP-67
web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 492 kb

Turfgrasses of Kentucky
8/17/2015 (new)

Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months. | AGR-216
web only | 12 pages | 3,123 words | 66 downloads | PDF: 8,500 kb

Apple Rust Diseases
8/1/2015 (new)

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry. | PPFS-FR-T-5
web only | 5 pages | 1,395 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 813 kb

All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
7/28/2015 (new)

Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities. | ID-229
web only | 6 pages | 2,612 words | 89 downloads | PDF: 2,980 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Staggers (Tremorgenic Syndrome)
7/20/2015 (new)

"Staggers" is an all-inclusive term for a group of nervous system disorders caused by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins produced by various types of fungi on forages. These mycotoxins are collectively known as "tremorgens", and they may be found in several types of grasses at varying stages of maturity. | VET-35
web only | 2 pages | 758 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 588 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Acute or Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP)
7/17/2015 (new)

In the Southeastern United States, acute interstitial pneumonia has been produced by ingestion of the leaves and seeds of perilla mint (Perilla frutescens). Perilla ketone is the toxin absorbed from the rumen into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs where it damages the lung tissue in cattle. | ID-231
web only | 3 pages | 1,551 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 507 kb

Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Cattle and Horses
7/17/2015 (new)

Although black patch occurs only sporadically, the right temperature, moisture, and soil pH may combine and allow Rhizoctonia leguminicola to thrive. Be aware of the possible consequences of this fungus, especially profuse salivation or "Sobbers" in cattle and horses. Good forage management, will reduce the risk of problems when utilizing this forage. | ID-230
web only | 2 pages | 948 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 256 kb

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
7/15/2015 (new)

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]). | ID-91s
2,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 8,426 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 1,743 kb

Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management
7/1/2015 (new)

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals. | PPFS-AG-T-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,356 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 473 kb

Celery and Celeriac
6/8/2015 (new)

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity. | CCD-CP-92
web only | 3 pages | 1,139 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 635 kb

Practicing Good Stewardship When Applying Herbicides for Pasture Weed Control
5/14/2015 (new)

Various methods and strategies can be used to combat weed problems in pasture fields. These include mechanical and cultural practices such as mowing or clipping fields, maintaining a good soil fertility program, grazing methods, and other management practices that promote the growth of desirable forage grasses which in turn compete against weeds. Herbicides can be the best alternative to effectively control several troublesome broadleaf weeds. However, it is important to understand the proper use of herbicides and practice good stewardship. | AGR-219
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 1,466 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 190 kb

Aquatic Macroinvertebrates: Biological Indicators of Stream Health
5/12/2015 (new)

Streams are an important part of the landscape. Streams transport water, sediment and energy; provide habitat for aquatic life and support terrestrial life; provide a place for recreation; and in many cases serve as a water supply. The health of streams---or their ability to perform these important functions---is dependent on the conditions of the watersheds which they drain. Changes in land use within a watershed can affect a stream's health. | ID-228
web only | 5 pages | 1,962 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 4,800 kb

Produce Auctions
5/1/2015 (minor revision)

A produce auction is a market outlet for locally produced wholesale products. Fresh produce, as well as a variety of other agricultural products, are offered for sale to the highest bidder. The auction charges the seller a commission, usually a percent of sales, to cover the auction's operating expenses. | CCD-MP-22
web only | 5 pages | 1,843 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Blueberry Root Rot
5/1/2015 (new)

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur. | PPFS-FR-S-19
web only | 3 pages | 993 words | 1 download | PDF: 702 kb

Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders
5/1/2015 (new)

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management. | PPFS-OR-H-10
web only | 7 pages | 461 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,803 kb

Culinary Herbs
4/1/2015 (new)

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme. | CCD-CP-51
web only | 4 pages | 1,620 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb

When White Pines Turn Brown: Common Problems of White Pines in Kentucky
4/1/2015 (new)

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is a popular conifer in many Kentucky landscapes, although its use may be limited to loose, well-drained, pathogen-free soil. Often, needle browning is the primary symptom that alerts homeowners and nursery growers of health problems. In Kentucky, brown needles on white pine are often caused by one of the following three conditions: white pine decline, white pine root decline (Procerum root rot), or Phytophthora root rot. | PPFS-OR-W-22
web only | 4 pages | 1,497 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,170 kb

Herbicide Recommendations for Weed Control in Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns for Professional Applicators
3/30/2015 (new)

The best method to control weeds is to grow a dense and healthy lawn. This objective should be primary for turf professionals. Lawn weed control is facilitated by identification of the turfgrass and weed species present. Not all herbicides will control all weeds, and not all herbicides are safe on all lawn grasses. This publication contains herbicide recommendations for licensed professionals. For information on weed control for non-professionals, see AGR 208: Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns. | AGR-218
web only | 4 pages | 1,478 words | 56 downloads | PDF: 240 kb

Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers
3/9/2015 (major revision)

All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms. | PPA-41
web only | 7 pages | 3,473 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb

Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program
2/6/2015 (reprinted)

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) is a program developed to ensure that beef and dairy cattle are managed in a manner that will result in safe and wholesome beef and milk products for the consumer. Specifically, BQA is designed to enhance carcass quality by preventing drug residues, injection-site blemishes, and bruises. The Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program is based on recommended national guidelines and scientific research. This program enables beef and dairy producers to enhance their product, maximize marketability, and strengthen consumer confidence. | ID-140
4,000 printed copies | 83 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 2,353 kb

Planning a Zero-Waste Event
2/4/2015 (new)

The goal of a zero-waste event (e.g., meeting, business event, birthday party, field day, wedding, etc.) is to minimize the amount of waste produced. The key to hosting a zero-waste event is good advanced planning. This publication will guide you as you plan and carry out your event. | HENV-105
web only | 8 pages | 1,897 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 3,353 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky
1/30/2015 (new)

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance. | ID-227
1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,479 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 33,000 kb

Determining Soil Texture by Feel
1/22/2015 (new)

Soil texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil. Texture influences almost every aspect of soil use, both in agricultural and engineering applications, and even how natural ecosystems function. Many scientists consider soil texture the most important soil property as it can influence soil/water relationships, gas exchange, and plant nutrition. Accurately determining soil texture in a lab requires time and money; therefore, it is often necessary to estimate soil texture in the field by feel, which can be very accurate if done correctly. | AGR-217
web only | 3 pages | 1,049 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Organic Corn Production in Kentucky
1/15/2015 (new)

The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms. | ID-225
2,000 printed copies | 30 pages | 19,856 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

Diplodia Tip Blight of Pine
1/1/2015 (new)

Tip blight is a serious disease of landscape pines in Kentucky. Pines such as Austrian (Pinus nigra), Scots (P. sylvestris), and Mugo (P. mugo) are most commonly affected. Other landscape conifers occasionally may be affected by tip blight as well. Tip blight disease has not been found on eastern white pine (P. strobus). | PPFS-OR-W-21
web only | 3 pages | 922 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,268 kb

Keeping and Using Flock Performance Records
12/17/2014 (new)

Performance records serve as the cornerstone of any good livestock management program. Unfortunately, the task of collecting, maintaining and using performance records is the one area of livestock production in general that gets the least attention. This fact sheet provides ten reasons why all sheep producers need to keep performance records on their flocks. Then, some ways of maintaining and using those records are discussed. | ASC-221
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,390 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 890 kb

12/17/2014 (minor revision)

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a warm-season crop in the Cucurbit family, Watermelons are grown in various areas across the state, including: Casey County, Lincoln County, Hart County, Allen County, and Daviess County. Watermelon is the second largest fresh market vegetable produced in the state, with 1,116 acres, and accounts for 16% of the total fresh market vegetable acreage (USDA, 2013). | CCD-CP-125
web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Crossbreeding Considerations in Sheep
12/16/2014 (new)

Crossbreeding is the mating of individuals from different breeds. To a certain extent, it is a simple concept, but embarking upon a crossbreeding program, in sheep or any other livestock species, involves long-term decisions. The primary benefits of a crossbreeding program are heterosis and breed complementarity. | ASC-224
50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,680 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 677 kb

Inbreeding in Sheep
12/16/2014 (new)

Inbreeding is broadly defined as the mating of individuals that are related. Strictly speaking, however, all animals within a breed are related. So, in a sense, every purebred sheep producer practices some degree of inbreeding. In most cases this relationship is very slight. Therefore, inbreeding is more practically defined as the mating of individuals more closely related than the average of the breed. This practice includes mating brother to sister, sire to daughter and son to dam. | ASC-223
50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,809 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 896 kb

Sheep Breeding: Heritability, EBVs, EPDs, and the NSIP
12/16/2014 (new)

Genetic improvement in a flock depends on the producer's ability to select breeding sheep that are genetically superior for traits of economic importance. This is complicated by the fact that an animal's own performance is not always a true indicator of its genetic potential as a parent. | ASC-222
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 2,618 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,082 kb

Basic Sheep Genetics
12/16/2014 (new)

Genetics is the science of heredity. It seeks to explain differences and similarities exhibited by related individuals. The application of genetics to livestock improvement is known as animal breeding. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide a refresher course on basic genetics and to show how knowledge of genetics can be used to improve sheep production. | ASC-220
50 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,064 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 465 kb

An Introduction to Sheep
12/16/2014 (new)

The information in this fact sheet was developed to provide a quick reference to the most frequently asked questions about sheep and sheep production. | ASC-219
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,221 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 1,072 kb

Winter Squash
12/10/2014 (minor revision)

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter. | CCD-CP-126
web only | 2 pages | 794 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 668 kb

Proper Handling and Transportation of Eggs for Sale at Kentucky Farmer's Markets
12/4/2014 (new)

Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. This publication will give you the information and guidelines in the proper handling and transportation of eggs for sale. | ASC-218
web only | 2 pages | 799 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 1,275 kb

So You Want to Produce Your Own Eggs?
12/4/2014 (new)

Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock. This publication will give you the information you need decide if producing your own eggs is right for you. | ASC-217
web only | 6 pages | 2,161 words | 124 downloads | PDF: 3,047 kb

Reading a Feed Tag
12/4/2014 (new)

Feed stores carry a variety of feed types. How do you chose which to buy? You need to read the feed tag. A lot of information is on a feed tag that can help you make your selection and this publication breaks it down for you. | ASC-216
web only | 4 pages | 2,671 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

Managing Diseases of Alfalfa
12/1/2014 (new)

Alfalfa can be a vigorous and productive forage crop for Kentucky farmers. Like all farm crops, however, alfalfa is subject to infectious diseases that can limit forage production. Managing these diseases is an important part of economical alfalfa production. | PPFS-AG-F-9
web only | 4 pages | 1,658 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 756 kb

Brown Patch Disease in Kentucky Lawns
12/1/2014 (new)

Brown patch, also called Rhizoctonia blight, is a common infectious disease of turfgrass. All turfgrasses grown in Kentucky lawns can be affected by brown patch. However, this disease is usually destructive only in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass during warm, humid weather. While brown patch can temporarily harm a lawn's appearance, it usually does not cause permanent loss of turf except in plantings less than 1 year old. | PPFS-OR-T-12
web only | 4 pages | 1,767 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 745 kb

Hanging Baskets
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production. | CCD-CP-59
web only | 4 pages | 1,460 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 631 kb

Common Hazards in Karst Terrain
11/11/2014 (new)

Karst refers to terrain largely drained by subsurface conduits and caves. Karst landscapes are characterized by surface features such as springs, sinkholes, shallow depressions, and rolling hills. Karst regions are also known for their subsurface or below-ground features such as conduits and caves. What makes a karst region unique is the way runoff drains from the land. In karst regions, some of the runoff flows into surface features such as sinkholes where it then travels underground. Some of this infiltrated water re-emerges at springs, and some continues moving underground. | AEN-126
web only | 4 pages | 1,581 words | 73 downloads | PDF: 2,704 kb

Irrigation Tips to Conserve Water and Grow a Healthy Lawn
11/11/2014 (major revision)

The goal of water conservation in the landscape does not need to be as drastic as eliminating all irrigation, but we should choose plant material wisely and decide if and when irrigation is necessary. This publication is designed to promote a healthy lawn through watering while promoting water conservation through best management practices. One of the easiest things you can do to reduce the need for irrigation in your yard is to plant species that naturally need less water. When choosing plants, remember that just because a particular plant is drought tolerant does not mean that it is suitable for Kentucky's climate. | AGR-115
web only | 4 pages | 2,765 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 892 kb

Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns
11/10/2014 (minor revision)

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production. | CCD-BG-5
web only | 2 pages | 695 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 332 kb

Aerifying and Dethatching Lawns
11/3/2014 (major revision)

Lawns in Kentucky will occasionally suffer due to compacted (hard) soils and excessive thatch layers. Although most lawns will not have problems with these issues, you may occasionally need to dethatch or aerify (core) to maintain a high quality lawn. | AGR-54
web only | 4 pages | 1,899 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 4,398 kb

Improving Turf Through Renovation
11/3/2014 (major revision)

Often a poor lawn can be improved by using proper maintenance practices, including mowing, fertilizing, watering, and pest control. In some instances, however, portions of the lawn must be reseeded. Usually one of two methods is used to re-establish a lawn: conventional or renovation. The conventional method involves killing existing vegetation, tilling the soil, and replanting. The advantages of conventional tillage include more complete control of weeds and undesirable grass, a smoother soil surface, and the opportunity to improve the existing soil by adding organic matter and sand. Renovation involves replanting without completely tilling the soil and often without destroying all existing vegetation. | AGR-51
web only | 5 pages | 2,947 words | 51 downloads | PDF: 3,140 kb

Mineral and Protein Blocks and Tubs for Cattle
11/3/2014 (new)

Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs. Since there are differences in the blocks and tubs being marketed today, familiarity with how to compare products and determine their differences will enable producers to decide which product best fits their needs. | ASC-215
web only | 4 pages | 2,891 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 159 kb

Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015
11/1/2014 (reviewed)

SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials. | PPFS-AG-S-24
web only | 4 pages | 875 words | 1 download | PDF: 546 kb

Disease Management in the Home Lawn
11/1/2014 (new)

This publication describes lawn management practices that can help control diseases of turfgrasses commonly used in home lawns--Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and perennial ryegrass. You can control diseases of turfgrasses most effectively by using as many of the following lawn management practices as feasible. | PPFS-OR-T-11
web only | 4 pages | 1,670 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,018 kb

Patch Diseases in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns
11/1/2014 (new)

"Patch diseases" can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. Two patch diseases with similar symptoms can occur. Necrotic ring spot often appears in early summer. Summer patch, the more common disease in Kentucky landscapes, develops in middle to late summer. | PPFS-OR-T-6
web only | 4 pages | 1,892 words | 1 download | PDF: 793 kb

Boxwood Blight
11/1/2014 (new)

Boxwood blight is a disease of boxwood (Buxus spp.), causing rapid defoliation and plant dieback. The fungal disease is particularly devastating to American boxwood cultivars, which can defoliate within a week and die within one growing season. Plants are eventually weakened by repeated defoliation and dieback, and resulting plant stress and consequent colonization by secondary invaders result in plant death. | PPFS-OR-W-20
web only | 3 pages | 973 words | 1 download | PDF: 730 kb

Social Meida/Mobile Technology Tools for Ag Businesses
10/7/2014 (new)

The way we communicate with each other is changing. Many consumers are now using their smartphones or tablet devices to connect to and interact with local businesses. It is becoming very practical to connect your business to your clientele through social media using mobile technology tools. These tools offer easy methods to communicate, connect, and engage with your customers. Social media is increasingly important to marketing your business. Mobile technology tools are becoming more accessible to rural areas and they offer different options to both businesses and customers in increasing the ease of transactions and finding more connections. | CCD-MP-7
web only | 8 pages | 3,650 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 12,800 kb

Kentucky Plant Disease Management Guide for Forage Legumes
10/1/2014 (new)

Disease management in forage legumes relies heavily on using disease-resistant varieties and employing sound agronomic practices. It is important to integrate both of these strategies into a comprehensive disease management program. Failure to consider one or the other will compromise the success of your efforts. The appropriate use of pesticides sometimes plays a significant role in managing certain diseases, but it is secondary to sound cultural practices and proper variety selection. | PPFS-AG-F-8
web only | 7 pages | 2,707 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 907 kb

Blackleg and Bacterial Soft Rot of Potato
10/1/2014 (new)

Blackleg and soft rot are bacterial diseases that cause heavy losses in Kentucky potato patches in some years. These diseases may result in missing hills when seed pieces are destroyed or the sprouts decay before they emerge from the ground. Serious rotting of tubers in potato hills and in storage can also occur. | PPFS-VG-18
web only | 2 pages | 754 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 707 kb

Roadside Stands
9/26/2014 (minor revision)

Roadside stand is generic term for a type of marketing site in which a farm producer sells directly to consumers. A roadside stand is a seasonal, temporary or semi-temporary structure that may be located on or off the farm. A roadside stand may be distinguished from a roadside market in that the latter is usually a permanent structure that is often open year-round. | CCD-MP-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,547 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 774 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Hypomagnesemic Tetany or "Grass Tetany"
9/18/2014 (new)

Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or "grass tetany" is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany. | ID-226
web only | 3 pages | 1,726 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 121 kb

Is Creep Feeding Lambs a Profitable Undertaking?
9/8/2014 (new)

Creep feeding is a technique of providing feed to nursing lambs to supplement the milk they consume. Creep-fed lambs grow faster than noncreep-feds and are more aggressive in nursing ewes. This aggression stimulates greater ewe milk production which, in turn, increases creep feed intake because these lambs will be bigger at a given age. Typically, the creep diet is a grain-protein supplement mixture and is made available in an area constructed so lambs can enter, but ewes cannot. Some situations when it may be economical to creep feed are described in this document. | ASC-214
300 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,940 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 309 kb

Brussels Sprouts
9/1/2014 (new)

Currently there is little production of brussels sprouts in Kentucky. Much of the commercial production for brussels sprouts produced in the United States is concentrated in California. The Census of Agriculture reported that two Kentucky farms harvested brussels sprouts in the 2012 growing season. | CCD-CP-89
web only | 3 pages | 1,329 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 626 kb

Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola
9/1/2014 (new)

Interest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola. | PPFS-AG-R-1
web only | 2 pages | 697 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 600 kb

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato
9/1/2014 (new)

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage. | PPFS-VG-17
web only | 3 pages | 786 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 636 kb

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-4
web only | 7 pages | 1,573 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 352 kb

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-3
web only | 2 pages | 1,573 words | 1 download | PDF: 352 kb

Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years. | CCD-BG-2
web only | 4 pages | 1,164 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 561 kb

Organic Blueberries
8/20/2014 (minor revision)

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-13
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 633 kb

8/19/2014 (minor revision)

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the Rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected. | CCD-CP-15
web only | 3 pages | 1,309 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 491 kb

Evaluating Land Resource Potentials in Kentucky
8/15/2014 (new)

The most successful land use decisions are those where the intended use matches the capabilities of the land. Determining the capability of the land begins with a visual assessment of the landscape such as topography (percent slope) and surface drainage patterns followed by a closer examination of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this publication is to provide a basic understanding of the relationship between these landscape and soil properties to facilitate wise land use decisions. | AGR-215
web only | 3 pages | 3,493 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 630 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Brassicas--Be Aware of the Animal Health Risks
8/12/2014 (new)

Although infrequent, brassica crops can cause animal health disorders if grazing is managed improperly. Most brassica-related disorders in cattle tend to occur during the first two weeks of grazing while adjusting to the forage. The primary potential disorders are polioencephalomalcia or PEM, hemolytic anemia (mainly with kale), nitrate poisoning, and pulmonary emphysema. Other possible clinical disorders include bloat and rumen acidosis, and metabolic problems such as hypomagnesemia and hypothyroidism with goiter. Glucosinates present in brassicas are precursors of irritants that can cause colic and diarrhea. Large bulbs may lodge in the esophagus and lead to choking. Certain brassicas (specifically rape) can cause sunburn or "scald" on light-skinned animals, especially when grazed while the plants are immature. Other potential problems include oxalate poisoning and off-flavoring of meat and milk. | ID-223
web only | 3 pages | 1,867 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 913 kb

Closing a Liquid Manure Storage Structure
8/11/2014 (new)

Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure(s) as part of their Kentucky No Discharge Operational Permit. To help offset the costs of closing the structure, producers may want to apply for cost share funds through the Division of Conservation. Before beginning to close a liquid manure structure, the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) must be provided with a closure plan. This publication outlines the preferred practices and steps for closing a liquid manure structure to meet the guidelines of the KDOW. | AEN-125
web only | 2 pages | 1,148 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 106 kb

Bean Diseases
8/1/2014 (new)

Anthracnose can reduce bean quality, as well as yield. Losses can be severe during cool, rainy weather. It is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which appears on all aboveground parts of the plant but rarely on roots. Lesions generally are dark brown and may contain pink spore masses during moist weather. Elongate, angular spots appear on lower leaf veins. As the fungus spreads into surrounding tissue, lesions eventually appear on the upper side of veins. Affected seeds become discolored. Plants grown from infected seed may develop lesions on the cotyledons. | PPFS-VG-16
web only | 6 pages | 2,129 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,154 kb

7/31/2014 (minor revision)

The quality of Kentucky-grown strawberries can be far superior to berries that are shipped-in. There is a strong market for local berries, particularly near population centers. A large proportion of the strawberries grown in Kentucky are currently sold on a U-Pick basis. Other marketing options include roadside stands and local grocers. Farmers markets, produce auctions, community supported agriculture (CSA) shares, and restaurants are also outlets for strawberries. Some producers are using crop surpluses to produce jams and jellies for local sale. | CCD-CP-19
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 499 kb

Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach
7/30/2014 (new)

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs. | ID-222
web only | 8 pages | 4,099 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb

Streambank Erosion
7/23/2014 (new)

Streambank erosion refers to the removal of soil and other material, such as rock and vegetation, from the streambank. Streambank erosion is a naturally occurring process, but the rate at which it occurs is often increased by anthropogenic or human activities such as urbanization and agriculture. Changes in land use can cause streambanks to erode at rates much faster than those seen in natural, undisturbed systems. | AEN-124
web only | 8 pages | 2,133 words | 96 downloads | PDF: 3,112 kb

Liming Kentucky Lawns
7/22/2014 (new)

Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn. | AGR-214
web only | 4 pages | 1,758 words | 80 downloads | PDF: 909 kb

Fertilizing Your Lawn
7/22/2014 (new)

Lawns require fertilizer to remain healthy. Proper fertilization practices will lead to a thick, dark green, uniform lawn that is competitive against weed and disease invasions. The nutrients contained in fertilizers are necessary to support many processes occurring within the plants. If any essential nutrient is limiting, the plants will not perform at their highest level. | AGR-212
web only | 4 pages | 2,468 words | 88 downloads | PDF: 425 kb

Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)
7/21/2014 (minor revision)

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002. | CCD-CP-105
web only | 3 pages | 1,054 words | - | PDF: 612 kb

Understanding Soilless Media Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
7/17/2014 (new)

Although choosing or formulating media with optimum physical properties (such as pore air space and water holding capacity) for a given production environment and crop plant is important, this publication focuses on the chemical properties of soilless media determined with a laboratory test as conducted through the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service at the Division of Regulatory Services Soil Testing Laboratories. | HO-112
web only | 4 pages | 2,443 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 252 kb

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky
7/9/2014 (new)

La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky. | ID-172s
1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 5,600 kb

Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms
7/3/2014 (minor revision)

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations. | CCD-CP-82
web only | 4 pages | 1,689 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 561 kb

Fescue Toxicosis
7/3/2014 (new)

"Fescue toxicosis" is the general term used for the clinical diseases that can affect cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tall-fescue pastures containing ergot alkaloids are responsible for the toxic effects observed in livestock, including hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), gangrene of the extremities, decreased weight gain, and poor reproductive performance. Clinical signs vary depending on the cattle, the environmental conditions, and the level and duration of the exposure. Early clinical signs are often reversible after removal from contaminated pastures or hay. | ID-221
web only | 4 pages | 2,470 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 740 kb

How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
7/1/2014 (major revision)

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage. | ID-89
web only | 7 pages | 2,439 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb

Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
7/1/2014 (major revision)

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material. | ID-50
web only | 11 pages | 4,025 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb

Pick-Your-Own (U-Pick) Marketing
6/30/2014 (minor revision)

Pick-Your-Own (PYO), also referred to as U-Pick, occurs when farmers "invite the public onto the farm to harvest their own food."1 Producers searching for new crops, combined with a growing Kentucky population, renewed interest in PYO during the past 20 years. | CCD-MP-3
web only | 4 pages | 1,399 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Marketing Organic Produce
6/27/2014 (minor revision)

Growth in organic food consumption has been a major trend in the U.S. food industry during the last two decades. Sales of organic food rose from $3.6 billion in 1997 to $21.1 billion in 2007. Sales of organic food products were estimated at $28.4 billion in 2012 and approaching $35 billion in 2014. | CCD-MP-9
web only | 5 pages | 1,687 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

6/23/2014 (minor revision)

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented. | CCD-CP-7
web only | 4 pages | 1,653 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 694 kb

Marketing Asian Produce in Kentucky
6/19/2014 (minor revision)

Burgeoning Asian populations and consumer interest in Asian cuisine helped stimulate increased interest in purchasing fresh Asian vegetables to prepare at home, a trend expected to continue. Caucasian consumers tend to prefer value-added and processed vegetables, but there are market niches for fresh Asian vegetables. Kentucky producers have received inquiries to source edamame (vegetable soybean) and daikon (Chinese radish) at wholesale quantities. | CCD-MP-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,403 words | 1 download | PDF: 758 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky
6/3/2014 (reprinted)

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop. | ID-184
4,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,437 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 1,054 kb

Twig Blights of Juniper
6/1/2014 (new)

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback. | PPFS-OR-W-11
web only | 2 pages | 720 words | 1 download | PDF: 600 kb

Bedding Plants
5/31/2014 (minor revision)

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs, and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden, or large containers (such as patio pots). | CCD-CP-56
web only | 3 pages | 1,203 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Lowering Somatic Cell Counts with Best Management Practices
5/14/2014 (new)

As health and food safety concerns grow, dairy producers are facing more stringent regulations. In 2010, the European Union (EU) set the somatic cell count (SCC) upper limit, an indicator of milk quality, for exported milk at 400,000 cells per milliliter. However, the current U.S. SCC limit is 750,000 cells per milliliter. As of January 2012, any U.S. milk used in export markets must meet the EU standards. It is projected that US milk processors will gradually adopt the EU upper limit, making it difficult for dairy producers to sell milk containing more than 400,000 somatic cells per milliliter. Dairy producers will have to find innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce the somatic cell count of their milk. This publication will discuss how agriculture best management practices can be used to lower SCC. | AEN-123
web only | 4 pages | 2,808 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
5/12/2014 (reprinted)

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world. | ID-210
1,500 printed copies | 58 pages | 28,039 words | 90 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
5/7/2014 (new)

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky. | ID-219
3,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 5,056 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy
5/5/2014 (minor revision)

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed. | CCD-CP-27
web only | 3 pages | 773 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb

5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts. | CCD-CP-64
web only | 3 pages | 1,262 words | - | PDF: 409 kb

Grain Sorghum
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose. | CCD-CP-31
web only | 3 pages | 901 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 496 kb

Marketing Via the Internet
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

The Internet can be utilized in a variety of marketing strategies. Producers may sell their products online through e-commerce, use a website to take orders for their goods, or simply advertise their operation through a "billboard" type website. Social media and blogs provide yet another way the Internet can be used for promoting a farm enterprise. The increase in access to Web-based services through handheld devices makes many customers more immediately accessible to products and services. | CCD-MP-2
web only | 4 pages | 1,937 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 442 kb

Residential Rain Garden: Design, Construction, Maintenance
5/1/2014 (new)

This publication covers the design, construction, and maintenance of residential ran gardens. Rain gardens are one of several stormwater management practices that homeowners can use to reduce their property's negative impact on water quality and flooding. | HENV-205
web only | 15 pages | 6,021 words | 157 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb

Root-knot Nematode in Commercial and Residential Crops
5/1/2014 (new)

Root-knot nematode (RKN) is a soil-dwelling microscopic roundworm. This nematode is parasitic on numerous plants, including vegetables, fruits, field crops, ornamentals, and common weeds. RKN can occur in commercial and homeowner plantings. Frequently, the nematode interacts with other plant pathogens to form a disease complex in which the resulting disease is much more severe than that caused by either component alone. Root-knot nematode is particularly serious when high populations are allowed to build up due to continuous replanting of susceptible plants on the same site. | PPFS-GEN-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,619 words | 1 download | PDF: 917 kb

Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?
5/1/2014 (new)

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs. | PPFS-OR-W-19
web only | 10 pages | 706 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb

Tomato Wilt Problems
5/1/2014 (new)

Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are two fungal diseases that cause similar wilts in tomato. Fusarium wilt tends to be more common during warm weather, while Verticillium wilt is found more often when temperatures are cool. Both diseases share similar symptoms and can be hard to tell apart visually; laboratory tests are often needed for an accurate diagnosis. | PPFS-VG-15
web only | 4 pages | 1,510 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,070 kb

Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky
4/29/2014 (reprinted)

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels. | ID-21
1,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 10,516 words | 131 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Soybean Nutrient Management in Kentucky
4/24/2014 (new)

Soybean grows best on fertile soils. For decades, the University of Kentucky has conducted field studies to establish the relationship between soil nutrient supplies and soybean yield. Adequate soil fertility must be present so that yields are not limited. | AGR-213
web only | 5 pages | 2,814 words | 62 downloads | PDF: 1,015 kb

Ornamental Corn
4/24/2014 (minor revision)

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes. | CCD-CP-72
web only | 3 pages | 984 words | - | PDF: 643 kb

Increasing Dry Cow and Bred Heifer Performance with Environmental Management
4/23/2014 (new)

Producers must understand that dry cows and bred heifers are the next milking herd, so focusing on their management can maintain or actually increase future profitability. This publication focuses on environmental management strategies that improve dry cow and bred heifer performance. | AEN-121
web only | 3 pages | 1,606 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 454 kb

Cyanide Poisoning in Ruminants
4/21/2014 (new)

Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication. | ID-220
web only | 2 pages | 973 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 255 kb

Collection and Preparation of Milk Samples for Microbiological Culturing
4/16/2014 (major revision)

In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions. | ID-180
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,439 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 873 kb

Organic Certification Process
4/14/2014 (minor revision)

Growers who plan to market their agricultural products as "organic" or "certified organic" must first be certified by a USDA accredited certifier. Certification, required by federal regulation, provides third party verification that the grower is complying with production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). Annual inspections and detailed record keeping are required for continuing certification. These strict regulations are meant to protect consumers by ensuring that all organic producers are adhering to the same set of uniform standards. | CCD-SP-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,334 words | - | PDF: 430 kb

4/10/2014 (minor revision)

Most pumpkins are used for ornamental purposes, with the greatest market demand during the Halloween season. Marketing options include: roadside stands, local retailers, wholesale markets, grower marketing associations, consumer supported agriculture (CSA), and U-Pick. Kentucky faces major competition in wholesale pumpkin production from surrounding states, especially Tennessee. Smaller-sized and unique pumpkin varieties, especially those with good eating characteristics, may appeal to many direct market customers. | CCD-CP-114
web only | 3 pages | 1,144 words | - | PDF: 503 kb

High Tunnel Brambles
4/7/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels. | CCD-CP-8
web only | 6 pages | 2,906 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 619 kb

High Tunnel Strawberries
4/4/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production. | CCD-CP-61
web only | 4 pages | 2,061 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 528 kb

How to Make a Country Ham
4/3/2014 (new)

Country hams can be found in grocery stores and specialty shops throughout Southeast and on the internet. Nonetheless, there are some do-it-yourselfers who want to start their own family traditions. Country hams are not difficult to make. The process requires a few easy-to-find ingredients and a secure storage area. Country hams are made in three steps: curing, salt equalization, and aging. These steps are outlined in the manual. | ASC-213
100 printed copies | 9 pages | 4,433 words | 166 downloads | PDF: 6,791 kb

A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System
4/2/2014 (new)

Researchers at the University of Kentucky combined existing disease detection systems to produce a fresh cow examination system that may help producers detect diseases earlier by monitoring subtle changes every day during a cow's fresh period. Compiling daily information about each animal will enable producers to notice changes in health that may otherwise have been overlooked. These records may help producers detect illnesses early, thus reducing the long-term effects (reduced milk production or fertility) and costs (re-treatment, milk loss, or death) of a disease. Learning what diseases are common on a particular farm can focus producers' efforts towards preventive measures specific to their operation. Preventing disease, rather than treating, can save producers time and money and can improve overall cow well-being. | ID-218
web only | 15 pages | 3,501 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb

Grower Cooperatives (Co-ops)
4/1/2014 (minor revision)

Cooperatives have historically been utilized to market wholesale quantities of produce in Kentucky. In the early 2000s, as many as five grower cooperatives in Kentucky were actively marketing tomatoes, melons, sweet corn, cabbage, bell peppers, pumpkins, and other crops to wholesale buyers. By 2006, however, produce marketing by grower co-ops had largely disappeared from Kentucky's produce industry as growers found other ways to ship produce. The involvement of co-ops in marketing produce from Kentucky has since been limited. | CCD-MP-17
web only | 4 pages | 1,467 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 385 kb

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits
4/1/2014 (new)

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe. | PPFS-VG-11
web only | 3 pages | 1,044 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 575 kb

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts
4/1/2014 (new)

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11. | PPFS-VG-11-QF
web only | 2 pages | 300 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 786 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Ergotism
3/31/2014 (new)

Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. It grows on rye, wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and various grasses. Rye and triticale are more susceptible than other grains because they require a longer period of pollination. Grasses potentially infected include tall fescue, bluegrass, brome, canarygrass, quackgrass, timothy, wild barley, and annual and perennial ryegrass. Shallow cultivation, no-till farming, and lack of crop rotation increase the likelihood of infection of crops. Environmental conditions of a cool, wet spring followed by hot early summer temperatures are ideal for the fungus to grow. | VET-34
web only | 2 pages | 964 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Technology to Improve Sprayer Accuracy
3/26/2014 (new)

A number of new technologies have been introduced over the last several years aimed at improving the accuracy of spray application, but do they really work? The purpose of this document is to highlight the most common causes of application errors then discuss the array of new sprayer technologies that are becoming available, how they might affect application accuracy, and pitfalls involved in using them. | PA-9
500 printed copies | 10 pages | 5,166 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Calibrating Fertilizer Spreaders for the Home Lawn
3/25/2014 (new)

How much fertilizer should you use on your lawn? Too much can result in turf burn, wasted product and money, and potential environmental concerns. Too little will result in a low-density lawn that will not be attractive or competitive against weed invasions. To insure that you apply the proper amount of fertilizer to your lawn, you must calibrate your fertilizer spreader. You should calibrate your spreader each time you use a new (different) fertilizer because not all fertilizers have the same particle size or density. The information on the fertilizer bag is a good starting point for the calibration process but remember that spreaders can differ significantly. Calibrating your spreader will take a little bit of work, but the series of fairly simple steps below will help you complete the task. | AGR-211
web only | 4 pages | 2,182 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 2,900 kb

Selling Farm Products at Farmers Markets
3/25/2014 (minor revision)

Farmers markets are used by Kentucky growers of all farm sizes and scales. "Market gardeners" often tend less than an acre of land for selling strictly at the local farmers market. On the other hand, some of Kentucky's largest orchards use local farmers markets as a retail outlet during the fall to command a premium price for their crop. | CCD-MP-6
web only | 6 pages | 2,340 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 811 kb

Soybean Variety Selection
3/20/2014 (major revision)

Soybean variety selection is one of the most important and most difficult management decisions a producer must make each year. It takes careful identification of the problems and needs of the production system. When done properly it increases the chance the variety will reach its full yield potential while eliminating costs for unnecessary traits, resulting in highly profitable returns. | AGR-129
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,941 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 570 kb

Plasticulture Strawberries
3/20/2014 (minor revision)

There is always a market for fresh, local strawberries (Fragaria spp.), and growers able to provide the earliest crop often have the marketing edge. For growers willing to make the investment in time and resources, the annual plasticulture system may allow the grower to have berries about one month sooner than growers using the traditional matted row system. Plasticulture production can either be used as a stand-alone enterprise or as part of a diversified operation. | CCD-CP-16
web only | 3 pages | 1,374 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 491 kb

3/15/2014 (minor revision)

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems. | CCD-CP-2
web only | 3 pages | 1,389 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 519 kb

Stereotypic Behavior in Horses: Weaving, Stall Walking, and Cribbing
3/14/2014 (new)

Many stabled horses perform a variety of repetitive behaviors such as weaving, stall walking, cribbing, headshaking and pawing. These behaviors have been called many different names including stereotypic behavior, stereotypies, stereotypes, obsessive compulsive disorders, vices and habits. Although it may be difficult to know why exactly each horse performs these vices, there may be specific causal factors for these activities in the horse. These behaviors are not simply learned and not simply inherited, but may be a mixture of both. Studies show that some families of horses have a higher prevalence of certain vices, which suggests heritability and genetic components. However, the tendency to perform the behavior only becomes apparent when other risk factors are also in place. | ASC-212
web only | 2 pages | 1,401 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 480 kb

Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses
3/14/2014 (new)

Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued. | HO-110
web only | 17 pages | 9,670 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 5,953 kb

Forage-Related Disorders in Cattle: Nitrate Poisoning
3/10/2014 (new)

Few plants normally contain high nitrate levels, since under normal growing conditions the nitrates are converted to protein as quickly as they are absorbed from the roots. However, under certain conditions plants can develop dangerously high nitrate levels which can cause nitrate intoxication. Death or abortion may result. Care must be taken to recognize possible toxic forages and manage them appropriately to avoid animal loss. | ID-217
web only | 3 pages | 2,447 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 314 kb

3/7/2014 (minor revision)

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning. | CCD-CP-36
web only | 3 pages | 1,035 words | - | PDF: 406 kb

Restoring Streams
3/4/2014 (new)

Stream restoration is the re-establishment of the structure (dimension, pattern, and profile) and function (transport of water, sediment, and nutrients; habitat provision) of a degraded stream as closely as possible to pre-disturbance conditions. | AEN-122
web only | 5 pages | 1,752 words | 112 downloads | PDF: 3,632 kb

Sunflower for Seed
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

Sunflower is classified as either an oil type or a confection (non-oil) type, each with its own distinct market. Seeds from oil types are processed into vegetable oil or as meal in livestock feed. Most confection type seed is sold, with or without the hull, as snack foods. While either type can be packaged for birdseed, the confectionery type is grown in Kentucky for this purpose. Sunflowers are not recommended for oil crop production here. | CCD-CP-43
web only | 3 pages | 898 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 377 kb

Kura Clover
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north. | CCD-CP-35
web only | 2 pages | 751 words | - | PDF: 389 kb

Diagnosis of "No Disease"
3/1/2014 (new)

Extension Agents and growers may occasionally receive diagnostic reports from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory that indicate "no disease was found." One or both of the following explanations may account for the diagnosis of "No Disease." | PPFS-GEN-11
web only | 3 pages | 916 words | 1 download | PDF: 867 kb

Submitting Plant Specimens for Disease Diagnosis
3/1/2014 (new)

Diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the many ways that the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and UK Cooperative Extension serve the citizens of Kentucky. This publication is designed to help growers collect and submit the best plant samples for an accurate diagnosis. | PPFS-GEN-9
web only | 7 pages | 872 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 2,312 kb

2/18/2014 (minor revision)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products | CCD-CP-34
web only | 2 pages | 909 words | - | PDF: 426 kb

Expected Progeny Differences: Trait Definitions and Utilizing Percentile Tables
2/7/2014 (new)

Expected progeny differences (EPDs) are useful tools in providing the best estimate of the genetic value of a particular animal as a parent. Differences in EPDs between parents of the same breed predict the performance differences of their future offspring if environmental factors are the same. EPD values should not be compared between breeds; for example, you should not compare an Angus bull's weaning weight EPD with a Simmental bull's weaning weight EPD. Most established breeds have EPDs for calving ease, growth, maternal, and carcass traits. When used properly, producers can make genetic improvements to their herd through parental selection. This publication is intended to help producers better understand EPDs and how one might use them in selection of replacement animals. | ASC-211
web only | 3 pages | 1,781 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 370 kb

Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
2/6/2014 (new)

The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production. | HO-111
web only | 6 pages | 3,971 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 264 kb

Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves
1/22/2014 (new)

During gestation, the placenta of the cow effectively separates the blood of the fetus from that of the dam and prevents any transfer of protective immunity while in the uterus. Therefore, the calf is born completely dependent on the absorption of maternal antibodies from colostrum after birth. Colostrum is the milk produced from the mammary gland in the first 24 hours after birth. A calf's gastrointestinal tract is designed to temporarily allow the absorption of large molecules including antibodies from the small intestine, but only during the first 24 hours after birth. Although colostrum contains several different types of immunoglobulins, IgG accounts for roughly 85 percent of the total volume. IgG absorption is most efficient in the first four hours of life and declines rapidly after 12 hours of age. At 24 hours, the gut is completely closed and there is no further immunoglobulin absorption. These absorbed antibodies must be consumed in order to protect the calf from disease organisms until its own immune system becomes functional. | VET-33
web only | 3 pages | 1,983 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 280 kb

Fertilizer Management in Alfalfa
1/8/2014 (new)

Alfalfa is a high quality, valuable forage crop that can be successfully produced on most well-drained soils in Kentucky for hay, silage, and grazing. Fertilizing alfalfa can be uniquely challenging because it is a high-yielding crop that removes a tremendous amount of soil nutrients when compared to other crops grown in Kentucky. A thorough understanding of alfalfa's growth habits, nutrient requirements, and soil nutrient supply mechanisms is necessary to effectively manage fertilizer inputs and maximize profitability while minimizing environmental impact. | AGR-210
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,657 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 4 kb

Groundwater Quality
1/6/2014 (new)

Groundwater is an important water source for activities such as drinking, bathing, cooking, and crop irrigation. Keeping our groundwater sources clean is becoming more challenging with an ever growing population. In watersheds underlain with karst, such as many of those in Kentucky, the groundwater is more susceptible to contamination. This is because surface waters, such as runoff and in some cases streamflow, travel into the subsurface of karst by way of fractures, sinkholes, swallow holes, conduits and caves Such direct paths into the groundwater mean that pollutants reach the aquifer much more quickly with little to no filtration. Thus, while waters from springs and wells may look clean, they may actually contain unsafe levels of pollutants such as bacteria and nitrogen. | AEN-120
web only | 3 pages | 888 words | 76 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Selecting Feeds for Horses
1/6/2014 (new)

Feeds should be selected with the nutrient requirements of the horse in mind, recognizing that requirements vary with the life stage of the horse (growing, pregnant, lactating, working, idle). Feeds for horses should always be clean and free from toxins. Feeds should also promote gastrointestinal health. The large intestine (cecum and colon) of the digestive tract contains a diverse population of beneficial microbes that can easily be upset by poor feed selection. In nature horses will spend more than 50% of their time grazing; therefore, feed that promotes similar feeding behavior may be desirable. Once appropriate feeds have been selected, it is important that they are fed in the correct amounts using good feeding management strategies. | ASC-205
web only | 5 pages | 3,082 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,450 kb

Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis
1/1/2014 (minor revision)

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility. | PPFS-AG-S-9
web only | 3 pages | 1,169 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 679 kb

Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance
1/1/2014 (new)

Fungicides are important tools in modern crop production. Unfortunately, one of the risks of using these products is that fungi sometimes develop resistance to them. Resistance development is a concern because the products may become less effective--or even useless--for controlling resistant pathogens and pests. This is a concern for all pesticides, including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. This fact sheet is intended to help pesticide applicators better understand this process. | PPFS-MISC-2
web only | 10 pages | 5,690 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,325 kb

Avian Digestive System
11/20/2013 (new)

An understanding of the avian digestive system is essential to developing an effective and economical feeding program for your poultry flock. Knowledge of avian anatomy, and what the parts normally look like, will also help you to recognize when something is wrong and take the necessary actions to correct the problem. | ASC-203
web only | 4 pages | 1,879 words | 56 downloads | PDF: 2,065 kb

Avian Skeletal System
11/20/2013 (new)

All animals have a skeleton to allow them to stand up and to protect their internal organs and tissues. The avian skeletal system looks similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, but there are some important differences. | ASC-202
web only | 2 pages | 836 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 310 kb

Avian Female Reproductive System
11/20/2013 (new)

Anyone raising poultry for eggs, whether for eating or for incubation, should have an understanding of the reproductive system. This will help them understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them. | ASC-201
web only | 4 pages | 2,250 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 914 kb

Avian Muscular System
11/19/2013 (new)

If you raise poultry for meat, it is always a good idea to have an understanding of the muscular system of poultry so you can better understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them. | ASC-204
web only | 2 pages | 766 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 1,887 kb

Keeping Trash Out of Streams
11/14/2013 (new)

Fresh water is an essential natural resource that is used every day for drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, and recreation. In Kentucky, the water used for these tasks mainly comes from streams and rivers, but it can also come from groundwater. Because our streams, rivers, and aquifers are so vital to our daily lives, it is important that we protect them from trash, debris, and other pollutants found in stormwater. What happens to the land around these water sources affects their condition and health. | AEN-119
web only | 2 pages | 941 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Understanding and Protecting Kentucky's Watersheds
11/8/2013 (new)

Regardless of where you are, you are always in a watershed. A watershed is any area of land that drains water to a single water body such as a stream or lake. | HENV-206
web only | 3 pages | 6,687 words | 93 downloads | PDF: 2,511 kb

Avian Respiratory System
11/1/2013 (new)

Knowledge of avian anatomy and what the parts normally look like will help you to recognize when something is wrong and to take the necessary actions to correct the problem. | ASC-200
web only | 2 pages | 1,304 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

Avian Male Reproductive System
11/1/2013 (new)

The avian male reproductive system is all inside the bird, unlike the males of mammalian species which have their reproductive systems outside of the body. This is one of the really remarkable things about birds; the sperm remain viable at body temperature. | ASC-199
web only | 2 pages | 678 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 843 kb

Processing Chickens
10/31/2013 (new)

When processing poultry, remember that you are producing a perishable food product that will eventually be consumed by people. The goal is to produce a safe, nutritious product. | ASC-210
web only | 7 pages | 3,190 words | 100 downloads | PDF: 3,105 kb

Raising Guinea Fowl
10/31/2013 (new)

Guinea fowl are rough, vigorous, hardy, and mostly disease-free game birds. They are increasing in popularity for a variety of reasons. | ASC-209
web only | 5 pages | 3,750 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 730 kb

Selecting Ducks
10/31/2013 (new)

As with many domesticated species, ducks are selected for different purposes, primarily meat or egg production. They are also valued for their feathers and down. It is important to choose a breed of duck that best suits your particular needs. | ASC-198
web only | 4 pages | 2,311 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 758 kb

Selecting Turkeys
10/31/2013 (new)

Raising wild turkeys is illegal in some states, including Kentucky. The prohibition includes domestic strains of wild birds. The law is meant to protect native populations of wild turkeys. Learn more about selecting the right breed of turkey in this publication. | ASC-197
web only | 3 pages | 1,675 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 664 kb

Selecting Geese
10/31/2013 (new)

Size, behavior and egg production vary according to breed, and the right breed of goose for your flock will depend on what you intend to use them for. This publication will help you decide on the right breed for you. | ASC-196
web only | 3 pages | 1,822 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 663 kb

Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
10/16/2013 (major revision)

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible. | ID-84
web only | 4 pages | 1,862 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 3,130 kb

Managing Insects and Spiders in the Home
8/29/2013 (new)

This guide is designed to help you tell the "bad" bugs from the harmless ones and to show you a few basic steps that you can take to detect the most common indoor pests and to prevent problems before they happen. | HENV-401
web only | 11 pages | 4,738 words | 83 downloads | PDF: 7,891 kb

Managing Stormwater Using Low Impact Development (LID) Techniques
8/21/2013 (new)

As more land is covered by impervious surfaces, less rainfall infiltrates into the ground and instead becomes runoff. Too much runoff is problematic. Flooding increases, streambanks erode, and water quality is reduced. An increase of impervious area of as little 10 percent has been shown to negatively impact streams. The purpose of this publication is to explain low impact development strategies and how they can be used to improve stormwater management by reducing impacts on streams. | AEN-118
web only | 8 pages | 3,384 words | 89 downloads | PDF: 5,300 kb

Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation
8/1/2013 (new)

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease. | PPFS-GEN-5
web only | 3 pages | 919 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 723 kb

Selected Resources for Developing Value-added Products in Kentucky
7/27/2013 (minor revision)

The following list is intended to provide Kentucky growers with resources that will help them on their way to adding value to their raw farm products. Included are the names and contact information of pertinent agencies and departments at the University, State, and Federal levels. Links to government regulations and laws related to processing value-added food products are included, as well as links to other selected Internet resources, fact sheets, and guidebooks. | CCD-MP-16
web only | 7 pages | 2,114 words | - | PDF: 745 kb

How Water Use Impacts Septic System Performance
7/25/2013 (new)

The purpose of this publication is to discuss home water use patterns and suggest water conservation measures that could improve septic system performance and reduce the risks of hydraulic overload or other kinds of system failure. | HENV-509
web only | 4 pages | 1,613 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky
7/22/2013 (new)

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop. | ID-216
3,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,491 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 5,300 kb

Willows for Cuttings
7/18/2013 (minor revision)

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods. | CCD-CP-75
web only | 3 pages | 1,137 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 430 kb

Ornamental Grasses
7/17/2013 (minor revision)

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers, and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery. | CCD-CP-73
web only | 3 pages | 1,193 words | - | PDF: 477 kb

White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market. | CCD-CP-48
web only | 2 pages | 809 words | 1 download | PDF: 344 kb

Dry Beans
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are beans grown to maturity and harvested for the seeds within the pods. Also referred to as field beans, dry beans are primarily grown in the U.S. for human consumption. | CCD-CP-29
web only | 3 pages | 1,084 words | - | PDF: 438 kb

Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program
7/1/2013 (minor revision)

The Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) is providing an incentive to local restaurants to purchase eligible Kentucky Proud products. The Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program reimburses participating restaurants and caterers with a percentage of the purchase cost of qualifying products. | CCD-MP-18
web only | 4 pages | 1,215 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 639 kb

Stormwater Wetlands
7/1/2013 (new)

As our population has grown, so have our towns and cities, and this growth has led to an increase in stormwater runoff. Stormwater best management practices help mitigate the impact of stormwater runoff on water quality by reducing pollutant loads through physical, chemical and/or biological processes. One of the most effective BMPs at improving stormwater quality is the stormwater wetland. | ID-215
web only | 4 pages | 2,647 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Rating Scale for Brown Stripe of Orchardgrass
7/1/2013 (new)

As of right now, there is little published on how to assess foliar disease severity in forage grasses in order to determine the percentage which may be diseased. This publication provides a tool for visually determining the percentage of diseased foliar tissue in orchardgrass. It is based on the observation of individual leaves; however, it is hoped that eventually a rating system will be devised that provides disease percentages for entire plots. | PPFS-AG-F-7
web only | 3 pages | 511 words | - | PDF: 566 kb

Landscape Sanitation
7/1/2013 (new)

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home landscape plantings (Figure 1a), resulting in premature leaf drop, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease. | PPFS-GEN-4
web only | 3 pages | 951 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 644 kb

Cereal Straw Production
6/21/2013 (minor revision)

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production. | CCD-CP-25
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | - | PDF: 532 kb

What is a Watershed?
6/21/2013 (new)

A watershed is an area of land that drains water to a single water body. Watersheds are as small as a few acres draining into a stream or as large as several states draining into the ocean. Smaller watersheds join together to make larger watersheds. Kentucky is divided into seven major watersheds, or basins. Knowing what watershed you live in is a first step toward protecting water quality. | HENV-204
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 586 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 4,306 kb

6/21/2013 (new)

As stormwater moves across lawns and paved areas, it picks up bacteria, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals before traveling through the storm sewers to our water bodies. Because the stormwater is not cleaned or treated, it creates harmful conditions for the environment and for us. | HENV-203
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 501 words | 109 downloads | PDF: 3,675 kb

Planting Along Your Stream, Pond, or Lake
6/21/2013 (new)

Kentucky has more than 90,000 miles of rivers and streams and thousands of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. You can improve your surroundings and the quality of your stream, pond, or lake by planting an area called a riparian buffer or buffer zone. | HENV-202
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 710 words | 112 downloads | PDF: 3,979 kb

Corn for Grain and Silage
6/15/2013 (minor revision)

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products | CCD-CP-28
web only | 3 pages | 1,003 words | - | PDF: 360 kb

What's Wrong with My Taxus?
6/5/2013 (major revision)

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors. | ID-52
web only | 4 pages | 2,010 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb

Popcorn and Blue Corn
6/4/2013 (minor revision)

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels. | CCD-CP-38
web only | 2 pages | 894 words | 1 download | PDF: 532 kb

Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants
6/1/2013 (new)

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below. | PPFS-OR-W-17
web only | 4 pages | 1,587 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 681 kb

Red and White Clover
5/28/2013 (minor revision)

Red and white (ladino) clovers are high quality forage legumes with excellent feed value and animal palatability. Red clover (Trifolium pretense), a tall-growing and short-lived perennial, is used for hay, pasture, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitats. While white clover (Trifolium repens), a low-growing perennial, is best suited for grazing, it can also be used for soil improvement and reclaiming disturbed land. | CCD-CP-39
web only | 2 pages | 731 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 512 kb

On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

Animal mortalities are an expected part of animal production. Depending on the scale of the animal enterprise, animal mortalities can overwhelm the producer with a large number and mass of dead animals. This publication provides guidance to the producer for handling animal mortalities in accordance with Kentucky law. | ID-167
web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

On-Farm Composting of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

On-farm composting can provide animal producers with a convenient method for disposing of animal mortalities and also provide a valuable soil amendment. In addition, the finished compost can be stockpiled and reused to help compost other mortalities. | ID-166
web only | 6 pages | 2,973 words | 101 downloads | PDF: 2,800 kb

Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens, 2013
5/6/2013 (major revision)

Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases. | ID-133
web only | 8 pages | 814 words | 126 downloads | PDF: 425 kb

Poultry Production Troubleshooting
5/1/2013 (new)

When investigating a problem with a poultry flock, the questions in this publication can help you determine the cause and possible solution. | ASC-194
web only | 4 pages | 1,649 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 272 kb

Switchgrass for Bioenergy
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial bunchgrass native to portions of Kentucky. Once a major component of the Midwestern prairies, switchgrass stands have dwindled as natural grasslands have given way to expanding farms and developments. | CCD-CP-46
web only | 4 pages | 1,779 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 557 kb

Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky. | PPFS-AG-S-19
web only | 6 pages | 2,197 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 856 kb

Mulching with Large Round Bales between Plastic-covered Beds
4/26/2013 (new)

Large round bales lend themselves very well to the application of mulching rows of vegetables because the bales can be unrolled to peel off layers that are about the right thickness for mulch. An innovative implement that offsets the bale so that it can be unrolled between the rows while the tractor straddles the row can make the practice of mulching with round bales considerably more efficient. | ID-214
250 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,335 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb

2011 Kentucky Compost Bedded Pack Barn Project
4/26/2013 (new)

Kentucky dairy producers are adopting compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) as dairy cattle housing at a rapid rate. When properly managed, as an alternative dairy housing system, CBPs may decrease somatic cell count (SCC), increase production, and reduce lameness. Because the system is relatively new, however, many questions remain regarding best management practices and key factors for success. University of Kentucky dairy scientists and agricultural engineers conducted a comprehensive observational study of Kentucky CBPs from October 2010 to March 2011. The goal of this research was to determine key management concepts that determine success or failure in the compost-bedded pack system. | ID-213
web only | 13 pages | 6,600 words | 87 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Using DHIA Records for Somatic Cell Count Management
4/26/2013 (new)

DHIA (Dairy Herd Improvement Association) records are an essential part of dairy herd management for many progressive dairy operations. However, for producers new to DHIA, interpreting the meaning of all this information can be a bit overwhelming. Even producers who have been DHIA members for many years may not fully understand all the value that DHIA records can provide for SCC management. What follows is a description and interpretation of SCC-related information available to dairy producers on DHIA test reports. | ID-212
web only | 5 pages | 1,560 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 915 kb

Modifying a Bale Unroller for Mulching between Plastic-covered Beds
4/25/2013 (new)

Round bales of hay or straw can be used to mulch between rows of plastic film mulch used in vegetable production. This practice may be particularly useful for organic production where herbicide use is prohibited. To make the job of unrolling round bales between rows of plastic easier, a commercially available three-point hitch mounted bale unroller was modified by extending the toolbar and adding a second mast so that the bale is offset, allowing the tractor to straddle a row of plastic while unrolling the bale between the rows. | AEN-117
250 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,496 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 3,400 kb

Environmental Compliance for Dairy Operations
4/24/2013 (new)

Some farmers are reluctant to talk about the environment, but because farms are under increasing review by state and federal regulatory agencies, producers need to be familiar with environmental issues and regulations. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can help farmers continue to protect the environment and increase productivity. | ID-200
web only | 6 pages | 4,179 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel
4/18/2013 (new)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results. | CCD-CP-44
web only | 3 pages | 1,465 words | 1 download | PDF: 434 kb

4/18/2013 (minor revision)

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors. | CCD-CP-23
web only | 2 pages | 992 words | - | PDF: 623 kb

Selected Resources and References for Commercial Greenhouse Operators
4/18/2013 (minor revision)

Books can be obtained from the publisher (known links are provided), by ordering through a local bookstore, or by ordering through an industry trade magazine (books are generally advertised in each issue). Book sources can also be located by searching the Internet using the title as the keyword. | CCD-SP-4
web only | 3 pages | 862 words | 1 download | PDF: 553 kb

Mowing Your Kentucky Lawn
4/15/2013 (new)

Mowing is a recurring cutting of a portion of a grass shoot. Lawns are mowed to maintain topgrowth within a specific range, to control weed plants that are intolerant to mowing, or to sustain an ornamental turf. Mowing is usually thought of as the most simple of lawn maintenance practices; however, even though we perform it more than any other, it can result in mistakes. | AGR-209
web only | 4 pages | 2,119 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 4,500 kb

4/5/2013 (minor revision)

Edible young bamboo shoots are used in cooking, while mature canes (or culms) are harvested for timber uses that include fences, stakes, fishing poles, crafts, flooring, and furniture. Because they are capable of removing high levels of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, bamboos are being promoted for their environmental benefits. | CCD-CP-77
web only | 4 pages | 1,968 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 442 kb

Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses. | CCD-CP-45
web only | 3 pages | 1,161 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb

4/2/2013 (minor revision)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the highest yield potential and highest feeding values of all adapted perennial forage legumes. It is a versatile crop that may be used for pasture, hay, silage, green-chop, pellets, cubes, soil improvement, and soil conservation. | CCD-CP-21
web only | 3 pages | 998 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 426 kb

Feedlot Design and Environmental Management for Backgrounding and Stocker Operations
3/21/2013 (new)

Kentucky's cattle industry represents the largest beef cattle herd east of the Mississippi, ranking eighth in the nation for number of beef cows. This industry is extremely important to Kentucky's economy. This publication discusses site evaluation strategies, production area management techniques, and a variety of facility types for intensive cattle production that preserve natural resources and improve production. | ID-202
125 printed copies | 12 pages | 6,071 words | 130 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb

Specialty Soybeans
3/19/2013 (minor revision)

The first commercial use of soybean (Glycine max) was for its oil; however, this crop is now considered a valuable source of protein as well. Specialty or novel soybeans are used to produce various soyfoods of Asian origin, such as tofu, miso, soy sauce, natto, soymilk, and tempeh. Assorted health food snacks, energy foods, and cereals are also produced from specialty soybeans. Other uses include bean sprouts and soy nuts. | CCD-CP-41
web only | 4 pages | 1,605 words | 1 download | PDF: 922 kb

Pre-Investment Considerations for Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
3/18/2013 (new)

Precision dairy farming involves the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual animals. The primary goals of precision dairy farming are to 1) maximize individual animal performance, 2) detect diseases early, and 3) minimize the use of medication through preventive health measures. | ASC-208
web only | 3 pages | 1,858 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 270 kb

Stall Bases: Are Your Cows Comfortable?
3/18/2013 (new)

Cow comfort generally refers to minimizing animal stress in order to maximize milk production and animal well-being. Lying behavior plays a critical role in the production, profitability, and well-being of dairy cattle. The potential economic impact of increased production, reduced lameness, improved milk quality, reduced culling rates, and increased longevity are immense. | ASC-207
web only | 3 pages | 1,703 words | 67 downloads | PDF: 640 kb

Specialty Field Corns
3/18/2013 (minor revision)

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use. | CCD-CP-40
web only | 3 pages | 995 words | - | PDF: 512 kb

Growing Forest Botanicals and Medicinals
3/15/2013 (new)

If you are interested in producing some of Kentucky's native medicinal plants, the first step is to gather as much information about them as possible. This publication includes useful information including a list of helpful books, contacts, and organizations. | FOR-91
100 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,685 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 2,695 kb

Shiitake Production: Production Options
3/12/2013 (new)

This series of publications emphasizes growing shiitake mushrooms on natural hardwood logs. The denser hardwoods (oaks, hickories, chestnut) seem to produce better over the long run, and other hardwoods (maples, sweetgum) may begin to produce more quickly but will exhaust more quickly also. | FOR-90
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 864 words | 51 downloads | PDF: 242 kb

Shiitake Production: Marketing
3/12/2013 (new)

The most common outlets for marketing your shiitake mushrooms are farmers markets, whole food and health food stores, restaurants and restaurant suppliers, supermarkets (especially locally owned rather than the national chains), produce buyers, and produce wholesalers. | FOR-87
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,326 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 623 kb

Shiitake Production: Processing and Storage
3/12/2013 (new)

How you handle your mushrooms depends on whether you plan to market them fresh or dried, retail or wholesale. | FOR-86
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,687 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 740 kb

Shiitake Production: Pest Control
3/12/2013 (new)

Shiitake mushrooms do not have many pests. Many problems with insects and competitive fungi can be avoided by timely cutting and inoculating of shiitake logs, and by good hygiene and maintenance practices. | FOR-84
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 966 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 1,620 kb

Shiitake Production: Incubation and Stacking
3/12/2013 (new)

Monitor your logs for shade, moisture, and pest and disease problems while they are incubating. If firewood- or teepee-stacked logs are losing too much moisture, you may need to rearrange the stacks. (The bottom logs will always retain more moisture). Lean-to stacked logs should be more even in their moisture content, but they too can be reversed if necessary. | FOR-83
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,138 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 1,675 kb

Shiitake Production: Log Selection and Preparation
3/12/2013 (new)

Shiitake mushrooms grow well on many species of hardwood tree. The Shii tree, native to Japan where these mushrooms originate, is in the same family as our oak trees, so all kinds of oaks are useful for shiitake production. | FOR-79
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,105 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 477 kb

Greenhouse Sanitation
3/1/2013 (new)

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants. | PPFS-GH-4
web only | 3 pages | 942 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 640 kb

Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants
3/1/2013 (new)

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease. | PPFS-OR-W-18
web only | 3 pages | 806 words | 1 download | PDF: 534 kb

Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns
2/25/2013 (new)

The best defense against weed problems in home lawns is a healthy and dense lawn. In thick lawns, weed seeds may not germinate because light may never reach the soil surface. A thick lawn is competitive with weeds, keeping them from growing and reproducing. Developing a healthy and dense lawn comes from using cultural practices such as proper grass species and cultivar selection, proper mowing heights and fertilization, and other good management practices. The need for herbicides to control weeds in home lawns can be greatly reduced if the lawn is well maintained. | AGR-208
500 printed copies | 6 pages | 1,878 words | 129 downloads | PDF: 390 kb

Landscaping Septic Systems with Native Plants
2/15/2013 (new)

Septic system components sometimes have unsightly aboveground pipes, risers, ventilation systems, or large mounds. Homeowners can improve the appearance of these functional features through site design and, in particular, plant material selection. | HENV-508
web only | 6 pages | 2,782 words | 89 downloads | PDF: 1,384 kb

Drought-Stressed Corn Silage Valuation, 2012
2/6/2013 (new)

Extended dry conditions have impacted the corn crop severely in many areas of the state this year. As the condition of the corn crop deteriorates, many have been forced to look at salvage options such as cutting corn for silage and possibly hay for some fields. Due to the extreme weather conditions this year, this publication will focus on valuing drought-stressed corn silage. | ID-205
web only | 6 pages | 4,213 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 445 kb

Sustainable Production Systems: Efficient Wholesale Nursery Layout
1/31/2013 (new)

This publication provides the framework for planning and implementing efficient wholesale nursery layout. Concepts and ideas presented here are applicable to new construction or the modification of an existing nursery. A basic approach toward creating efficient systems will be discussed as well as common nursery activities that may require consideration during the planning stages. Functional areas will be defined, and a framework for understanding the relationships between these functional areas will be presented. | HO-109
web only | 10 pages | 7,699 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 4,000 kb

Algae-Based CO2 Mitigation for Coal-Fired Power Plants
1/22/2013 (new)

As the world's population swells and the needs of developing countries increase, the world's overall energy usage also continues to rise. Recent international legislation emphasizes the effects of climate change and the crucial need to find a way to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions being released into the environment. Consequently, power plants have an increased urgency to find a viable way to decrease their GHG emissions. This issue has prominent implications for Kentucky due to our economy's dependence upon coal production. | AEN-116
web only | 3 pages | 1,233 words | 87 downloads | PDF: 1,938 kb

Development of the Chick
1/14/2013 (new)

Poultry eggs are part of a unique reproductive system. The egg serves to protect and provide nutrients to the developing embryo. Since the embryo receives no additional nutrients from the hen, the egg must contain all the nutrients essential for life. Nutrients are found in the yolk, the albumen, and the shell of the egg. The egg is a convenient, self-contained package for studying embryology. | ASC-195
web only | 3 pages | 1,151 words | 93 downloads | PDF: 700 kb

2012 Land Value and Cash Rent Survey
1/9/2013 (major revision)

In January 2012, Agriculture and Natural Resource (ANR) agents were surveyed to estimate land values and rental rates for various types of farmland. This document summarizes the results from the agent survey. Dollar values are rounded to the nearest $5-$10 for rental rates and $100 for land values. | AEC-97
web only | 4 pages | 1,249 words | 103 downloads | PDF: 728 kb

Poultry Producer Liability
12/10/2012 (new)

As more and more producers begin to have small- or medium-sized poultry operations the issue of liability and responsibility has become a concern. It is important producers are aware of what is expected of them by consumers and society as a whole. | ASC-193
web only | 2 pages | 1,554 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 270 kb

How Much Will My Chickens Eat?
12/10/2012 (new)

Before purchasing chicks (or chickens) it is important to consider the cost of keeping them. Much of this cost is in the feed they consume. So the key question is, "How much will my chickens eat?" Chickens need a complete feed that contains protein (with the right balance of amino acids), energy, vitamins, and minerals. Today we know more about the nutritional requirements of chickens than any other animal. The amount of feed they need will depend on several factors. | ASC-191
web only | 3 pages | 2,070 words | 94 downloads | PDF: 320 kb

Selecting the Right Chicken Breed
12/10/2012 (new)

Many factors should be considered before selecting a chicken breed for your flock, whether you are planning to start a new flock or to add to an existing one. You might be looking for a meat breed, an egg breed, or perhaps a breed that performs reasonably well at both (referred to as a dual-purpose breed). Perhaps you just want a pet or chickens to show at exhibitions. | ASC-190
web only | 3 pages | 2,290 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Making a Hoop Pen for Pasture Poultry
12/10/2012 (new)

Interest in pasture poultry production has been on the rise. This kind of poultry production typically involves housing the birds in a bottomless pen that is placed on pasture and moved at regular intervals. The flock has access to the pasture (plants and any associated insects) while providing them some protection from predators. | ASC-189
web only | 8 pages | 2,254 words | 156 downloads | PDF: 4,600 kb

The Kentucky Agricultural Economic Outlook for 2013
12/5/2012 (new)

| AEC-99
web only | 4 pages | - | 70 downloads | PDF: 490 kb

Management of the Dry Cow to Prevent Mastitis
11/30/2012 (new)

As we move into a new era of lower acceptable somatic cell count levels, the prevention and control of mastitis takes on increased importance. For many years, the contagious mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis were the focus of control measures primarily implemented in the milking parlor to stop the spread of these organisms from cow to cow. These contagious organisms often cause high individual somatic cell counts and ultimately high bulk tank somatic cell counts. As these high somatic cell count cows have been culled due to milk marketing regulations and more dairymen have adopted NMC recommended milking procedures, the contagious pathogens are decreasing. | ID-209
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,647 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 430 kb

Recommended Milking Procedures for Maximum Milk Quality
11/30/2012 (new)

When it comes to minimizing mastitis and lowering somatic cell counts, the area where you have the most control is your milking procedures. Understanding and following proper milking procedures is a critical step to maintaining maximum milk quality. | ID-208
web only | 4 pages | 1,807 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb

Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?
11/27/2012 (new)

Egg production in a chicken flock follows a typical curve. While the curve is similar for most breeds of chickens, the specific numbers can vary significantly, especially with regards to age at first egg, peak production rate, and egg weight. | ASC-192
web only | 5 pages | 3,399 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Compost Bedded Pack Barn Design: Features and Management Consideration
11/12/2012 (new)

The compost bedded pack barn is a housing system for lactating dairy cows. It consists of a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings and manure composted into place and mechanically stirred on a regular basis. | ID-206
web only | 32 pages | 5,724 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 15,444 kb

Using Weep Berms to Improve Water Quality
11/9/2012 (new)

Non-point source pollution (NPS) occurs when rainfall and snowmelt flows over the ground, picking up pollutants such as pathogens, sediments, and nutrients on its way to streams, rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. More than 50 percent of the nation's rivers and streams and nearly 70 percent of the nation's lakes are impacted by NPS. Pathogens, sediments, and nutrients are the biggest contributors to impairment of rivers and streams while mercury, nutrients, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are the biggest contributors to the impairment of lakes. One method of managing NPS pollution is through the use of structural best management practices (BMPs). Structural BMPs are designed to decrease the volume of runoff that enters water bodies by increasing infiltration rates. Examples of structural BMPs include rain gardens, stormwater wetlands, and riparian buffers. A newer structural BMP is a weep berm. | AEN-114
web only | 8 pages | 3,832 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 4,400 kb

10/24/2012 (new)

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals. | CCD-CP-47
web only | 3 pages | 1,225 words | - | PDF: 434 kb

10/24/2012 (new)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production. | CCD-CP-22
web only | 3 pages | 1,482 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb

10/23/2012 (new)

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). | CCD-CP-65
web only | 4 pages | 1,887 words | 1 download | PDF: 439 kb

Saving Water at Home
10/17/2012 (new)

By conserving water, we decrease our demand for energy-intensive systems that obtain, treat, and distribute water. Simply put, by conserving water we save energy. | HENV-601
web only | 7 pages | 3,036 words | 56 downloads | PDF: 1,902 kb

Considerations for Starting an On-Farm Dairy Processing Enterprise
10/17/2012 (new)

With proper facilities and education, entreprenuers can successfully produce value-added dairy products on-farm. | ID-207
web only | 5 pages | 3,084 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 327 kb

Black Rot of Grape
10/1/2012 (new)

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses. | PPFS-FR-S-16
web only | 4 pages | 1,272 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis ("Pinkeye") in Cattle
9/24/2012 (major revision)

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as pinkeye, is a costly disease for the beef producer. Tremendous losses stem from poor weight gain and loss of appetite in affected animals suffering from visual impairment and ocular pain. | ID-135
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,053 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 325 kb

Flood Conditions and Your Septic System
9/19/2012 (new)

The most common septic systems used in the United States employ soil treatment area to treat and disperse wastewater into the environment. The soil treatment area consists of a network of perforated pipes within gravel-filled trenches. Under normal environmental conditions, well designed and managed septic systems work very well at dispersing wastewater and removing pathogens from the wastewater before they reach groundwater or surface waters. | HENV-507
web only | 3 pages | 1,078 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,002 kb

Impacts of Additives on Septic System Performance
9/19/2012 (new)

Septic system additive vendors often market their products as necessities that improve septic system performance or repair failing systems. Rather than address specific products, this publication examines general categories of these additives. This publication also describes the treatment functions of septic systems and the available scientific data regarding the effectiveness of septic system additives. | HENV-505
web only | 4 pages | 1,438 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 697 kb

Importance of Wastewater Biological Oxygen Demand in Septic Systems
9/19/2012 (new)

A high BOD value means potential septic system problems for homeowners; a low BOD means fewer problems for homeowners. This publication describes the environmental impacts of BOD, shows how BOD is distributed in septic systems, and describes remediation strategies for excess BOD. | HENV-504
web only | 4 pages | 1,432 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,224 kb

Septic Tanks: The Primary Treatment Device of Septic Systems
9/19/2012 (new)

Septic tanks play an essential role in effectively treating wastewater in areas without municipal sewage treatment. Homeowners often assume that the septic tank in their backyard is their septic system. Actually, the tank is merely the first of a series of components that make up a well-designed septic system. | HENV-503
web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 1,720 kb

Septic System Failure and Environmental Impacts
9/19/2012 (new)

More than one-third of new homes and over half of the mobile homes in the U.S. depend on septic systems. Here in Kentucky, approximately 40 percent of the homes have septic systems. This is common in the southeast, where there are more septic systems per capita than any other region of the country. | HENV-502
web only | 3 pages | 1,196 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 630 kb

Septic System Maintenance: Care and Feeding of Your System
9/19/2012 (new)

This publication provides homeowners with a basic introduction to septic systems by explaining how septic systems function and suggesting ways to better maintain systems and increase their longevity. | HENV-501
web only | 4 pages | 1,337 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,596 kb

Turfgrass Color: Indicator of Septic System Performance
9/13/2012 (new)

Many homeowners notice color differences in the turfgrass over their septic system soil treatment area. Most often, homeowners observe green or brown stripes in their turfgrass relative to the surrounding lawn. This discoloration is worth keeping an eye on because turfgrass color is often an early sign that serious problems are about to occur. | HENV-506
web only | 3 pages | 697 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 1,135 kb

Edible Flowers
9/5/2012 (minor revision)

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption. | CCD-CP-69
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 396 kb

Downy Mildew of Soybean
9/1/2012 (minor revision)

Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust. | PPFS-AG-S-3
web only | 2 pages | 512 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 538 kb

Southernpean (Cowpea)
8/28/2012 (minor revision)

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed. | CCD-CP-119
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 432 kb

Feeding the Broodmare: Four Easy Steps
8/22/2012 (new)

The nutritional needs of broodmares change as they go through the stages of reproduction. This publication begins with nutritional strategies to enhance the likelihood a mare will become pregnant, then it discusses feeding management of the mare during pregnancy and lactation, and it ends with some nutritional considerations for the post-weaning period. | ASC-185
web only | 4 pages | 2,998 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 1,750 kb

Selecting and Planting Wody Ornamental Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 21
8/6/2012 (new)

Woody ornamental plants are key components of a well-designed landscape. Landscape plantings divide and define areas, add aesthetic and psychological benefits, and increase a property's environmental and economic values. | HO-107
web only | 18 pages | 9,171 words | 103 downloads | PDF: 880 kb

Mulch Myths
8/6/2012 (new)

Mulch is one of the essentials of good landscaping. It can be used to protect trees, suppress weeds, fertilize plants and retain soil moisture. Like many traditional practices, the use of mulch has some myths attached to it. You can improve the look of your landscape as well as the health of your plants and trees by learning the facts--and discarding the myths--about mulch. | HO-106
web only | 2 pages | 414 words | 140 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb

Trees, Turf, and People
8/6/2012 (new)

The shade trees and fruit trees that we treasure in our landscapes were originally adapted to growing in forests in close association with other trees. In the forest they can remain small for many years. As soon as there is an opening in the canopy allowing light to reach the forest floor they grow rapidly. This great height allows trees to assume a place of dominance over other plants; their trunks lift their leaves high into the air, allowing them to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight before it reaches other plants. Thus, trees grow tall and provide us with their much-appreciated shade. | ID-203
web only | 4 pages | 2,432 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Apple Scab
8/1/2012 (new)

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring. | PPFS-FR-T-13
web only | 3 pages | 1,045 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 486 kb

Fire Blight
8/1/2012 (minor revision)

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year. | PPFS-FR-T-12
web only | 4 pages | 1,556 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 650 kb

Introductory Safety Training for Tobacco Workers
7/25/2012 (new)

This safety bulletin is intended to offer introductory safety training to tobacco workers in conjunction with a farm walk-around. It was written as if you and your workers are standing in or around the object currently being discussed, e.g., a tractor, with you or a designated assistant pointing out the various safety issues listed in the bulletin. It is not meant to be used as a stand-alone bulletin, especially just in a room, unless you have already gone through the walk-around and are reviewing points or having a discussion. It must be used out by the barn, equipment, or other subject being discussed. | ID-204
2,500 printed copies | 16 pages | 2,237 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 476 kb

Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean
7/1/2012 (minor revision)

Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRSR), caused by Phythophthora sojae, is infrequently encountered in Kentucky. However, where it does occur, the disease can be quite destructive. Soon after planting, P. sojae can cause damping-off of germinating seeds and/or young seedlings. Severe stand loss often necessitates replanting. Alternately, this pathogen can infect and kill established plants of susceptible soybean varieties any time during the season. Varieties that have some resistance to P. sojae may be stunted, but rarely die. PRSR is primarily a problem in poorly drained fields (due to high clay content, "hard pan," and/or soil compaction) or areas of fields that are prone to flooding. | PPFS-AG-S-4
web only | 3 pages | 446 words | 1 download | PDF: 355 kb

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Legal Considerations
6/28/2012 (minor revision)

Wildcrafters who want to harvest materials outside their own property lines need to know there are laws which protect other privately owned property and public areas from unauthorized harvesting and trespassing. Poaching, the illegal taking of wild plants or animals, is a serious problem in Kentucky. Not only are there legal ramifications, but poaching is also responsible for the decline in selected native Kentucky plant species, such lady slipper orchids. Some plant species are protected by state and/or federal laws. Even plant material collected and sold from personally owned property is not without its legal restrictions. | CCD-SP-14
web only | 6 pages | 2,733 words | - | PDF: 713 kb

High Tunnel Overview
6/12/2012 (new)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer. | CCD-SP-2
web only | 7 pages | 3,489 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 963 kb

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Environmental Issues
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

Whether collecting for personal use or for commercial sales, wildcrafting has the potential of adversely impacting our native plant populations. While the effects of collecting NTFPs are not always as obvious as, for example, harvesting timber in logging operations, some wildcrafting activities can cause subtle but lasting damage to the forest ecology. | CCD-SP-13
web only | 3 pages | 1,403 words | - | PDF: 815 kb

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income. | CCD-SP-12
web only | 6 pages | 2,512 words | 1 download | PDF: 877 kb

Brown Spot of Soybean
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

Brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines, is present in all soybean fields in Kentucky. In most years the disease causes little to no yield impact; however, up to 15% yield losses can occur in select environments. For example, brown sport tends to be worse where soybeans follow no-till soybeans, where early-maturing varieties are planted, and/or when fields are planted in late April. River bottom fields or fields subject to fog or morning shade are frequently impacted. | PPFS-AG-S-1
web only | 2 pages | 666 words | 1 download | PDF: 420 kb

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) in Kentucky
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a potentially devastating virus disease of wheat. In the United States, WSM is most prevalent in hard red wheat grown in the central Great Plains region. Soft red winter wheat produced in the mid-south and Midwest is infrequently impacted by WSM. Epidemics are rare in Kentucky with the only recorded ones occurring in 1989 and 2000. | PPFS-AG-SG-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,453 words | 1 download | PDF: 282 kb

Organic Gardening: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 18
5/7/2012 (new)

Organic gardening offers the gardener many benefits--a safe, low-chemical gardening environment, produce free from synthetic pesticide residues, and gardens that can increase in fertility and natural pest control over time. However, reaping the benefits of organic management requires planning, observation, and thinking about the garden as an interconnected system of soils, plants, pests, and beneficial organisms. | HO-100
web only | 12 pages | 5,684 words | 100 downloads | PDF: 615 kb

Rose Rosette Disease
5/1/2012 (new)

Rose rosette is a devastating disease that is a threat to virtually all cultivated roses (Rosa spp.) in Kentucky, regardless of cultivar. Even rose cultivars known for their exceptional disease resistance and hardiness are susceptible to rose rosette disease. Losses can occur in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and botanical garden plantings. | PPFS-OR-W-16
web only | 3 pages | 962 words | 1 download | PDF: 383 kb

Black Root Rot of Ornamentals
5/1/2012 (minor revision)

Black root rot can affect a wide range of ornamentals in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and greenhouses. In Kentucky, this disease is commonly observed on Japanese and blue hollies, inkberry, pansy, petunia, and vinca. In addition to ornamentals, numerous vegetable and agronomic crops are susceptible. | PPFS-OR-W-3
web only | 3 pages | 873 words | 1 download | PDF: 585 kb

Corn Shocks
4/24/2012 (minor revision)

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower. | CCD-CP-68
web only | 2 pages | 767 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb

Prechilling Switchgrass Seed on Farm to Break Dormancy
4/23/2012 (new)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial bunch-type grass native to the North American Tallgrass Prairie. It has been investigated as a renewable energy crop due to its high productivity across a wide geographic range including various environmental conditions and soil types. Switchgrass has also been used for erosion control, summer grazing in pasture and hay systems for cattle, native prairie restoration, wildlife habitat, fiber production, and as an ornamental grass. | ID-199
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,590 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Help! My Horse is Too Fat!
4/19/2012 (new)

As we understand more about the impact that obesity has on animal health, it is imperative that we strive to keep our horses at an optimum body condition. | ASC-187
web only | 4 pages | 2,833 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 413 kb

Nutrient Management Concepts for Livestock Producers
3/27/2012 (new)

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients (specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment. | AEN-113
web only | 5 pages | 2,133 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 345 kb

3/27/2012 (major revision)

Roses have many landscape uses. They can be placed as accent plants or used to form hedges or ground covers. They offer a rainbow of colors and a variety of forms and fragrances, and their sizes range from miniatures to tall climbing plants. Roses may be grown under many climatic and soil conditions and, with care, thrive and produce flowers for many years. | ID-118
2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 7,927 words | 70 downloads | PDF: 3,331 kb

Your Yard and Water Quality: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 11
3/26/2012 (new)

We generally view gardening as a wholesome activity that enhances our environment. But pesticides, fertilizers, and erosion from gardens and landscapes can contaminate lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Since the quality of our water resources affects our quality of life, we must learn how gardening practices can contribute to water contamination and how to reduce the threat to water quality. | ID-201
web only | 8 pages | 2,589 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 410 kb

Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky
3/22/2012 (major revision)

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides. | ID-88
web only | 16 pages | 7,345 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 3,700 kb

A New Concept in On-Farm Biofuel Production
3/19/2012 (new)

For many social, political, and economic reasons, biofuels are moving quickly from the fuel of tomorrow to the fuel of today. Researchers at the University of Kentucky are working on a new system of biofuel production that involves on-farm processing of biomass. This factsheet provides a general overview of this new concept that could have a great impact on agriculture and the fuel-production industry. | AEN-112
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 802 words | 118 downloads | PDF: 235 kb

Landscape Design: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 17
3/12/2012 (new)

This chapter is not meant to define the art of landscape design but rather to help you take a realistic approach to landscape planning. Your end design should meet your needs and incorporate principles of sustainability into an evolving landscape. | HO-105
web only | 20 pages | 5,654 words | 122 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Growing Tree Fruits: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 16
3/12/2012 (new)

Growing tree fruits and/or nuts can provide a great deal of satisfaction, but it takes a commitment to care for your trees year-round. | HO-104
web only | 14 pages | 4,766 words | 131 downloads | PDF: 900 kb

Indoor Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 14
3/12/2012 (new)

A houseplant is simply an outdoor plant that is grown indoors. Not all plants are suitable for indoor culture. Some require environmental conditions that are impossible to duplicate indoors. Others adapt to indoor culture if their minimum growth requirements are provided. The key to successful indoor plant culture is to select plants that are adaptable to the conditions in your home. | HO-103
web only | 14 pages | 5,850 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 950 kb

Annual and Perennial Flowers: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 13
3/12/2012 (new)

Can you imagine a world without flowers? Their textures, colors, scents, and forms inspire gardeners, artists, and writers. The desire to grow flowers often motivates novices to take up gardening and moves experienced gardeners to become flower specialists. Annuals, biennials, and herbaceous perennials offer variety and interest to all styles of gardens. | HO-102
web only | 14 pages | 5,317 words | 104 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Care of Woody Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 12
3/12/2012 (new)

To prune or not to prune? This is a question that gardeners often faces gardeners. Most feel they ought to prune but are not sure why or how. Pruning is an accepted practice in orchards and frequently is done in rose gardens, but it is used haphazardly elsewhere. Ornamentals are most often pruned only when a shrub or tree begins to encroach on its neighbors, a walkway, or a building. | HO-101
web only | 20 pages | 7,419 words | 62 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb

Butanol: The New Biofuel
3/8/2012 (new)

Butanol is a type of alcohol that has received renewed interest recently as a potential green alternative to petroleum fuels. This factsheet gives a basic history and description of butanol and its potential use as a biofuel in gasoline and diesel engines. | AEN-111
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 653 words | 83 downloads | PDF: 220 kb

Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis
3/5/2012 (reprinted)

Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial cause of contagious mastitis on dairy farms worldwide. More importantly, it is often at the root of chronically high somatic cell counts, recurrent clinical mastitis, and damaged mammary gland tissue. It is considered to be a contagious udder pathogen that spreads within and between cows during milking. Because it is often subclinical (milk looks normal but with a potentially high somatic cell count), infected animals pose a risk of infection to herd mates during each milking. | ID-190
200 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,035 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 271 kb

Gooseberries and Currants
2/27/2012 (minor revision)

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces. | CCD-CP-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,282 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,000 kb

Vegetative Filter Strips for Livestock Facilities
2/23/2012 (new)

An enhanced vegetative strip is a best management practice that can be installed to protect surface waters from pollution produced by animal production facilities. Most people think of a vegetative strip as a grassed area or waterway, but when intentionally installed and properly managed, an EVS can be much more effective than a simple grassed filter strip. If properly managed, enhanced vegetative strips can be used to trap, treat, and absorb pollutants, which can be removed from the designated area by harvesting or grazing. | ID-189
web only | 4 pages | 2,364 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 380 kb

Sweetpotato Production for Kentucky
2/21/2012 (new)

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a member of the morningglory or Convolvulaceae family. Sweetpotatoes have their origins in tropical America, with early remains having been found in Panama, Peru and Mexico. A perennial plant in their native regions, they are typically killed by frost when grown in a temperate climate. Sweetpotatoes are true roots and not tubers as is the case with the Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Because they are true roots they will continue to grow and enlarge as long as the plant continues to grow. | ID-195
500 printed copies | 16 pages | 6,240 words | 51 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Understanding and Quantifying Year-to-Year Changes in the ACRE Revenue Guarantee
2/20/2012 (new)

The United States Department of Agriculture's Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program guarantees producers revenue at the state level, which is tied to state crop production and the National Average Market Price. Payments trigger when the current state revenue is less than the ACRE program guarantee. | AEC-98
120 printed copies | 2 pages | 686 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 235 kb

2/6/2012 (minor revision)

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta) is a subspecies of wheat that is primarily used as an alternative feed grain for livestock. It is generally grown for on-farm use, often as a substitute for oats. Most of the nation's feed-grade spelt is grown in Ohio. Spelt can also be used in many of the same processed foods as soft red winter wheat (for example, pasta, high fiber cereals, and crackers). Some people with allergies to wheat are not allergic to spelt, making spelt an excellent substitute for wheat in their diets. Spelt products are available through organic and health food stores. | CCD-CP-42
web only | 2 pages | 762 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 348 kb

Strawberry Anthracnose
2/1/2012 (minor revision)

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring. | PPFS-FR-S-5
web only | 3 pages | 815 words | 1 download | PDF: 293 kb

Damping-off of Vegetables and Herbaceous Ornamentals
2/1/2012 (new)

Damping-off can occur on any herbaceous crop grown from seed, including vegetables, ornamentals, and field crops. Seeds, seedlings, and young plants may be affected, resulting in poor stands in home gardens, greenhouses, and commercial fields. Losses to damping-off can be severe, especially when cool, wet weather prevails at seeding or seed emergence. | PPFS-GEN-3
web only | 2 pages | 622 words | 1 download | PDF: 288 kb

Sample Submission Protocol for Diagnosis of Thousand Cankers Disease in Walnut
2/1/2012 (new)

Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a fatal disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra), and most recently, butternut (Juglans cinerea). The disease complex involves a fungus that is carried to trees by the walnut twig beetle, causing numerous cankers on branches and killing trees 5 to 6 years after infection. The disease complex is widespread in the western U.S., and has recently been identified in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. | PPFS-OR-W-15
web only | 2 pages | 557 words | 1 download | PDF: 361 kb

Woody Biomass for Energy
1/27/2012 (new)

Biomass, when used in reference to renewable energy, is any biological (plant or animal) matter that can be converted to electricity or fuel. Woody biomass refers to biomass material specifically from trees and shrubs. It is most often transformed to usable energy by direct combustion, either alone or co-fired with coal; however, efforts are underway to develop methods to cost effectively convert woody material to liquid fuels. | CCD-CP-49
web only | 5 pages | 2,271 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb

Recognizing Trees of Significance
1/26/2012 (new)

Trees are important to people. They represent safety, beauty, and refuge. One way we show our regard for one of the most important elements of the human environment is to protect them. Protection begins with public recognition of value. It is not possible or desirable to protect all trees, but those associated with a greater perceived value must be recognized for their unique characteristics. These are the "Trees of Significance," trees that for a variety of reasons are special. | HO-95
web only | 3 pages | 2,162 words | 71 downloads | PDF: 240 kb

Trees with Minimal Insect and Disease Problems for Kentucky Landscapes
1/26/2012 (new)

Healthy, attractive landscapes without damaging insects and diseases are the primary goal for gardeners and landscape managers. Using Best Management Practices (BMP) and making appropriate plant selections will help to insure that landscapes start out healthy and remain healthy. Healthy landscapes do not require an over-reliance on environmentally damaging pesticides. | HO-94
web only | 6 pages | 2,473 words | 74 downloads | PDF: 260 kb

Trees and Compacted Soils
1/26/2012 (new)

Soils become compacted as a result of traffic. Compaction is common in urban areas and results from construction equipment and foot traffic. Soil is more likely to become compacted when the soil is wet than when it is excessively dry. Soil compaction is permanent, at least when viewed in reference to a human life span. Protecting the soil from becoming compacted is much easier than dealing with the negative impact of compaction on plant growth and health. | HO-93
web only | 2 pages | 1,558 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 180 kb

Botanical Diversity in the Landscape
1/26/2012 (new)

Diversity and sustainability are terms bantered about without much consideration of their relationship and value to human welfare. How much botanical diversity in landscapes is enough? What type of diversity is important? There are no simple formulas or templates for your landscape, but the opportunity to experiment and be creative makes gardening fun. Failures can always be composted. | HO-92
web only | 2 pages | 972 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 179 kb

Planting Balled and Burlapped Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
1/26/2012 (new)

Many landscape plants are installed as balled and burlapped (B&B) specimens. This method, along with container grown and bare root, is one of three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick reestablishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting. | HO-91
web only | 2 pages | 2,094 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 187 kb

1/25/2012 (new)

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull. | CCD-CP-112
web only | 4 pages | 1,726 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 620 kb

Benefits and Costs Associated with the Wheat Storage Hedge
1/24/2012 (new)

Each year producers must decide whether to store or sell their crop at harvest. Market prices are important in guiding producers on whether to store priced grain for future delivery (referred to as a storage hedge), store unpriced grain, or sell. Generally, producers know more about deciding to sell or store unpriced grain than using the storage hedge. This publication explains how a storage hedge works, when to use it, and risks and costs involved. (See glossary for definition of terms.) | ID-198
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,549 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

1/23/2012 (minor revision)

Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically altered and improved version of rapeseed that was developed for its superior edible oil and high value meal. The term "canola" can only be applied to those varieties that produce less than 2 percent erucic acid. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil, making it a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. The portion of the seed left after the oil is extracted (canola meal) is of value as feed for livestock and poultry. Canola may also be used as an annual forage. In addition, canola is being considered as a source of biodiesel fuel. | CCD-CP-24
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | 1 download | PDF: 504 kb

Plant Material Shipments: Federal and State Plant Protection Regulations Relevant to Your Nursery Business
12/6/2011 (new)

It is critical that individuals transporting plant materials as well as state and federal agencies that regulate shipments remain diligent in preventing movement of harmful pests. This publication covers some of the regulations that may apply to nursery businesses' shipping activities. | HO-99
web only | 4 pages | 2,077 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 568 kb

Distillers Grain Coproducts for Beef Cattle
12/5/2011 (new)

Feeding distillers grains derived from the production of spirits or ethanol for fuel is an acceptable practice for beef cattle production. The use of these products as both an energy and a protein supplement has been beneficial as the cereal grain prices have increased making these coproducts more cost competitive. | ASC-186
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,485 words | 83 downloads | PDF: 231 kb

Equine Viral Arteritis
11/14/2011 (new)

Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease of horses and other equine species caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV) that is found in horse populations in many countries. It was first isolated and identified in 1953 from the lung of an aborted fetus with characteristic pathologic changes in the smaller arteries, which is how the disease got its name. | ID-197
web only | 3 pages | 1,640 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 270 kb

Assessing Foliar Diseases of Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat: Principles and Practices
11/1/2011 (new)

This publication provides basic information on how to conduct disease assessments in on-farm trials. The focus is on foliar diseases, since root diseases are much more difficult to assess properly. The publication begins with fundamentals of proper design of field trials. | PPFS-MISC-6
web only | 5 pages | 1,693 words | 1 download | PDF: 719 kb

Sinkhole Management for Agricultural Producers
10/18/2011 (new)

A karst landscape develops when the limestone or dolostone bedrock underneath the soil dissolves and/or collapses due to weathering. A karst system can be recognized by surface features such as depressions, sinkholes, sinking streams, and caves. In karst systems, surface water and groundwater are interconnected: surface water runoff flows into sinkholes and sinking streams and recharges the groundwater; likewise, springs maintain stream flow in the dry season. Kentuckians living in karst areas need to be acutely aware that any pollutants that reach either surface water or any karst feature can pollute the entire groundwater system (also called an aquifer). In addition, the cave system that accompanies a karst aquifer can allow pollutants to contaminate miles of water resources in just a few hours. | AEN-109
web only | 4 pages | 1,825 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 487 kb

Soils and Fertility: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 4
10/12/2011 (new)

Soil is a mixture of weathered rock fragments and organic matter at the earth's surface. It is biologically active--a home to countless microorganisms, invertebrates, and plant roots. Soil provides nutrients, water, and physical support for plants as well as air for plant roots. Soil organisms are nature's primary recyclers, turning dead cells and tissue into nutrients, energy, carbon dioxide, and water to fuel new life. | AGR-204
web only | 24 pages | 11,257 words | 60 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Integrated Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 9
10/12/2011 (new)

Many gardeners are concerned about the use of pesticides. Some pesticides, if not used, stored, and disposed of carefully, can harm the applicator, the environment, children, pets, and other nontarget organisms. You can address these concerns by implementing integrated pest management practices in your garden. Thoughtful, well-researched pest management choices will reward you, the environment, and the beneficial organisms with which you share your garden. | ENT-69
web only | 16 pages | 6,962 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,950 kb

Plant Propagation: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 3
10/12/2011 (new)

Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen (male) with the egg (female) to produce a seed. The seed is made up of three parts: the outer seed coat, which protects the seed; the endosperm, which is a food reserve; and the embryo, which is the young plant itself. When a seed is mature and put in a favorable environment, it will germinate, or begin active growth. In this section, seed germination and transplanting of seeds are discussed. | HO-98
web only | 16 pages | 8,025 words | 76 downloads | PDF: 1,150 kb

Plant Identification: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 2
10/12/2011 (new)

The rules of plant identification and nomenclature (naming) may seem complex and more trouble than they are worth, but knowing the basic rules and applying them to everyday gardening leads to a better understanding of plants and how they are classified. | HO-97
web only | 4 pages | 1,764 words | 92 downloads | PDF: 320 kb

Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7
10/12/2011 (new)

To determine what factors have damaged a plant, you'll need to systematically and carefully observe the plant, its environment, and other plants in the area, then put all the pieces together to reconstruct the event(s) that produced the damage. You must make an accurate diagnosis before taking corrective action. Even if no corrective measures are available, it is good to know what the problem is and what its future development might be. | ID-194
web only | 32 pages | 14,578 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Composting: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 5
10/12/2011 (new)

Gardeners have long made and used compost to improve garden soil. Composting plant and vegetable matter is an important way to reduce the waste burned or dumped in landfills. Yard wastes and vegetable scraps can make up as much as 20 percent of household garbage. Composting effectively recycles that waste into valuable organic matter that can be used as soil amendments. | ID-192
web only | 8 pages | 4,200 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 470 kb

Profitability of Nitrogen Applications for Stockpiling Tall Fescue Pastures: 2011 Guide
10/5/2011 (new)

The concept of stockpiling is pretty straightforward, but the challenge each year is to determine the likelihood that this practice will be profitable given the economic and agronomic conditions present at mid-summer. This practice can yield significant benefits, but it also carries significant costs. These benefits and costs must be quantified and compared to assess the overall profitability of the practice. | ID-193
web only | 4 pages | 3,344 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 290 kb

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
10/4/2011 (major revision)

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States (and Kentucky) and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially. | ID-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,256 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 368 kb

Foliar Fungicide Use in Corn and Soybeans
10/1/2011 (new)

Interest in the use of foliar fungicides for corn and soybean has expanded dramatically in the U.S. over the past few years, resulting in a major change in how these crops are being produced on many farms. Until recently, foliar fungicides for soybeans and corn were reserved for seed production fields to protect seed quality in very specific circumstances or for specialty crops. Applications for the purpose of protecting crop yield were rarely economical. However, the current trend in Kentucky, as well as many other corn/soybean producing states, is towards an increased use of foliar fungicides on these crops as a means of maximizing yields. | PPFS-GEN-12
web only | 9 pages | 3,829 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,093 kb

9/26/2011 (minor revision)

Agritourism is any commercial enterprise that combines agriculture and tourism on a working farm, ranch, or other agribusiness operation. The Commonwealth of Kentucky defines agritourism as "The act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural, or agribusiness operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation." | CCD-SP-11
web only | 4 pages | 1,409 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 553 kb

Climate Change: A Brief Summary for Kentucky Extension Agents
9/20/2011 (new)

Nearly all climate science experts agree that global warming is occurring and that it is caused primarily by human activity. Regardless of what you may read on blogs or in the media, there is no meaningful scientific controversy on these points. The future impacts of global warming are difficult to predict, but the changes caused by greenhouse gases are expected to increasingly affect Kentucky agriculture. | ID-191
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,975 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Corn Growth Stages and Growing Degree Days: A Quick Reference Guide
9/13/2011 (new)

Corn growth stages are based on the leaf collar method, where fully emerged leaves (leaf collar visible) are used to stage vegetative development. Growing degree days (GDDs) are used to relate temperature to corn growth and development. | AGR-202
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | 802 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 278 kb

Methods of Identification for Horses
9/13/2011 (major revision)

In today's competitive world of equine sports, proper identification has become a top priority. Thorough and effective identification ensures that the horse being bought, sold, raced, or bred is indeed the horse it is claimed to be. Many methods are used to identify a horse, including markings, cowlicks, chestnuts, tattooing, freeze branding, blood typing, DNA typing, and microchip identification. | ASC-146
web only | 3 pages | 1,789 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 340 kb

Black "Sooty" Head Mold of Wheat
9/1/2011 (minor revision)

Each year, just prior to and during wheat harvest, the Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratories at Princeton and Lexington receive many samples with questions about severe head molding. This condition is known as black head mold or sooty head mold. | PPFS-AG-SG-7
web only | 2 pages | 405 words | 1 download | PDF: 264 kb

Fungicide Use in Wheat
9/1/2011 (minor revision)

Disease management is a key component of high-yielding wheat production. In most years, it simply is not possible to produce high wheat yields without paying attention to disease control. Most diseases are best managed through the use of multiple tactics, both proactive (e.g., crop rotation, delayed and/or staggered planting plates, use of resistant varieties of varying maturities, proper fertility, and application of seed treatment and/or foliar fungicides) and reactive (e.g., application of foliar fungicides and timely harvest). Fungicides are just one tool in the disease management arsenal; however, growers often place too much emphasis on this one tool. | PPFS-AG-SG-5
web only | 8 pages | 3,557 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 459 kb

Improving the Productivity of Landscapes with Little or No Topsoil
8/16/2011 (new)

Landscapes with little or no topsoil can make it difficult to produce a garden, lawn, or other plants. Topsoil, dark in color compared to the underlying soil, is the part of a soil that is most biologically active, nutrient rich, and easily managed. It also is usually more easily worked than underlying soil, supplies most of the plant's water and nutrients, and is generally best for plant growth. | AGR-203
web only | 4 pages | 2,579 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 430 kb

Basic Botany: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 1
8/15/2011 (new)

Many plants are familiar to us, and we can identify and appreciate them based on their external structure. However, their internal structure and function often are overlooked. Understanding how plants grow and develop helps us capitalize on their usefulness and make them part of our everyday lives. | HO-96
web only | 30 pages | 12,440 words | 74 downloads | PDF: 3,725 kb

Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure
8/4/2011 (new)

Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience. | ID-188
web only | 4 pages | 2,255 words | 146 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Yellow Vine Decline of Cucurbits
8/1/2011 (new)

Symptoms of yellow vine decline begin to appear approximately 2 weeks before fruit maturity. The disease may appear initially as stunting of plants and/or intense yellowing of foliage, followed by a slow decline in plant health. In some cases, a sudden collapse of vines may occur with no other symptoms. Vascular tissue (phloem) from crowns of affected plants is often discolored, appearing light brown rather than a healthy translucent green. | PPFS-VG-12
web only | 3 pages | 824 words | 1 download | PDF: 454 kb

Paved Feeding Areas and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
7/28/2011 (new)

Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock. Livestock producers can make additional profits by adding a few pounds before marketing calves; however, adding those pounds requires keeping calves during the winter months, when pasture forages are dormant and supplemental feed is required. The areas used to winter calves need to be conducive to feeding and need to avoid negatively impacting the environment, especially water quality. | AEN-107
web only | 5 pages | 3,305 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 260 kb

Stormwater BMPs for Confined Livestock Facilities
7/28/2011 (new)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency states that agricultural sediment, pathogens, and nutrients account for more than 50 percent of water pollution in the United States. Animal confinement facilities, widely used for holding, feeding, and handling animals, are potential sources of that pollution. The pollution load of these facilities can be reduced by installing and maintaining best management practices. The BMPs may be implemented as part of permit compliance or may be used to ensure that a permit is not needed. | AEN-103
web only | 5 pages | 2,881 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Permeable Pavement for Stormwater Management
7/26/2011 (new)

Managing runoff in urban areas offers many challenges for engineers, landscape architects, and planners. As cities grow, the amount of impermeable surfaces--those that do not allow water to infiltrate into the ground--increases. Examples of impervious surfaces are asphalt roads, concrete sidewalks, parking lots, building roofs, and areas of highly compacted soils such as in subdivisions. If not properly managed, the stormwater runoff produced by these impermeable surfaces can have negative effects on nearby surface waters. | AEN-108
web only | 7 pages | 4,028 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 720 kb

2011 Regional Wine Grape Marketing and Price Outlook
7/20/2011 (new)

Wine grape producers in the Southeast benefited from a rapid increase in the number of wineries in the region during the 1990s and early 2000s. The steady winery growth indicates continued expansion and demand for winegrapes. This survey was conducted in early 2011 to better understand how business practices are developing among wineries in Kentucky and six contiguous states---Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Virginia, and Missouri. | CCD-SV-1
web only | 6 pages | 1,984 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 205 kb

Grain Amaranth
7/19/2011 (new)

Amaranth is a versatile warm-season, broadleaf plant that can be grown as a grain, ornamental, leafy vegetable, or forage crop. In the U.S. it is grown almost exclusively for its grain, which is produced on large, brightly colored seed heads. Most grain amaranth grown in the States is Amaranthus hypochondriacus; however, A. cruentus is grown to a lesser extent. The seeds are high in lysine, fiber, and protein; low in saturated fats; and gluten-free. Amaranth can be ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal. Because many of amaranth's uses are similar to that of cereal grasses, amaranth is often referred to as a pseudo-cereal. | CCD-CP-30
web only | 3 pages | 1,239 words | 1 download | PDF: 442 kb

Turfgrass Sod Production
7/18/2011 (minor revision)

The demand for sod is highly dependent on new housing starts and industrial development. Because turfgrass is highly perishable once harvested, it cannot be shipped long distances, thus favoring local production. Most Kentucky-grown sod is marketed locally and little is either exported to or imported from neighboring states. While temporary sod shortages may occur, there is generally no consistent shortage of cultivated sod in Kentucky, indicating that current production is meeting demand. The market is extremely tight and new growers will have to produce a better quality turfgrass at a lower price in order to compete. | CCD-CP-74
web only | 3 pages | 928 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 475 kb

Reducing Stormwater Pollution
7/15/2011 (new)

Stormwater is excess water from rainfall and snowmelts that flows over the ground and does not infiltrate the soil. It is a concern not just in urban areas but in suburban and agricultural locations as well. As stormwater runoff flows over the land or impervious surfaces, it picks up and transports trash and debris as well as pollutants such as pathogens, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals. This publication reviews some of these techniques and provides a list of recommended resources for additional information. | AEN-106
web only | 8 pages | 4,381 words | 74 downloads | PDF: 330 kb

Pasture Feeding, Streamside Grazing, and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
7/13/2011 (new)

Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock, but the pasturing and pasture feeding of livestock need to be managed. Allowing cattle to behave as they would naturally can lead to overgrazing, congregation in sensitive areas, buildup of mud, loss of vegetation, compaction of soils, and erosion. | AEN-105
web only | 5 pages | 3,420 words | 74 downloads | PDF: 284 kb

Stream Crossings for Cattle
7/13/2011 (new)

This publication provides livestock producers with instructions on how to install a stream crossing that provides animal and vehicular access across streams. This best management practice (BMP) is intended for use with exclusion fencing that restricts cattle access to the stream. Implementation of a stream crossing with exclusion fencing will improve water quality, reducing nutrient, sediment, pathogen, and organic matter loads to streams. | AEN-101
web only | 7 pages | 3,383 words | 90 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

How to Close an Abandoned Well
7/7/2011 (new)

Abandoned wells are often the only structures remaining after an old house or barn has been removed. If left unmanaged in agricultural areas, these abandoned wells can pose a serious threat to livestock and human safety because of the large surface openings they often have. | AEN-104
web only | 3 pages | 1,419 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Going Green: Living an Environmentally Responsible Life
7/5/2011 (new)

Adopting a green lifestyle means making deliberate choices to lighten our impact on the natural world. | HENV-706
web only | 7 pages | 2,724 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 1,392 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: Market Research for Value-added Products
6/28/2011 (new)

The University of Kentucky's Center for Crop Diversification has sponsored several market research projects evaluating the value consumers place on different crops and product characteristics. This fact sheet will report the results of that research. | CCD-MP-15
web only | 5 pages | 1,714 words | 1 download | PDF: 791 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Overview
6/28/2011 (new)

"Value-added agriculture" is a broad term encompassing many practices that increase the value of farm products. Value-added agriculture has come to describe practices as varied as agritourism activities that provide consumers value from visiting a farm to large-scale processing endeavors that create mass-market retail food products from commodity crops. | CCD-MP-14
web only | 4 pages | 1,340 words | - | PDF: 741 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Introduction to Policies and Regulations for Kentucky Producers
6/28/2011 (new)

This profile identifies the policies and regulations experienced by many value-added crop producers in Kentucky. This is a summary and is intended only to highlight key considerations for crop producers considering value-added products. Producers should always conduct their own investigation of relevant local, state, and federal requirements for their intended value-added production enterprise. | CCD-MP-13
web only | 5 pages | 1,785 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 705 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: A Summary of Kentucky Products
6/28/2011 (new)

While a complete list of value-added crop products is impractical due to the number of these products marketed from Kentucky crops, producers considering new value-added enterprises may be helped by a summary of products with similar marketing characteristics. The major types of value-added products derived from Kentucky-grown crops listed here are grouped by marketing characteristics. This profile also includes brief summaries of several Kentucky value-added producer success stories. | CCD-MP-12
web only | 7 pages | 2,706 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Season Extension Tools and Techniques
6/22/2011 (minor revision)

Season extension techniques can be as simple as selecting early maturing varieties; or they can be a more complex combination of multiple methods. Regardless, the objective is to extend the growing season by producing earlier crops in the spring and/or push production later into the fall and early winter. | CCD-SP-3
web only | 5 pages | 2,102 words | 1 download | PDF: 807 kb

Building a Grade Stabilization Structure to Control Erosion
6/15/2011 (new)

Gully erosion creates large eroded channels that become problematic for many farms. Gullies form in natural drainage swales when vegetation in the swale is lost through overgrazing or tillage practices. They cause valuable soil to erode, and they form large channels that drain runoff into streams. This runoff can carry sediment, nutrients, and pathogens that can degrade the water quality. | AEN-100
web only | 4 pages | 1,614 words | 62 downloads | PDF: 900 kb

Basics of Automatic Section Control for Agricultural Sprayers
6/2/2011 (new)

The potential economic and environmental benefits of these systems are gaining the attention of producers and custom applicators looking to reduce their overall chemical costs. The purpose of this publication is to describe the basic operation and benefits of automatic section control systems. | AEN-102
web only | 4 pages | 1,474 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 1,049 kb

Preventing Barn Fire: Tips for Horse Owners
6/2/2011 (new)

Every year, close to 200 horses are reported to have died in barn fires in the United States. Although less frequent than house fires, barn fires are more common than we would like. Many barn fires could be prevented by good barn design/construction, strict personnel policies, and clear directives about how the barn and equipment should be maintained. | ASC-184
web only | 3 pages | 1,943 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Life Cycle Assessment: Implications for the Green Industry
6/2/2011 (new)

The purpose of this circular is to give green industry leaders and business managers a better understanding of the terms and processes used to judge the impact of various production system components and practices. | HO-90
web only | 4 pages | 3,684 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 194 kb

Blackleg of Tobacco
6/1/2011 (new)

Blackleg becomes a concern whenever Kentucky experiences extended periods of warm, wet, overcast weather in the spring. This disease, also referred to as bacterial soft rot, is one of the most serious problems likely to be encountered on tobacco seedlings. Blackleg has the potential for destroying large numbers of plants in a relatively short period of time. As with other diseases in the float system, proper management goes a long way in preventing problems with blackleg. | PPFS-AG-T-4
web only | 2 pages | 707 words | 1 download | PDF: 428 kb

Greenhouse Structures
5/25/2011 (minor revision)

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job. | CCD-SP-1
web only | 5 pages | 1,764 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 807 kb

Colic in Horses
5/18/2011 (major revision)

Among the species of domestic livestock, the horse is the species that most commonly suffers from colic, which is a general term for abdominal pain. Colic is one of the leading causes of death in horses and should be of concern for horse owners. | ASC-128
web only | 2 pages | 1,636 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

An IPM Identification Guide for Natural Enemies of Vegetable Pests
5/16/2011 (new)

Natural enemies play a crucial role in the management of insect and other arthropod pests of vegetable crops grown throughout Kentucky. The control they exert on pest populations is realized on every farm every day. Often the value of natural enemies may be overlooked or taken for granted, but as a group they slow the buildup of pest populations and keep some pests from reaching economic levels. | ENT-67
4,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 6,732 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb

Horses and Rain
5/9/2011 (new)

Spring is a very rainy season in Kentucky. With a lot of rain comes a lot of mud, and in some places, floods. If you own horses, you need to be aware of some problems that arise when you have too much rain in a short period of time. | ASC-183
web only | 2 pages | 951 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

Alternative Water Source: Developing Springs for Livestock
5/5/2011 (new)

Water supply is a key component in livestock production. One option producers have when providing water is to develop an existing spring, which occurs when groundwater running along an impervious rock layer hits a fracture and discharges on the surface. | AEN-98
web only | 4 pages | 2,137 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 814 kb

Woodland Winter Feeding of Cattle: Water Quality Best Management Practices
5/5/2011 (new)

Cattle maintain their body temperature in winter by burning more calories, which requires them to consume more feed. Livestock producers use wooded areas to provide protection for cattle from wind and low temperatures. That protection enables the cattle to conserve energy and eat less. Using wooded areas for winter feeding makes practical sense, but producers need to consider several environmental issues when planning for it. | ID-187
web only | 2 pages | 1,145 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 273 kb

Pythium Root Rot in Tobacco Float Systems
5/1/2011 (new)

Pythium root rot is the most common disease found in tobacco float beds in Kentucky; it can cause severe losses or delays in transplanting. Damage caused by this disease can be minimized through a combination of sound management practices and timely application of fungicide. | PPFS-AG-T-1
web only | 3 pages | 673 words | 1 download | PDF: 883 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky
4/29/2011 (minor revision)

Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky. | ID-172
3,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Site Preparation for Natural Regeneration of Hardwoods
4/7/2011 (new)

One aspect of forest sustainability is regenerating the stand to desired species once the stand is harvested. Usually the species present in the overstory are more desirable than those in the understory and midstory. If management is not performed to adjust the regenerating species composition prior to the harvest, these understory and midstory species likely will be the composition of the future stand. | FOR-120
web only | 12 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 557 kb

Uneven-aged Management in Mixed Species, Southern Hardwoods: Is it Feasible and Sustainable?
4/7/2011 (new)

For uneven-age stands to develop, both young and old trees need to be developing in the same stand, where younger trees are naturally smaller in diameter than older trees. Thus, guidelines and graphs used by foresters to help establish uneven-age stands use diameter as a surrogate for age and assume that age and diameter are related. | FOR-119
web only | 16 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 796 kb

Seed Treatment Fungicides for Soybeans: Issues to Consider
4/1/2011 (minor revision)

Kentucky soybean producers frequently ask the question "Is it advisable to treat soybean seed with fungicides?" There is no pat answer to this question because of the many variables involved. Historically, soybean has not been treated to the same extent that corn and wheat have in the U.S. There are many good reasons for this, and some of them are discussed below. However, the trend is toward greater use of fungicide seed treatment on soybean, both in Kentucky and nationally. | PPFS-AG-S-12
web only | 3 pages | 974 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

The Importance of Scouting Wheat for Plant Diseases
4/1/2011 (new)

For a variety of reasons, few Kentucky wheat producers place much emphasis on scouting their wheat diseases. Time and labor constraints (for do-it-yourselfers), the cost of hiring a crop consultant, and indifference to the need for scouting rank among the top reasons why this is the case. However, scouting is essential for those interested in managing diseases using an integrated approach. | PPFS-AG-SG-12
web only | 2 pages | 519 words | - | PDF: 195 kb

Preplant Decisions Greatly Impact Disease Potential in Wheat
4/1/2011 (minor revision)

Kentucky wheat producers have a majority of their disease management program in place once the seed is in the ground. By that time, decisions have been made regarding the length of time since the last wheat crop, tillage method and seedbed preparation, variety selection, seed quality, seed treatment, planting date, seeding rate, seeding method, and fall fertility. Individually and collectively, these decisions play an important role in determining which diseases might develop, their severity, and their potential impact on crop yield, test weight, and grain quality. Because pre-plant and planting decisions are so important in the management of wheat diseases, you need to understand how they influence disease development. | PPFS-AG-SG-6
web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 1 download | PDF: 413 kb

Recognizing Late Blight on Tomato Seedlings
4/1/2011 (new)

Tomato seedlings that have late blight when transplanted can serve as sources of inoculum (spores) that can spread to nearby gardens and commercial plantings, so every measure should be taken to prevent these plants from making it to the field. The added threat is that sources of disease are introduced early in the tomato production season, magnifying the potential for heavy losses in seasons that favor late blight. | PPFS-VG-14
web only | 4 pages | 1,334 words | 1 download | PDF: 436 kb

Late Blight of Tomato
4/1/2011 (new)

Late blight is an extremely important and damaging disease of tomatoes and potatoes, and can be found nearly anywhere these crops are produced. Total crop failures are common with this disease. In the United States, significant losses occur each year--mainly in northeastern and north-central states. However, serious outbreaks have been reported in the southeastern U.S. as well. | PPFS-VG-13
web only | 4 pages | 1,416 words | 1 download | PDF: 565 kb

Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits
4/1/2011 (new)

Gummy stem blight is an important disease of cucurbits in many parts of Kentucky. Under conditions favorable to disease development, commercial growers and home gardeners may experience heavy losses. This disease can occur at any point in plant growth, from seedling stage to fruit in storage. Gummy stem blight is the name given to the disease when leaves and stems are infected. Muskmelon (cantaloupe), cucumber, and watermelon are most commonly affected by this phase of the disease. Black rot refers to the same disease on fruit; it is seen less often than the foliar phase. | PPFS-VG-8
web only | 3 pages | 820 words | 1 download | PDF: 584 kb

Shade Options for Grazing Cattle
3/29/2011 (new)

Shade is a must for pasture-based grazing systems. It curtails heat stress, which is detrimental to cattle and causes a decrease in milk production, feed intake, weight gains, and fertility. | AEN-99
web only | 8 pages | 2,376 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 866 kb

Rootstocks for Kentucky Fruit Trees
3/28/2011 (major revision)

Most fruit trees that can be grown in Kentucky do not come true from seed. For example, a tree grown from a Golden Delicious apple seed will produce an apple tree, but the fruit will have different characteristics than Golden Delicious in color, taste, and shape. This is why fruit trees are reproduced by asexual propagation, such as budding and grafting. | HO-82
web only | 6 pages | 3,890 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 215 kb

Shiitake Production: Harvesting
3/23/2011 (minor revision)

If you started with live spawn from a reputable supplier and freshly cut logs from living hardwood trees, your logs should be ready to produce shiitake mushrooms after 6 to 18 months of incubation. | FOR-85
web only | 8 pages | 2,121 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 800 kb

Kentucky Shiitake Production Workbook: Inoculation
3/23/2011 (minor revision)

To begin the process of shiitake mushroom production, you must "sow the seed" just as you would with any other agronomic crop. For shiitake, the "seed" is called spawn and consists of the mushroom spores mixed with sawdust (for sawdust spawn) or wood (for dowel spawn) and a little grain to add a higher level of carbohydrate for the organism to feed on. | FOR-81
web only | 7 pages | 3,031 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Marketing Lamb and Goat Meat to Hispanic Retail Outlets
3/15/2011 (new)

Because of minority populations immigrating into Kentucky, the level of lamb and goat consumption could grow exponentially within the next few years. Minority populations are expected to reach 235.7 million out of a total U.S. population of 439 million, or 53 percent of the total U.S. population, by 2030. These statistics indicate a growing market for meat processors and sheep and goat products. | ASC-182
web only | 4 pages | 2,442 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

Switchgrass for Biomass Production in Kentucky
3/14/2011 (new)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial bunch-type grass native to the North American Tallgrass Prairie that has been investigated as a bioenergy crop due to its adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions and soil types as well as its high stable yields. Switchgrass is recommended for soil conservation and wildlife habitat in both monoculture and in mixed stands of native warm-season grasses and forbs as well as for summer grazing in pasture systems and as a hay crop for cattle. | AGR-201
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,946 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Managing Legume Induced Bloat in Cattle
3/10/2011 (new)

Ruminal tympany, or bloat, can result in lost animal performance and in severe cases, death. It occurs as a result of a buildup of fermentation gases in the rumen. Bloat may be categorized as frothy bloat, which is caused by the formation of a stable foam in the rumen, or free gas bloat, which is due to excessive production of gaseous compounds from fermentation or as a result of an obstruction preventing the escape of gas compounds. Legume bloat is a frothy bloat condition. | ID-186
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,366 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Equine Infectious Anemia
3/4/2011 (new)

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, lethargy, inappetence (lack of appetite) and anemia (low red blood cell count). | ASC-181
web only | 2 pages | 1,500 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 169 kb

Phytophthora Blight of Cucurbits and Peppers
3/1/2011 (new)

Under ideal conditions, Phytophthora blight is an aggressive, fast moving disease that can cause extensive losses. This disease has become increasingly problematic on cucurbits and solanaceous crops in the United States. During the past decade, Phytophthora blight has been causing significant losses in several major vegetable production areas of the U.S. In Kentucky, serious outbreaks have been reported on summer squash, winter squash, cucumbers, watermelons, and peppers. | PPFS-VG-4
web only | 5 pages | 1,271 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 544 kb

Natural Lighting
2/24/2011 (new)

Follow these home decorating and landscaping tips to reduce your energy consumption and utility costs. | HENV-705
web only | 4 pages | 1,110 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 2,251 kb

Tips for Conserving Water at Home
2/24/2011 (new)

By conserving water, we decrease our demand for energy-intensive systems that obtain, treat, and distribute water. Simply put, by conserving water we save energy. | HENV-704
web only | 5 pages | 1,658 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,525 kb

Using Dry Lots to Conserve Pastures and Reduce Pollution Potential
2/16/2011 (reprinted)

| ID-171
300 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 38 downloads | PDF: 860 kb

Planning Fencing Systems for Intensive Grazing Management
2/16/2011 (reprinted)

| ID-74
300 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 83 downloads | PDF: 646 kb

Organic Corn for Feed or Food
2/14/2011 (new)

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production | CCD-CP-37
web only | 6 pages | 2,534 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

Using Expected Progeny Differences
2/10/2011 (major revision)

One of the most important decisions a cattle operator makes is selecting breeding animals to go into the cattle herd. Basing that decision on the genetic merit of the animal, not just the outward appearance, is critical to the herd's long-term performance. | ASC-141
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,008 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 248 kb

Shiitake Production: Monitoring Moisture Content of Logs
2/3/2011 (minor revision)

Shiitake spawn cannot survive in logs that have a moisture content of less than 23%. Ideal moisture conditions for shiitake growth are log moisture content of 35% or more. If logs are left in the open air and are not monitored for moisture content, and climatic conditions are dry, the moisture content of the logs can fall to 20% to 25%. | FOR-82
web only | 5 pages | 1,487 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 170 kb

Shiitake Production: Spawn Selection
2/3/2011 (minor revision)

Shiitake mushrooms are like any other plant crop--they must be started from "seed." For mushrooms, this process begins when the mushroom's spores (normally located in the cap on the underside between the gills) are mixed with nutrients and a cellulose source, usually hardwood sawdust. | FOR-80
web only | 4 pages | 1,685 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 235 kb

Introduction to Shiitake: The Forest Mushroom
2/3/2011 (minor revision)

Shiitake mushrooms may prove to be a new commodity that will provide some economic return on small diameter wood from private woodlands that otherwise would be used only for firewood. | FOR-78
web only | 6 pages | 3,247 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 447 kb

Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV)
2/1/2011 (minor revision)

Wheat spindle streak mosaic (WSSM), also known as wheat yellow mosaic, is a common virus disease that affects only wheat. In most years, WSSM has little to no impact on crops grown in Kentucky. However, significant yield damage can occur in highly susceptible varieties when conditions favor infection and subsequent disease development. | PPFS-AG-SG-4
web only | 3 pages | 765 words | 1 download | PDF: 308 kb

Barley Yellow Dwarf
1/1/2011 (minor revision)

Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is a virus disease that can cause serious yield loss when stunted and discolored plants are widely distributed in a field. Severe losses due to BYD occur state-wide about every five years or so, but individual fields are impacted to varying degrees each year. There are many diseases that can reduce wheat yields, but in the case of BYD, most of the disease management decisions (such as field selection, tillage practices, variety, and planting date) are made by the time the seed is actually sown in the fall. | PPFS-AG-SG-3
web only | 5 pages | 1,959 words | 1 download | PDF: 602 kb

12/20/2010 (minor revision)

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid. | CCD-CP-115
web only | 2 pages | 820 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 747 kb

Real-time PCR Detection of Xylella fastidiosa is Independent of Sample Storage Time and Temperature
11/1/2010 (new)

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, first associated with Pierce's disease of grapevines and alfalfa dwarf disease in 1973 (4) continues to be an economically important pathogen of several commercial crops. It also causes bacterial leaf scorch in urban shade trees such as sycamore, oaks, maples, mulberry, and elm (5). The usual course of action, in an effort to control the spread of this pathogen by insect vectors (9), is to prune out infected branches and vines or to rogue infected plants. Therefore, timely testing of suspect hosts is important. | PPFS-MISC-4
web only | 7 pages | 3,014 words | 1 download | PDF: 236 kb

Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits
11/1/2010 (new)

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens. | PPFS-VG-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,383 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 327 kb

Fruit Rots of Cucurbits
11/1/2010 (new)

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens. | PPFS-VG-7
web only | 5 pages | 1,411 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 315 kb

Anthrax in Horses
10/7/2010 (new)

Horses become infected with anthrax either through ingestion, inhalation or skin penetration by biting flies or injury, especially when animals are exposed to soil or carcasses of infected animals. | ASC-180
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 210 kb

Planting a Riparian Buffer
9/28/2010 (new)

Actively creating a riparian buffer typically consists of six steps: site assessment, planting plan development, site preparation, species selection, planting, and protection and maintenance. | ID-185
web only | 8 pages | - | 108 downloads | PDF: 3,265 kb

Trail Riding Etiquette for Horse Enthusiasts
9/20/2010 (new)

When you're trail riding, you need to be aware of safety, not only for yourself and the horse, but also as a courtesy for other trail users. You should follow all general precautions about safe riding, but also follow practices that apply specifically to trails, whether you're riding alone or in a group, for a short or long distance, or for fun or competition. | ID-183
web only | 2 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 203 kb

Establishing Horse Pastures
9/20/2010 (major revision)

Kentucky and surrounding states are known for grass pastures and horses. Pastures supply nutrients, provide hoof support for exercise, control erosion, and add to the aesthetic value of horse farms. The ability to establish and manage horse pastures is therefore important to horse owners. | ID-147
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 47 downloads | PDF: 207 kb

Wobbler Syndrome in Horses
9/13/2010 (new)

Wobbler syndrome, or cervical vertebral malformation (CVM), is a devastating disease that can affect a horse's neurologic and musculoskeletal systems. It is a structural narrowing of the spinal canal due to a variety of vertebral malformations and leads to spinal cord compression. As a result, horses exhibit clinical signs of spasticity, ataxia, and lack of coordination. | ID-182
web only | 2 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Household Waste Management 4: Hazardous Waste
9/8/2010 (new)

Everyday products found around your house contain hazardous chemicals--everything from nail polish remover to household electronics to oil for your car. | HENV-104
web only | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 514 kb

Household Waste Management 3: Recycle
9/8/2010 (new)

Americans create about 5 pounds of waste per day, half of which is recycled in some manner, leaving roughly 2.5 pounds of waste per day going to landfills. | HENV-103
web only | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 936 kb

Household Waste Management 2: Reuse
9/8/2010 (new)

Reuse is essentially any action that extends the life of a product and keeps it out of the waste system. The process of reusing an item can start even before you purchase it. | HENV-102
web only | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 484 kb

Household Waste Management 1: Reduce
9/8/2010 (new)

Reducing, at the top of the waste management hierarchy, has the greatest impact on the environment and starts with you reducing the number of products you purchase and use. | HENV-101
web only | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 801 kb

Saving Energy and Money: Appliances
8/30/2010 (new)

Appliances are designed to save time and money, but if an appliance is not in itself energy efficient or is operated improperly it could be wasting money. Ensuring that you have an ENERGY STAR--approved appliance is one solution; another is the proper operation, location, and maintenance of appliances. | HENV-703
web only | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 889 kb

Saving Energy and Money at Home and on the Road
8/30/2010 (new)

This publication features 15 suggestions to help you save money, reduce your energy consumption, and preserve our natural resources. | HENV-702
web only | 4 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,588 kb

Low-Cost Cold Storage Room for Market Growers
8/23/2010 (reprinted)

Lower-cost cold storage options can benefit market growers by helping preserve produce freshness and quality for a few additional days. Produce losses can be significantly reduced, especially for growers transitioning to a higher level of production who have excess produce to carry over from one day's market to the next. | AEN-96
100 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 265 kb

An Introduction to Futures Hedging for Grain Producers
8/12/2010 (new)

This guide is written for farm producers who want to know the basics of how futures markets operate and how to use them for protection against the risk of falling prices. | AEC-96
200 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 1,363 kb

How Much Meat to Expect from a Carcass: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Freezer Meats
8/2/2010 (new)

Consumers who buy freezer meat should understand the difference between the paid weight and the amount of meat they will put in the freezer. To avoid misunderstandings, meat processors should be able to explain to customers the approximate amount of meat to expect from a beef, pork, or lamb carcass, the best ways to have meat wrapped for the freezer, and the amount of freezer space necessary to store large amounts of meat. | ASC-179
web only | 2 pages | - | 122 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

Turfgrass Anthracnose
8/1/2010 (minor revision)

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of high maintenance turfgrass, such as annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) at golf courses. In Kentucky it can be a disfiguring disease of creeping bentgrass under putting green management conditions during summertime (June to September). The disease may make its appearance on intensely managed annual bluegrass somewhat earlier (April to September). The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase. | PPFS-OR-T-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,262 words | 1 download | PDF: 527 kb

Pallet Rack Structures for Curing Burley Tobacco
7/29/2010 (new)

Curing facilities for housing tobacco can be expensive. However, using pallet racks for suspending stick tobacco, a recently developed technique for curing burley tobacco, can offer tobacco growers an alternative that substantially reduces long-term investment. | AEN-97
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 513 kb

Saving Energy and Money: Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
7/28/2010 (new)

According to the U.S. Department of Energy, a CFL lasts up to ten times longer, uses approximately one-fourth the energy, and produces 25 percent less heat while producing more light per watt than a traditional incandescent bulb. | HENV-701
web only | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 880 kb

Building a Rain Barrel
7/28/2010 (new)

Rain barrels offer a number of benefits such as helping to reduce stormwater runoff, decreasing municipal water usage, and potentially protecting your home's foundation. Impervious surfaces such as rooftops, parking lots, and roads prevent rainwater or stormwater from soaking into the soil. | HENV-201
web only | 8 pages | - | 107 downloads | PDF: 1,480 kb

Soil Sampling and Nutrient Management in Horse Pastures
7/27/2010 (new)

Horse pastures are fertilized to ensure a reliable supply of energy, protein, and other nutrients for a long season of grazing. Management of plant nutrients maintains a balance of improved grasses and legumes and suppresses many pasture weeds. Properly fertilized pastures look good and harm neither animals nor the environment. | AGR-200
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 293 kb

Soybean Loss Prediction Tool for Managing Soybean Rust
7/1/2010 (new)

Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a potentially devastating foliar disease of soybean. The disease was first detected in the Continental United States in the fall of 2004. Since that time, it has caused only sporadic yield losses in the U.S., primarily in the Gulf States. However, the potential still exists for devastating losses to occur in all soybean producing areas of the U.S. should the proper combination of weather conditions come together to support significant disease development by mid-summer. Currently, the only way to avert significant yield loss caused by SBR when disease risk is high is by applying foliar fungicides. | PPFS-AG-S-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,542 words | 1 download | PDF: 656 kb

Shiitake Production on Logs: Step by Step in Pictures
6/17/2010 (minor revision)

| FOR-77
web only | 14 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Rabies in Horses
6/15/2010 (major revision)

Rabies in the horse is a relatively uncommon disease. Although the number of confirmed rabies cases in horses is low, the potential for human exposure makes it important to discuss the causes of rabies and its diagnosis, treatment, and control. It is noteworthy that the American Association of Equine Practitioners and the American Veterinary Medical Association include rabies as one of the diseases for which horses should be vaccinated every year. | ASC-125
web only | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 170 kb

Peach Cultivar Performance
6/14/2010 (major revision)

The commercial success of a peach orchard depends largely on selecting cultivars that will perform reliably and meet market needs. Although many fruit and tree characteristics are presented in this report, the final cultivar selection should be determined by the grower. A grower may be influenced by soil type, local climate, or marketing methods and prefer a cultivar that is not a general favorite. Growers should have test plots of two to four trees of new cultivars to help them judge the performance in their orchard. | HO-6
web only | 6 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 275 kb

Soybean Rust Fungicide Use Guidelines
6/1/2010 (minor revision)

Effective use of fungicides to control soybean rust is not very complicated. The whole idea is to wait to spray until the soybean rust risk is at least moderate, and make a fungicide application before significant infection has occurred. This means applying fungicides when plant pathologists in and around Kentucky are "sounding the alarm," but before symptoms are evident. Many soybean producers in the deep South have been using fungicides to control soybean rust since 2005 with considerable success. I believe we will have the same experience if it ever becomes necessary to apply fungicides for soybean rust in Kentucky. | PPFS-AG-S-23
web only | 2 pages | 407 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 473 kb

Calendar for Diseases of Cool-season Grasses in Kentucky
6/1/2010 (new)

A graphic representation showing the times of year that diseases of cool-season grasses are likely. | PPFS-OR-T-7
web only | 2 pages | 125 words | 1 download | PDF: 161 kb

Beef Sire Selection Manual
5/28/2010 (major revision)

In principle, genetic improvement is a straight-forward exercise that results from using above-average selection candidates as the parents of the next generation. In practice, the devil is in the details. Both bull breeders and bull buyers need to consider their breeding objectives, defining the list of traits that need to be modified to advance the towards their goal. | ASC-169
5,000 printed copies | 89 pages | - | 67 downloads | PDF: 2,140 kb

Have Maples Will Sugar
5/20/2010 (new)

Woodland owners may find that they have many maple trees in their woodlots. If these trees are larger than 10 inches in diameter, and if there are 25 to 40 maple trees per acre, woodland owners might want to think about making maple syrup as a possibility for increased income from their woodlots. | FOR-118
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 549 kb

Using a Grazing Stick for Pasture Management
5/18/2010 (minor revision)

Good management of livestock feeding enterprises requires an understanding of feed inventories and their use. This publication is intended to help producers meet animal forage needs in a rotational grazing system by mastering the use of a grazing stick to estimate pasture yield and pasture allocation. | AGR-191
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Forest Water Quality Plan: Preparing an Agriculture Water Quality Plan for Your Woodlands
5/18/2010 (reprinted)

All parties involved in woodland operations are responsible for water quality protection. One of the most effective methods of protecting water quality during forestry operations is to use BMPs. BMPs are guidelines and techniques that, when used properly, can help reduce impact to our waters. They do this by decreasing erosion and the creation of muddy water, keeping chemicals and fluids out of streams, and limiting changes in the woods next to streams. | FOR-96
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 334 kb

Wheat Bacterial Streak
5/1/2010 (new)

Occasionally, wheat leaves and spikes are invaded by the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. When leaf tissue is affected, the resulting disease is known as bacterial streak. When the bacterium invades the head, the disease is called black chaff. While this disease has primarily been a problem in the lower mid-South, it is often found in Kentucky in fields that have been impacted by strong winds with blowing soil or following a damaging freeze. | PPFS-AG-SG-2
web only | 3 pages | 789 words | 1 download | PDF: 247 kb

Take-All of Wheat
5/1/2010 (minor revision)

"Take-all" is the common name of a root, crown, and basal stem (foot) rot that primarily affects wheat, but can also affect barley, oats, rye, as well as other grass crops and weeds. The disease has been known to destroy entire stands of wheat, thus the name. Barley, oats, rye, and other grass crops, however, have not been seriously impacted in Kentucky. Take-all is most common where susceptible crops are grown continuously without adequate rotation, or in fields where weedy grass hosts were not controlled in non-host crops, and were subsequently sown to wheat. The disease is rarely a serious problem in Kentucky due to excellent weed control practices, as well as the widespread adoption of cropping systems where wheat is produced, at most, every other year. | PPFS-AG-SG-1
web only | 2 pages | 749 words | 1 download | PDF: 248 kb

Poinsettia Diseases
5/1/2010 (minor revision)

Poinsettias grown through the fall months for Christmas sales are vulnerable to destructive diseases from the time the cuttings are stuck into the rooting media until they are mature and ready for sale. A number of poinsettia diseases are favored by the same environmental conditions that promote propagation, making plant material at this stage particularly vulnerable. Diseases occurring in the later stages of production can be related to management issues or cultural problems, as well as the cooler temperatures needed for finishing. Some other diseases can be problematic to poinsettias at any phase of production. And finally, a phytoplasma organism found associated with poinsettias provides evidence that some host/pathogen relationships can actually be economically beneficial. | PPFS-GH-6
web only | 6 pages | 1,122 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,335 kb

Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky
4/22/2010 (major revision)

Kentucky is generally well suited for growing nut trees. Northern pecans, black walnuts, heartnuts, hickory nuts, hardy Persian walnuts (Carpathian strain), American hazelnuts, and Chinese chestnuts all grow well in the state. Although most nut trees are grown by hobbyists and backyard gardeners, several varieties appear to have potential for commercial production, particularly some of the USDA pecan selections and some Chinese chestnut varieties. | ID-77
web only | 24 pages | - | 55 downloads | PDF: 680 kb

Nitrogen Transformation Inhibitors and Controlled-Release Urea
4/21/2010 (major revision)

The soaring cost of fossil fuels is an indicator that nitrogen fertilizer prices are going to remain high for the foreseeable future. With higher N prices, many producers are trying to evaluate the usefulness of several N additive products in their production systems. High N prices make these products more attractive because it takes fewer pounds of saved N to offset the price of the additive. Producers should have a good understanding of how these products work in order to make informed decisions regarding their use. | AGR-185
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 500 kb

Growth Promoting Implants for Beef Cattle
3/24/2010 (major revision)

Utilization of growth-promoting implants in the beef cattle industry provides an opportunity for improving production efficiency. Within the animal, they promote protein synthesis, resulting in a 10 to 30% increase in growth along with a 5 to 10% improvement in feed efficiency. | ASC-25
web only | 4 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 225 kb

Opportunities for Improved Cow Comfort through Freestall Barn Renovations
3/16/2010 (new)

A properly managed and designed freestall barn can support high levels of milk production and animal well-being. Mismanaged or poorly designed freestalls can contribute to mastitis, lameness, hock abrasions, and injuries. Through years of experience observing and studying cow behavior in freestall barns, farmers, researchers, and engineers have refined recommendations for freestall design and management. In addition, as cow size has increased so has the amount of resting space required within a freestall, effectively changing the recommendations for freestall dimensions. | ASC-178
250 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 47 downloads | PDF: 4,985 kb

Evaluating the Health of Your Horse
2/5/2010 (new)

Horse owners, managers, and handlers can help to maintain the health of their animals by studying their behavior through observation and inspection, and should be able to accurately determine important measurements such as temperature, pulse, respiration, and mucous membrane color through a clinical examination. Having this information about your horse can be critical if the animal is ill or injured and you need to supply these details to your veterinarian. | ID-179
web only | 6 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 373 kb

Soybean Diseases Control Series: Soybean Cyst Nematode
1/1/2010 (minor revision)

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) exists virtually everywhere soybean is grown in Kentucky. The pest is insidious in that significant yield damage often occurs without the appearance of visible disease symptoms. This is an extremely important point because it suggests that farmers are frequently unaware that SCN is active and doing damage in a field. | PPFS-AG-S-13
web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 1 download | PDF: 336 kb

Corn and Soybean Production Calendar
12/16/2009 (reprinted)

The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur. | ID-159
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 650 kb

Cercospora Leaf Blight in Kentucky
10/1/2009 (new)

In most years, Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is a minor disease problem in Kentucky soybeans. It is one of the more common "late-season" diseases, but usually comes in too little, too late to cause damage. However, in wet, late seasons like the one we experienced in 2009, significant yield and grain/seed quality losses can occur in fields that develop severe CLB before pod fill has completed. | PPFS-AG-S-20
web only | 3 pages | 729 words | 1 download | PDF: 296 kb

Riparian Buffers: A Livestock Best Management Practice for Protecting Water Quality
9/22/2009 (new)

In Kentucky, cattle on pastures are often watered by streams. Although this practice solves water requirements for cattle, providing livestock free access to streams and riparian areas can lead to a contaminated water supply and damaged ecosystems. A better solution is to implement riparian buffers with limited access points to streams or provide alternative water sources. This practice can protect water quality, increase herd production, and provide other landowner benefits. The purpose of this publication is to explain the role of riparian areas and how they can benefit the livestock producer, the herd, and the environment. | ID-175
200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 79 downloads | PDF: 721 kb

The Economics of Biofuels: An Overview
9/18/2009 (new)

Recently a large amount of interest has been shown in renewable energy options in Kentucky. Many seem to have recognized both the positive and negative impacts of the corn-based ethanol trend we have seen in the last few years. | AEC-95
250 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 280 kb

Bermudagrass: A Summer Forage in Kentucky
9/18/2009 (minor revision)

Bermudagrass can be used successfully as part of a livestock forage program to supplement summer production of cool-season grasses. It is high-yielding, sod-forming, warm-season perennial grass that is most productive on well-drained, fertile soils. Bermudagrass is widely grown in the southern United States for pasture and hay. | AGR-48
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Compost Bedded Pack Barns in Kentucky
9/16/2009 (new)

Choosing the environment in which lactating dairy cows will spend the majority of their time is an important decision for dairy producers. This choice has considerable influence on productivity, health, milk quality, reproduction, animal well-being, and farm profitability. Innovative dairy producers have introduced a variation on the loose-housing system, generally referred to as a compost-bedded pack barn. Its key component is a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings. | ID-178
300 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Comparing No-Till and Tilled Wheat in Kentucky
8/26/2009 (new)

Historically, wheat planting in Kentucky has involved tillage. With conventional tillage practices, most residues from the previous crop are cut and buried prior to seeding wheat. No-till wheat planting eliminates tillage and reduces soil erosion, particularly on sloping soils, as well as reducing labor, machinery, and energy costs. | ID-177
1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 233 kb

Site Preparation and Competition Control Guidelines for Hardwood Tree Plantings
8/13/2009 (new)

This publication presents recommendations for key factors associated with hardwood planting success. The publication also provides competition control and site preparation alternatives for a number of common planting sites and conditions. For each site and condition, several alternatives provide a range of options, allowing users to select the alternative that best fits their objectives and timetables. | FOR-107
web only | 36 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,350 kb

Medicinal Plants
8/11/2009 (new)

People have harvested and processed forest plants for medicinal purposes since the beginning of recorded history. Ginseng is perhaps the one best known in Kentucky because it is easily the most commercially valuable. However, if you read health supplement labels in all the "big box" stores or other similar locations, you will find goldenseal, blue cohosh, black cohosh, bloodroot, wild ginger, slippery elm, witch-hazel, mayapple, and many other forest plant-derived substances. There are established markets for these plants, although not as obvious as corn, soybean, or cattle markets. | FOR-117
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 50 downloads | PDF: 338 kb

Agroforestry: Christmas Trees
8/11/2009 (new)

Kentucky has always had a Christmas tree industry, although at a very small scale. The benefits of producing Christmas trees include guaranteed market every year, a short growing period relative to other tree crops, periodic intensive management (planting, shearing, marketing) but otherwise not much time required in management, and a good return on investment. | FOR-116
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 789 kb

Agroforestry: Forest Farming
8/11/2009 (new)

Of all the techniques of agroforestry, forest farming is probably the one most useful to landowners in Kentucky. Most have some forestland, and many of those owners don't really "do" anything with that land, keeping it for wildlife habitat, recreation, or a possible timber sale if there is a sudden need for cash. However, with some professional help from a consultant forester or from the Kentucky Division of Forestry, forest landowners can implement something called timber stand improvement (TSI). Forest farming can be a part of that decision, if the landowner considers the options before starting the TSI operation. | FOR-115
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 935 kb

Agroforestry: Windbreaks
8/11/2009 (new)

Windbreaks were first used extensively in the United States in the 1930s, after the Dust Bowl days made it clear that certain agricultural practices tended to facilitate the loss of topsoil by wind erosion. They are also a practical agroforestry technique in any location where there are significant prevailing winds. Windbreaks are used to manage snow, improve irrigation efficiency, screen views and reduce noise, protect farm crops and farm buildings, protect free-ranging livestock, provide wildlife habitat, and provide non-timber forest products (e.g., berries, woody florals). | FOR-114
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 491 kb

Argoforestry: Silvopasture
8/11/2009 (new)

In the practice of silvopasture, you have three simultaneous crops: the tree crop, the forage crop, and the livestock crop. As with other agroforestry practices, if you plan to use biocides (pesticides, fungicides, insecticides) and/or chemical fertilizers, you must be sure that all of the component parts of the proposed system can tolerate the additives. Foresters have a long-standing attitude that cattle and trees do not mix (because of soil compaction and rubbing around and on the trees by the livestock), but in this case, you are intentionally putting them together, ideally for mutual benefit. | FOR-113
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 377 kb

Agroforestry: Riparian Buffer Strips
8/11/2009 (new)

Riparian buffer strips are zones of native trees, shrubs, and grasses designed to protect the temperature and clarity of moving water and to prevent agricultural chemicals and soil from eroding directly into stream water. The Kentucky Water Quality Act of 1994 encouraged farmers to protect their streams from soil erosion and compaction from livestock. Best management practices (BMPs) for people who are harvesting timber require streamside management zones (SMZs). | FOR-112
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,230 kb

Agroforestry: Alley Cropping
8/11/2009 (new)

Alley cropping is probably the most commonly used technique of agroforestry. It simply involves planting single or double lines of trees and/or shrubs intercropped with a wide "alley" of either row crops or pasture grasses. The width of the alley is determined by the size of the harvesting equipment needed for the crop grown in the alley. | FOR-111
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 551 kb

Non-Timber Forest Products and Agroforestry
8/11/2009 (new)

Agroforestry is the practice of integrating long-term tree crops with annual agronomic crops and/or livestock. This type of integrated agriculture has been successfully practiced for thousands of years in many parts of the world, especially in the tropics. Temperate regions have been a bit slower to adopt agroforestry practices, but in the past decade or so, there has been increasing interest in using agroforestry techniques in temperate countries around the world. | FOR-110
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 771 kb

A Consumer Guide to Country of Origin Labeling
8/3/2009 (new)

Since March 2009, all retail red meats, seafood and shellfish, and fruits and vegetables must contain a "Country of Origin Label," or COOL--designed to further inform consumers on the origins of their food. | ASC-177
web only | 2 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 115 kb

Using Soil Cement on Horse and Livestock Farms
8/3/2009 (new)

Most farmers in Kentucky can identify with a myriad of problems associated with mud forming around high traffic areas, including areas around horse and cattle waterers, feed bunks, round bale feeders, walk paths and gate entrances. Mud is usually a result of animals congregating in and around these areas, but increased traffic can enhance the problem. In many cases, finding solutions to mud problems on farms is not the issue--the issue is determining how to make solutions economical. | ID-176
web only | 4 pages | - | 55 downloads | PDF: 329 kb

Reducing the Risk of Resistance to Fungicides Used to Control Diseases of Turfgrasses
8/1/2009 (new)

Fungicides can be an important tactic in an overall integrated program for turf disease control. In order to insure that products available today remain available in the future, golf course superintendents should be aware of the need to use fungicides in ways that minimize the risk of fungicide resistance. | PPFS-OR-T-2
web only | 3 pages | 830 words | 1 download | PDF: 183 kb

Weather Favorable for Cottony Blight in Turfgrasses
8/1/2009 (minor revision)

Hot, humid weather with occasional showers is favorable for cottony blight, caused by various Pythium species. This disease, also known as Pythium blight, can be very destructive in swards of creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass in a high-maintenance setting, such as golf courses, croquet courts, etc. Cottony blight can occasionally be found on other cool-season turfgrasses, though very infrequently. | PPFS-OR-T-1
web only | 2 pages | 622 words | 1 download | PDF: 267 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops in Kentucky
7/27/2009 (minor revision)

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed to reduce their negative impact on the crop, although pests are rarely eliminated. | ID-91
5,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 6,729 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 1,863 kb

Buying a Home 101
7/9/2009 (new)

At a time when housing prices were increasing at a tremendous rate, banks could taste the profits associated with giving loans to families who did not understand the financial commitment they were signing their names to. To avoid falling into the same pattern, it is imperative that you understand all of the terms of the loan and that you are sure that the loan payments fall within your budget. | AEC-94
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 260 kb

Crown Rots of Alfalfa
5/1/2009 (minor revision)

Crown rots are chronic disease problems of alfalfa throughout the world. Crown rots cause loss of stand and forage yield in several ways. If the crowns are rotted severely enough, infected plants will die simply by being choked off. Carbohydrates for winter survival are stored in the crown and upper taproot. By rotting this area, crown rots also make alfalfa plants more sensitive to winter kill. Some crown rot fungi produce toxins, thus weakening or even killing the plant. | PPFS-AG-F-5
web only | 2 pages | 565 words | 1 download | PDF: 239 kb

Destructive Diseases Common on Turfgrasses in Kentucky
5/1/2009 (minor revision)

A list of diseases that are common in Kentucky on the host grasses indicated. This list includes only common diseases, and is not meant to provide a comprehensive list of all diseases diagnosed on turfgrasses grown in Kentucky. | PPFS-OR-T-9
web only | 2 pages | 250 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 241 kb

Renovating Hay and Pasture Fields
4/8/2009 (minor revision)

| AGR-26
3,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 66 downloads | PDF: 1,165 kb

Warm Season Perennial Grasses for Forages in Kentucky
3/10/2009 (minor revision)

Native warm-season perennial grasses are well adapted for production in Kentucky's climate and soils. In this publication, native warm-season perennial grasses that have the greatest forage potential for Kentucky are described. Management techniques necessary to establish stands and keep them productive are also discussed. | AGR-145
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,636 kb

Common Alfalfa Seedling Diseases and Disorders
3/1/2009 (minor revision)

Alfalfa seedlings are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic problems which can affect establishment. Several of the more common seedling diseases and disorders are described below. This information is being provided as a diagnostic aid; publications which provide specific management and production information can be found in the resource list. | PPFS-AG-F-3
web only | 2 pages | 639 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 115 kb

Value of Wheat Residue in Soybean Cyst Nematode Management
3/1/2009 (minor revision)

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is the most widespread and significant pest of soybean in Kentucky. SCN is managed primarily by rotating fields to non-host crops (such as corn) and using SCN-resistant varieties. However, for a variety of reasons, producers occasionally desire to plant a SCN-susceptible variety. | PPFS-AG-S-8
web only | 3 pages | 914 words | 1 download | PDF: 218 kb

Timber Theft and Trespass
2/23/2009 (reprinted)

| FOR-109
1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

"Emergency" Inoculation for Poorly Inoculated Legumes
2/1/2009 (minor revision)

Frequently, stunted and yellowed legumes are thought by growers to be diseased. Close examination often reveals that such "diseased" plants are actually just poorly nodulated. | PPFS-AG-F-4
web only | 3 pages | 912 words | 1 download | PDF: 187 kb

Options for Controlling Canada Geese
1/15/2009 (new)

The average Canada goose produces more fecal waste than a dairy cow on a per-weight basis. In addition, gaggles of resident Canada geese have been associated with problems of over grazing. Having large amounts of fecal waste around a riparian area that has limited vegetation can lead to the runoff of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, which can contaminate ponds, lakes, and streams in Kentucky. | ID-174
200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 140 kb

Technical Guide to Crop Tree Release In Hardwood Forests
1/6/2009 (new)

Crop tree release (CTR) is a widely applicable silvicultural technique used to enhance the performance of individual trees. It offers flexibility in that it can be applied on small or large properties, and with certain modifications, it can be applied as a precommercial or commercial operation. By favoring the development of selected crop trees within a hardwood stand, the landowner can meet a variety of area-wide management objectives such as wildlife habitat, recreation, timber value, aesthetic beauty and species diversity. CTR can be applied at various stages of development, including sapling, pole and sawtimber stands, depending on the specific opportunities to improve stand conditions. In some cases, it may be advisable to apply CTR more than once during the rotation. As forest managers gain experience with CTR, many come to realize that it is a versatile silvicultural technique that can be effective in many situations. | FOR-106
web only | 24 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 2,213 kb

Risk Factors for Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot in Fall-Seeded Alfalfa
12/1/2008 (minor revision)

Alfalfa seeded during late summer or fall is susceptible to the destructive disease Sclerotinia crown and stem rot. Fall-seeded stands are particularly vulnerable to this disease because the young seedlings have not had sufficient time to develop adequate resistance before infectious spores of the pathogen are produced in late October. In contrast, spring-seeded stands are able to develop larger, more resistant crowns prior to this infectious period. Thus, spring plantings are better able to withstand an attack, should these air-borne spores be present in the field. | PPFS-AG-F-2
web only | 3 pages | 977 words | 1 download | PDF: 280 kb

GPS Changes: How to be Prepared
11/14/2008 (new)

| AEN-95
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 179 kb

Alfalfa Diseases Caused by Rhizoctonia Fungi
11/1/2008 (minor revision)

Rhizoctonia fungi, particularly Rhizoctonia solani, are found in most agricultural soils in Kentucky. These fungi are natural soil inhabitants that colonize and live on dead organic matter. Under the right environmental conditions, the Rhizoctonia organisms are often able to attack living plants, including alfalfa. When warm, wet conditions prevail, Rhizoctonia fungi can cause just about every conceivable type of alfalfa disease. | PPFS-AG-F-6
web only | 3 pages | 701 words | 1 download | PDF: 294 kb

Summertime Foliar Diseases of Alfalfa
11/1/2008 (minor revision)

Warm, humid weather can favor development of foliar diseases of alfalfa during summer. | PPFS-AG-F-1
web only | 2 pages | 409 words | 1 download | PDF: 194 kb

Controlled Water Table Irrigation of Container Crops
10/31/2008 (new)

| HO-84
web only | 18 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb

Saving Fuel in the Field
10/23/2008 (new)

| AEN-94
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 110 kb

Proper Tire and Ballast Inflation
10/23/2008 (new)

| AEN-93
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 201 kb

Sulfur Fertilization in Kentucky
10/23/2008 (new)

There are a lot of misunderstandings regarding sulfur (S) nutrition for Kentucky crops. Sulfur is considered a seconda r y pla nt nutrient because, although the crop requirement for S is relatively large, it is usually found in soil at concentrations adequate for plant growth and yield so that no fertilizer S is needed. For many years, soil S was maintained by atmospheric deposition. However, more stringent clean air standards require greater removal of S during burning of fossil fuels. That fact, along with increasing crop yields, has caused many Kentucky grain producers to begin to question if S fertilization will increase yield. | AGR-198
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Equine Emergency and Disaster Preparedness
10/3/2008 (new)

| ID-173
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 240 kb

Seed and Seedling Diseases of Corn
10/1/2008 (minor revision)

Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system. | PPFS-AG-C-2
web only | 2 pages | 430 words | 1 download | PDF: 160 kb

Diseases of Concern in Continuous Corn
10/1/2008 (minor revision)

Although most corn in Kentucky is planted following a rotation to other crops, individual producers are often interested in planting corn following corn. In these situations, one of the main concerns voiced by producers is increased pressure from diseases, and rightfully so. Crop rotation is one of the most fundamental disease control practices available. Rotating to other crops deprives pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) of a food source and exposes them to "starvation." Furthermore, as infested crop residues decompose, pathogens are exposed to antagonism by native soil microbes. These mechanisms have the effect of naturally reducing the populations of many pathogens in the soil. | PPFS-AG-C-1
web only | 4 pages | 1,434 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 233 kb

Southern Blight of Soybeans
10/1/2008 (minor revision)

Southern blight is a minor disease of soybeans in the United States. Although the disease can occur in plants anytime from emergence through pod fill, it most commonly occurs in isolated plants in the latter stages of reproductive development. Occasionally, southern blight develops when plants are in the early to mid-vegetative stages. When this occurs, the disease may spread rapidly down rows, resulting in serious stand losses in patches. However, even in the worst case scenario, it would be extremely rare for southern blight to cause measurable yield losses in a commercial soybean field. | PPFS-AG-S-6
web only | 2 pages | 641 words | 1 download | PDF: 207 kb

Fruit Rots of Grape
10/1/2008 (new)

Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot. | PPFS-FR-S-14
web only | 7 pages | 2,467 words | 1 download | PDF: 358 kb

Core Vaccination Program and Infectious Disease Control for Horses
9/19/2008 (new)

| ASC-176
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 240 kb

Downy Mildew of Grape
9/1/2008 (new)

Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury. | PPFS-FR-S-13
web only | 3 pages | 987 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 282 kb

Poor Fruit Set in Brambles
9/1/2008 (new)

Poor fruit set and sterility commonly occur on bramble fruits (red raspberries, black raspberries, and blackberries) both in commercial and home plantings. Typically the fruit fails to develop or small misshapen berries form. When an insufficient number of drupelets fully develop, they tend to separate so that the fruit "crumbles" when picked. This symptom, referred to as "crumbly berry," is another common result of poor fruit set. | PPFS-FR-S-9
web only | 4 pages | 1,393 words | 1 download | PDF: 234 kb

Ornamental Corn Production
7/10/2008 (minor revision)

| HO-81
1,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,234 kb

Phytophthora Root Rot of Brambles
7/1/2008 (new)

Brambles that are subjected to wet soil conditions or periods of flooding are often predisposed to Phytophthora root rot. Excess water not only promotes susceptibility of roots to this disease, but also aids the fungus in moving to new infection sites. Phytophthora root rot is primarily a disease of raspberries; however, it can also occur on blackberries. | PPFS-FR-S-7
web only | 2 pages | 655 words | 1 download | PDF: 296 kb

Bacterial Canker of Tomato
7/1/2008 (new)

Bacterial canker is a potentially serious disease of tomato that can occur in commercial plantings and home gardens. This infectious disease is capable of spreading rapidly, resulting in devastating losses. It is a particularly difficult disease to manage because not only is there no cure, but the pathogen can be hard to eradicate once it has been introduced into a greenhouse, garden, or field. | PPFS-VG-6
web only | 3 pages | 840 words | 1 download | PDF: 392 kb

Public Health Pest Management
6/24/2008 (reprinted)

| ENT-63
300 printed copies | 36 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,366 kb

Strawberry Fruit Rots
6/1/2008 (new)

Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky's typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose. | PPFS-FR-S-8
web only | 5 pages | 2,025 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 274 kb

FAQs About the Retail Meat Case, Part 2: Basic Meats 101
4/23/2008 (new)

| ASC-175
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 48 downloads | PDF: 145 kb

FAQs About the Retail Meat Case, Part 1: Hamburger
4/1/2008 (new)

| ASC-174
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 144 kb

Botulism: A Deadly Disease That Can Affect Your Horse
3/28/2008 (new)

| ASC-173
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 192 kb

Drinking Water Quality Guidelines for Cattle
3/26/2008 (new)

| ID-170
120 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Commercial Asparagus Production
2/13/2008 (minor revision)

| HO-66
web only | 8 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 875 kb

Black Rot of Crucifers
2/1/2008 (minor revision)

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga. | PPFS-VG-1
web only | 3 pages | 792 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 227 kb

Heaves in Horses
1/31/2008 (new)

| ASC-172
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 27 downloads | PDF: 531 kb

Insect Borers in Trees and Shrubs
1/31/2008 (minor revision)

| ENT-43
web only | 6 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 546 kb

Compaction, Tillage Method, and Subsoiling Effects on Crop Production
1/11/2008 (new)

No-tillage is the preferred method of crop production for most Kentucky farmers. No-tillage has been proven to increase soil quality and decrease the risk of soil compaction as compared to crop production using annual tillage. However, with the use of heavy farm equipment, soil compaction is always a threat with either tillage or no-tillage. The possibility of soil compaction and its effect on crop production is a constant concern to many farmers using no-tillage. If soil compaction occurs, is there a difference between the two tillage systems on how it affects crop production and the recovery of the soil with and without subsoil tillage? The following study was conducted to help producers and advisors understand soil compaction and its effects on corn and soybean production as well as the ability of the two tillage systems to recover from soil compaction. | AGR-197
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 27 downloads | PDF: 293 kb

Blueberry Diseases
1/1/2008 (new)

Kentucky blueberry growers sometimes experience plant and crop losses due to diseases. While most losses are due to root rot, or to stem and twig canker diseases, fruit rots and nutritional problems can also reduce yields. With good crop management, most blueberry diseases can be avoided. | PPFS-FR-S-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,107 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 292 kb

Southern Blight
1/1/2008 (minor revision)

Southern blight affects a wide variety of crops, but the disease most commonly occurs in Kentucky on ajuga, beans, cabbage, cucumbers, pepper, soybeans, and tomato. Other susceptible plants include apple, carrot, columbine, coreopsis, eggplant, lupine, muskmelon, peanut, pumpkin, peony, phlox, potato, radish, rhubarb, sweet woodruf, tarragon, tobacco, turnip, watermelon, and vinca. | PPFS-VG-3
web only | 2 pages | 591 words | 1 download | PDF: 242 kb

Blossom End Rot
1/1/2008 (minor revision)

Blossom end rot is a physiological disorder (non-parasitic disease) caused by a lack of calcium (Ca) in the distal ends of developing fruit. Calcium is an essential part of the chemical "glue" that binds cells together within the fruit. When fruits are enlarging rapidly, sufficient amounts of Ca fail to reach the end of the fruit and cells then come apart. This is because Ca is not a very mobile element, so any disruption in uptake of Ca can result in a deficiency of Ca in developing fruit. | PPFS-VG-2
web only | 2 pages | 518 words | 1 download | PDF: 165 kb

Double-Cropping Land for Silage Production
10/31/2007 (minor revision)

| AGR-17
2,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 192 kb

The Use of Methyl Bromide to Control Insects in Country Hams in the Southeastern U.S.
10/31/2007 (new)

| ASC-171
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Composting Horse Muck
10/10/2007 (new)

| ID-168
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 64 downloads | PDF: 291 kb

Vineyard Site Selection in Kentucky Based on Climate and Soil Properties
10/5/2007 (new)

Commercial wine grapes have recently emerged as an alternative crop in Kentucky after laws evolved encouraging private entrepreneurs to invest in vineyards and small farm wineries many decades after prohibition shut down the industry. Grapes grown in Kentucky are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses that reduce crop yields and quality or kill grapevines. Damaging winter temperatures, spring frosts, and higher than optimal growing temperatures occur regularly. Despite these challenges, grape growing is a successful enterprise in many areas of the state. | HO-87
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 290 kb

Double Crop Curing Dark Fired Tobacco
9/18/2007 (new)

Double crop curing is the practice of curing two crops of tobacco in the same barn and growing season. The practice of double crop curing has been utilized by some dark-fired tobacco growers for several years but has increased in recent years as growers have attempted to consolidate operations a nd incre a se efficienc y of production. Tobacco buying companies have started accepting the crop earlier than in the past to better accommodate this practice. | AGR-196
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 190 kb

Viticultural Regions and Suggested Cultivars in Kentucky
9/14/2007 (new)

Grapes grown in Kentucky are subject to environmental stresses that reduce crop yield and quality, and injure and kill grapevines. Damaging critical winter temperatures, late spring frosts, short growing seasons, and extreme summer temperatures all occur with regularity in regions of Kentucky. However, despite the challenging climate, certain species and cultivars of grapes are grown commercially in Kentucky. The aim of this bulletin is to describe the macroclimatic features affecting grape production that should be evaluated in the site selection process and to shorten the trial and error process of finding the best cultivar and climate match. | HO-88
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 41 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Taking Soil Test Samples
9/4/2007 (reprinted)

| AGR-16
2,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 52 downloads | PDF: 150 kb

Temporary Fencing for Horse Pastures
8/24/2007 (new)

| ID-165
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Crop Estimation in Vineyards
8/15/2007 (new)

Viticulture is becoming a successful alternative cropping system in Kentucky due to the increased demand for locally grown grapes and their profitability. However, the sustainability of the industry is hindered by insufficient experience on estimating crop size of hybrid and vinifera cultivars in a region that is subject to frequent damaging winter and spring temperatures. | HO-86
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 307 kb

Replanting Options for Corn
7/27/2007 (new)

Evaluating damaged corn stands and determining when to replant is often a difficult task. Survival, health, and expected yield of the current stand must be weighed against replanting costs, additional management, and expected yield of a replanted crop. The options are rarely clear-cut because damaged corn is rarely uniform throughout the field. The following information will help when making evaluations and management decisions. | AGR-195
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 194 kb

Estimating Hail Damage in Corn
7/27/2007 (new)

Hail is precipitation in the form of irregular shapes of ice. Hail can shred leaves off corn plants, bruise stalks, and turn a beautiful field of corn into bare stalks with a few ragged leaves. The initial sight of hail damage is sickening to any farmer. Small corn, with the growing point below the soil surface (see corn staging below) is highly tolerant to hail damage. As the growing point moves above the soil surface and the corn plant gets closer to tasseling, corn becomes more susceptible to hail damage. Corn is most susceptible to hail damage from the period just prior to tasseling through early milk. Once corn passes the early milk stage, it becomes more tolerant to hail damage. | AGR-194
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 170 kb

Evaluating Flood Damage in Corn
7/27/2007 (new)

| AGR-193
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 160 kb

Evaluating Early Season Frost Damage in Corn
7/27/2007 (new)

| AGR-192
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 160 kb

Grain and Forage Crop Guide
7/27/2007 (reprinted)

| AGR-18
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 50 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

High Traffic Area Pads for Horses
7/15/2007 (new)

| ID-164
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 58 downloads | PDF: 348 kb

Dark Tobacco Sucker Control
7/11/2007 (minor revision)

| AGR-154
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 163 kb

Shiitake Production: Resources for Shiitake Growers
7/10/2007 (minor revision)

| FOR-89
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 169 kb

Bacterial Leaf Scorch
7/1/2007 (new)

Bacterial leaf scorch has devastated many landscape and shade trees in Kentucky's urban forests in recent years. Especially hard hit have been the mature pin oaks lining many urban streets. First diagnosed in the U.S. in the early 1980s, this epidemic shows no signs of abating. | PPFS-OR-W-12
web only | 6 pages | 1,885 words | 1 download | PDF: 249 kb

Peach Fruit Diseases
6/1/2007 (new)

Peaches are grown in many Kentucky orchards for local fresh market sales. Fruit diseases, often resulting in decayed peaches, are a serious problem, especially during warm, humid, rainy weather conditions. | PPFS-FR-T-9
web only | 5 pages | 1,737 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 277 kb

Sampling Plant Tissue for Nutrient Analysis
5/8/2007 (minor revision)

| AGR-92
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 646 kb

Grape Crown Gall
5/1/2007 (new)

Crown gall is a common, devastating grape disease that has been known to result in losses of entire vineyards in Kentucky. Besides grapes, over 600 types of plants are known to be susceptible to crown gall, including apples, stone fruits and brambles. | PPFS-FR-S-11
web only | 3 pages | 871 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 168 kb

Dairy Waste Utilization Management Tool
3/30/2007 (new)

| AEN-92
200 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 245 kb

Growing Peaches in Kentucky
3/30/2007 (minor revision)

| HO-57
1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 77 downloads | PDF: 978 kb

Pervious Concrete as a Flooring Material for Horse Handling Areas
3/13/2007 (new)

| ID-161
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 243 kb

Goat Production Basics in Kentucky
3/6/2007 (new)

| ID-162
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 92 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Strawberry Production in Kentucky
2/25/2007 (minor revision)

| HO-16
2,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 65 downloads | PDF: 340 kb

Dry Pesticide Rates for Hand-Held Sprayers
2/21/2007 (new)

| HO-83
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 166 kb

Chicory: an Alternative Livestock Forage
1/26/2007 (new)

| AGR-190
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 27 downloads | PDF: 143 kb

Honeyvine Milkweed Control in Tree Fruits, Small Fruits, and Grapes
1/19/2007 (new)

Honeyvine milkweed is a perennial weed commonly found in Kentucky fields, groves, and orchards. In general, honeyvine milkweed is a difficult weed to control due to its extensive taproot system and rapid growth rate. It is especially difficult to control in permanent crop situations such as plantings of apples, blueberries, and grapes. This is due to the fact that soil tillage is not practiced in orchards, blueberry fields, or vineyards, which would otherwise destroy the root system of honeyvine milkweed and prevent it from getting established. | HO-85
100 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 320 kb

Ornamental Gourd Production in Kentucky
1/3/2007 (minor revision)

| ID-119
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 281 kb

Caring for Christmas Trees
12/18/2006 (new)

| FOR-105
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 280 kb

Kentucky Forestry Fact Sheet
12/14/2006 (minor revision)

| FOR-53
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

The American Private Enterprise System
10/15/2006 (reprinted)

| AEC-90
2,000 printed copies | 36 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 891 kb

Culinary Herbs
10/15/2006 (reprinted)

| HO-74
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 88 downloads | PDF: 312 kb

Managing Liquid Dairy Manure
9/30/2006 (new)

| AEN-91
200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 216 kb

A Consumer's and Producer's Guide to Organic and Natural Meats
9/15/2006 (new)

| ASC-170
200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 147 kb

Orange Rust of Brambles
9/1/2006 (new)

Orange rust is a disease caused by one of two very similar fungi, Gymnoconia nitens in the Southeast, and Arthuriomyces peckianus in the Midwest. Both fungi, causing the same symptoms, may be active in Kentucky. In Kentucky, orange rust is severe on some wild and cultivated thorny blackberries. It infects black and purple raspberries and thornless blackberries somewhat, but is not known to infect red raspberries. | PPFS-FR-S-6
web only | 2 pages | 657 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 232 kb

Feeding and Managing Baby Calves from Birth to 3 Months of Age
8/30/2006 (minor revision)

| ASC-161
web only | 6 pages | - | 102 downloads | PDF: 172 kb

Using Byproducts to Feed Dairy Cattle
8/30/2006 (minor revision)

| ASC-136
web only | 8 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 158 kb

Managing Steep Terrain for Livestock Forage Production
8/30/2006 (new)

| ID-158
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 38 downloads | PDF: 417 kb

Slime Mold, Lichens, and Sooty Mold Problems on Plants
8/1/2006 (minor revision)

Slime molds are amoeba-like organisms which feed on bacteria and yeasts in the soil. During cloudy, humid weather these molds grow out of the soil and creep onto whatever is available. Turfgrass, weeds, strawberries, bedded flowers, and ground covers, as well as mulches, sidewalks and driveways may become covered with masses of gray, yellowish or black dusty spores. | PPFS-GEN-6
web only | 2 pages | 583 words | 1 download | PDF: 208 kb

Treatments for Improving Degraded Hardwood Stands
7/1/2006 (new)

| FOR-104
web only | 12 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 994 kb

Two-Aged System and Deferment Harvests
7/1/2006 (new)

| FOR-103
web only | 12 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Forest Management Strategies to Minimize the Impact of Gypsy Moth
7/1/2006 (new)

| FOR-102
web only | 8 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 770 kb

Hardwood Plantations as an Investment
7/1/2006 (new)

| FOR-101
web only | 8 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 856 kb

Oak Shelterwood: A Technique to Improve Oak Regeneration
7/1/2006 (new)

| FOR-100
web only | 8 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 695 kb

Managing Oak Decline
7/1/2006 (new)

| FOR-99
web only | 6 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 558 kb

Weed Management in Grass Pastures, Hayfields, and Other Farmstead Sites
6/30/2006 (minor revision)

| AGR-172
8,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 83 downloads | PDF: 310 kb

Managing Seasonal Fluctuations of Soil Tests
5/15/2006 (new)

| AGR-189
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 211 kb

Biodiesel FAQ
4/30/2006 (new)

| AEN-90
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 220 kb

Biodiesel Basics
4/30/2006 (new)

| AEN-89
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 263 kb

Tapeworms in Horses
4/15/2006 (minor revision)

| VET-32
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 430 kb

Controlling Internal Parasites of the Horse
4/15/2006 (minor revision)

| VET-1
5,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 50 downloads | PDF: 662 kb

Producing Corn for Silage
3/20/2006 (minor revision)

| AGR-79
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 332 kb

Preserving Flowers and Foliage
3/8/2006 (minor revision)

| HO-70
web only | 6 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 298 kb

Dealing with Chemical Injury in Tobacco
3/1/2006 (minor revision)

| AGR-158
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 612 kb

Harvesting, Curing, and Preparing Dark Air Cured Tobacco for Market
3/1/2006 (minor revision)

| AGR-153
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 255 kb

Harvesting, Curing, and Preparing Dark Fired Tobacco for Market
3/1/2006 (minor revision)

| AGR-152
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 284 kb

Managing Livestock Forage for Beef Cattle Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land
1/20/2006 (new)

| ID-157
2,500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 477 kb

Estimating Corn Yields
1/7/2006 (new)

| AGR-187
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 15 downloads | PDF: 135 kb

Stockpiling for Fall and Winter Pasture
1/1/2006 (minor revision)

| AGR-162
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 110 downloads | PDF: 187 kb

Estimating Soybean Yields
12/15/2005 (new)

| AGR-188
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 138 kb

Kudzu Identification and Control in Kentucky
11/30/2005 (new)

| AGR-186
1,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 199 kb

Cleaning and Disinfecting a Cistern
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| ENRI-205
web only | 2 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 153 kb

Choosing Cistern Material and Location
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| ENRI-204
web only | 2 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 92 kb

Basic Needs for a Cistern Water System
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| ENRI-203
web only | 2 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 161 kb

Home Composting: A Guide to Managing Organic Wastes
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| HO-75
web only | 4 pages | - | 69 downloads | PDF: 263 kb

Propagating Plants in and Around the Home
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| HO-67
web only | 8 pages | - | 59 downloads | PDF: 302 kb

Landscape Design with Plants: Creating Outdoor Rooms
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| HO-62
web only | 16 pages | - | 58 downloads | PDF: 1,415 kb

Starting Plants from Seed at Home
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| HO-56
web only | - | - | 35 downloads | HTML: 20 kb

Reproducing Fruit Trees by Graftage Budding and Grafting
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| HO-39
web only | 8 pages | - | 34 downloads | PDF: 789 kb

Growing Blackberries and Raspberries in Kentucky
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

| HO-15
web only | 12 pages | - | 95 downloads | PDF: 325 kb

Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot and Eutypa Dieback Diseases of Grape
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

"Cane and leaf spot" and "Eutypa dieback" were once thought to be the same disease. However, it is now known that each is a distinct disease caused by a different fungus. Grapes grown in areas where a moist environment persists are especially vulnerable to these fungal diseases. | PPFS-FR-S-1
web only | 2 pages | 631 words | 1 download | PDF: 183 kb

Agricultural Cooperatives - How They Fit Into the American Free Enterprise System
10/30/2005 (reprinted)

| AEC-42
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

The Kentucky Beef Book
9/15/2005 (minor revision)

| ID-108
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 28 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

The Global Positioning System
9/1/2005 (new)

| AEN-88
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 27 downloads | PDF: 305 kb

Bt Basics for Vegetable Integrated Pest Management
8/1/2005 (new)

| ID-156
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 655 kb

Growers' Guide to Bt
8/1/2005 (new)

| ID-156A
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 478 kb

Implementing Precision Agriculture: Connecting a GPS to Other Devices
7/8/2005 (new)

| PA-7
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 153 kb

Controlling Phytophthora Root Rot in Greenhouse Ornamentals
5/1/2005 (minor revision)

Phytophthora fungi can attack a number of potted herbaceous ornamentals produced in greenhouses. The potted flowering plants reported as hosts include: begonia, bougainvillea, ornamental pepper, vinca, poinsettia, Persian violet, fuchsia, common gardenia, African daisy, kalanchoe, Lantana, African violet, holiday cactus, gloxinia, and Jerusalem cherry. | PPFS-GH-5
web only | 2 pages | 613 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 615 kb

Shoestring Root Rot: A Cause of Tree and Shrub Decline
5/1/2005 (minor revision)

Most woody landscape plants are susceptible to shoestring root rot, cause of dieback and decline in the landscape. Diagnosis of this problem requires close examination of the base of the trunk which often reveals loose or decayed bark and dead cambium. By peeling back the bark one can often observe dark brown rhizomorphs (thick strands of hyphae), resembling narrow "shoestrings." | PPFS-OR-W-5
web only | 2 pages | 415 words | 1 download | PDF: 337 kb

Grain Farming Primer for Landowners
4/30/2005 (new)

| ID-155
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 158 kb

Movable Tobacco Curing Frames
4/1/2005 (new)

| AEN-86
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 631 kb

Specialty Soybeans
4/1/2005 (reprinted)

| AGR-182
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 312 kb

Growing Highbush Blueberries in Kentucky
3/15/2005 (reprinted)

| HO-60
200 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 70 downloads | PDF: 403 kb

Low-Maintenance Lawn Care, Stressing Pest Avoidance and Organic Inputs
3/15/2005 (reprinted)

This publication is written for those who wish to maintain their lawn with minimal inputs. Low-maintenance lawn care offers certain benefits, such as minimal pesticide use, reduced fertilizer input, less need for irrigation, and reduced mowing frequency. However, when choosing a low-maintenance approach, recognize that the lawn will not offer the same dark green, uniform sward of turf that is seen under a high-maintenance lawn-care program. | ID-154
2,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 176 kb

Predicting Soybean First Flowering Date
3/1/2005 (new)

| AGR-184
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 270 kb

A Profile of Female Farmers in Kentucky
2/1/2005 (reprinted)

| AEC-89
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 315 kb

Measuring Relative Humidity in Agricultural Environments
2/1/2005 (new)

| AEN-87
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 630 kb

Late-Season Frost Damage to Corn Grown for Silage
1/30/2005 (new)

| AGR-183
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 135 kb

Comparison and Use of Chlorophyll Meters on Wheat
11/1/2004 (new)

| AGR-181
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

Crossbreeding for the Commercial Beef Producer
11/1/2004 (new)

| ASC-168
500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 65 downloads | PDF: 442 kb

Perennials for Shady Locations
9/15/2004 (reprinted)

| HO-77
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 108 downloads | PDF: 81 kb

Perennials for Sunny Locations
9/15/2004 (reprinted)

| HO-76
5,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 84 downloads | PDF: 98 kb

Annual Flowers
9/15/2004 (reprinted)

| HO-65
5,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 58 downloads | PDF: 67 kb

Corn Stalk Nitrate Test
8/27/2004 (new)

| AGR-180
3,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 136 kb

Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest
8/1/2004 (minor revision)

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem. | PPFS-FR-T-2
web only | 2 pages | 613 words | 1 download | PDF: 306 kb

Powdery Mildew
8/1/2004 (minor revision)

Powdery mildew may affect numerous ornamentals, fruits, vegetables, and agronomic crops. In Kentucky, mildew diseases are most commonly observed on apple, begonia, crabapple, cherry, dogwood, lilac, phlox, pin oak, rose, sycamore, tuliptree, turfgrass, zinnia, squash, pumpkin, cantaloupe, wheat and barley. | PPFS-GEN-2
web only | 2 pages | 472 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 240 kb

Crown Gall
8/1/2004 (minor revision)

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected. | PPFS-GEN-1
web only | 2 pages | 593 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 210 kb

8/1/2004 (minor revision)

Odema is a non-parasitic disorder which, under the right environmental conditions, can affect a wide variety of herbaceous plants. We most frequently observe this problem on indoor plants, such as dracaena, geranium and schefflera. Oedema tends to be more of a problem in greenhouses, but it may also occur on plants grown in homes and offices. Field and garden grown crops, such as cabbage, may also be affected. | PPFS-OR-H-5
web only | 1 pages | 318 words | - | PDF: 150 kb

Teasing Mares
7/30/2004 (new)

| ASC-157
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 43 downloads | PDF: 1,217 kb

Grazing Corn: an Option for Extending the Grazing Season in Kentucky
7/15/2004 (reprinted)

| ID-152
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 266 kb

Post-Tier Rail and Typar or Metal-Covered Tobacco Field Curing Structures
7/1/2004 (new)

| AEN-85
1,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 552 kb

Horse Judging Manual
7/1/2004 (minor revision)

| ASC-118
1,000 printed copies | 28 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 992 kb

Raspberry Fruit Rots
7/1/2004 (minor revision)

Rainy summer and fall weather in Kentucky can provide ideal conditions for fruit decay diseases of raspberries. The most damaging are the fungal diseases gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and soft rot, or leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.). Both diseases are favored by long periods of wet fruit and foliage, and by high humidity levels. During some parts of the season, fruit rots account for up to 50% loss of potential harvest, and additional losses after harvest. | PPFS-FR-S-4
web only | 2 pages | 446 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

2003 Summary of the Five State Beef Initiative in Kentucky
5/30/2004 (new)

| ID-151
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 309 kb

Assessing and Preventing Soil Compaction in Kentucky
5/28/2004 (new)

| ID-153
3,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,067 kb

Round Bale Hay Storage in Kentucky
4/1/2004 (reprinted)

| AGR-171
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Conducting a Feasibility Study for Marketing Cooperatives
3/31/2004 (reprinted)

| AEC-45
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

Judging Performance Classes
3/31/2004 (new)

| ASC-167
web only | 4 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 142 kb

Preparing and Giving Oral Reasons
3/31/2004 (new)

| ASC-166
web only | 38 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 406 kb

Shiitake Production: Potential Profits from a Small-Scale Shiitake Enterprise
3/21/2004 (reprinted)

| FOR-88
950 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 242 kb

Interpreting Forage Quality Reports
3/15/2004 (reprinted)

| ID-101
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 170 kb

Using Covers to Minimize Odor and Gas Emissions from Manure Storages
2/15/2004 (new)

| AEN-84
500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 176 kb

Baling Forage Crops for Silage
2/10/2004 (reprinted)

| AGR-173
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 84 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree ProductIon Workbook Plantation Layout
1/30/2004 (minor revision)

| FOR-17
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 217 kb

Periodical Cicadas in Kentucky
12/30/2003 (minor revision)

| ENT-52
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 212 kb

Beef Sire Selection Recommendations
12/22/2003 (new)

| ASC-165
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 47 downloads | PDF: 86 kb

Cattle Handling Facilities
12/19/2003 (reprinted)

Cattle handling facilities are used to confine cattle safely and efficiently for close observation and to perform routine health and management procedures. Adequate facilities are an essential part of an efficient cattle operation for any producer who wants to improve marketing, cattle health, and production. A well-planned handling facility can help you save money by making easier practices such as preventive health management, pregnancy testing, implanting, controlling parasites, vaccinating, castrating, and dehorning. | AEN-82
2,000 printed copies | 36 pages | - | 266 downloads | PDF: 1,386 kb

Assessing the Benefits of Misting-Cooling Systems for Growing/Finishing Swine in Kentucky as Affected by Environment and Pig Placement Date
11/30/2003 (new)

| AEN-83
1,100 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 122 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Understanding Cooperative Terminology
11/15/2003 (reprinted)

| AEC-47
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 78 kb

Trace Mineral Supplementation for Kentucky Beef Cows
11/15/2003 (new)

| ASC-155
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 65 downloads | PDF: 96 kb

Implementing Precision Agriculture: What Will This Investment Cost?
11/15/2003 (new)

| PA-6
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 106 kb

Kentucky Bluegrass as a Forage Crop
11/1/2003 (minor revision)

| AGR-134
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 13 kb

Annual Ryegrass
9/15/2003 (new)

| AGR-179
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 97 kb

Woodland Owners Training Manual for Developing a Forestry Agriculture Water Quality Plan
9/15/2003 (reprinted)

| FOR-72
1,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 321 kb

Establishing Forage Crops
7/30/2003 (minor revision)

| AGR-64
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 88 kb

Tall Fescue
7/30/2003 (minor revision)

| AGR-59
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 115 kb

7/30/2003 (minor revision)

| AGR-58
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 100 kb

Attracting Butterflies with Native Plants
6/15/2003 (reprinted)

| FOR-98
20,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 437 kb

Tree Tips
6/15/2003 (reprinted)

| FOR-65
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 197 kb

Harvesting, Drying and Storing Grain Sorghum
4/30/2003 (minor revision)

| AEN-17
1,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 111 kb

Alfalfa the Queen of Forage Crops
4/1/2003 (reprinted)

| AGR-76
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 108 kb

Quality Hay Production
4/1/2003 (reprinted)

| AGR-62
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 43 downloads | PDF: 245 kb

Community Economic Analysis Strategies: Tools and Data
3/10/2003 (new)

| AEC-93
250 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 116 kb

Protocols for Synchronizing Estrus in Yearling Heifers
2/1/2003 (reprinted)

| ASC-164
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 66 kb

Strategies to Improve Reproductive Efficiency of Heifers
2/1/2003 (reprinted)

| ASC-163
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 23 kb

Managing Body Condition to Improve Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cows
2/1/2003 (reprinted)

| ASC-162
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 55 downloads | PDF: 158 kb

Managing Considerations in Beef Heifer Development
2/1/2003 (reprinted)

| ASC-144
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 49 downloads | PDF: 320 kb

Proper Curing Management to Minimize Green Tobacco
1/30/2003 (new)

| AGR-177
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 80 kb

Wild About Wildflowers
12/7/2002 (reprinted)

| FOR-71
10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 456 kb

Determining the Quality of Aglime: Relative Neutralizing Value (RNV)
12/4/2002 (minor revision)

| AGR-106
4,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 90 kb

Inoculation of Forage Legumes
11/22/2002 (minor revision)

| AGR-90
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 110 kb

Understanding Beef Carcass Data Reports
11/15/2002 (new)

| ID-150
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 90 kb

Grazing Alfalfa
11/1/2002 (reprinted)

| ID-97
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 34 downloads | PDF: 152 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Food Buying Organizations
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-61
500 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Guidelines for Writing Cooperative Bylaws
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-60
500 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Refunds: Patronage and Revolving
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-54
500 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 44 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Taxation Should Your Cooperative Be 'Exempt' or 'Non-Exempt'?
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-53
500 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Role of the Co-Op Manager
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-51
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Your Role as a Co-Op Member
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-50
1,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 69 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: General Guidelines for Writing Co-Op Articles of Incorporation
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-48
500 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | MS Word: 38 kb

Elements of PrecIsion Agriculture: Basics of Yield Monitor Installation and Operation
10/10/2002 (reprinted)

| PA-1
500 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 234 kb

10/1/2002 (minor revision)

| AGR-84
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 15 downloads | PDF: 95 kb

The Agronomics of Manure Use for Crop Production
9/20/2002 (minor revision)

| AGR-165
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 187 kb

Kentucky Rural Health Works: Connecting Health Care and Economic Development
8/27/2002 (new)

| AEC-92
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 45 kb

Elements of Precision Agriculture: GPS Simplified
6/30/2002 (new)

| PA-5
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 38 kb

Implementing Precision Agriculture: Choosing the Right Lightbar
6/15/2002 (new)

| PA-4
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 114 kb

Elements of Precision Agriculture: Lightbar Guidance Aids
6/12/2002 (new)

| PA-3
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 36 kb

Kentucky Forest Practice Guidelines for Water Quality Management
3/15/2002 (minor revision)

| FOR-67
250 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

Controlling White Grubs
2/20/2002 (reprinted)

| ENT-10
3,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 325 kb

Growing Red Clover in Kentucky
1/31/2002 (reprinted)

| AGR-33
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 108 kb

New Recommendations for Perennial Ryegrass Seedings for Kentucky Horse Farms
1/1/2002 (new)

| ID-142
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 41 kb

Feeding Your Dairy Cows a Total Mixed Ration: Getting Started
12/15/2001 (new)

| ID-141A
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 55 kb

Managing the Total Mixed Ration to Prevent Problems in Dairy Cows
12/15/2001 (new)

| ID-141B
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 93 kb

Training Manual for Ornamental and Turf Pest Control
10/22/2001 (reprinted)

| PAT-1-3
2,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 933 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky
9/30/2001 (new)

The corn grown in Kentucky is used mainly for livestock feed and as a cash crop. As a cash crop sold from the farm, corn ranks third behind tobacco and soybeans but is the number one row crop in terms of acreage. Because the cost of producing an acre of corn is high and the value per bushel has declined in recent years, producers must manage and market their corn crop more carefully for adequate profits. The goal of this publication is to serve as a guide for corn production strategies that focus on efficient use of resources and provide the principles and practices for obtaining maximum, profitable corn yields. | ID-139
7,500 printed copies | 64 pages | 37,214 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 639 kb

Agricultural Biotechnology and the Environment
9/15/2001 (reprinted)

| BREI-2
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 228 kb

Biotechnology in Our Food System: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers
9/15/2001 (reprinted)

| BREI-1
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 238 kb

Medicinal Herb Seed and Root Sources for Planting in Kentucky
9/15/2001 (minor revision)

| HO-73
5,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 42 downloads | PDF: 128 kb

Food Biotechnology
9/1/2001 (reprinted)

| BREI-3
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 323 kb

Planning the Yearly Forage and Commodity Needs for a Dairy Herd
8/30/2001 (new)

| ASC-160
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 126 kb

Considerations When Purchasing Hay for a Dairy Milking Herd
8/30/2001 (new)

| ID-138
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 88 kb

Applicator Training Manual for Right of Way Vegetation Management
7/30/2001 (minor revision)

| PAT-1-6
1,000 printed copies | 14 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 530 kb

Managing Mole Problems in Kentucky
6/30/2001 (minor revision)

| FOR-42
10,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 208 kb

Selecting the Right Grass for Your Kentucky Lawn
5/15/2001 (reprinted)

| AGR-52
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 31 downloads | PDF: 395 kb

Guidelines for Adopting Precision Agricultural Practices
5/15/2001 (new)

| PA-2
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 85 kb

Choosing Hay for Horses
5/1/2001 (reprinted)

| ID-146
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 397 kb

Alfalfa Cubes for Horses
5/1/2001 (reprinted)

| ID-145
1,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 310 kb

Understanding Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue and Its Effect on Broodmares
5/1/2001 (reprinted)

| ID-144
1,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 362 kb

Total Quality Assurance Apple Production: Best Management Practices
5/1/2001 (new)

| ID-137
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 271 kb

Asian Lady Beetle Infestation of Structures
3/20/2001 (reprinted)

| ENT-64
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 247 kb

Principles of Home Landscape Fertilizing
3/1/2001 (minor revision)

| ID-72
4,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 56 downloads | PDF: 183 kb

Directions for Using the Farm Planning Tool
12/1/2000 (new)

| AEC-91
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 78 downloads | PDF: 245 kb

Beginning Beekeeping for Kentuckians
11/17/2000 (reprinted)

| ENT-41
3,500 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 40 downloads | PDF: 718 kb

Sampling Animal Manure
10/30/2000 (new)

| ID-148
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 312 kb

Selection and Management Practices to Increase Consistency in Beef Cattle
9/30/2000 (new)

| ASC-159
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 61 downloads | PDF: 78 kb

Attracting Hummingbirds to the Garden
9/30/2000 (new)

| FOR-97
43,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 424 kb

Molecular Farming
9/29/2000 (new)

| BREI-5
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 272 kb

Marketing Options for Commercial Vegetable Growers
9/7/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-134
3,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 598 kb

Food Biotechnology Teaching Guide
9/1/2000 (new)

2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 298 kb

What Is Forestry?
9/1/2000 (reprinted)

| FOR-95
10,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,222 kb

Determining Best Management Practices for Timber Harvesting Operations in Kentucky: A Training Manual for Loggers
8/25/2000 (reprinted)

| FOR-70
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 140 kb

Using Animal Manures as Nutrient Sources
8/1/2000 (minor revision)

| AGR-146
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 330 kb

Pelvic Measurements and Calving Difficulty
6/1/2000 (minor revision)

| ASC-142
2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | 49 downloads | PDF: 243 kb

Processing Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
5/31/2000 (minor revision)

| AGR-123
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 1,524 kb

Brown Patch Disease
5/30/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-112
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 10 kb

No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky
5/1/2000 (new)

| ID-136
5,000 printed copies | 11 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

An Alfalfa Disease Calendar
5/1/2000 (new)

| PPA-44
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 168 kb

Production of Sweet Sorghum for Syrup in Kentucky
4/30/2000 (reprinted)

| AGR-122
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 204 kb

Growing Grapes in Kentucky
4/30/2000 (reprinted)

Kentucky has a long record of good grape production. As a home fruit crop or commercial crop, grapes have many benefits. Grapevines are relatively inexpensive and easy to propagate. They reach full bearing potential in four years and bear annually. The many varieties of grapes can be consumed fresh or used to make grape juice, jams, jellies, and wine. Grapes are also easy to manage. Vines are trained on trellises or arbors and easily can be sprayed using small equipment for control of insects and diseases. | ID-126
3,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 73 downloads | PDF: 238 kb

Trees, Shrubs and Vines That Attract Wildlife
4/1/2000 (reprinted)

| FOR-68
5,000 printed copies | 28 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 2,110 kb

Sprayer Nozzles: Selection and Calibration
2/28/2000 (minor revision)

| PAT-3
4,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 336 kb

High Tensile Wire or Cable Tobacco Field Curing Structure
2/25/2000 (reprinted)

| AEN-80
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 316 kb

Basics for Heating and Cooling Greenhouses
2/25/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-131
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 637 kb

Personal Protective Equipment for Pesticide Applicators
2/15/2000 (reprinted)

| PAT-6
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 107 kb

Measurement of Temperature Extremes in Tobacco Float Systems
2/1/2000 (new)

| AGR-176
3,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 552 kb

Financial Assistance Guide for Conservation Practices in Kentucky
2/1/2000 (reprinted)

| FOR-94
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 25 kb

Definition of Conservation Practices in Kentucky
2/1/2000 (reprinted)

| FOR-93
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 360 kb

Dairy Simulation of Put Options
1/31/2000 (new)

| AEC-88
550 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 255 kb

Put Options as Price Insurance for Dairy Farmers
1/31/2000 (new)

| AEC-87
550 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 188 kb

Risk Management Tools for Dairy Farmers: Options on Dairy Futures
1/30/2000 (new)

| AEC-86
350 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 204 kb

Risk Management Tools for DaIry Farmers: Dairy Futures Contracts
1/30/2000 (new)

| AEC-85
350 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 75 kb

Grain Drill Calibration Procedures for Winter Wheat
1/30/2000 (new)

| AEN-81
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 254 kb

Weed Control Recommendations for Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns and Recreational Turf
1/1/2000 (minor revision)

| AGR-78
5,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 144 kb

Kentucky's Pesticide Applicator Training and Certification Program
1/1/2000 (minor revision)

| PAT-2
3,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 334 kb

Packaging and Handling Burley Tobacco in Bales at the Farm
11/1/1999 (reprinted)

| ID-39
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 39 kb

Assessing Sow Body Condition
10/31/1999 (new)

| ASC-158
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 257 kb

The Flowering Crabapple
10/1/1999 (minor revision)

| ID-68
5,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 331 kb

Feeding and Managing the Far-Off Dry Cow
9/1/1999 (new)

| ASC-156
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 294 kb

Ornamental Grasses for Kentucky Landscapes
8/1/1999 (reprinted)

| HO-79
3,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 53 downloads | PDF: 893 kb

Pruning Landscape Shrubs
7/1/1999 (reprinted)

| HO-59
4,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 57 downloads | PDF: 755 kb

Using Conductivity Meters for Nitrogen Management in Float Systems
6/30/1999 (new)

| AGR-174
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 105 kb

Managing Woodchuck Problems in Kentucky
5/30/1999 (minor revision)

| FOR-44
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 261 kb

Using Nutrition to Improve Immunity Against Disease: Copper, Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamin E
5/1/1999 (new)

| ASC-154
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 40 downloads | PDF: 114 kb

Eastern Bluebirds Nesting Structure Design and Placement
5/1/1999 (minor revision)

| FOR-52
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 153 kb

Managing Skunk Problems in Kentucky
5/1/1999 (minor revision)

| FOR-49
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 255 kb

Managing Chipmunk Problems in Kentucky
5/1/1999 (minor revision)

| FOR-41
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 376 kb

Coyote Managing Coyote Problems in Kentucky
5/1/1999 (reprinted)

| FOR-37
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 804 kb

Guidelines for Choosing Hedges for Kentucky Yards
5/1/1999 (reprinted)

| HO-55
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 15 downloads | HTML: 33 kb

Low Cost Post-Row Field Tobacco Curing Framework
5/1/1999 (minor revision)

| ID-116
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 202 kb

Understanding Pesticide Labels and Labeling
4/30/1999 (reprinted)

| ID-100
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 705 kb

Guide to Urban Habitat Conservation Planning
4/15/1999 (new)

| FOR-74
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 174 kb

Landscape Ecology and Ecosystems Management
4/1/1999 (new)

| FOR-76
10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 283 kb

Pruning Landscape Trees
4/1/1999 (reprinted)

| HO-45
5,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 1,992 kb

Tulips and Their Care
4/1/1999 (reprinted)

| HO-35
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 9 kb

Geraniums for Kentucky Gardens
4/1/1999 (reprinted)

| HO-26
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 12 kb

An Ecosystems Approach to Natural Resources Management
2/28/1999 (new)

| FOR-75
web only | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 330 kb

Spring, Summer and Fall Bulbs
1/10/1999 (reprinted)

| HO-80
5,000 printed copies | 9 pages | - | 58 downloads | PDF: 79 kb

Management of Tobacco Float Systems
1/10/1999 (new)

| ID-132
web only | 8 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 445 kb

Creating Urban Stormwater Control Ponds for Water Quality and Wildlife Habitat
12/15/1998 (new)

| FOR-73
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 111 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative YardsTick: Cooperative Education and Communication
11/1/1998 (minor revision)

| AEC-56
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 75 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Financing Agricultural Cooperatives
11/1/1998 (minor revision)

| AEC-52
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 72 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Boards of Directors for Farm Cooperatives Powers-Responsibilities-LiabilIty
11/1/1998 (reprinted)

| AEC-49
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 75 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Farmer and Consumer Cooperatives Structure and Classification
11/1/1998 (minor revision)

| AEC-44
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

Midwest Tree Fruit Pest Management Handbook
11/1/1998 (new)

| ID-93
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 11 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

A Brief Look at Farmland Conversion in Kentucky
9/1/1998 (new)

| AEC-84
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 100 kb

Boar Selection: Using Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)
7/30/1998 (new)

| ASC-153
1,000 printed copies | - | - | - | HTML: 14 kb

Winter Cover Crops for Kentucky Gardens and Fields
6/15/1998 (minor revision)

| ID-113
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 41 downloads | PDF: 81 kb

Trees Shrubs Ground Covers and Vines Suitable for Kentucky Landscapes
4/1/1998 (reprinted)

| HO-61
4,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 67 downloads | PDF: 425 kb

A Cost Comparison of Three 10-Acre Tobacco Transplant Production Systems
2/15/1998 (reprinted)

| ID-129
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 209 kb

One-Tier Plastic-Covered Tobacco Curing Structure: Tier Rail Design
2/1/1998 (reprinted)

| AEN-74
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 302 kb

Manipulation of the Estrous Cycle in Swine
12/1/1997 (new)

| ASC-152
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 337 kb

OSHA Hazard Communication Standard: Employee's Right to Know
11/30/1997 (reprinted)

| FOR-58
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 122 kb

Invisible Itches: Insect and Non-Insect Causes
10/10/1997 (reprinted)

| ENT-58
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 326 kb

A Landowner's Guide Measuring Farm Timber
9/15/1997 (reprinted)

| FOR-9
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 9 downloads | HTML: 91 kb

Using Geotextiles for Feeding and Traffic Surfaces
9/1/1997 (new)

| AEN-79
3,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 222 kb

Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Make Nitrogen Recommendations on Wheat
9/1/1997 (new)

| AGR-170
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 24 kb

Timing Control Actions for Landscape Insect Pests Using Flowering Plants as Indicators
9/1/1997 (reprinted)

| ENT-66
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 75 kb

Termite Baits: A Guide for Homeowners
9/1/1997 (new)

| ENT-65
5,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 610 kb

Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar
9/1/1997 (reprinted)

| ID-125A
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 117 kb

Mastitis and Its Control
7/11/1997 (minor revision)

| ASC-140
1,000 printed copies | 14 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 79 kb

Overview of Kentucky's Tobacco Economy
6/1/1997 (new)

| AEC-83
8,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 217 kb

Kura Clover for Kentucky
4/1/1997 (minor revision)

| AGR-141
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 203 kb

Pasture for Dairy Cattle: Challenges and Opportunities
4/1/1997 (new)

| ASC-151
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 184 kb

Factors to Consider in Bringing Idle Land Back to Production
4/1/1997 (new)

| ID-124
5,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 228 kb

Two-Tier Air-Cure Tobacco Barn
3/7/1997 (reprinted)

| AEN-76
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 289 kb

Paulownia: A Guide to Establishment and Cultivation
2/15/1997 (reprinted)

| FOR-39
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 28 kb

Livestock Waste Sampling and Testing
1/1/1997 (new)

| ID-123
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 128 kb

Growing White Clover in Kentucky
11/1/1996 (minor revision)

| AGR-93
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 184 kb

Producing Red Clover Seed in Kentucky
11/1/1996 (new)

| AGR-2
web only | 4 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 144 kb

Problems in Diagnosing Nutrient Deficiencies of Cool Season Grasses
10/1/1996 (new)

| AGR-169
5,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 12 kb

Alternatives for Fungus Infected Tall Fescue
10/1/1996 (reprinted)

| AGR-119
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 12 kb

Using the Dart Ration Computer Program to Answer Nutrition Questions About Dairy Cattle
9/15/1996 (minor revision)

| ASC-131
30 printed copies | 18 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 210 kb

The US Tobacco Program: How It Works and Who Pays for It
9/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-82
10,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 113 kb

When to Apply Lime and Fertilizer
9/1/1996 (minor revision)

| AGR-5
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 50 downloads | PDF: 143 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Pest Control: Animals
7/31/1996 (reprinted)

| FOR-27
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 24 kb

Broiler Litter Production in Kentucky and Potential Use as a Nutrient Source
7/1/1996 (new)

| AGR-168
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 66 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Pest Control: Insects
7/1/1996 (reprinted)

| FOR-27A
2,000 printed copies | 7 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 747 kb

Managing Sustainable Forests in Kentucky
6/11/1996 (reprinted)

| FOR-15
13,000 printed copies | 28 pages | - | 15 downloads | PDF: 997 kb

1996 Kentucky Custom Rates for Farm Machinery
6/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-81
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 237 kb

Kentucky Farm Machinery Economic Cost Estimates for 1996
5/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-80
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 142 kb

A Computer Model for Analysis of Alternative Burley Tobacco Harvesting Practices
5/1/1996 (new)

| AEN-78
1,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Keeping Production Records for the Beef Herd
3/30/1996 (reprinted)

| ASC-150
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 62 downloads | PDF: 145 kb

Ground Covers for Ky Landscapes
2/20/1996 (reprinted)

| HO-78
3,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 182 kb

Water Quality Guidelines for Tobacco Float Systems
2/1/1996 (new)

| AGR-164
3,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 196 kb

Selecting the Right Fertilizer for Tobacco Production in Float Systems
2/1/1996 (new)

| AGR-163
5,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 180 kb

Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree's Health
1/1/1996 (reprinted)

| ID-55
2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

Soil Compaction in Kentucky
10/1/1995 (new)

| AGR-161
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 27 kb

Management of Swine Mating
9/1/1995 (new)

| ASC-148
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 98 kb

Feeding and Managing the Weanling Pig
8/1/1995 (new)

| ASC-149
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 67 kb

Controlling Woodpecker Damage
7/1/1995 (reprinted)

| FOR-38
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Greenhouse Insect Management
6/15/1995 (reprinted)

| ENT-60
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 123 kb

Managing Wildlife Damage Problems in Kentucky: Assistance, Procedures, Policies and Regulations
6/9/1995 (reprinted)

| FOR-13
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 19 kb

Managing Commensal Rodent Problems in Kentucky
6/1/1995 (reprinted)

| ID-115
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 352 kb

1995 Farm Bill
5/1/1995 (new)

| AEC-79
600 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 227 kb

Equine Feeding Management
4/1/1995 (new)

| ASC-143
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 146 kb

Greenhouse Pesticides and Pesticide Safety
4/1/1995 (reprinted)

| PAT-4
1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 111 kb

Fertilization of Cool-Season Grasses
3/5/1995 (reprinted)

| AGR-103
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 11 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

Managing Small Grains for Livestock Forage
3/1/1995 (new)

| AGR-160
3,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 224 kb

Evaluating Fertilizer Recommendations
3/1/1995 (reprinted)

| AGR-151
1,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 44 downloads | PDF: 236 kb

Nitrogen in Kentucky Soils
3/1/1995 (reprinted)

| AGR-43
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 290 kb

Liming Acid Soils
3/1/1995 (reprinted)

| AGR-19
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 10 kb

Managing Muskrat Problems in Kentucky
3/1/1995 (reprinted)

| FOR-51
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 14 kb

Bats: Information for Kentucky Homeowners
2/28/1995 (reprinted)

| FOR-48
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 22 kb

Managing Rabbit and Vole Problems in Kentucky Orchards
2/28/1995 (reprinted)

| FOR-43
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 21 kb

Managing Tree Squirrel Problems in Kentucky
2/1/1995 (reprinted)

| FOR-45
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 11 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Poultry Litter Management
1/1/1995 (new)

| ID-117
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Scientific Classification of Trees
11/30/1994 (reprinted)

| FOR-61
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 143 kb

An Introduction to Wood Anatomy Characteristics Common to Softwoods and Hardwoods
11/30/1994 (reprinted)

Those who work with wood should have a basic understanding of wood anatomy so they will be familiar with how different anatomical features influence wood properties and, in turn, how these properties react to different treatments and uses of the wood. This publication introduces the reader to wood characteristics that are common to both hardwoods and softwoods. | FOR-59
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,990 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 175 kb

Open Face Tree Felling Method
11/15/1994 (new)

| FOR-60
5,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 172 kb

Wood Destroying Organisms and Wood Preservatives
10/1/1994 (reprinted)

| FOR-54
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 534 kb

Using Mga to Shorten the Beef Breeding Season
8/26/1994 (reprinted)

| ASC-132
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 129 kb

Production-Oriented Lamb Marketing
6/1/1994 (reprinted)

Grading and marketing lambs is the culmination of a year-long program. Decisions concerning marketing and the management of lambs still on the farm markedly affect the success of a sheep producing program. By its prices for different types of lambs, the market sends signals about what should be produced. Managers must look at price trends over time and compare them with production costs. Your income is the true measure of success in any production program. The steps to a good marketing program include analyzing both the market and the product you plan to market. | ID-102
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 31 kb

Paulownia Log Grades: Specifications and Uses
5/15/1994 (reprinted)

| FOR-56
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 143 kb

Cutworm Management in Corn
3/1/1994 (reprinted)

| ENT-59
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 175 kb

Managing White Tailed Deer
1/15/1994 (reprinted)

| FOR-57
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 25 kb

Macroeconomic Policy Linkages to Agriculture
12/2/1993 (reprinted)

| AEC-71
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 119 kb

A Health Calendar for Spring-Calving Herds
11/1/1993 (new)

| VET-31
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | MS Word: 89 kb

Soybean Production in Kentucky Part 5: Harvesting, Drying, Storage, and Marketing
9/1/1993 (new)

| AGR-132
5,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 419 kb

Drying Wood
5/1/1993 (reprinted)

| FOR-55
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 213 kb

Club Lamb Fungus Disease
5/1/1993 (new)

| VET-30
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | MS Word: 37 kb

Sheep Identification Systems
4/1/1993 (reprinted)

| ASC-130
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 8 kb

Sheep Foot Care and Diseases
4/1/1993 (reprinted)

| ASC-129
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 24 kb

Developing a Sheep Enterprise
4/1/1993 (reprinted)

| ASC-126
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

Napiap in Kentucky
3/1/1993 (new)

| PAT-5
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 100 kb

Kentucky Coffeetree
2/16/1993 (reprinted)

| FOR-8
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 12 kb

Tobacco Management: Optimizing Profits
1/1/1993 (new)

| AGR-157
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 136 kb

Tobacco Transplant Production: Plug and Transfer System
1/1/1993 (new)

| AGR-156
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 142 kb

Selecting a Tobacco Transplant Production System
1/1/1993 (new)

| AGR-155
5,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 137 kb

Role of Nutrition on Reproductive Performance
10/1/1992 (new)

| ASC-138
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 191 kb

Accomplishing a Sound Dairy Nutritional Program
10/1/1992 (new)

| ASC-137
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 223 kb

More Milk = More Feed
10/1/1992 (new)

| ASC-135
500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 195 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Vegetation Control
10/1/1992 (new)

| FOR-23
3,000 printed copies | 7 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 248 kb

Canola Production and Management
9/1/1992 (new)

| ID-114
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 200 kb

Establishing and Operating a Community Farmers' Market
8/1/1992 (new)

| AEC-77
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Growing Lespedeza in Kentucky
8/1/1992 (minor revision)

| AGR-86
4,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 146 kb

Balancing Rations for Dairy Cows
8/1/1992 (new)

| ASC-139
500 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 23 kb

Should You Be Feeding Fat to Your Dairy Cows?
8/1/1992 (new)

| ASC-134
300 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 189 kb

Microsprinklers and Fan Cooling For Dairy Cows: Practical Design Considerations
6/1/1992 (new)

| AEN-75
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Using Fans in Conventional Burley Barns
4/1/1992 (new)

| AEN-69
3,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 229 kb

Nodding Thistle and Its Control in Grass Pastures
12/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AGR-20
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 9 kb

Preservative Treatment of Greenhouse Wood
11/1/1991 (minor revision)

| AEN-6
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 47 kb

Buying and Selling Burley Quota: What Factors Should Farmers Consider?
10/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-76
2,000 printed copies | 7 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 67 kb

Managing Beaver Problems in Kentucky
10/1/1991 (new)

| FOR-50
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Use of 'Cull' Trees
9/27/1991 (new)

| FOR-30
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 5 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Harvesting
9/27/1991 (new)

| FOR-28
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 7 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Irrigation
9/27/1991 (new)

| FOR-25
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 4 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Fertilization
9/27/1991 (reprinted)

| FOR-24
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 5 kb

Global Policies and US Agricultural Trade
8/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-74
250 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 58 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Ground Covers
8/1/1991 (minor revision)

| FOR-19
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 5 kb

Understanding Produce Marketing for Kentucky's Direct Markets
8/1/1991 (new)

| ID-107
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 19 kb

Promotion and Advertising for Kentucky's Direct Markets
8/1/1991 (new)

| ID-106
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 43 kb

Macroeconomic and International Policy Terms
7/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-75
250 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 54 kb

A Review of Macroeconomic Policy Linkages to Agriculture
7/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-72
250 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 512 kb

Managing Soil Nitrates for Agronomic Efficiency and Environmental Protection
6/1/1991 (new)

| AGR-147
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 30 kb

Balancing Rations
5/31/1991 (minor revision)

| ASC-12
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 32 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Pruning and Shearing
5/9/1991 (reprinted)

| FOR-26
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 11 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook References
4/15/1991 (new)

| FOR-34
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 14 kb

Curing Burley Tobacco
2/4/1991 (reprinted)

| AEN-59
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

Poly-Tube Heating-Ventilation Systems and Equipment
2/1/1991 (minor revision)

| AEN-7
1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 262 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Production Calendar
12/15/1990 (reprinted)

| FOR-33
1,300 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 6 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Developing a Demonstration Plot
12/1/1990 (reprinted)

| FOR-32
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 10 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Site Preparation
11/19/1990 (new)

| FOR-18
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 6 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Planning and Site Selection
11/19/1990 (new)

| FOR-16
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Kentucky's Endangered and Threatened Species
11/1/1990 (new)

| ID-103
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

Transplanting Trees and Shrubs
11/1/1990 (reprinted)

| ID-80
10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 49 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Compass and Pacing
9/1/1990 (new)

| FOR-47
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 8 kb

Preventing and Treating Disease in Exhibition Market Animals
8/1/1990 (new)

| VET-28
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | MS Word: 30 kb

Painting Greenhouses and Equipment
7/1/1990 (minor revision)

| AEN-14
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 9 downloads | MS Word: 30 kb

Low Maintenance Annual Flowers for Kentucky Gardens
6/1/1990 (minor revision)

| HO-47
20,000 printed copies | - | - | 27 downloads | HTML: 22 kb

Producing and Marketing High Quality Wool
5/1/1990 (new)

| ASC-127
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 24 kb

Managing Slowly Permeable Soils for Tobacco and Corn Production in Kentucky
1/1/1990 (new)

| AGR-143
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

Chemical and Drug Residues in Livestock
10/1/1989 (new)

| VET-27
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | MS Word: 34 kb

Herbicide Persistence and Carryover in Kentucky
6/1/1989 (new)

| AGR-139
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 12 kb

Forages for Horses
5/1/1989 (new)

| ASC-120
10,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 45 downloads | PDF: 201 kb

Economical Alternative Feeds for Sheep
4/1/1989 (new)

| ASC-119
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 24 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Budgeting and Economics
12/10/1988 (reprinted)

| FOR-36
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 60 kb

Preparing Burley in Bales
9/1/1988 (reprinted)

| ID-38
4,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 7 kb

Using Drought-Stressed Corn Harvesting, Storage, Feeding, Pricing and Marketing
8/1/1988 (new)

| ID-86
7,500 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 32 kb

Basic Horse Nutrition
7/1/1988 (new)

| ASC-114
10,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 243 kb

Perennial Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky
5/1/1988 (new)

| AGR-135
10,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 820 kb

Soybean Production in Kentucky Part 4: Weed, Disease and Insect Control
4/1/1988 (new)

| AGR-131
12,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 62 kb

Soybean Production in Kentucky Part 1: Status, Uses and Planning
1/1/1988 (new)

| AGR-128
12,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 38 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Mergers, Aquisitions and Other Forms of Restructuring
8/1/1987 (new)

| AEC-58
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | MS Word: 40 kb

Summer Annual Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky
4/1/1987 (new)

| AGR-118
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 18 kb

Liming and Fertilizing Burley Tobacco
4/1/1987 (new)

| AGR-49
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 33 kb

Creep Grazing for Beef Calves
4/1/1987 (new)

| ID-76
20,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Winter Annual Weeds of Kentucky
11/1/1986 (new)

Late winter or early spring is a good time of year to start looking at the weeds growing in cultivated beds, vegetable gardens, and fallow fields not yet tilled and planted for the coming year. Many of the plants that flower at this time are winter annuals. | AGR-117
10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 667 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: How to Start a Cooperative
9/1/1986 (new)

| AEC-43
8,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

Beef Cattle Corrals and Handling Facilities
4/1/1986 (reprinted)

| ID-13
20,000 printed copies | - | - | 12 downloads | HTML: 17 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Injection Techniques in Swine
11/1/1985 (new)

| ID-70
2,000 printed copies | - | - | - | HTML: 16 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Therapeutic Selection in Swine
10/1/1985 (new)

| ID-69
2,000 printed copies | - | - | - | HTML: 11 kb

9/20/1985 (new)

| FOR-2
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 12 kb

Factors Affecting Feed Conversion in Growing-Finishing Swine
9/1/1985 (new)

| ASC-104
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 23 kb

Managing Acid Soils for Production of Burley Tobacco
8/1/1985 (new)

| AGR-109
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 12 kb

Improving Preweaning Survival of Pigs
6/1/1985 (new)

| ASC-106
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 9 kb

Brucellosis of Cattle
3/1/1985 (reprinted)

| VET-26
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 37 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Feed Additives and Residue Prevention in Swine
2/1/1985 (new)

| ID-66
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 20 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Feed Handling System
2/1/1985 (new)

| ID-65
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 14 kb

'Fergus' Birdsfoot Trefoil
6/30/1984 (reprinted)

| AGR-104
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 18 kb

Large Plants for Homes and Offices
4/1/1984 (reprinted)

| HO-52
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 12 downloads | HTML: 24 kb

Debris Burning and Forest Fires
2/1/1984 (new)

| FOR-14
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 4 kb

Swine Confinement Breeding Facilities
9/1/1983 (new)

| ID-58
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Housing for Pleasure Horses
9/1/1983 (reprinted)

| ID-57
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 23 kb

Erosion Its Effect on Soil Properties, Productivity and Profit
8/1/1983 (new)

| AGR-102
30,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 12 kb

Strip Cropping and Contouring
8/1/1983 (new)

| AGR-98
30,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 15 kb

Controlling Soil Erosion with Agronomic Practices
8/1/1983 (new)

| AGR-96
30,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

The Effects of Weather on Hay Production
6/1/1983 (reprinted)

| AGR-45
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Hay Preservatives
3/1/1983 (reprinted)

| ID-46
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 25 kb

Fertilization and Liming for Corn
2/1/1983 (new)

| AGR-105
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 11 downloads | HTML: 21 kb

Flowering Plants for Homes and Offices
2/1/1983 (new)

| HO-51
15,000 printed copies | - | - | 14 downloads | HTML: 24 kb

Understanding Precipitation Probabilities
5/1/1982 (new)

| AEN-53
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | MS Word: 38 kb

Cropland Rotations for Kentucky
1/1/1982 (new)

| AGR-91
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 24 kb

Dryeration Performance Evaluation
12/15/1981 (new)

| AEES-8
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 260 kb

Estimating Fan Sizes for Grain Drying and Storage Bins
12/15/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-6
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 287 kb

Fan Performance on Grain Drying Bins
12/15/1981 (minor revision)

| AEES-5
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 284 kb

Air-Type Solar Collectors for Agricultural and Residential Use
12/15/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-3
1,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 287 kb

Energy for Swine Facilities Part 2: Alternative Sources of Energy
10/10/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-2
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 382 kb

Energy for Swine Facilities Part 1: Energy Conservation
10/1/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-1
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Grain Drying Performance Evaluation
2/1/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-7
3,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 302 kb

Energy Usage in Agricultural Production
1/15/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-11
3,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 513 kb

Minimizing Odor from Confinement Facilities by Management Practices
1/1/1981 (new)

| AEN-48
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | MS Word: 46 kb

Wind Chill
4/2/1980 (new)

| ID-23
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 7 kb

Suffocation Hazards in Grain Bins
3/1/1980 (reprinted)

| AEN-39
10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,097 kb

Residential Solar Heating
2/10/1980 (minor revision)

| AEES-10
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 62 downloads | PDF: 319 kb

Harvesting and Curing Burley Tobacco
7/1/1979 (reprinted)

| AGR-14
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

Tobacco Stalks and Stems Fertility Value and Use
5/1/1979 (reprinted)

| AGR-23
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 6 kb

Manganese Toxicity in Burley Tobacco
3/1/1979 (reprinted)

| AGR-22
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 7 kb

Potassium in Kentucky Soils
2/1/1979 (new)

| AGR-11
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 24 kb

Harvesting, Drying and Storing Soybeans
9/1/1975 (reprinted)

| AEN-25
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 15 downloads | MS Word: 36 kb

Preventing Storage Rots of Grain
1/1/1974 (reprinted)

| ID-3
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 9 kb

Grass Loafing Paddocks for Dairy Cows
8/1/1973 (new)

| ID-7
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 7 kb

E.I.A. Equine Infectious Anemia
1/1/1973 (new)

| VET-10
300 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 107 kb

Some Plants of Kentucky Poisonous to Livestock
6/1/1972 (minor revision)

| ID-2
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 59 kb

Weeds of Kentucky Turf
3/1/1961 (new)

| AGR-12
25,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 2,192 kb