|4H||4-H Youth Development (Cooperative Extension)|
|ANR||Agriculture and Natural Resources (Cooperative Extension)|
|CED||Community and Economic Development (Cooperative Extension)|
|EXP||Research (Experiment Station)|
|FCS||Family and Consumer Sciences (Cooperative Extension)|
2012 Kentucky Corn and Soybean ACRE Payment Prospects
Web only | - | - | PDF: 116 kb
Agricultural Land Prices, Supply, Demand and Current Trends
The purpose of this article is to describe the incentives faced by farmland buyers and sellers in a supply and demand framework explaining the reasons why farmland values are relatively high.
Web only | 9 pages | - | PDF: 120 kb
Best Practices for Sampling at Farmers Markets: A Practical Guide for Farmers Market Vendors
This handbook is intended to assist farmers and farmers market managers understand the economic benefits and best practices of providing samples to farmers market patrons.
Web only | 58 pages | - | PDF: 14000 kb
CME Group Expands Trading Hours and ICE Now Offers US Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat Futures Contracts
Web only | - | - | PDF: 102 kb
Exchange Traded Funds and Agriculture
Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) represent a relatively new form of investment instruments allowing investors easier access to stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities, and futures markets. The purpose of this article is to identify how ETFs operate, their valuation, their history, and provide an example of how a hypothetical ETF functions.
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 280 kb
Financial Impacts From Farmland Value Declines by Various Farm Ownership Levels
Long-term farm financial strength stemming from investment decisions is a primary concern of all producers, bankers, and the entire agricultural industry. Farmland in Kentucky represents the primary resource for producers to accumulate wealth and represents, on average, 75% of producers' assets (KFBM, 2012). In this article, we examine farm financial impacts from farmland value declines by various farmland ownership levels through key financial ratios.
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 111 kb
Impact of the "Farms to Food Banks" Produce Sourcing Project
The Kentucky Association of Food Banks received a Specialty Crop Block Grant from the Kentucky Department of Agriculture in 2011 for the "Farms to Food Banks" program. This program was designed to increase consumption and awareness of fruits and vegetables among low-income consumers through a targeted local fresh produce distribution program. The University of Kentucky Food Systems Innovation Center assisted with an evaluation of the program toward the end of the 2012 marketing season. The primary objective of the evaluation was to determine how impactful the program was for food bank consumers. This report summarizes the results of food bank client intercept surveys by examining fresh produce consumption barriers and changes in consumption behavior.
Web only | 10 pages | - | PDF: 1300 kb
Investigating Your Crop Insurance Contract in Front of a Drought
Web only | - | - | PDF: 211 kb
Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Many different kinds of technologies exist in the market today. The sheer number of various technologies and the information produced by them can be overwhelming and confusing. Information about these technologies exists but can often times be hard to find or difficult to understand. Unfamiliarity with technologies and how they work can become an obstacle to overcome, especially when comparing and contrasting technologies. This fact-sheet will list several of these technologies and how they accomplish their goals.
Web only | 3 pages | - | PDF: 22 kb
Precision Dairy Farming Technologies List
Web only | - | - | Excel: 227 kb
Taking Advantage of a Strong Cattle Market
A combination of several factors has led to extremely strong prices across beef cattle markets during recent years. Established cow-calf operators are the primary beneficiaries of these unprecedented price levels as they represent the only industry within the beef sector that is not margin oriented. While the current market environment has greatly improved profitability at the cow-calf level, it also presents challenges as producers consider long term decisions about cattle inventory, investments in equipment and facilities, and managing the financial aspects of greater cash flow in the coming years. The purpose of this publication is to (1) outline the factors behind the current strength of the cattle market and describe how producers typically respond to strong markets and (2) to help frame the economics of several key long-term investment decisions that producers are likely considering.
Web only | 5 pages | - | PDF: 93 kb
The Kentucky Agricultural Economic Outlook for 2012
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 153 kb
The Margin Protection Program for Dairy in the 2014 Farm Bill
The Margin Protection Program for Dairy (MPP-Dairy) was authorized in the Food, Farm and Jobs Bill, aka "2014 Farm Bill." The new program was established in August 2014 and will run through December 31, 2018. The bill effectively repeals the Dairy Export Incentive Program and the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program while establishing the new MPP-Dairy program and a Dairy Product Donation Program (DPDP). Producers are permitted to participate in the new program, or the previously existing LGM-Dairy program, but not both at the same time. The purpose of this publication is three-fold, (1) provide an overview of how MPP-Dairy works, (2) provide some historical perspective on how a similar program might have worked had it been available over the last several years, and (3) help frame the participation decision that dairy producers will make in the coming years.
Web only | 5 pages | - | PDF: 107 kb
Trend Adjusted Actual Production History Yield Endorsement
Web only | - | - | PDF: 213 kb
Trend Adjustment Availability for Wheat in Kentucky
Over the past thirty years, the Kentucky Small Grain Growers have invested nearly 2 million in research dollars aimed at improving Kentucky wheat yields. Consequently, Kentucky producers face a wheat yield trend. The purpose of this short article is to highlight why TA-APH availability for wheat is essential for Kentucky wheat producers.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 88 kb
Understanding the Impact of Horse Shows and Competitions in Kentucky
While most think of Thoroughbred racing when they think about Kentucky's horse industry, few understand the incredible scope of the non-racing industry and the numerous industries that surround and support it. The objective of this publication is to help readers gain an understanding of Kentucky's non-racing horse industry, and in this case, specifically that of competitive shows and competitions.
Web only | 5 pages | - | PDF: 600 kb
Understanding USDA's Livestock Risk Protection Insurance Program for Feeder Catle
Web only | 7 pages | - | PDF: 60 kb
Using Futures Markets to Manage Price Risk for Feeder Cattle
The purpose of this publication is to introduce cattle producers to the futures market as a risk management tool and provide an illustration of how hedging with this tool could provide them with downside price risk protection.
Web only | 10 pages | - | PDF: 100 kb
Using Futures Markets to Manage Price Risk for Feeder Cattle: Advanced Strategies
This publication is a follow-up to AEC 2013-01, Using Futures Markets to Manage Price Risk for Feeder Cattle. The first publication provided an introduction to the futures' market and outlined the basic use of futures and options, while this publication will discuss some advanced strategies that are commonly used by cattle producers for price risk management. These strategies will all build upon those discussed in AEC 2013-01, so a basic understanding of futures and options is required. If the reader is unfamiliar with those basic strategies, they are encouraged to master those, before moving to the advanced strategies discussed here.
Web only | 11 pages | - | PDF: 70 kb
Using the Futures Market to Predict Prices and Calculate Breakevens for Feeder Cattle
The purpose of this publication is to show beef cattle producers how the feeder cattle futures market can be used to predict sale prices for cattle sold at a later date, and how those prices could be used to estimate what can be paid for calves placed into stocker and backgrounding programs. By using the futures market as a way to forecast prices, and by carefully considering expenses, a target purchase price can be estimated for calves placed into these programs. While there are many unknowns that producers must manage such as prices, gains, health challenges, death loss, etc, this type of breakeven analysis is crucial for anyone placing calves in today's market environment.
Web only | 13 pages | - | PDF: 110 kb
The Kentucky Agricultural Economic Outlook for 2013
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 490 kb
Understanding and Quantifying Year-to-Year Changes in the ACRE Revenue Guarantee
The United States Department of Agriculture's Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program guarantees producers revenue at the state level, which is tied to state crop production and the National Average Market Price. Payments trigger when the current state revenue is less than the ACRE program guarantee.
120 printed copies | 2 pages | 686 words | PDF: 235 kb
2012 Land Value and Cash Rent Survey
In January 2012, Agriculture and Natural Resource (ANR) agents were surveyed to estimate land values and rental rates for various types of farmland. This document summarizes the results from the agent survey. Dollar values are rounded to the nearest $5-$10 for rental rates and $100 for land values.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,249 words | PDF: 728 kb
An Introduction to Futures Hedging for Grain Producers
This guide is written for farm producers who want to know the basics of how futures markets operate and how to use them for protection against the risk of falling prices.
200 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 1363 kb
The Economics of Biofuels: An Overview
Recently a large amount of interest has been shown in renewable energy options in Kentucky. Many seem to have recognized both the positive and negative impacts of the corn-based ethanol trend we have seen in the last few years.
250 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 280 kb
Buying a Home 101
At a time when housing prices were increasing at a tremendous rate, banks could taste the profits associated with giving loans to families who did not understand the financial commitment they were signing their names to. To avoid falling into the same pattern, it is imperative that you understand all of the terms of the loan and that you are sure that the loan payments fall within your budget.
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 260 kb
Community Economic Analysis Strategies: Tools and Data
250 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 116 kb
Kentucky Rural Health Works: Connecting Health Care and Economic Development
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 45 kb
Directions for Using the Farm Planning Tool
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 245 kb
The American Private Enterprise System
2000 printed copies | 36 pages | - | PDF: 891 kb
A Profile of Female Farmers in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 315 kb
Dairy Simulation of Put Options
550 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 255 kb
Put Options as Price Insurance for Dairy Farmers
550 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 188 kb
Risk Management Tools for Dairy Farmers: Options on Dairy Futures
350 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 204 kb
Risk Management Tools for DaIry Farmers: Dairy Futures Contracts
350 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 75 kb
A Brief Look at Farmland Conversion in Kentucky
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 100 kb
Overview of Kentucky's Tobacco Economy
8000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 217 kb
The US Tobacco Program: How It Works and Who Pays for It
10000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 113 kb
1996 Kentucky Custom Rates for Farm Machinery
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 237 kb
Kentucky Farm Machinery Economic Cost Estimates for 1996
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 142 kb
1995 Farm Bill
600 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 227 kb
Establishing and Operating a Community Farmers' Market
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 167 kb
Buying and Selling Burley Quota: What Factors Should Farmers Consider?
2000 printed copies | 7 pages | - | PDF: 67 kb
Macroeconomic and International Policy Terms
250 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 54 kb
Global Policies and US Agricultural Trade
250 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 58 kb
A Review of Macroeconomic Policy Linkages to Agriculture
250 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 512 kb
Macroeconomic Policy Linkages to Agriculture
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 119 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Food Buying Organizations
500 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 40 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Guidelines for Writing Cooperative Bylaws
500 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 40 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Mergers, Aquisitions and Other Forms of Restructuring
3000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 40 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative YardsTick: Cooperative Education and Communication
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 75 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Refunds: Patronage and Revolving
500 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 44 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Taxation Should Your Cooperative Be 'Exempt' or 'Non-Exempt'?
500 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 40 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Financing Agricultural Cooperatives
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 72 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Role of the Co-Op Manager
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 74 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Your Role as a Co-Op Member
1500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 69 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Boards of Directors for Farm Cooperatives Powers-Responsibilities-LiabilIty
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 75 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: General Guidelines for Writing Co-Op Articles of Incorporation
500 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 38 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Understanding Cooperative Terminology
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 78 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Conducting a Feasibility Study for Marketing Cooperatives
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 74 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Farmer and Consumer Cooperatives Structure and Classification
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 74 kb
The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: How to Start a Cooperative
8000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 40 kb
Agricultural Cooperatives - How They Fit Into the American Free Enterprise System
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 74 kb
Energy Usage in Agricultural Production
3000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 513 kb
Residential Solar Heating
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 319 kb
Dryeration Performance Evaluation
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 260 kb
Grain Drying Performance Evaluation
3000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 302 kb
Estimating Fan Sizes for Grain Drying and Storage Bins
1500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 287 kb
Fan Performance on Grain Drying Bins
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 284 kb
Air-Type Solar Collectors for Agricultural and Residential Use
1000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 287 kb
Energy for Swine Facilities Part 2: Alternative Sources of Energy
1500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 382 kb
Energy for Swine Facilities Part 1: Energy Conservation
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 350 kb
Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | PDF: 516 kb
Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm.
Web only | 7 pages | 3,539 words | PDF: 2400 kb
Measuring Discharge in Wadeable Streams
Knowing the amount of water flowing in a stream can improve management practices such as those related to streambank erosion, pollutant loading and transport, and flood control. Streamflow or discharge is defined as the volume of water moving past a specific point in a stream for a fixed period of time.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,273 words | PDF: 2288 kb
Sediments in waterbodies cause a number of problems such as harming aquatic habitats, filling reservoirs, and worsening flooding. High amounts of sediment in the water inhibit the ability of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates to move, breathe, hunt and reproduce. Accumulated sediments in reservoirs reduces their useful life and increases costs associated with maintenance. Streams experiencing such sediment buildup carry less water during storm events.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,721 words | PDF: 1506 kb
Increased levels of urbanization result in reductions in the amount of rainfall that infiltrates and evapotranspires and increases the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. These changes can result in flooding, streambank erosion, and water quality degradation. Hydrologic models are useful in understanding watersheds and how changes in a watershed can affect hydrology. Hydrologic models can predict the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff under different scenarios.
Web only | 5 pages | 2,704 words | PDF: 844 kb
Common Hazards in Karst Terrain
Karst refers to terrain largely drained by subsurface conduits and caves. Karst landscapes are characterized by surface features such as springs, sinkholes, shallow depressions, and rolling hills. Karst regions are also known for their subsurface or below-ground features such as conduits and caves. What makes a karst region unique is the way runoff drains from the land. In karst regions, some of the runoff flows into surface features such as sinkholes where it then travels underground. Some of this infiltrated water re-emerges at springs, and some continues moving underground.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,581 words | PDF: 2704 kb
Closing a Liquid Manure Storage Structure
Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure(s) as part of their Kentucky No Discharge Operational Permit. To help offset the costs of closing the structure, producers may want to apply for cost share funds through the Division of Conservation. Before beginning to close a liquid manure structure, the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) must be provided with a closure plan. This publication outlines the preferred practices and steps for closing a liquid manure structure to meet the guidelines of the KDOW.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,148 words | PDF: 106 kb
Streambank erosion refers to the removal of soil and other material, such as rock and vegetation, from the streambank. Streambank erosion is a naturally occurring process, but the rate at which it occurs is often increased by anthropogenic or human activities such as urbanization and agriculture. Changes in land use can cause streambanks to erode at rates much faster than those seen in natural, undisturbed systems.
Web only | 8 pages | 2,133 words | PDF: 3112 kb
Lowering Somatic Cell Counts with Best Management Practices
As health and food safety concerns grow, dairy producers are facing more stringent regulations. In 2010, the European Union (EU) set the somatic cell count (SCC) upper limit, an indicator of milk quality, for exported milk at 400,000 cells per milliliter. However, the current U.S. SCC limit is 750,000 cells per milliliter. As of January 2012, any U.S. milk used in export markets must meet the EU standards. It is projected that US milk processors will gradually adopt the EU upper limit, making it difficult for dairy producers to sell milk containing more than 400,000 somatic cells per milliliter. Dairy producers will have to find innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce the somatic cell count of their milk. This publication will discuss how agriculture best management practices can be used to lower SCC.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,808 words | PDF: 350 kb
Stream restoration is the re-establishment of the structure (dimension, pattern, and profile) and function (transport of water, sediment, and nutrients; habitat provision) of a degraded stream as closely as possible to pre-disturbance conditions.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,752 words | PDF: 3632 kb
Increasing Dry Cow and Bred Heifer Performance with Environmental Management
Producers must understand that dry cows and bred heifers are the next milking herd, so focusing on their management can maintain or actually increase future profitability. This publication focuses on environmental management strategies that improve dry cow and bred heifer performance.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,606 words | PDF: 454 kb
Groundwater is an important water source for activities such as drinking, bathing, cooking, and crop irrigation. Keeping our groundwater sources clean is becoming more challenging with an ever growing population. In watersheds underlain with karst, such as many of those in Kentucky, the groundwater is more susceptible to contamination. This is because surface waters, such as runoff and in some cases streamflow, travel into the subsurface of karst by way of fractures, sinkholes, swallow holes, conduits and caves Such direct paths into the groundwater mean that pollutants reach the aquifer much more quickly with little to no filtration. Thus, while waters from springs and wells may look clean, they may actually contain unsafe levels of pollutants such as bacteria and nitrogen.
Web only | 3 pages | 888 words | PDF: 2000 kb
Keeping Trash Out of Streams
Fresh water is an essential natural resource that is used every day for drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, and recreation. In Kentucky, the water used for these tasks mainly comes from streams and rivers, but it can also come from groundwater. Because our streams, rivers, and aquifers are so vital to our daily lives, it is important that we protect them from trash, debris, and other pollutants found in stormwater. What happens to the land around these water sources affects their condition and health.
Web only | 2 pages | 941 words | PDF: 1200 kb
Managing Stormwater Using Low Impact Development (LID) Techniques
As more land is covered by impervious surfaces, less rainfall infiltrates into the ground and instead becomes runoff. Too much runoff is problematic. Flooding increases, streambanks erode, and water quality is reduced. An increase of impervious area of as little 10 percent has been shown to negatively impact streams. The purpose of this publication is to explain low impact development strategies and how they can be used to improve stormwater management by reducing impacts on streams.
Web only | 8 pages | 3,384 words | PDF: 5300 kb
Modifying a Bale Unroller for Mulching between Plastic-covered Beds
Round bales of hay or straw can be used to mulch between rows of plastic film mulch used in vegetable production. This practice may be particularly useful for organic production where herbicide use is prohibited. To make the job of unrolling round bales between rows of plastic easier, a commercially available three-point hitch mounted bale unroller was modified by extending the toolbar and adding a second mast so that the bale is offset, allowing the tractor to straddle a row of plastic while unrolling the bale between the rows.
250 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,496 words | PDF: 3400 kb
Algae-Based CO2 Mitigation for Coal-Fired Power Plants
As the world's population swells and the needs of developing countries increase, the world's overall energy usage also continues to rise. Recent international legislation emphasizes the effects of climate change and the crucial need to find a way to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions being released into the environment. Consequently, power plants have an increased urgency to find a viable way to decrease their GHG emissions. This issue has prominent implications for Kentucky due to our economy's dependence upon coal production.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,233 words | PDF: 1938 kb
All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock
Improved surfaces, even those as easy to install as compacted gravel, have sufficient strength to support the needs of a successful livestock operation. The strength data for these improved surfaces explain why the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recommends heavy use area pads for lanes, and feeding, and watering areas.
Web only | 8 pages | 3,441 words | PDF: 6284 kb
Using Weep Berms to Improve Water Quality
Non-point source pollution (NPS) occurs when rainfall and snowmelt flows over the ground, picking up pollutants such as pathogens, sediments, and nutrients on its way to streams, rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. More than 50 percent of the nation's rivers and streams and nearly 70 percent of the nation's lakes are impacted by NPS. Pathogens, sediments, and nutrients are the biggest contributors to impairment of rivers and streams while mercury, nutrients, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are the biggest contributors to the impairment of lakes. One method of managing NPS pollution is through the use of structural best management practices (BMPs). Structural BMPs are designed to decrease the volume of runoff that enters water bodies by increasing infiltration rates. Examples of structural BMPs include rain gardens, stormwater wetlands, and riparian buffers. A newer structural BMP is a weep berm.
Web only | 8 pages | 3,832 words | PDF: 4400 kb
Nutrient Management Concepts for Livestock Producers
Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients (specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.
Web only | 5 pages | 2,133 words | PDF: 345 kb
A New Concept in On-Farm Biofuel Production
For many social, political, and economic reasons, biofuels are moving quickly from the fuel of tomorrow to the fuel of today. Researchers at the University of Kentucky are working on a new system of biofuel production that involves on-farm processing of biomass. This factsheet provides a general overview of this new concept that could have a great impact on agriculture and the fuel-production industry.
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 802 words | PDF: 235 kb
Butanol: The New Biofuel
Butanol is a type of alcohol that has received renewed interest recently as a potential green alternative to petroleum fuels. This factsheet gives a basic history and description of butanol and its potential use as a biofuel in gasoline and diesel engines.
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 653 words | PDF: 220 kb
Sinkhole Management for Agricultural Producers
A karst landscape develops when the limestone or dolostone bedrock underneath the soil dissolves and/or collapses due to weathering. A karst system can be recognized by surface features such as depressions, sinkholes, sinking streams, and caves. In karst systems, surface water and groundwater are interconnected: surface water runoff flows into sinkholes and sinking streams and recharges the groundwater; likewise, springs maintain stream flow in the dry season. Kentuckians living in karst areas need to be acutely aware that any pollutants that reach either surface water or any karst feature can pollute the entire groundwater system (also called an aquifer). In addition, the cave system that accompanies a karst aquifer can allow pollutants to contaminate miles of water resources in just a few hours.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,825 words | PDF: 487 kb
Permeable Pavement for Stormwater Management
Managing runoff in urban areas offers many challenges for engineers, landscape architects, and planners. As cities grow, the amount of impermeable surfaces--those that do not allow water to infiltrate into the ground--increases. Examples of impervious surfaces are asphalt roads, concrete sidewalks, parking lots, building roofs, and areas of highly compacted soils such as in subdivisions. If not properly managed, the stormwater runoff produced by these impermeable surfaces can have negative effects on nearby surface waters.
Web only | 7 pages | 4,028 words | PDF: 720 kb
Paved Feeding Areas and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock. Livestock producers can make additional profits by adding a few pounds before marketing calves; however, adding those pounds requires keeping calves during the winter months, when pasture forages are dormant and supplemental feed is required. The areas used to winter calves need to be conducive to feeding and need to avoid negatively impacting the environment, especially water quality.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,305 words | PDF: 260 kb
Reducing Stormwater Pollution
Stormwater is excess water from rainfall and snowmelts that flows over the ground and does not infiltrate the soil. It is a concern not just in urban areas but in suburban and agricultural locations as well. As stormwater runoff flows over the land or impervious surfaces, it picks up and transports trash and debris as well as pollutants such as pathogens, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals. This publication reviews some of these techniques and provides a list of recommended resources for additional information.
Web only | 8 pages | 4,381 words | PDF: 330 kb
Pasture Feeding, Streamside Grazing, and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock, but the pasturing and pasture feeding of livestock need to be managed. Allowing cattle to behave as they would naturally can lead to overgrazing, congregation in sensitive areas, buildup of mud, loss of vegetation, compaction of soils, and erosion.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,420 words | PDF: 284 kb
How to Close an Abandoned Well
Abandoned wells are often the only structures remaining after an old house or barn has been removed. If left unmanaged in agricultural areas, these abandoned wells can pose a serious threat to livestock and human safety because of the large surface openings they often have.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,419 words | PDF: 400 kb
Stormwater BMPs for Confined Livestock Facilities
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency states that agricultural sediment, pathogens, and nutrients account for more than 50 percent of water pollution in the United States. Animal confinement facilities, widely used for holding, feeding, and handling animals, are potential sources of that pollution. The pollution load of these facilities can be reduced by installing and maintaining best management practices. The BMPs may be implemented as part of permit compliance or may be used to ensure that a permit is not needed.
Web only | 5 pages | 2,881 words | PDF: 300 kb
Basics of Automatic Section Control for Agricultural Sprayers
The potential economic and environmental benefits of these systems are gaining the attention of producers and custom applicators looking to reduce their overall chemical costs. The purpose of this publication is to describe the basic operation and benefits of automatic section control systems.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,474 words | PDF: 1049 kb
Stream Crossings for Cattle
This publication provides livestock producers with instructions on how to install a stream crossing that provides animal and vehicular access across streams. This best management practice (BMP) is intended for use with exclusion fencing that restricts cattle access to the stream. Implementation of a stream crossing with exclusion fencing will improve water quality, reducing nutrient, sediment, pathogen, and organic matter loads to streams.
Web only | 7 pages | 3,383 words | PDF: 1100 kb
Building a Grade Stabilization Structure to Control Erosion
Gully erosion creates large eroded channels that become problematic for many farms. Gullies form in natural drainage swales when vegetation in the swale is lost through overgrazing or tillage practices. They cause valuable soil to erode, and they form large channels that drain runoff into streams. This runoff can carry sediment, nutrients, and pathogens that can degrade the water quality.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,614 words | PDF: 900 kb
Shade Options for Grazing Cattle
Shade is a must for pasture-based grazing systems. It curtails heat stress, which is detrimental to cattle and causes a decrease in milk production, feed intake, weight gains, and fertility.
Web only | 8 pages | 2,376 words | PDF: 866 kb
Alternative Water Source: Developing Springs for Livestock
Water supply is a key component in livestock production. One option producers have when providing water is to develop an existing spring, which occurs when groundwater running along an impervious rock layer hits a fracture and discharges on the surface.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,137 words | PDF: 814 kb
Pallet Rack Structures for Curing Burley Tobacco
Curing facilities for housing tobacco can be expensive. However, using pallet racks for suspending stick tobacco, a recently developed technique for curing burley tobacco, can offer tobacco growers an alternative that substantially reduces long-term investment.
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 513 kb
Low-Cost Cold Storage Room for Market Growers
Lower-cost cold storage options can benefit market growers by helping preserve produce freshness and quality for a few additional days. Produce losses can be significantly reduced, especially for growers transitioning to a higher level of production who have excess produce to carry over from one day's market to the next.
100 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 265 kb
GPS Changes: How to be Prepared
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 179 kb
Saving Fuel in the Field
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 110 kb
Proper Tire and Ballast Inflation
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 201 kb
Dairy Waste Utilization Management Tool
200 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 245 kb
Managing Liquid Dairy Manure
200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 216 kb
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 220 kb
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 263 kb
The Global Positioning System
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 305 kb
Measuring Relative Humidity in Agricultural Environments
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 630 kb
Movable Tobacco Curing Frames
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 631 kb
Post-Tier Rail and Typar or Metal-Covered Tobacco Field Curing Structures
1000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 552 kb
Using Covers to Minimize Odor and Gas Emissions from Manure Storages
500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 176 kb
Assessing the Benefits of Misting-Cooling Systems for Growing/Finishing Swine in Kentucky as Affected by Environment and Pig Placement Date
1100 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 122 kb
Cattle Handling Facilities
2000 printed copies | 36 pages | - | PDF: 1386 kb
Grain Drill Calibration Procedures for Winter Wheat
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 254 kb
High Tensile Wire or Cable Tobacco Field Curing Structure
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 316 kb
Using Geotextiles for Feeding and Traffic Surfaces
3000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 222 kb
A Computer Model for Analysis of Alternative Burley Tobacco Harvesting Practices
1000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | PDF: 400 kb
Two-Tier Air-Cure Tobacco Barn
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 289 kb
Microsprinklers and Fan Cooling For Dairy Cows: Practical Design Considerations
1500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 167 kb
One-Tier Plastic-Covered Tobacco Curing Structure: Tier Rail Design
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 302 kb
Using Fans in Conventional Burley Barns
3000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 229 kb
Curing Burley Tobacco
1000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 40 kb
Understanding Precipitation Probabilities
3000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 38 kb
Minimizing Odor from Confinement Facilities by Management Practices
5000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 46 kb
Suffocation Hazards in Grain Bins
10000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 1097 kb
Harvesting, Drying and Storing Soybeans
5000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 36 kb
Harvesting, Drying and Storing Grain Sorghum
1000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 111 kb
Painting Greenhouses and Equipment
3000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 30 kb
Poly-Tube Heating-Ventilation Systems and Equipment
1000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 262 kb
Preservative Treatment of Greenhouse Wood
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 47 kb
Estimating Carrying Capacity of Cool Season Pastures in Kentucky Using Web Soil Survey
While many factors influence how many animals a farm can carry, soil type has a major influence and should be considered when purchasing, leasing, planning, or managing livestock on pastures.
250 printed copies | 16 pages | 1,629 words | PDF: 4214 kb
Wildlife Benefits of Switchgrass Production in Kentucky
Switchgrass is a versatile grass that can be utilized for forage or biomass production. Establishing and maintaining switchgrass is also beneficial to many types of wildlife by providing suitable habitat and cover.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,568 words | PDF: 385 kb
A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns
Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,018 words | PDF: 600 kb
Practicing Good Stewardship When Applying Herbicides for Pasture Weed Control
Various methods and strategies can be used to combat weed problems in pasture fields. These include mechanical and cultural practices such as mowing or clipping fields, maintaining a good soil fertility program, grazing methods, and other management practices that promote the growth of desirable forage grasses which in turn compete against weeds. Herbicides can be the best alternative to effectively control several troublesome broadleaf weeds. However, it is important to understand the proper use of herbicides and practice good stewardship.
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 1,466 words | PDF: 190 kb
Herbicide Recommendations for Weed Control in Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns for Professional Applicators
The best method to control weeds is to grow a dense and healthy lawn. This objective should be primary for turf professionals. Lawn weed control is facilitated by identification of the turfgrass and weed species present. Not all herbicides will control all weeds, and not all herbicides are safe on all lawn grasses. This publication contains herbicide recommendations for licensed professionals. For information on weed control for non-professionals, see AGR 208: Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,478 words | PDF: 240 kb
Determining Soil Texture by Feel
Soil texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil. Texture influences almost every aspect of soil use, both in agricultural and engineering applications, and even how natural ecosystems function. Many scientists consider soil texture the most important soil property as it can influence soil/water relationships, gas exchange, and plant nutrition. Accurately determining soil texture in a lab requires time and money; therefore, it is often necessary to estimate soil texture in the field by feel, which can be very accurate if done correctly.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,049 words | PDF: 250 kb
Turfgrasses of Kentucky
Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.
Web only | 12 pages | 3,123 words | PDF: 8500 kb
Evaluating Land Resource Potentials in Kentucky
The most successful land use decisions are those where the intended use matches the capabilities of the land. Determining the capability of the land begins with a visual assessment of the landscape such as topography (percent slope) and surface drainage patterns followed by a closer examination of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this publication is to provide a basic understanding of the relationship between these landscape and soil properties to facilitate wise land use decisions.
Web only | 3 pages | 3,493 words | PDF: 630 kb
Liming Kentucky Lawns
Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,758 words | PDF: 909 kb
Soybean Nutrient Management in Kentucky
Soybean grows best on fertile soils. For decades, the University of Kentucky has conducted field studies to establish the relationship between soil nutrient supplies and soybean yield. Adequate soil fertility must be present so that yields are not limited.
Web only | 5 pages | 2,814 words | PDF: 1015 kb
Fertilizing Your Lawn
Lawns require fertilizer to remain healthy. Proper fertilization practices will lead to a thick, dark green, uniform lawn that is competitive against weed and disease invasions. The nutrients contained in fertilizers are necessary to support many processes occurring within the plants. If any essential nutrient is limiting, the plants will not perform at their highest level.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,468 words | PDF: 425 kb
Fertilizer Management in Alfalfa
Alfalfa is a high quality, valuable forage crop that can be successfully produced on most well-drained soils in Kentucky for hay, silage, and grazing. Fertilizing alfalfa can be uniquely challenging because it is a high-yielding crop that removes a tremendous amount of soil nutrients when compared to other crops grown in Kentucky. A thorough understanding of alfalfa's growth habits, nutrient requirements, and soil nutrient supply mechanisms is necessary to effectively manage fertilizer inputs and maximize profitability while minimizing environmental impact.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,657 words | PDF: 4 kb
Mowing Your Kentucky Lawn
Mowing is a recurring cutting of a portion of a grass shoot. Lawns are mowed to maintain topgrowth within a specific range, to control weed plants that are intolerant to mowing, or to sustain an ornamental turf. Mowing is usually thought of as the most simple of lawn maintenance practices; however, even though we perform it more than any other, it can result in mistakes.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,119 words | PDF: 4500 kb
Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns
The best defense against weed problems in home lawns is a healthy and dense lawn. In thick lawns, weed seeds may not germinate because light may never reach the soil surface. A thick lawn is competitive with weeds, keeping them from growing and reproducing. Developing a healthy and dense lawn comes from using cultural practices such as proper grass species and cultivar selection, proper mowing heights and fertilization, and other good management practices. The need for herbicides to control weeds in home lawns can be greatly reduced if the lawn is well maintained.
500 printed copies | 6 pages | 1,878 words | PDF: 390 kb
Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky Pastures
A guide to the identification and control of broadleaf weeds in Kentucky pastures.
7500 printed copies | 2 pages | 250 words | PDF: 4200 kb
Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15
Turf is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface. Quality lawns greatly increase the economic and sociological value of urban homes. They beautify and reduce the often harsh urban environment by decreasing noise, glare, heat, dust, and mud. Lawns and other recreational turf areas are an integral part of our daily activities.
Web only | 22 pages | 11,229 words | PDF: 1000 kb
Weed Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 20
Every garden has weeds, and every gardener wonders what to do about them. Gardening involves lots of small decisions that can have a cumulative effect on those weed problems. This chapter will explore the origin of weeds, their adaptation and impact, and the techniques you can use to manage weeds in your landscape.
Web only | 14 pages | 6,443 words | PDF: 1200 kb
Soils and Fertility: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 4
Soil is a mixture of weathered rock fragments and organic matter at the earth's surface. It is biologically active--a home to countless microorganisms, invertebrates, and plant roots. Soil provides nutrients, water, and physical support for plants as well as air for plant roots. Soil organisms are nature's primary recyclers, turning dead cells and tissue into nutrients, energy, carbon dioxide, and water to fuel new life.
Web only | 24 pages | 11,257 words | PDF: 1500 kb
Improving the Productivity of Landscapes with Little or No Topsoil
Landscapes with little or no topsoil can make it difficult to produce a garden, lawn, or other plants. Topsoil, dark in color compared to the underlying soil, is the part of a soil that is most biologically active, nutrient rich, and easily managed. It also is usually more easily worked than underlying soil, supplies most of the plant's water and nutrients, and is generally best for plant growth.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,579 words | PDF: 430 kb
Corn Growth Stages and Growing Degree Days: A Quick Reference Guide
Corn growth stages are based on the leaf collar method, where fully emerged leaves (leaf collar visible) are used to stage vegetative development. Growing degree days (GDDs) are used to relate temperature to corn growth and development.
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | 802 words | PDF: 278 kb
Switchgrass for Biomass Production in Kentucky
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial bunch-type grass native to the North American Tallgrass Prairie that has been investigated as a bioenergy crop due to its adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions and soil types as well as its high stable yields. Switchgrass is recommended for soil conservation and wildlife habitat in both monoculture and in mixed stands of native warm-season grasses and forbs as well as for summer grazing in pasture systems and as a hay crop for cattle.
1000 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,946 words | PDF: 250 kb
Soil Sampling and Nutrient Management in Horse Pastures
Horse pastures are fertilized to ensure a reliable supply of energy, protein, and other nutrients for a long season of grazing. Management of plant nutrients maintains a balance of improved grasses and legumes and suppresses many pasture weeds. Properly fertilized pastures look good and harm neither animals nor the environment.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 293 kb
Sulfur Fertilization in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 300 kb
Compaction, Tillage Method, and Subsoiling Effects on Crop Production
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 293 kb
Double Crop Curing Dark Fired Tobacco
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 190 kb
Replanting Options for Corn
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 194 kb
Estimating Hail Damage in Corn
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 170 kb
Evaluating Flood Damage in Corn
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 160 kb
Evaluating Early Season Frost Damage in Corn
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 160 kb
Using a Grazing Stick for Pasture Management
Good management of livestock feeding enterprises requires an understanding of feed inventories and their use. This publication is intended to help producers meet animal forage needs in a rotational grazing system by mastering the use of a grazing stick to estimate pasture yield and pasture allocation.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 350 kb
Chicory: an Alternative Livestock Forage
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 143 kb
Managing Seasonal Fluctuations of Soil Tests
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 211 kb
Estimating Soybean Yields
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 138 kb
Estimating Corn Yields
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 135 kb
Kudzu Identification and Control in Kentucky
1500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 199 kb
Nitrogen Transformation Inhibitors and Controlled-Release Urea
The soaring cost of fossil fuels is an indicator that nitrogen fertilizer prices are going to remain high for the foreseeable future. With higher N prices, many producers are trying to evaluate the usefulness of several N additive products in their production systems. High N prices make these products more attractive because it takes fewer pounds of saved N to offset the price of the additive. Producers should have a good understanding of how these products work in order to make informed decisions regarding their use.
1500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 500 kb
Predicting Soybean First Flowering Date
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 270 kb
Late-Season Frost Damage to Corn Grown for Silage
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 135 kb
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 312 kb
Comparison and Use of Chlorophyll Meters on Wheat
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 181 kb
Corn Stalk Nitrate Test
3000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 136 kb
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 97 kb
Proper Curing Management to Minimize Green Tobacco
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 80 kb
Measurement of Temperature Extremes in Tobacco Float Systems
3000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 552 kb
Using Conductivity Meters for Nitrogen Management in Float Systems
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 105 kb
Baling Forage Crops for Silage
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 84 kb
Weed Management in Grass Pastures, Hayfields, and Other Farmstead Sites
8000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | PDF: 310 kb
Round Bale Hay Storage in Kentucky
1000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 181 kb
Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Make Nitrogen Recommendations on Wheat
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 24 kb
Problems in Diagnosing Nutrient Deficiencies of Cool Season Grasses
5000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 12 kb
Broiler Litter Production in Kentucky and Potential Use as a Nutrient Source
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 66 kb
The Agronomics of Manure Use for Crop Production
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 187 kb
Water Quality Guidelines for Tobacco Float Systems
3000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 196 kb
Selecting the Right Fertilizer for Tobacco Production in Float Systems
5000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 180 kb
Stockpiling for Fall & Winter Pasture
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 187 kb
Soil Compaction in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 27 kb
Managing Small Grains for Livestock Forage
3000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 224 kb
Dealing with Chemical Injury in Tobacco
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 612 kb
Tobacco Management: Optimizing Profits
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 136 kb
Tobacco Transplant Production: Plug and Transfer System
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 142 kb
Selecting a Tobacco Transplant Production System
5000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 137 kb
Dark Tobacco Sucker Control
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 163 kb
Harvesting, Curing, and Preparing Dark Air Cured Tobacco for Market
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 255 kb
Harvesting, Curing, and Preparing Dark Fired Tobacco for Market
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 284 kb
Weed Control Strategies for Alfalfa and Other Forage Legume Crops
1000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 154 kb
Managing Soil Nitrates for Agronomic Efficiency and Environmental Protection
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 30 kb
Using Animal Manures as Nutrient Sources
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 330 kb
Warm Season Perennial Grasses for Forages in Kentucky
Native warm-season perennial grasses are well adapted for production in Kentucky's climate and soils. In this publication, native warm-season perennial grasses that have the greatest forage potential for Kentucky are described. Management techniques necessary to establish stands and keep them productive are also discussed.
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 1636 kb
Managing Slowly Permeable Soils for Tobacco and Corn Production in Kentucky
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Kura Clover for Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 203 kb
Herbicide Persistence and Carryover in Kentucky
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 12 kb
Perennial Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky
10000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 820 kb
Kentucky Bluegrass as a Forage Crop
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 13 kb
Soybean Production in Kentucky Part 5: Harvesting, Drying, Storage, and Marketing
5000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 419 kb
Soybean Production in KenTucky Part 4: Weed, Disease and Insect Control
12000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 62 kb
Soybean Planting in Kentucky
Soybean planting should begin based on a combination of calendar date and good environmental conditions. Inoculation is only necessary when a field has been out of soybean for three to five years or the previous soybean crop had poor nodulation. Full season soybean generally requires fewer plants to reach maximum yield than does double-crop soybean. A row width of 15 inches is about ideal for most situations in Kentucky. Replanting full-season soybean probably is not necessary until populations drop below 50,000 plants per acre.
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,937 words | PDF: 367 kb
Soybean Variety Selection
Soybean variety selection is one of the most important and most difficult management decisions a producer must make each year. It takes careful identification of the problems and needs of the production system. When done properly it increases the chance the variety will reach its full yield potential while eliminating costs for unnecessary traits, resulting in highly profitable returns.
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,941 words | PDF: 570 kb
Soybean Production in Kentucky Part 1: Status, Uses and Planning
12000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 38 kb
Processing Sweet Sorghum for Sirup
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 1524 kb
Production of Sweet Sorghum for Syrup in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 204 kb
Alternatives for Fungus Infected Tall Fescue
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 12 kb
Summer Annual Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 18 kb
Winter Annual Weeds of Kentucky
Late winter or early spring is a good time of year to start looking at the weeds growing in cultivated beds, vegetable gardens, and fallow fields not yet tilled and planted for the coming year. Many of the plants that flower at this time are winter annuals.
10000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 667 kb
Irrigation Tips to Conserve Water and Grow a Healthy Lawn
The goal of water conservation in the landscape does not need to be as drastic as eliminating all irrigation, but we should choose plant material wisely and decide if and when irrigation is necessary. This publication is designed to promote a healthy lawn through watering while promoting water conservation through best management practices. One of the easiest things you can do to reduce the need for irrigation in your yard is to plant species that naturally need less water. When choosing plants, remember that just because a particular plant is drought tolerant does not mean that it is suitable for Kentucky's climate.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,765 words | PDF: 892 kb
Managing Acid Soils for Production of Burley Tobacco
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 12 kb
Determining the Quality of Aglime: Relative Neutralizing Value (RNV)
4000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 90 kb
Fertilization and Liming for Corn
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 21 kb
'Fergus' Birdsfoot Trefoil
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 18 kb
Fertilization of Cool-Season Grasses
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Erosion Its Effect on Soil Properties, Productivity and Profit
30000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 12 kb
Strip Cropping and Contouring
30000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 15 kb
Controlling Soil Erosion with Agronomic Practices
30000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Growing White Clover in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 184 kb
Sampling Plant Tissue for Nutrient Analysis
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 646 kb
Cropland Rotations for Kentucky
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Inoculation of Forage Legumes
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 110 kb
Producing Summer Annual Grasses for Emergency or Supplemental Forage
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 215 kb
Growing Lespedeza in Kentucky
4000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 146 kb
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 95 kb
Producing Corn for Silage
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 332 kb
Weed Control Recommendations for Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns and Recreational Turf
5000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 144 kb
Alfalfa the Queen of Forage Crops
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 108 kb
Establishing Forage Crops
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 88 kb
Quality Hay Production
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 245 kb
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 115 kb
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 100 kb
Soil Testing: What It Is and What It Does
3000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 253 kb
Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky
Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them.
Web only | 1 pages | 583 words | PDF: 119 kb
Selecting the Right Grass for Your Ky Lawn
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 395 kb
Lawn Establishment in Kentucky
The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.
Web only | 6 pages | 3,796 words | PDF: 3039 kb
Liming and Fertilizing Burley Tobacco
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 33 kb
Bermudagrass: A Summer Forage in Kentucky
Bermudagrass can be used successfully as part of a livestock forage program to supplement summer production of cool-season grasses. It is high-yielding, sod-forming, warm-season perennial grass that is most productive on well-drained, fertile soils. Bermudagrass is widely grown in the southern United States for pasture and hay.
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 300 kb
The Effects of Weather on Hay Production
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Nitrogen in Kentucky Soils
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 290 kb
Growing Red Clover in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 108 kb
Renovating Hay and Pasture Fields
3500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 1165 kb
Tobacco Stalks and Stems Fertility Value and Use
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 6 kb
Manganese Toxicity in Burley Tobacco
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 7 kb
Nodding Thistle and Its Control in Grass Pastures
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 9 kb
Liming Acid Soils
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 10 kb
Grain and Forage Crop Guide
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 181 kb
Double-Cropping Land for Silage Production
2500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 192 kb
Taking Soil Test Samples
2500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 150 kb
Harvesting and Curing Burley Tobacco
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Weeds of Kentucky Turf
25000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | PDF: 2192 kb
Potassium in Kentucky Soils
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2016
The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.
3650 printed copies | 136 pages | - | PDF: 3500 kb
When to Apply Lime and Fertilizer
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 143 kb
Producing Red Clover Seed in Kentucky
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 144 kb
Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations, 2015-2015
Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.
2000 printed copies | 24 pages | 11,331 words | PDF: 1300 kb
Managing Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Precision dairy farming is the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators of individual animals to improve management strategies and farm performance.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | PDF: 1872 kb
Crossbreeding Considerations in Sheep
Crossbreeding is the mating of individuals from different breeds. To a certain extent, it is a simple concept, but embarking upon a crossbreeding program, in sheep or any other livestock species, involves long-term decisions. The primary benefits of a crossbreeding program are heterosis and breed complementarity.
50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,680 words | PDF: 677 kb
Inbreeding in Sheep
Inbreeding is broadly defined as the mating of individuals that are related. Strictly speaking, however, all animals within a breed are related. So, in a sense, every purebred sheep producer practices some degree of inbreeding. In most cases this relationship is very slight. Therefore, inbreeding is more practically defined as the mating of individuals more closely related than the average of the breed. This practice includes mating brother to sister, sire to daughter and son to dam.
50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,809 words | PDF: 896 kb
Sheep Breeding: Heritability, EBVs, EPDs, and the NSIP
Genetic improvement in a flock depends on the producer's ability to select breeding sheep that are genetically superior for traits of economic importance. This is complicated by the fact that an animal's own performance is not always a true indicator of its genetic potential as a parent.
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 2,618 words | PDF: 1082 kb
Keeping and Using Flock Performance Records
Performance records serve as the cornerstone of any good livestock management program. Unfortunately, the task of collecting, maintaining and using performance records is the one area of livestock production in general that gets the least attention. This fact sheet provides ten reasons why all sheep producers need to keep performance records on their flocks. Then, some ways of maintaining and using those records are discussed.
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,390 words | PDF: 890 kb
Basic Sheep Genetics
Genetics is the science of heredity. It seeks to explain differences and similarities exhibited by related individuals. The application of genetics to livestock improvement is known as animal breeding. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide a refresher course on basic genetics and to show how knowledge of genetics can be used to improve sheep production.
50 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,064 words | PDF: 465 kb
An Introduction to Sheep
The information in this fact sheet was developed to provide a quick reference to the most frequently asked questions about sheep and sheep production.
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,221 words | PDF: 1072 kb
Proper Handling and Transportation of Eggs for Sale at Kentucky Farmer's Markets
Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. This publication will give you the information and guidelines in the proper handling and transportation of eggs for sale.
Web only | 2 pages | 799 words | PDF: 1275 kb
So You Want to Produce Your Own Eggs?
Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock. This publication will give you the information you need decide if producing your own eggs is right for you.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,161 words | PDF: 3047 kb
Reading a Feed Tag
Feed stores carry a variety of feed types. How do you chose which to buy? You need to read the feed tag. A lot of information is on a feed tag that can help you make your selection and this publication breaks it down for you.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,671 words | PDF: 181 kb
Mineral and Protein Blocks and Tubs for Cattle
Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs. Since there are differences in the blocks and tubs being marketed today, familiarity with how to compare products and determine their differences will enable producers to decide which product best fits their needs.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,891 words | PDF: 159 kb
Is Creep Feeding Lambs a Profitable Undertaking?
Creep feeding is a technique of providing feed to nursing lambs to supplement the milk they consume. Creep-fed lambs grow faster than noncreep-feds and are more aggressive in nursing ewes. This aggression stimulates greater ewe milk production which, in turn, increases creep feed intake because these lambs will be bigger at a given age. Typically, the creep diet is a grain-protein supplement mixture and is made available in an area constructed so lambs can enter, but ewes cannot. Some situations when it may be economical to creep feed are described in this document.
300 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,940 words | PDF: 309 kb
How to Make a Country Ham
Country hams can be found in grocery stores and specialty shops throughout Southeast and on the internet. Nonetheless, there are some do-it-yourselfers who want to start their own family traditions. Country hams are not difficult to make. The process requires a few easy-to-find ingredients and a secure storage area. Country hams are made in three steps: curing, salt equalization, and aging. These steps are outlined in the manual.
100 printed copies | 9 pages | 4,433 words | PDF: 6791 kb
Stereotypic Behavior in Horses: Weaving, Stall Walking, and Cribbing
Many stabled horses perform a variety of repetitive behaviors such as weaving, stall walking, cribbing, headshaking and pawing. These behaviors have been called many different names including stereotypic behavior, stereotypies, stereotypes, obsessive compulsive disorders, vices and habits. Although it may be difficult to know why exactly each horse performs these vices, there may be specific causal factors for these activities in the horse. These behaviors are not simply learned and not simply inherited, but may be a mixture of both. Studies show that some families of horses have a higher prevalence of certain vices, which suggests heritability and genetic components. However, the tendency to perform the behavior only becomes apparent when other risk factors are also in place.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,401 words | PDF: 480 kb
Expected Progeny Differences: Trait Definitions and Utilizing Percentile Tables
Expected progeny differences (EPDs) are useful tools in providing the best estimate of the genetic value of a particular animal as a parent. Differences in EPDs between parents of the same breed predict the performance differences of their future offspring if environmental factors are the same. EPD values should not be compared between breeds; for example, you should not compare an Angus bull's weaning weight EPD with a Simmental bull's weaning weight EPD. Most established breeds have EPDs for calving ease, growth, maternal, and carcass traits. When used properly, producers can make genetic improvements to their herd through parental selection. This publication is intended to help producers better understand EPDs and how one might use them in selection of replacement animals.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,781 words | PDF: 370 kb
When processing poultry, remember that you are producing a perishable food product that will eventually be consumed by people. The goal is to produce a safe, nutritious product.
Web only | 7 pages | 3,190 words | PDF: 3105 kb
Raising Guinea Fowl
Guinea fowl are rough, vigorous, hardy, and mostly disease-free game birds. They are increasing in popularity for a variety of reasons.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,750 words | PDF: 730 kb
Pre-Investment Considerations for Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Precision dairy farming involves the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual animals. The primary goals of precision dairy farming are to 1) maximize individual animal performance, 2) detect diseases early, and 3) minimize the use of medication through preventive health measures.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,858 words | PDF: 270 kb
Stall Bases: Are Your Cows Comfortable?
Cow comfort generally refers to minimizing animal stress in order to maximize milk production and animal well-being. Lying behavior plays a critical role in the production, profitability, and well-being of dairy cattle. The potential economic impact of increased production, reduced lameness, improved milk quality, reduced culling rates, and increased longevity are immense.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,703 words | PDF: 640 kb
Common External Parasites of Poultry
Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,817 words | PDF: 839 kb
Selecting Feeds for Horses
Feeds should be selected with the nutrient requirements of the horse in mind, recognizing that requirements vary with the life stage of the horse (growing, pregnant, lactating, working, idle). Feeds for horses should always be clean and free from toxins. Feeds should also promote gastrointestinal health. The large intestine (cecum and colon) of the digestive tract contains a diverse population of beneficial microbes that can easily be upset by poor feed selection. In nature horses will spend more than 50% of their time grazing; therefore, feed that promotes similar feeding behavior may be desirable. Once appropriate feeds have been selected, it is important that they are fed in the correct amounts using good feeding management strategies.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,082 words | PDF: 1450 kb
Avian Muscular System
If you raise poultry for meat, it is always a good idea to have an understanding of the muscular system of poultry so you can better understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
Web only | 2 pages | 766 words | PDF: 1887 kb
Avian Digestive System
An understanding of the avian digestive system is essential to developing an effective and economical feeding program for your poultry flock. Knowledge of avian anatomy, and what the parts normally look like, will also help you to recognize when something is wrong and take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,879 words | PDF: 2065 kb
Avian Skeletal System
All animals have a skeleton to allow them to stand up and to protect their internal organs and tissues. The avian skeletal system looks similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, but there are some important differences.
Web only | 2 pages | 836 words | PDF: 310 kb
Avian Female Reproductive System
Anyone raising poultry for eggs, whether for eating or for incubation, should have an understanding of the reproductive system. This will help them understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,250 words | PDF: 914 kb
Avian Respiratory System
Knowledge of avian anatomy and what the parts normally look like will help you to recognize when something is wrong and to take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,304 words | PDF: 200 kb
Avian Male Reproductive System
The avian male reproductive system is all inside the bird, unlike the males of mammalian species which have their reproductive systems outside of the body. This is one of the really remarkable things about birds; the sperm remain viable at body temperature.
Web only | 2 pages | 678 words | PDF: 843 kb
As with many domesticated species, ducks are selected for different purposes, primarily meat or egg production. They are also valued for their feathers and down. It is important to choose a breed of duck that best suits your particular needs.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,311 words | PDF: 758 kb
Raising wild turkeys is illegal in some states, including Kentucky. The prohibition includes domestic strains of wild birds. The law is meant to protect native populations of wild turkeys. Learn more about selecting the right breed of turkey in this publication.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,675 words | PDF: 664 kb
Size, behavior and egg production vary according to breed, and the right breed of goose for your flock will depend on what you intend to use them for. This publication will help you decide on the right breed for you.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,822 words | PDF: 663 kb
Development of the Chick
Poultry eggs are part of a unique reproductive system. The egg serves to protect and provide nutrients to the developing embryo. Since the embryo receives no additional nutrients from the hen, the egg must contain all the nutrients essential for life. Nutrients are found in the yolk, the albumen, and the shell of the egg. The egg is a convenient, self-contained package for studying embryology.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,151 words | PDF: 700 kb
Poultry Production Troubleshooting
When investigating a problem with a poultry flock, the questions in this publication can help you determine the cause and possible solution.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,649 words | PDF: 272 kb
Poultry Producer Liability
As more and more producers begin to have small- or medium-sized poultry operations the issue of liability and responsibility has become a concern. It is important producers are aware of what is expected of them by consumers and society as a whole.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,554 words | PDF: 270 kb
Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?
Egg production in a chicken flock follows a typical curve. While the curve is similar for most breeds of chickens, the specific numbers can vary significantly, especially with regards to age at first egg, peak production rate, and egg weight.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,399 words | PDF: 400 kb
How Much Will My Chickens Eat?
Before purchasing chicks (or chickens) it is important to consider the cost of keeping them. Much of this cost is in the feed they consume. So the key question is, "How much will my chickens eat?" Chickens need a complete feed that contains protein (with the right balance of amino acids), energy, vitamins, and minerals. Today we know more about the nutritional requirements of chickens than any other animal. The amount of feed they need will depend on several factors.
Web only | 3 pages | 2,070 words | PDF: 320 kb
Selecting the Right Chicken Breed
Many factors should be considered before selecting a chicken breed for your flock, whether you are planning to start a new flock or to add to an existing one. You might be looking for a meat breed, an egg breed, or perhaps a breed that performs reasonably well at both (referred to as a dual-purpose breed). Perhaps you just want a pet or chickens to show at exhibitions.
Web only | 3 pages | 2,290 words | PDF: 300 kb
Making a Hoop Pen for Pasture Poultry
Interest in pasture poultry production has been on the rise. This kind of poultry production typically involves housing the birds in a bottomless pen that is placed on pasture and moved at regular intervals. The flock has access to the pasture (plants and any associated insects) while providing them some protection from predators.
Web only | 8 pages | 2,254 words | PDF: 4600 kb
Help! My Horse is Too Thin!
As we understand more about the impact that emaciation has on animal health, it is imperative that we strive to keep our horses at an optimum body condition.
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Help! My Horse is Too Fat!
As we understand more about the impact that obesity has on animal health, it is imperative that we strive to keep our horses at an optimum body condition.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,833 words | PDF: 413 kb
Distillers Grain Coproducts for Beef Cattle
Feeding distillers grains derived from the production of spirits or ethanol for fuel is an acceptable practice for beef cattle production. The use of these products as both an energy and a protein supplement has been beneficial as the cereal grain prices have increased making these coproducts more cost competitive.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,485 words | PDF: 231 kb
Feeding the Broodmare: Four Easy Steps
The nutritional needs of broodmares change as they go through the stages of reproduction. This publication begins with nutritional strategies to enhance the likelihood a mare will become pregnant, then it discusses feeding management of the mare during pregnancy and lactation, and it ends with some nutritional considerations for the post-weaning period.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,998 words | PDF: 1750 kb
Preventing Barn Fire: Tips for Horse Owners
Every year, close to 200 horses are reported to have died in barn fires in the United States. Although less frequent than house fires, barn fires are more common than we would like. Many barn fires could be prevented by good barn design/construction, strict personnel policies, and clear directives about how the barn and equipment should be maintained.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,943 words | PDF: 1300 kb
Horses and Rain
Spring is a very rainy season in Kentucky. With a lot of rain comes a lot of mud, and in some places, floods. If you own horses, you need to be aware of some problems that arise when you have too much rain in a short period of time.
Web only | 2 pages | 951 words | PDF: 200 kb
Marketing Lamb and Goat Meat to Hispanic Retail Outlets
Because of minority populations immigrating into Kentucky, the level of lamb and goat consumption could grow exponentially within the next few years. Minority populations are expected to reach 235.7 million out of a total U.S. population of 439 million, or 53 percent of the total U.S. population, by 2030. These statistics indicate a growing market for meat processors and sheep and goat products.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,442 words | PDF: 200 kb
Equine Infectious Anemia
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, lethargy, inappetence (lack of appetite) and anemia (low red blood cell count).
Web only | 2 pages | 1,500 words | PDF: 169 kb
Anthrax in Horses
Horses become infected with anthrax either through ingestion, inhalation or skin penetration by biting flies or injury, especially when animals are exposed to soil or carcasses of infected animals.
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 210 kb
How Much Meat to Expect from a Carcass: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Freezer Meats
Consumers who buy freezer meat should understand the difference between the paid weight and the amount of meat they will put in the freezer. To avoid misunderstandings, meat processors should be able to explain to customers the approximate amount of meat to expect from a beef, pork, or lamb carcass, the best ways to have meat wrapped for the freezer, and the amount of freezer space necessary to store large amounts of meat.
Web only | 2 pages | - | PDF: 200 kb
Opportunities for Improved Cow Comfort through Freestall Barn Renovations
A properly managed and designed freestall barn can support high levels of milk production and animal well-being. Mismanaged or poorly designed freestalls can contribute to mastitis, lameness, hock abrasions, and injuries. Through years of experience observing and studying cow behavior in freestall barns, farmers, researchers, and engineers have refined recommendations for freestall design and management. In addition, as cow size has increased so has the amount of resting space required within a freestall, effectively changing the recommendations for freestall dimensions.
250 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 4985 kb
A Consumer Guide to Country of Origin Labeling
Since March 2009, all retail red meats, seafood and shellfish, and fruits and vegetables must contain a "Country of Origin Label," or COOL--designed to further inform consumers on the origins of their food.
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Core Vaccination Program and Infectious Disease Control for Horses
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 240 kb
FAQs About the Retail Meat Case, Part 2: Basic Meats 101
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 145 kb
FAQs About the Retail Meat Case, Part 1: Hamburger
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 144 kb
Botulism: A Deadly Disease That Can Affect Your Horse
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 192 kb
Heaves in Horses
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 531 kb
The Use of Methyl Bromide to Control Insects in Country Hams in the Southeastern U.S.
250 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 250 kb
A Consumer's and Producer's Guide to Organic and Natural Meats
200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 147 kb
Beef Sire Selection Manual
In principle, genetic improvement is a straight-forward exercise that results from using above-average selection candidates as the parents of the next generation. In practice, the devil is in the details. Both bull breeders and bull buyers need to consider their breeding objectives, defining the list of traits that need to be modified to advance the towards their goal.
5000 printed copies | 89 pages | - | PDF: 2140 kb
Crossbreeding for the Commercial Beef Producer
500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 442 kb
Judging Performance Classes
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Preparing and Giving Oral Reasons
Web only | 38 pages | - | PDF: 406 kb
Beef Sire Selection Recommendations
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 86 kb
Protocols for Synchronizing Estrus in Yearling Heifers
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 66 kb
Strategies to Improve Reproductive Efficiency of Heifers
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 23 kb
Managing Body Condition to Improve Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cows
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 158 kb
Feeding and Managing Baby Calves from Birth to 3 Months of Age
Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 172 kb
Planning the Yearly Forage and Commodity Needs for a Dairy Herd
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 126 kb
Selection and Management Practices to Increase Consistency in Beef Cattle
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 78 kb
Assessing Sow Body Condition
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 257 kb
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 1217 kb
Feeding and Managing the Far-Off Dry Cow
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 294 kb
Trace Mineral Supplementation for Kentucky Beef Cows
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 96 kb
Using Nutrition to Improve Immunity Against Disease: Copper, Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamin E
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 114 kb
Boar Selection - Using Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 14 kb
Manipulation of the Estrous Cycle in Swine
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 337 kb
Pasture for Dairy Cattle: Challenges and Opportunities
1000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 184 kb
Keeping Production Records for the Beef Herd
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 145 kb
Feeding and Managing the Weanling Pig
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 67 kb
Management of Swine Mating
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 98 kb
Feeding Growing-Finishing Pigs to Maximize Lean Growth Rate
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 96 kb
Methods of Identification for Horses
In today's competitive world of equine sports, proper identification has become a top priority. Thorough and effective identification ensures that the horse being bought, sold, raced, or bred is indeed the horse it is claimed to be. Many methods are used to identify a horse, including markings, cowlicks, chestnuts, tattooing, freeze branding, blood typing, DNA typing, and microchip identification.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,789 words | PDF: 340 kb
Managing Considerations in Beef Heifer Development
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 320 kb
Equine Feeding Management
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 146 kb
Pelvic Measurements and Calving Difficulty
2000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | PDF: 243 kb
Using Expected Progeny Differences
One of the most important decisions a cattle operator makes is selecting breeding animals to go into the cattle herd. Basing that decision on the genetic merit of the animal, not just the outward appearance, is critical to the herd's long-term performance.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,008 words | PDF: 248 kb
Mastitis and Its Control
1000 printed copies | 14 pages | - | PDF: 79 kb
Balancing Rations for Dairy Cows
500 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 23 kb
Role of Nutrition on Reproductive Performance
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 191 kb
Accomplishing a Sound Dairy Nutritional Program
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 223 kb
Using Byproducts to Feed Dairy Cattle
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More Milk = More Feed
500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 195 kb
Should You Be Feeding Fat to Your Dairy Cows?
300 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 189 kb
Using Mga to Shorten the Beef Breeding Season
5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 129 kb
Using the Dart Ration Computer Program to Answer Nutrition Questions About Dairy Cattle
30 printed copies | 18 pages | - | PDF: 210 kb
Sheep Identification Systems
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 8 kb
Sheep Foot Care and Diseases
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Colic in Horses
Among the species of domestic livestock, the horse is the species that most commonly suffers from colic, which is a general term for abdominal pain. Colic is one of the leading causes of death in horses and should be of concern for horse owners.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,636 words | PDF: 200 kb
Producing and Marketing High Quality Wool
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Developing a Sheep Enterprise
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Rabies in Horses
Rabies in the horse is a relatively uncommon disease. Although the number of confirmed rabies cases in horses is low, the potential for human exposure makes it important to discuss the causes of rabies and its diagnosis, treatment, and control. It is noteworthy that the American Association of Equine Practitioners and the American Veterinary Medical Association include rabies as one of the diseases for which horses should be vaccinated every year.
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Forages for Horses
10000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 201 kb
Economical Alternative Feeds for Sheep
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Horse Judging Manual
1000 printed copies | 28 pages | - | PDF: 992 kb
Basic Horse Nutrition
10000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 243 kb
Improving Preweaning Survival of Pigs
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 9 kb
Factors Affecting Feed Conversion in Growing-Finishing Swine
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 23 kb
Growth Promoting Implants for Beef Cattle
Utilization of growth-promoting implants in the beef cattle industry provides an opportunity for improving production efficiency. Within the animal, they promote protein synthesis, resulting in a 10 to 30% increase in growth along with a 5 to 10% improvement in feed efficiency.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 225 kb
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 32 kb
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 272 kb
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 323 kb
Agricultural Biotechnology and the Environment
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 228 kb
Biotechnology in Our Food System: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 238 kb
Food Biotechnology Teaching Guide
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 298 kb
Pesticides and Pesticide Safety: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 10
"Pest" is not a biological term for an organism's environmental role as are the words plant, herbivore, predator, and scavenger. It is a term for an organism that is either causing damage or is somewhere where it's not wanted. Pests can include plants, insects and their relatives, and microorganisms that cause plant diseases. Often, pests are a problem because we use cultural practices or create conditions favoring organisms that they feed on, compete with, or infect the desirable species.
Web only | 10 pages | 5,153 words | PDF: 530 kb
Integrated Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 9
Many gardeners are concerned about the use of pesticides. Some pesticides, if not used, stored, and disposed of carefully, can harm the applicator, the environment, children, pets, and other nontarget organisms. You can address these concerns by implementing integrated pest management practices in your garden. Thoughtful, well-researched pest management choices will reward you, the environment, and the beneficial organisms with which you share your garden.
Web only | 16 pages | 6,962 words | PDF: 1950 kb
Insects: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 8
Insects, spiders, mites, etc. are among the oldest and most numerous animals on Earth. Some species, like the house fly, occur in every county of the state, while others live in very specific areas, such as a western Kentucky wetland or an eastern Kentucky mountain meadow. Like it or not, insects have a major impact on our lives, health, and environment. Learning more about them can increase your enjoyment of nature and help you to manage problem species more effectively.
Web only | 12 pages | 5,421 words | PDF: 1800 kb
An IPM Identification Guide for Natural Enemies of Vegetable Pests
Natural enemies play a crucial role in the management of insect and other arthropod pests of vegetable crops grown throughout Kentucky. The control they exert on pest populations is realized on every farm every day. Often the value of natural enemies may be overlooked or taken for granted, but as a group they slow the buildup of pest populations and keep some pests from reaching economic levels.
4000 printed copies | 24 pages | 6,732 words | PDF: 1700 kb
Timing Control Actions for Landscape Insect Pests Using Flowering Plants as Indicators
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 75 kb
Termite Baits: A Guide for Homeowners
5000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 610 kb
Asian Lady Beetle Infestation of Structures
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 247 kb
Public Health Pest Management
300 printed copies | 36 pages | - | PDF: 1366 kb
Greenhouse Insect ManAgement
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 123 kb
Cutworm Management in Corn
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 175 kb
Invisible Itches: Insect and Non-Insect Causes
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 326 kb
Periodical Cicadas in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 212 kb
Insect Borers in Trees and Shrubs
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Beginning Beekeeping for Kentuckians
3500 printed copies | 20 pages | - | PDF: 718 kb
Controlling White Grubs
3000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 325 kb
Home Accessibility: Resources
The following information will help you find resources and support for improving your residential situations, assessing your needs and determining which modifications and assistive technologies are most appropriate for you.
Web only | 2 pages | 693 words | PDF: 214 kb
Home Accessibility: Kitchens
Universal design allows independence, safety, control and quality of life at home and in the community today and in the future. The following universal design features can make your kitchen a safer and more user-friendly space.
Web only | 2 pages | 915 words | PDF: 272 kb
Home Accessibility: Bathrooms
Universal design allows independence, safety, control and quality of life at home and in the community today and in the future. The following universal design features can help make your bathroom a safer and more user-friendly space in your home.
Web only | 3 pages | 897 words | PDF: 464 kb
Home Accessibility: Bedrooms
Universal design allows independence, safety, control and quality of life at home and in the community today and in the future. The following universal design features can make your bedroom a safer and more user-friendly space.
Web only | 3 pages | 768 words | PDF: 641 kb
Home Accessibility: One Size Fits All
A well-designed home promotes independence and allows us the satisfaction of being able to stay in control and remain at home as we age or as our needs change.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,316 words | PDF: 640 kb
Home Accessibility: Assistive Technology
Assistive technology allows people to do things that they might not otherwise be able to do. It reduces the impact of a disability and increases the opportunity for enjoying an optimal level of safety and independence.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,403 words | PDF: 363 kb
Small Woods, Big Opportunities: Hazard and Danger Trees
Trees provide unique benefits such as natural beauty and wildlife habitat, and can enhance property values. However, trees with significant internal rot or damage could pose threats to life and property. With proper planting, maintenance, and pruning, a majority of the rot or damage could be minimized. This factsheet will help to identify hazardous trees and what actions to take to prevent future creation.
Web only | 2 pages | 944 words | PDF: 821 kb
The First Separation of Softwood Species
Just making the separation between softwoods and hardwoods doesn't help much in identifying wood species; that would be sort of like identifying children by their hair color. Let's look at the next level of wood features that you need to be able to recognize.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,711 words | PDF: 4200 kb
Grain Patterns and Growth Rings
Frequently you need to be able to observe wood cells from a particular perspective, and you will need to know where to look for different features on your sample. It's also very helpful to develop a kind of "visual vocabulary" that will let you match a term with a corresponding mental image, and the information in this chapter will start you on your way.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,527 words | PDF: 1500 kb
Distinguishing Softwoods from Hardwoods
Softwood and hardwood trees are made up of different types of cells. With just a little magnification, it's easy to see that softwood growth rings look different from hardwood growth rings. Additionally, growth rings don't look the same for all of the trees, and the growth ring appearance is one of the things we will look at to identify wood.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,722 words | PDF: 2400 kb
First Steps in Identifying Wood
Wood samples need to be identified for all sorts of reasons, and they come in all shapes, sizes and conditions. I've received samples that were sound, samples that were waterlogged, samples that were rotted or otherwise degraded, painted samples, furniture samples, even samples containing wood preservatives. Most of the samples I receive have a North American origin, but I also receive pieces from art museums and antique dealers that can originate from just about anywhere. This sometimes means that identifying the sample by a common name alone doesn't provide enough information.
Web only | 8 pages | 4,482 words | PDF: 1980 kb
Introduction to Wood Structure and Characteristics
Knowing how to identify unknown pieces of wood using a hand lens is the only skill you will need for most situations---and that's the purpose behind most of this manual. A section at the end about how to identify wood using a microscope is available should you want to develop your wood identification expertise.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,540 words | PDF: 1000 kb
How to Select and Buck Logs for Railroad Ties
As of 2014, railroads were purchasing in the neighborhood of 25 million wooden ties each year, so the railroad tie industry can be a reliable market for loggers and sawmillers. Prices for green ties are viewed as good compared to lower-grade lumber, though actual market prices depend on immediate demand, competing lumber prices, distance from the seller to the treating plant, and tie quality and species. If you're a logger reading this article, you'll learn to make better decisions about how to select trees and logs for crossties and switch ties, and you'll be able to buck them so that they're worth more money overall.
Web only | 9 pages | 4,194 words | PDF: 6000 kb
Vertebrate Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 19
Most people enjoy watching wildlife around the home, whether it is birds at a feeder, butterflies on flowers, or the occasional deer or turkey wandering through the yard. In some instances, wildlife come into contact with humans and are in the wrong place at the wrong time. For the gardening enthusiast, this encounter can create conflict.
Web only | 10 pages | 3,950 words | PDF: 750 kb
Site Preparation for Natural Regeneration of Hardwoods
One aspect of forest sustainability is regenerating the stand to desired species once the stand is harvested. Usually the species present in the overstory are more desirable than those in the understory and midstory. If management is not performed to adjust the regenerating species composition prior to the harvest, these understory and midstory species likely will be the composition of the future stand.
Web only | 12 pages | - | PDF: 557 kb
Uneven-aged Management in Mixed Species, Southern Hardwoods: Is it Feasible and Sustainable?
For uneven-age stands to develop, both young and old trees need to be developing in the same stand, where younger trees are naturally smaller in diameter than older trees. Thus, guidelines and graphs used by foresters to help establish uneven-age stands use diameter as a surrogate for age and assume that age and diameter are related.
Web only | 16 pages | - | PDF: 796 kb
Have Maples Will Sugar
Woodland owners may find that they have many maple trees in their woodlots. If these trees are larger than 10 inches in diameter, and if there are 25 to 40 maple trees per acre, woodland owners might want to think about making maple syrup as a possibility for increased income from their woodlots.
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 549 kb
People have harvested and processed forest plants for medicinal purposes since the beginning of recorded history. Ginseng is perhaps the one best known in Kentucky because it is easily the most commercially valuable. However, if you read health supplement labels in all the "big box" stores or other similar locations, you will find goldenseal, blue cohosh, black cohosh, bloodroot, wild ginger, slippery elm, witch-hazel, mayapple, and many other forest plant-derived substances. There are established markets for these plants, although not as obvious as corn, soybean, or cattle markets.
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 338 kb
Agroforestry: Christmas Trees
Kentucky has always had a Christmas tree industry, although at a very small scale. The benefits of producing Christmas trees include guaranteed market every year, a short growing period relative to other tree crops, periodic intensive management (planting, shearing, marketing) but otherwise not much time required in management, and a good return on investment.
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 789 kb
Agroforestry: Forest Farming
Of all the techniques of agroforestry, forest farming is probably the one most useful to landowners in Kentucky. Most have some forestland, and many of those owners don't really "do" anything with that land, keeping it for wildlife habitat, recreation, or a possible timber sale if there is a sudden need for cash. However, with some professional help from a consultant forester or from the Kentucky Division of Forestry, forest landowners can implement something called timber stand improvement (TSI). Forest farming can be a part of that decision, if the landowner considers the options before starting the TSI operation.
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 935 kb
Windbreaks were first used extensively in the United States in the 1930s, after the Dust Bowl days made it clear that certain agricultural practices tended to facilitate the loss of topsoil by wind erosion. They are also a practical agroforestry technique in any location where there are significant prevailing winds. Windbreaks are used to manage snow, improve irrigation efficiency, screen views and reduce noise, protect farm crops and farm buildings, protect free-ranging livestock, provide wildlife habitat, and provide non-timber forest products (e.g., berries, woody florals).
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 491 kb
In the practice of silvopasture, you have three simultaneous crops: the tree crop, the forage crop, and the livestock crop. As with other agroforestry practices, if you plan to use biocides (pesticides, fungicides, insecticides) and/or chemical fertilizers, you must be sure that all of the component parts of the proposed system can tolerate the additives. Foresters have a long-standing attitude that cattle and trees do not mix (because of soil compaction and rubbing around and on the trees by the livestock), but in this case, you are intentionally putting them together, ideally for mutual benefit.
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 377 kb
Agroforestry: Riparian Buffer Strips
Riparian buffer strips are zones of native trees, shrubs, and grasses designed to protect the temperature and clarity of moving water and to prevent agricultural chemicals and soil from eroding directly into stream water. The Kentucky Water Quality Act of 1994 encouraged farmers to protect their streams from soil erosion and compaction from livestock. Best management practices (BMPs) for people who are harvesting timber require streamside management zones (SMZs).
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 1230 kb
Agroforestry: Alley Cropping
Alley cropping is probably the most commonly used technique of agroforestry. It simply involves planting single or double lines of trees and/or shrubs intercropped with a wide "alley" of either row crops or pasture grasses. The width of the alley is determined by the size of the harvesting equipment needed for the crop grown in the alley.
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 551 kb
Non-Timber Forest Products and Agroforestry
Agroforestry is the practice of integrating long-term tree crops with annual agronomic crops and/or livestock. This type of integrated agriculture has been successfully practiced for thousands of years in many parts of the world, especially in the tropics. Temperate regions have been a bit slower to adopt agroforestry practices, but in the past decade or so, there has been increasing interest in using agroforestry techniques in temperate countries around the world.
120 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 771 kb
Timber Theft and Trespass
1000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 400 kb
Site Preparation and Competition Control Guidelines for Hardwood Tree Plantings
This publication presents recommendations for key factors associated with hardwood planting success. The publication also provides competition control and site preparation alternatives for a number of common planting sites and conditions. For each site and condition, several alternatives provide a range of options, allowing users to select the alternative that best fits their objectives and timetables.
Web only | 36 pages | - | PDF: 1350 kb
Technical Guide to Crop Tree Release In Hardwood Forests
Crop tree release (CTR) is a widely applicable silvicultural technique used to enhance the performance of individual trees. It offers flexibility in that it can be applied on small or large properties, and with certain modifications, it can be applied as a precommercial or commercial operation. By favoring the development of selected crop trees within a hardwood stand, the landowner can meet a variety of area-wide management objectives such as wildlife habitat, recreation, timber value, aesthetic beauty and species diversity. CTR can be applied at various stages of development, including sapling, pole and sawtimber stands, depending on the specific opportunities to improve stand conditions. In some cases, it may be advisable to apply CTR more than once during the rotation. As forest managers gain experience with CTR, many come to realize that it is a versatile silvicultural technique that can be effective in many situations.
Web only | 24 pages | - | PDF: 2213 kb
Caring for Christmas Trees
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 280 kb
Treatments for Improving Degraded Hardwood Stands
Web only | 12 pages | - | PDF: 994 kb
Two-Aged System and Deferment Harvests
Web only | 12 pages | - | PDF: 1000 kb
Forest Management Strategies to Minimize the Impact of Gypsy Moth
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 770 kb
Hardwood Plantations as an Investment
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 856 kb
Oak Shelterwood: A Technique to Improve Oak Regeneration
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 695 kb
Managing Oak Decline
Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 558 kb
Attracting Butterflies with Native Plants
20000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 437 kb
Attracting Hummingbirds to the Garden
43000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 424 kb
Forest Water Quality Plan: Preparing an Agriculture Water Quality Plan for Your Woodlands
All parties involved in woodland operations are responsible for water quality protection. One of the most effective methods of protecting water quality during forestry operations is to use BMPs. BMPs are guidelines and techniques that, when used properly, can help reduce impact to our waters. They do this by decreasing erosion and the creation of muddy water, keeping chemicals and fluids out of streams, and limiting changes in the woods next to streams.
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 334 kb
What Is Forestry?
10000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | PDF: 1222 kb
Financial Assistance Guide for Conservation Practices in Kentucky
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 25 kb
Definition of Conservation Practices in Kentucky
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 360 kb
Growing Forest Botanicals and Medicinals
If you are interested in producing some of Kentucky's native medicinal plants, the first step is to gather as much information about them as possible. This publication includes useful information including a list of helpful books, contacts, and organizations.
100 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,685 words | PDF: 2695 kb
Shiitake Production: Production Options
This series of publications emphasizes growing shiitake mushrooms on natural hardwood logs. The denser hardwoods (oaks, hickories, chestnut) seem to produce better over the long run, and other hardwoods (maples, sweetgum) may begin to produce more quickly but will exhaust more quickly also.
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 864 words | PDF: 242 kb
Shiitake Production: Resources for Shiitake Growers
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 169 kb
Shiitake Production: Potential Profits from a Small-Scale Shiitake Enterprise
950 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 242 kb
Shiitake Production: Marketing
The most common outlets for marketing your shiitake mushrooms are farmers markets, whole food and health food stores, restaurants and restaurant suppliers, supermarkets (especially locally owned rather than the national chains), produce buyers, and produce wholesalers.
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,326 words | PDF: 623 kb
Shiitake Production: Processing and Storage
How you handle your mushrooms depends on whether you plan to market them fresh or dried, retail or wholesale.
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,687 words | PDF: 740 kb
Shiitake Production: Harvesting
If you started with live spawn from a reputable supplier and freshly cut logs from living hardwood trees, your logs should be ready to produce shiitake mushrooms after 6 to 18 months of incubation.
Web only | 8 pages | 2,121 words | PDF: 800 kb
Shiitake Production: Pest Control
Shiitake mushrooms do not have many pests. Many problems with insects and competitive fungi can be avoided by timely cutting and inoculating of shiitake logs, and by good hygiene and maintenance practices.
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 966 words | PDF: 1620 kb
Shiitake Production: Incubation and Stacking
Monitor your logs for shade, moisture, and pest and disease problems while they are incubating. If firewood- or teepee-stacked logs are losing too much moisture, you may need to rearrange the stacks. (The bottom logs will always retain more moisture). Lean-to stacked logs should be more even in their moisture content, but they too can be reversed if necessary.
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,138 words | PDF: 1675 kb
Shiitake Production: Monitoring Moisture Content of Logs
Shiitake spawn cannot survive in logs that have a moisture content of less than 23%. Ideal moisture conditions for shiitake growth are log moisture content of 35% or more. If logs are left in the open air and are not monitored for moisture content, and climatic conditions are dry, the moisture content of the logs can fall to 20% to 25%.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,487 words | PDF: 170 kb
Kentucky Shiitake Production Workbook: Inoculation
To begin the process of shiitake mushroom production, you must "sow the seed" just as you would with any other agronomic crop. For shiitake, the "seed" is called spawn and consists of the mushroom spores mixed with sawdust (for sawdust spawn) or wood (for dowel spawn) and a little grain to add a higher level of carbohydrate for the organism to feed on.
Web only | 7 pages | 3,031 words | PDF: 400 kb
Shiitake Production: Spawn Selection
Shiitake mushrooms are like any other plant crop--they must be started from "seed." For mushrooms, this process begins when the mushroom's spores (normally located in the cap on the underside between the gills) are mixed with nutrients and a cellulose source, usually hardwood sawdust.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,685 words | PDF: 235 kb
Shiitake Production: Log Selection and Preparation
Shiitake mushrooms grow well on many species of hardwood tree. The Shii tree, native to Japan where these mushrooms originate, is in the same family as our oak trees, so all kinds of oaks are useful for shiitake production.
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,105 words | PDF: 477 kb
Introduction to Shiitake: The Forest Mushroom
Shiitake mushrooms may prove to be a new commodity that will provide some economic return on small diameter wood from private woodlands that otherwise would be used only for firewood.
Web only | 6 pages | 3,247 words | PDF: 447 kb
Shiitake Production on Logs: Step by Step in Pictures
Web only | 14 pages | - | PDF: 350 kb
Landscape Ecology and Ecosystems Management
10000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 283 kb
An Ecosystems Approach to Natural Resources Management
Web only | 12 pages | - | PDF: 330 kb
Guide to Urban Habitat Conservation Planning
1000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 174 kb
Creating Urban Stormwater Control Ponds for Water Quality and Wildlife Habitat
1000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 111 kb
Woodland Owners Training Manual for Developing a Forestry Agriculture Water Quality Plan
1000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | PDF: 321 kb
Wild About Wildflowers
10000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 456 kb
Determining Best Management Practices for Timber Harvesting Operations in Kentucky: A Training Manual for Loggers
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 140 kb
Field Guide to Best Management Practices for Timber Harvesting in Kentucky
600 printed copies | - | 7,138 words | HTML: kb
Trees, Shrubs and Vines That Attract Wildlife
5000 printed copies | 28 pages | - | PDF: 2110 kb
Kentucky Forest Practice Guidelines for Water Quality Management
250 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 3 kb
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 197 kb
Scientific Classification of Trees
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 143 kb
Open Face Tree Felling Method
5000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 172 kb
Intro to Wood Anatomy
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 175 kb
OSHA Hazard Communication Standard: Employee's Right to Know
5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 122 kb
Managing White Tailed Deer
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 25 kb
Paulownia Log Grades: Specifications and Uses
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 143 kb
1000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 213 kb
Wood Destroying Organisms and Wood Preservatives
1000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 534 kb
Kentucky Forestry Fact Sheet
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 250 kb
Eastern Bluebirds Nesting Structure Design and Placement
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 153 kb
Managing Muskrat Problems in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 14 kb
Managing Beaver Problems in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Managing Skunk Problems in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 255 kb
Bats: Information for Kentucky Homeowners
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 22 kb
Compass and Pacing
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 8 kb
Snakes: Information for Kentucky Homeowners
3000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 206 kb
Managing Tree Squirrel Problems in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Managing Woodchuck Problems in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 261 kb
Managing Rabbit and Vole Problems in Kentucky Orchards
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 21 kb
Managing Mole Problems in Kentucky
10000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 208 kb
Managing Chipmunk Problems in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 376 kb
Paulownia: A Guide to Establishment and Cultivation
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 28 kb
Controlling Woodpecker Damage
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Coyote Managing Coyote Problems in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 804 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Budgeting and Economics
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 60 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook References
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 14 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Production Calendar
1300 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 6 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Developing a Demonstration Plot
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 10 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Use of 'Cull' Trees
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 5 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Harvesting
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 7 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Pest Control: Animals
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Pest Control: Insects
2000 printed copies | 7 pages | - | PDF: 747 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Pruning and Shearing
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Irrigation
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 4 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Fertilization
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 5 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Vegetation Control
3000 printed copies | 7 pages | - | PDF: 248 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Ground Covers
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 5 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Site Preparation
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 6 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree ProductIon Workbook Plantation Layout
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 217 kb
Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Planning and Site Selection
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Managing Sustainable Forests in Kentucky
13000 printed copies | 28 pages | - | PDF: 997 kb
Debris Burning and Forest Fires
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 4 kb
Managing Wildlife Damage Problems in Kentucky: Assistance, Procedures, Policies and Regulations
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 19 kb
A Landowner's Guide Measuring Farm Timber
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 91 kb
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 12 kb
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 12 kb
Going Green: Living an Environmentally Responsible Life
Adopting a green lifestyle means making deliberate choices to lighten our impact on the natural world.
Web only | 7 pages | 2,724 words | PDF: 1392 kb
Follow these home decorating and landscaping tips to reduce your energy consumption and utility costs.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,110 words | PDF: 2251 kb
Tips for Conserving Water at Home
By conserving water, we decrease our demand for energy-intensive systems that obtain, treat, and distribute water. Simply put, by conserving water we save energy.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,658 words | PDF: 1525 kb
Saving Energy and Money: Appliances
Appliances are designed to save time and money, but if an appliance is not in itself energy efficient or is operated improperly it could be wasting money. Ensuring that you have an ENERGY STAR--approved appliance is one solution; another is the proper operation, location, and maintenance of appliances.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 889 kb
Saving Energy and Money at Home and on the Road
This publication features 15 suggestions to help you save money, reduce your energy consumption, and preserve our natural resources.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 1588 kb
Saving Energy and Money: Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, a CFL lasts up to ten times longer, uses approximately one-fourth the energy, and produces 25 percent less heat while producing more light per watt than a traditional incandescent bulb.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 880 kb
Saving Water at Home
By conserving water, we decrease our demand for energy-intensive systems that obtain, treat, and distribute water. Simply put, by conserving water we save energy.
Web only | 7 pages | 3,036 words | PDF: 1902 kb
How Water Use Impacts Septic System Performance
The purpose of this publication is to discuss home water use patterns and suggest water conservation measures that could improve septic system performance and reduce the risks of hydraulic overload or other kinds of system failure.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,613 words | PDF: 1000 kb
Landscaping Septic Systems with Native Plants
Septic system components sometimes have unsightly aboveground pipes, risers, ventilation systems, or large mounds. Homeowners can improve the appearance of these functional features through site design and, in particular, plant material selection.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,782 words | PDF: 1384 kb
Flood Conditions and Your Septic System
The most common septic systems used in the United States employ soil treatment area to treat and disperse wastewater into the environment. The soil treatment area consists of a network of perforated pipes within gravel-filled trenches. Under normal environmental conditions, well designed and managed septic systems work very well at dispersing wastewater and removing pathogens from the wastewater before they reach groundwater or surface waters.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,078 words | PDF: 1002 kb
Turfgrass Color: Indicator of Septic System Performance
Many homeowners notice color differences in the turfgrass over their septic system soil treatment area. Most often, homeowners observe green or brown stripes in their turfgrass relative to the surrounding lawn. This discoloration is worth keeping an eye on because turfgrass color is often an early sign that serious problems are about to occur.
Web only | 3 pages | 697 words | PDF: 1135 kb
Impacts of Additives on Septic System Performance
Septic system additive vendors often market their products as necessities that improve septic system performance or repair failing systems. Rather than address specific products, this publication examines general categories of these additives. This publication also describes the treatment functions of septic systems and the available scientific data regarding the effectiveness of septic system additives.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,438 words | PDF: 697 kb
Importance of Wastewater Biological Oxygen Demand in Septic Systems
A high BOD value means potential septic system problems for homeowners; a low BOD means fewer problems for homeowners. This publication describes the environmental impacts of BOD, shows how BOD is distributed in septic systems, and describes remediation strategies for excess BOD.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,432 words | PDF: 1224 kb
Septic Tanks: The Primary Treatment Device of Septic Systems
Septic tanks play an essential role in effectively treating wastewater in areas without municipal sewage treatment. Homeowners often assume that the septic tank in their backyard is their septic system. Actually, the tank is merely the first of a series of components that make up a well-designed septic system.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | PDF: 1720 kb
Septic System Failure and Environmental Impacts
More than one-third of new homes and over half of the mobile homes in the U.S. depend on septic systems. Here in Kentucky, approximately 40 percent of the homes have septic systems. This is common in the southeast, where there are more septic systems per capita than any other region of the country.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,196 words | PDF: 630 kb
Septic System Maintenance: Care and Feeding of Your System
This publication provides homeowners with a basic introduction to septic systems by explaining how septic systems function and suggesting ways to better maintain systems and increase their longevity.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,337 words | PDF: 1596 kb
Managing Insects and Spiders in the Home
This guide is designed to help you tell the "bad" bugs from the harmless ones and to show you a few basic steps that you can take to detect the most common indoor pests and to prevent problems before they happen.
Web only | 11 pages | 4,738 words | PDF: 7891 kb
Understanding and Protecting Kentucky's Watersheds
Regardless of where you are, you are always in a watershed. A watershed is any area of land that drains water to a single water body such as a stream or lake.
Web only | 3 pages | 6,687 words | PDF: 2511 kb
Residential Rain Garden: Design, Construction, Maintenance
This publication covers the design, construction, and maintenance of residential ran gardens. Rain gardens are one of several stormwater management practices that homeowners can use to reduce their property's negative impact on water quality and flooding.
Web only | 15 pages | 6,021 words | PDF: 6000 kb
What is a Watershed?
A watershed is an area of land that drains water to a single water body. Watersheds are as small as a few acres draining into a stream or as large as several states draining into the ocean. Smaller watersheds join together to make larger watersheds. Kentucky is divided into seven major watersheds, or basins. Knowing what watershed you live in is a first step toward protecting water quality.
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 586 words | PDF: 4306 kb
As stormwater moves across lawns and paved areas, it picks up bacteria, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals before traveling through the storm sewers to our water bodies. Because the stormwater is not cleaned or treated, it creates harmful conditions for the environment and for us.
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 501 words | PDF: 3675 kb
Planting Along Your Stream, Pond, or Lake
Kentucky has more than 90,000 miles of rivers and streams and thousands of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. You can improve your surroundings and the quality of your stream, pond, or lake by planting an area called a riparian buffer or buffer zone.
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 710 words | PDF: 3979 kb
Building a Rain Barrel
Rain barrels offer a number of benefits such as helping to reduce stormwater runoff, decreasing municipal water usage, and potentially protecting your home's foundation. Impervious surfaces such as rooftops, parking lots, and roads prevent rainwater or stormwater from soaking into the soil.
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 1480 kb
Planning a Zero-Waste Event
The goal of a zero-waste event (e.g., meeting, business event, birthday party, field day, wedding, etc.) is to minimize the amount of waste produced. The key to hosting a zero-waste event is good advanced planning. This publication will guide you as you plan and carry out your event.
Web only | 8 pages | 1,897 words | PDF: 3353 kb
Household Waste Management 4: Hazardous Waste
Everyday products found around your house contain hazardous chemicals--everything from nail polish remover to household electronics to oil for your car.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 514 kb
Household Waste Management 3: Recycle
Americans create about 5 pounds of waste per day, half of which is recycled in some manner, leaving roughly 2.5 pounds of waste per day going to landfills.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 936 kb
Household Waste Management 2: Reuse
Reuse is essentially any action that extends the life of a product and keeps it out of the waste system. The process of reusing an item can start even before you purchase it.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 484 kb
Household Waste Management 1: Reduce
Reducing, at the top of the waste management hierarchy, has the greatest impact on the environment and starts with you reducing the number of products you purchase and use.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 801 kb
Understanding Soilless Media Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
Although choosing or formulating media with optimum physical properties (such as pore air space and water holding capacity) for a given production environment and crop plant is important, this publication focuses on the chemical properties of soilless media determined with a laboratory test as conducted through the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service at the Division of Regulatory Services Soil Testing Laboratories.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,443 words | PDF: 252 kb
Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production.
Web only | 6 pages | 3,971 words | PDF: 264 kb
Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses
Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued.
Web only | 17 pages | 9,670 words | PDF: 5953 kb
Sustainable Production Systems: Efficient Wholesale Nursery Layout
This publication provides the framework for planning and implementing efficient wholesale nursery layout. Concepts and ideas presented here are applicable to new construction or the modification of an existing nursery. A basic approach toward creating efficient systems will be discussed as well as common nursery activities that may require consideration during the planning stages. Functional areas will be defined, and a framework for understanding the relationships between these functional areas will be presented.
Web only | 10 pages | 7,699 words | PDF: 4000 kb
Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry
The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green-industry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2013 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,841 words | PDF: 152 kb
Selecting and Planting Wody Ornamental Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 21
Woody ornamental plants are key components of a well-designed landscape. Landscape plantings divide and define areas, add aesthetic and psychological benefits, and increase a property's environmental and economic values.
Web only | 18 pages | 9,171 words | PDF: 880 kb
Mulch is one of the essentials of good landscaping. It can be used to protect trees, suppress weeds, fertilize plants and retain soil moisture. Like many traditional practices, the use of mulch has some myths attached to it. You can improve the look of your landscape as well as the health of your plants and trees by learning the facts--and discarding the myths--about mulch.
Web only | 2 pages | 414 words | PDF: 2700 kb
Landscape Design: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 17
This chapter is not meant to define the art of landscape design but rather to help you take a realistic approach to landscape planning. Your end design should meet your needs and incorporate principles of sustainability into an evolving landscape.
Web only | 20 pages | 5,654 words | PDF: 1400 kb
Growing Tree Fruits: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 16
Growing tree fruits and/or nuts can provide a great deal of satisfaction, but it takes a commitment to care for your trees year-round.
Web only | 14 pages | 4,766 words | PDF: 900 kb
Indoor Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 14
A houseplant is simply an outdoor plant that is grown indoors. Not all plants are suitable for indoor culture. Some require environmental conditions that are impossible to duplicate indoors. Others adapt to indoor culture if their minimum growth requirements are provided. The key to successful indoor plant culture is to select plants that are adaptable to the conditions in your home.
Web only | 14 pages | 5,850 words | PDF: 950 kb
Annual and Perennial Flowers: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 13
Can you imagine a world without flowers? Their textures, colors, scents, and forms inspire gardeners, artists, and writers. The desire to grow flowers often motivates novices to take up gardening and moves experienced gardeners to become flower specialists. Annuals, biennials, and herbaceous perennials offer variety and interest to all styles of gardens.
Web only | 14 pages | 5,317 words | PDF: 1100 kb
Care of Woody Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 12
To prune or not to prune? This is a question that gardeners often faces gardeners. Most feel they ought to prune but are not sure why or how. Pruning is an accepted practice in orchards and frequently is done in rose gardens, but it is used haphazardly elsewhere. Ornamentals are most often pruned only when a shrub or tree begins to encroach on its neighbors, a walkway, or a building.
Web only | 20 pages | 7,419 words | PDF: 1900 kb
Organic Gardening: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 18
Organic gardening offers the gardener many benefits--a safe, low-chemical gardening environment, produce free from synthetic pesticide residues, and gardens that can increase in fertility and natural pest control over time. However, reaping the benefits of organic management requires planning, observation, and thinking about the garden as an interconnected system of soils, plants, pests, and beneficial organisms.
Web only | 12 pages | 5,684 words | PDF: 615 kb
Plant Material Shipments: Federal and State Plant Protection Regulations Relevant to Your Nursery Business
It is critical that individuals transporting plant materials as well as state and federal agencies that regulate shipments remain diligent in preventing movement of harmful pests. This publication covers some of the regulations that may apply to nursery businesses' shipping activities.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,077 words | PDF: 568 kb
Plant Propagation: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 3
Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen (male) with the egg (female) to produce a seed. The seed is made up of three parts: the outer seed coat, which protects the seed; the endosperm, which is a food reserve; and the embryo, which is the young plant itself. When a seed is mature and put in a favorable environment, it will germinate, or begin active growth. In this section, seed germination and transplanting of seeds are discussed.
Web only | 16 pages | 8,025 words | PDF: 1150 kb
Plant Identification: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 2
The rules of plant identification and nomenclature (naming) may seem complex and more trouble than they are worth, but knowing the basic rules and applying them to everyday gardening leads to a better understanding of plants and how they are classified.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,764 words | PDF: 320 kb
Basic Botany: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 1
Many plants are familiar to us, and we can identify and appreciate them based on their external structure. However, their internal structure and function often are overlooked. Understanding how plants grow and develop helps us capitalize on their usefulness and make them part of our everyday lives.
Web only | 30 pages | 12,440 words | PDF: 3725 kb
Recognizing Trees of Significance
Trees are important to people. They represent safety, beauty, and refuge. One way we show our regard for one of the most important elements of the human environment is to protect them. Protection begins with public recognition of value. It is not possible or desirable to protect all trees, but those associated with a greater perceived value must be recognized for their unique characteristics. These are the "Trees of Significance," trees that for a variety of reasons are special.
Web only | 3 pages | 2,162 words | PDF: 240 kb
Trees with Minimal Insect and Disease Problems for Kentucky Landscapes
Healthy, attractive landscapes without damaging insects and diseases are the primary goal for gardeners and landscape managers. Using Best Management Practices (BMP) and making appropriate plant selections will help to insure that landscapes start out healthy and remain healthy. Healthy landscapes do not require an over-reliance on environmentally damaging pesticides.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,473 words | PDF: 260 kb
Trees and Compacted Soils
Soils become compacted as a result of traffic. Compaction is common in urban areas and results from construction equipment and foot traffic. Soil is more likely to become compacted when the soil is wet than when it is excessively dry. Soil compaction is permanent, at least when viewed in reference to a human life span. Protecting the soil from becoming compacted is much easier than dealing with the negative impact of compaction on plant growth and health.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,558 words | PDF: 180 kb
Botanical Diversity in the Landscape
Diversity and sustainability are terms bantered about without much consideration of their relationship and value to human welfare. How much botanical diversity in landscapes is enough? What type of diversity is important? There are no simple formulas or templates for your landscape, but the opportunity to experiment and be creative makes gardening fun. Failures can always be composted.
Web only | 2 pages | 972 words | PDF: 179 kb
Planting Balled and Burlapped Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
Many landscape plants are installed as balled and burlapped (B&B) specimens. This method, along with container grown and bare root, is one of three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick reestablishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting.
Web only | 2 pages | 2,094 words | PDF: 187 kb
Life Cycle Assessment: Implications for the Green Industry
The purpose of this circular is to give green industry leaders and business managers a better understanding of the terms and processes used to judge the impact of various production system components and practices.
Web only | 4 pages | 3,684 words | PDF: 194 kb
Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries
The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and regional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners.
Web only | 10 pages | 3,937 words | PDF: 399 kb
Viticultural Regions and Suggested Cultivars in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 1100 kb
Vineyard Site Selection in Kentucky Based on Climate and Soil Properties
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 290 kb
Crop Estimation in Vineyards
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 307 kb
Honeyvine Milkweed Control in Tree Fruits, Small Fruits, and Grapes
100 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 320 kb
Controlled Water Table Irrigation of Container Crops
Web only | 18 pages | - | PDF: 3000 kb
Dry Pesticide Rates for Hand-Held Sprayers
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 166 kb
Rootstocks for Kentucky Fruit Trees
Most fruit trees that can be grown in Kentucky do not come true from seed. For example, a tree grown from a Golden Delicious apple seed will produce an apple tree, but the fruit will have different characteristics than Golden Delicious in color, taste, and shape. This is why fruit trees are reproduced by asexual propagation, such as budding and grafting.
Web only | 6 pages | 3,890 words | PDF: 215 kb
Ornamental Corn Production
1000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 1234 kb
Spring, Summer and Fall Bulbs
5000 printed copies | 9 pages | - | PDF: 79 kb
Ornamental Grasses for Kentucky Landscapes
3000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 893 kb
Ground Covers for Ky Landscapes
3000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 182 kb
Perennials for Shady Locations
5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 81 kb
Perennials for Sunny Locations
5000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 98 kb
Home Composting: A Guide to Managing Organic Wastes
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 263 kb
5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 312 kb
Medicinal Herb Seed and Root Sources for Planting in Kentucky
5000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 128 kb
Preserving Flowers and Foliage
Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 298 kb
Propagating Plants in and Around the Home
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 302 kb
Commercial Asparagus Production
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 875 kb
5000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 67 kb
Landscape Design with Plants: Creating Outdoor Rooms
Web only | 16 pages | - | PDF: 1415 kb
Trees Shrubs Ground Covers and Vines Suitable for Kentucky Landscapes
4000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | PDF: 425 kb
Growing Highbush Blueberries in Kentucky
200 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 403 kb
Pruning Landscape Shrubs
4000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 755 kb
Growing Peaches in Kentucky
1500 printed copies | 20 pages | - | PDF: 978 kb
Starting Plants from Seed at Home
Web only | - | - | HTML: 20 kb
Guidelines for Choosing Hedges for Kentucky Yards
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 33 kb
Large Plants for Homes and Offices
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Flowering Plants for Homes and Offices
15000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Low Maintenance Annual Flowers for Kentucky Gardens
20000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 22 kb
Pruning Landscape Trees
5000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 1992 kb
Reproducing Fruit Trees by Graftage Budding and Grafting
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 789 kb
Tulips and Their Care
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 9 kb
Geraniums for Kentucky Gardens
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 12 kb
Strawberry Production in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 340 kb
Growing Blackberries and Raspberries in Kentucky
Web only | 12 pages | - | PDF: 325 kb
Peach Cultivar Performance
The commercial success of a peach orchard depends largely on selecting cultivars that will perform reliably and meet market needs. Although many fruit and tree characteristics are presented in this report, the final cultivar selection should be determined by the grower. A grower may be influenced by soil type, local climate, or marketing methods and prefer a cultivar that is not a general favorite. Growers should have test plots of two to four trees of new cultivars to help them judge the performance in their orchard.
Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 275 kb
Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production.
Web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | PDF: 3000 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.
2000 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,187 words | PDF: 5436 kb
Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.
Web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | PDF: 1800 kb
Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses
Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations.
Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 465 kb
Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide
This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).
1030 printed copies | 172 pages | - | PDF: 1400 kb
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Acute or Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP)
In the Southeastern United States, acute interstitial pneumonia has been produced by ingestion of the leaves and seeds of perilla mint (Perilla frutescens). Perilla ketone is the toxin absorbed from the rumen into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs where it damages the lung tissue in cattle.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,551 words | PDF: 507 kb
Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Cattle and Horses
Although black patch occurs only sporadically, the right temperature, moisture, and soil pH may combine and allow Rhizoctonia leguminicola to thrive. Be aware of the possible consequences of this fungus, especially profuse salivation or "Sobbers" in cattle and horses. Good forage management, will reduce the risk of problems when utilizing this forage.
Web only | 2 pages | 948 words | PDF: 256 kb
All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,612 words | PDF: 2980 kb
Aquatic Macroinvertebrates: Biological Indicators of Stream Health
Streams are an important part of the landscape. Streams transport water, sediment and energy; provide habitat for aquatic life and support terrestrial life; provide a place for recreation; and in many cases serve as a water supply. The health of streams---or their ability to perform these important functions---is dependent on the conditions of the watersheds which they drain. Changes in land use within a watershed can affect a stream's health.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,962 words | PDF: 4800 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky
Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.
1500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,479 words | PDF: 6400 kb
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Hypomagnesemic Tetany or "Grass Tetany"
Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or "grass tetany" is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,726 words | PDF: 121 kb
Organic Corn Production in Kentucky
The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms.
2000 printed copies | 30 pages | 19,856 words | PDF: 2600 kb
Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process.
2000 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | PDF: 1505 kb
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Brassicas---Be Aware of the Animal Health Risks
Although infrequent, brassica crops can cause animal health disorders if grazing is managed improperly. Most brassica-related disorders in cattle tend to occur during the first two weeks of grazing while adjusting to the forage. The primary potential disorders are polioencephalomalcia or PEM, hemolytic anemia (mainly with kale), nitrate poisoning, and pulmonary emphysema. Other possible clinical disorders include bloat and rumen acidosis, and metabolic problems such as hypomagnesemia and hypothyroidism with goiter. Glucosinates present in brassicas are precursors of irritants that can cause colic and diarrhea. Large bulbs may lodge in the esophagus and lead to choking. Certain brassicas (specifically rape) can cause sunburn or "scald" on light-skinned animals, especially when grazed while the plants are immature. Other potential problems include oxalate poisoning and off-flavoring of meat and milk.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,867 words | PDF: 913 kb
Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach
Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.
Web only | 8 pages | 4,099 words | PDF: 9000 kb
"Fescue toxicosis" is the general term used for the clinical diseases that can affect cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tall-fescue pastures containing ergot alkaloids are responsible for the toxic effects observed in livestock, including hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), gangrene of the extremities, decreased weight gain, and poor reproductive performance. Clinical signs vary depending on the cattle, the environmental conditions, and the level and duration of the exposure. Early clinical signs are often reversible after removal from contaminated pastures or hay.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,470 words | PDF: 740 kb
Cyanide Poisoning in Ruminants
Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication.
Web only | 2 pages | 973 words | PDF: 255 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.
3000 printed copies | 20 pages | 5,056 words | PDF: 2600 kb
A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System
Researchers at the University of Kentucky combined existing disease detection systems to produce a fresh cow examination system that may help producers detect diseases earlier by monitoring subtle changes every day during a cow's fresh period. Compiling daily information about each animal will enable producers to notice changes in health that may otherwise have been overlooked. These records may help producers detect illnesses early, thus reducing the long-term effects (reduced milk production or fertility) and costs (re-treatment, milk loss, or death) of a disease. Learning what diseases are common on a particular farm can focus producers' efforts towards preventive measures specific to their operation. Preventing disease, rather than treating, can save producers time and money and can improve overall cow well-being.
Web only | 15 pages | 3,501 words | PDF: 1900 kb
Forage-Related Disorders in Cattle: Nitrate Poisoning
Few plants normally contain high nitrate levels, since under normal growing conditions the nitrates are converted to protein as quickly as they are absorbed from the roots. However, under certain conditions plants can develop dangerously high nitrate levels which can cause nitrate intoxication. Death or abortion may result. Care must be taken to recognize possible toxic forages and manage them appropriately to avoid animal loss.
Web only | 3 pages | 2,447 words | PDF: 314 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky
Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.
3000 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,491 words | PDF: 5300 kb
As our population has grown, so have our towns and cities, and this growth has led to an increase in stormwater runoff. Stormwater best management practices help mitigate the impact of stormwater runoff on water quality by reducing pollutant loads through physical, chemical and/or biological processes. One of the most effective BMPs at improving stormwater quality is the stormwater wetland.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,647 words | PDF: 2000 kb
Mulching with Large Round Bales between Plastic-covered Beds
Large round bales lend themselves very well to the application of mulching rows of vegetables because the bales can be unrolled to peel off layers that are about the right thickness for mulch. An innovative implement that offsets the bale so that it can be unrolled between the rows while the tractor straddles the row can make the practice of mulching with round bales considerably more efficient.
250 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,335 words | PDF: 2400 kb
2011 Kentucky Compost Bedded Pack Barn Project
Kentucky dairy producers are adopting compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) as dairy cattle housing at a rapid rate. When properly managed, as an alternative dairy housing system, CBPs may decrease somatic cell count (SCC), increase production, and reduce lameness. Because the system is relatively new, however, many questions remain regarding best management practices and key factors for success. University of Kentucky dairy scientists and agricultural engineers conducted a comprehensive observational study of Kentucky CBPs from October 2010 to March 2011. The goal of this research was to determine key management concepts that determine success or failure in the compost-bedded pack system.
Web only | 13 pages | 6,600 words | PDF: 1000 kb
Using DHIA Records for Somatic Cell Count Management
DHIA (Dairy Herd Improvement Association) records are an essential part of dairy herd management for many progressive dairy operations. However, for producers new to DHIA, interpreting the meaning of all this information can be a bit overwhelming. Even producers who have been DHIA members for many years may not fully understand all the value that DHIA records can provide for SCC management. What follows is a description and interpretation of SCC-related information available to dairy producers on DHIA test reports.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,560 words | PDF: 915 kb
Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.
Web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | PDF: 3600 kb
Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.
1500 printed copies | 58 pages | 24,000 words | PDF: 2600 kb
Management of the Dry Cow to Prevent Mastitis
As we move into a new era of lower acceptable somatic cell count levels, the prevention and control of mastitis takes on increased importance. For many years, the contagious mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis were the focus of control measures primarily implemented in the milking parlor to stop the spread of these organisms from cow to cow. These contagious organisms often cause high individual somatic cell counts and ultimately high bulk tank somatic cell counts. As these high somatic cell count cows have been culled due to milk marketing regulations and more dairymen have adopted NMC recommended milking procedures, the contagious pathogens are decreasing.
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,647 words | PDF: 430 kb
Recommended Milking Procedures for Maximum Milk Quality
When it comes to minimizing mastitis and lowering somatic cell counts, the area where you have the most control is your milking procedures. Understanding and following proper milking procedures is a critical step to maintaining maximum milk quality.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,807 words | PDF: 2700 kb
Considerations for Starting an On-Farm Dairy Processing Enterprise
With proper facilities and education, entreprenuers can successfully produce value-added dairy products on-farm.
Web only | 5 pages | 3,084 words | PDF: 327 kb
Compost Bedded Pack Barn Design: Features and Management Consideration
The compost bedded pack barn is a housing system for lactating dairy cows. It consists of a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings and manure composted into place and mechanically stirred on a regular basis.
Web only | 32 pages | 5,724 words | PDF: 15444 kb
Drought-Stressed Corn Silage Valuation, 2012
Extended dry conditions have impacted the corn crop severely in many areas of the state this year. As the condition of the corn crop deteriorates, many have been forced to look at salvage options such as cutting corn for silage and possibly hay for some fields. Due to the extreme weather conditions this year, this publication will focus on valuing drought-stressed corn silage.
Web only | 6 pages | 4,213 words | PDF: 445 kb
Introductory Safety Training for Tobacco Workers
This safety bulletin is intended to offer introductory safety training to tobacco workers in conjunction with a farm walk-around. It was written as if you and your workers are standing in or around the object currently being discussed, e.g., a tractor, with you or a designated assistant pointing out the various safety issues listed in the bulletin. It is not meant to be used as a stand-alone bulletin, especially just in a room, unless you have already gone through the walk-around and are reviewing points or having a discussion. It must be used out by the barn, equipment, or other subject being discussed.
2500 printed copies | 16 pages | 2,237 words | PDF: 476 kb
Trees, Turf, and People
The shade trees and fruit trees that we treasure in our landscapes were originally adapted to growing in forests in close association with other trees. In the forest they can remain small for many years. As soon as there is an opening in the canopy allowing light to reach the forest floor they grow rapidly. This great height allows trees to assume a place of dominance over other plants; their trunks lift their leaves high into the air, allowing them to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight before it reaches other plants. Thus, trees grow tall and provide us with their much-appreciated shade.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,432 words | PDF: 1500 kb
Feedlot Design and Environmental Management for Backgrounding and Stocker Operations
Kentucky's cattle industry represents the largest beef cattle herd east of the Mississippi, ranking eighth in the nation for number of beef cows. This industry is extremely important to Kentucky's economy. This publication discusses site evaluation strategies, production area management techniques, and a variety of facility types for intensive cattle production that preserve natural resources and improve production.
125 printed copies | 12 pages | 6,071 words | PDF: 3800 kb
Your Yard and Water Quality: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 11
We generally view gardening as a wholesome activity that enhances our environment. But pesticides, fertilizers, and erosion from gardens and landscapes can contaminate lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Since the quality of our water resources affects our quality of life, we must learn how gardening practices can contribute to water contamination and how to reduce the threat to water quality.
Web only | 8 pages | 2,589 words | PDF: 410 kb
Environmental Compliance for Dairy Operations
Some farmers are reluctant to talk about the environment, but because farms are under increasing review by state and federal regulatory agencies, producers need to be familiar with environmental issues and regulations. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can help farmers continue to protect the environment and increase productivity.
Web only | 6 pages | 4,179 words | PDF: 1000 kb
Prechilling Switchgrass Seed on Farm to Break Dormancy
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial bunch-type grass native to the North American Tallgrass Prairie. It has been investigated as a renewable energy crop due to its high productivity across a wide geographic range including various environmental conditions and soil types. Switchgrass has also been used for erosion control, summer grazing in pasture and hay systems for cattle, native prairie restoration, wildlife habitat, fiber production, and as an ornamental grass.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,590 words | PDF: 300 kb
Benefits and Costs Associated with the Wheat Storage Hedge
Each year producers must decide whether to store or sell their crop at harvest. Market prices are important in guiding producers on whether to store priced grain for future delivery (referred to as a storage hedge), store unpriced grain, or sell. Generally, producers know more about deciding to sell or store unpriced grain than using the storage hedge. This publication explains how a storage hedge works, when to use it, and risks and costs involved. (See glossary for definition of terms.)
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,549 words | PDF: 300 kb
Equine Viral Arteritis
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease of horses and other equine species caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV) that is found in horse populations in many countries. It was first isolated and identified in 1953 from the lung of an aborted fetus with characteristic pathologic changes in the smaller arteries, which is how the disease got its name.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,640 words | PDF: 270 kb
UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2016
The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.
4000 printed copies | 32 pages | 4,449 words | PDF: 10700 kb
Sweetpotato Production for Kentucky
Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a member of the morningglory or Convolvulaceae family. Sweetpotatoes have their origins in tropical America, with early remains having been found in Panama, Peru and Mexico. A perennial plant in their native regions, they are typically killed by frost when grown in a temperate climate. Sweetpotatoes are true roots and not tubers as is the case with the Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Because they are true roots they will continue to grow and enlarge as long as the plant continues to grow.
500 printed copies | 16 pages | 6,240 words | PDF: 1200 kb
Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7
To determine what factors have damaged a plant, you'll need to systematically and carefully observe the plant, its environment, and other plants in the area, then put all the pieces together to reconstruct the event(s) that produced the damage. You must make an accurate diagnosis before taking corrective action. Even if no corrective measures are available, it is good to know what the problem is and what its future development might be.
Web only | 32 pages | 14,578 words | PDF: 1200 kb
Profitability of Nitrogen Applications for Stockpiling Tall Fescue Pastures: 2011 Guide
The concept of stockpiling is pretty straightforward, but the challenge each year is to determine the likelihood that this practice will be profitable given the economic and agronomic conditions present at mid-summer. This practice can yield significant benefits, but it also carries significant costs. These benefits and costs must be quantified and compared to assess the overall profitability of the practice.
Web only | 4 pages | 3,344 words | PDF: 290 kb
Composting: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 5
Gardeners have long made and used compost to improve garden soil. Composting plant and vegetable matter is an important way to reduce the waste burned or dumped in landfills. Yard wastes and vegetable scraps can make up as much as 20 percent of household garbage. Composting effectively recycles that waste into valuable organic matter that can be used as soil amendments.
Web only | 8 pages | 4,200 words | PDF: 470 kb
Climate Change: A Brief Summary for Kentucky Extension Agents
Nearly all climate science experts agree that global warming is occurring and that it is caused primarily by human activity. Regardless of what you may read on blogs or in the media, there is no meaningful scientific controversy on these points. The future impacts of global warming are difficult to predict, but the changes caused by greenhouse gases are expected to increasingly affect Kentucky agriculture.
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,975 words | PDF: 250 kb
Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis
Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial cause of contagious mastitis on dairy farms worldwide. More importantly, it is often at the root of chronically high somatic cell counts, recurrent clinical mastitis, and damaged mammary gland tissue. It is considered to be a contagious udder pathogen that spreads within and between cows during milking. Because it is often subclinical (milk looks normal but with a potentially high somatic cell count), infected animals pose a risk of infection to herd mates during each milking.
200 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,035 words | PDF: 271 kb
Vegetative Filter Strips for Livestock Facilities
An enhanced vegetative strip is a best management practice that can be installed to protect surface waters from pollution produced by animal production facilities. Most people think of a vegetative strip as a grassed area or waterway, but when intentionally installed and properly managed, an EVS can be much more effective than a simple grassed filter strip. If properly managed, enhanced vegetative strips can be used to trap, treat, and absorb pollutants, which can be removed from the designated area by harvesting or grazing.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,364 words | PDF: 380 kb
Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure
Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,255 words | PDF: 300 kb
Woodland Winter Feeding of Cattle: Water Quality Best Management Practices
Cattle maintain their body temperature in winter by burning more calories, which requires them to consume more feed. Livestock producers use wooded areas to provide protection for cattle from wind and low temperatures. That protection enables the cattle to conserve energy and eat less. Using wooded areas for winter feeding makes practical sense, but producers need to consider several environmental issues when planning for it.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,145 words | PDF: 273 kb
Managing Legume Induced Bloat in Cattle
Ruminal tympany, or bloat, can result in lost animal performance and in severe cases, death. It occurs as a result of a buildup of fermentation gases in the rumen. Bloat may be categorized as frothy bloat, which is caused by the formation of a stable foam in the rumen, or free gas bloat, which is due to excessive production of gaseous compounds from fermentation or as a result of an obstruction preventing the escape of gas compounds. Legume bloat is a frothy bloat condition.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,366 words | PDF: 400 kb
Planting a Riparian Buffer
Actively creating a riparian buffer typically consists of six steps: site assessment, planting plan development, site preparation, species selection, planting, and protection and maintenance.
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 3265 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky
In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.
4000 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,437 words | PDF: 1054 kb
Trail Riding Etiquette for Horse Enthusiasts
When you're trail riding, you need to be aware of safety, not only for yourself and the horse, but also as a courtesy for other trail users. You should follow all general precautions about safe riding, but also follow practices that apply specifically to trails, whether you're riding alone or in a group, for a short or long distance, or for fun or competition.
Web only | 2 pages | - | PDF: 203 kb
Wobbler Syndrome in Horses
Wobbler syndrome, or cervical vertebral malformation (CVM), is a devastating disease that can affect a horse's neurologic and musculoskeletal systems. It is a structural narrowing of the spinal canal due to a variety of vertebral malformations and leads to spinal cord compression. As a result, horses exhibit clinical signs of spasticity, ataxia, and lack of coordination.
Web only | 2 pages | - | PDF: 167 kb
Manejo Integrado de Plagas
La sociedad moderna demanda alimentos variados y de buena calidad, esto implica un reto para los agricultores de frutas, hortalizas y granos, ya que deben producir lo suficiente para obtener ganancias y al mismo tiempo, evitar la contaminacion del producto requerido por la poblacion. El Manejo Integrado de Plagas, es una herramienta importante en el manejo de los cultivos, ya que propone alternativas de control que no se limitan unicamente al uso de pesticidas, sino tambien, a tomar ventaja de los recursos existentes en el campo, tales como, organismos beneficos, plantas florales, biologia de la plaga, rotacion de cultivos, labores culturales apropiadas y otros mas que permiten manejar con perspectiva ambiental los problemas encontrados.
1000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | PDF: 651 kb
Collection and Preparation of Milk Samples for Microbiological Culturing
In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions.
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,439 words | PDF: 873 kb
Evaluating the Health of Your Horse
Horse owners, managers, and handlers can help to maintain the health of their animals by studying their behavior through observation and inspection, and should be able to accurately determine important measurements such as temperature, pulse, respiration, and mucous membrane color through a clinical examination. Having this information about your horse can be critical if the animal is ill or injured and you need to supply these details to your veterinarian.
Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 373 kb
Compost Bedded Pack Barns in Kentucky
Choosing the environment in which lactating dairy cows will spend the majority of their time is an important decision for dairy producers. This choice has considerable influence on productivity, health, milk quality, reproduction, animal well-being, and farm profitability. Innovative dairy producers have introduced a variation on the loose-housing system, generally referred to as a compost-bedded pack barn. Its key component is a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings.
300 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 350 kb
Comparing No-Till and Tilled Wheat in Kentucky
Historically, wheat planting in Kentucky has involved tillage. With conventional tillage practices, most residues from the previous crop are cut and buried prior to seeding wheat. No-till wheat planting eliminates tillage and reduces soil erosion, particularly on sloping soils, as well as reducing labor, machinery, and energy costs.
1000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 233 kb
Using Soil Cement on Horse and Livestock Farms
Most farmers in Kentucky can identify with a myriad of problems associated with mud forming around high traffic areas, including areas around horse and cattle waterers, feed bunks, round bale feeders, walk paths and gate entrances. Mud is usually a result of animals congregating in and around these areas, but increased traffic can enhance the problem. In many cases, finding solutions to mud problems on farms is not the issue--the issue is determining how to make solutions economical.
Web only | 4 pages | - | PDF: 329 kb
Riparian Buffers: A Livestock Best Management Practice for Protecting Water Quality
In Kentucky, cattle on pastures are often watered by streams. Although this practice solves water requirements for cattle, providing livestock free access to streams and riparian areas can lead to a contaminated water supply and damaged ecosystems. A better solution is to implement riparian buffers with limited access points to streams or provide alternative water sources. This practice can protect water quality, increase herd production, and provide other landowner benefits. The purpose of this publication is to explain the role of riparian areas and how they can benefit the livestock producer, the herd, and the environment.
200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 721 kb
Options for Controlling Canada Geese
The average Canada goose produces more fecal waste than a dairy cow on a per-weight basis. In addition, gaggles of resident Canada geese have been associated with problems of over grazing. Having large amounts of fecal waste around a riparian area that has limited vegetation can lead to the runoff of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, which can contaminate ponds, lakes, and streams in Kentucky.
200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 140 kb
Equine Emergency and Disaster Preparedness
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 240 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky
Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky.
3500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | PDF: 2000 kb
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky
La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.
1500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | PDF: 5600 kb
Using Dry Lots to Conserve Pastures and Reduce Pollution Potential
300 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 860 kb
Drinking Water Quality Guidelines for Cattle
120 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 300 kb
Composting Horse Muck
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 291 kb
On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities
Animal mortalities are an expected part of animal production. Depending on the scale of the animal enterprise, animal mortalities can overwhelm the producer with a large number and mass of dead animals. This publication provides guidance to the producer for handling animal mortalities in accordance with Kentucky law.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | PDF: 1300 kb
On-Farm Composting of Animal Mortalities
On-farm composting can provide animal producers with a convenient method for disposing of animal mortalities and also provide a valuable soil amendment. In addition, the finished compost can be stockpiled and reused to help compost other mortalities.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,973 words | PDF: 2800 kb
Temporary Fencing for Horse Pastures
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 250 kb
High Traffic Area Pads for Horses
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 348 kb
Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality
Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,749 words | PDF: 485 kb
Goat Production Basics in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 167 kb
Pervious Concrete as a Flooring Material for Horse Handling Areas
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 243 kb
Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2015-2016
Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco.
11000 printed copies | 76 pages | 62,797 words | PDF: 7650 kb
Corn and Soybean Production Calendar
The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur.
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 650 kb
Managing Steep Terrain for Livestock Forage Production
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 417 kb
Managing Livestock Forage for Beef Cattle Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land
2500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 477 kb
Bt Basics for Vegetable Integrated Pest Management
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 655 kb
Growers' Guide to Bt
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 478 kb
Grain Farming Primer for Landowners
2000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 158 kb
Low-Maintenance Lawn Care, Stressing Pest Avoidance and Organic Inputs
This publication is written for those who wish to maintain their lawn with minimal inputs. Low-maintenance lawn care offers certain benefits, such as minimal pesticide use, reduced fertilizer input, less need for irrigation, and reduced mowing frequency. However, when choosing a low-maintenance approach, recognize that the lawn will not offer the same dark green, uniform sward of turf that is seen under a high-maintenance lawn-care program.
2500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 176 kb
Assessing and Preventing Soil Compaction in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 1067 kb
Grazing Corn: an Option for Extending the Grazing Season in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 266 kb
2003 Summary of the Five State Beef Initiative in Kentucky
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 309 kb
Understanding Beef Carcass Data Reports
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 90 kb
2008 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates
Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions.
750 printed copies | 20 pages | - | PDF: 265 kb
Sampling Animal Manure
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 312 kb
Establishing Horse Pastures
Kentucky and surrounding states are known for grass pastures and horses. Pastures supply nutrients, provide hoof support for exercise, control erosion, and add to the aesthetic value of horse farms. The ability to establish and manage horse pastures is therefore important to horse owners.
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 207 kb
Choosing Hay for Horses
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 397 kb
Alfalfa Cubes for Horses
1500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 310 kb
Understanding Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue and Its Effect on Broodmares
1500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 362 kb
A rotational grazing program can generally be defined as use of several pastures, one of which is grazed while the others are rested before being regrazed. Continuous grazing is the use of one pasture for the entire grazing season.
500 printed copies | 16 pages | 9,222 words | PDF: 887 kb
New Recommendations for Perennial Ryegrass Seedings for Kentucky Horse Farms
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 41 kb
Feeding Your Dairy Cows a Total Mixed Ration: Getting Started
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 55 kb
Managing the Total Mixed Ration to Prevent Problems in Dairy Cows
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 93 kb
Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program
Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) is a program developed to ensure that beef and dairy cattle are managed in a manner that will result in safe and wholesome beef and milk products for the consumer. Specifically, BQA is designed to enhance carcass quality by preventing drug residues, injection-site blemishes, and bruises. The Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program is based on recommended national guidelines and scientific research. This program enables beef and dairy producers to enhance their product, maximize marketability, and strengthen consumer confidence.
4000 printed copies | 83 pages | - | HTML: kb
A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky
7500 printed copies | 1 pages | - | PDF: 3 kb
Considerations When Purchasing Hay for a Dairy Milking Herd
1000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 88 kb
Total Quality Assurance Apple Production: Best Management Practices
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 271 kb
No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky
5000 printed copies | 11 pages | - | PDF: 467 kb
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis ("Pinkeye") in Cattle
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as pinkeye, is a costly disease for the beef producer. Tremendous losses stem from poor weight gain and loss of appetite in affected animals suffering from visual impairment and ocular pain.
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,053 words | PDF: 325 kb
Marketing Options for Commercial Vegetable Growers
3000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 598 kb
Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens---2013
Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases.
Web only | 8 pages | 814 words | PDF: 425 kb
Management of Tobacco Float Systems
Web only | 8 pages | - | PDF: 445 kb
Basics for Heating & Cooling Greenhouses
1000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 637 kb
A Cost Comparison of Three 10-Acre Tobacco Transplant Production Systems
1500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 209 kb
Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky
A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.
9000 printed copies | 48 pages | 32,061 words | PDF: 4000 kb
Growing Grapes in Kentucky
3000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | PDF: 238 kb
A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months.
1500 printed copies | 72 pages | - | HTML: kb
Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar
2000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 117 kb
Factors to Consider in Bringing Idle Land Back to Production
5000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 228 kb
Livestock Waste Sampling and Testing
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 128 kb
Fumonisin, Vomitoxin, and Other Mycotoxins in Corn Produced by Fusarium Fungi
750 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 171 kb
Americans with Disabilities Act: Title 3 and Kentucky Agribusinesses
750 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 252 kb
Ornamental Gourd Production in Kentucky
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 281 kb
Roses have many landscape uses. They can be placed as accent plants or used to form hedges or ground covers. They offer a rainbow of colors and a variety of forms and fragrances, and their sizes range from miniatures to tall climbing plants. Roses may be grown under many climatic and soil conditions and, with care, thrive and produce flowers for many years.
2000 printed copies | 16 pages | 7,927 words | PDF: 3331 kb
Poultry Litter Management
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Low Cost Post-Row Field Tobacco Curing Framework
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 202 kb
Managing Commensal Rodent Problems in Kentucky
5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 352 kb
Canola Production and Management
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 200 kb
Winter Cover Crops for Kentucky Gardens and Fields
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 81 kb
Brown Patch Disease
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 10 kb
Extension Education: Conducting Effective Agricultural Demonstrations
425 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 122 kb
Extension Education: Conducting Effective Agricultural Demonstrations Supplemental Material
300 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 132 kb
Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States (and Kentucky) and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,256 words | PDF: 368 kb
The Kentucky Beef Book
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 3 kb
Understanding Produce Marketing for Kentucky's Direct Markets
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 19 kb
Promotion and Advertising for Kentucky's Direct Markets
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 43 kb
Kentucky's Endangered and Threatened Species
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
ProDuction-Oriented Lamb Marketing
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 31 kb
Interpreting Forage Quality Reports
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 170 kb
Understanding Pesticide Labels and Labeling
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 705 kb
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 152 kb
Midwest Tree Fruit Pest Management Handbook
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 3 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops in Kentucky
Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed to reduce their negative impact on the crop, although pests are rarely eliminated.
5000 printed copies | 24 pages | 6,729 words | PDF: 1863 kb
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).
2500 printed copies | 24 pages | - | PDF: 1743 kb
How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.
Web only | 7 pages | 2,439 words | PDF: 6000 kb
Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky
Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides.
Web only | 16 pages | 7,345 words | PDF: 3700 kb
Using Drought-Stressed Corn Harvesting, Storage, Feeding, Pricing and Marketing
7500 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 32 kb
Needle Cast Diseases of Conifers
2000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 302 kb
Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,862 words | PDF: 3130 kb
Transplanting Trees and Shrubs
10000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 1000 kb
Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky
Kentucky is generally well suited for growing nut trees. Northern pecans, black walnuts, heartnuts, hickory nuts, hardy Persian walnuts (Carpathian strain), American hazelnuts, and Chinese chestnuts all grow well in the state. Although most nut trees are grown by hobbyists and backyard gardeners, several varieties appear to have potential for commercial production, particularly some of the USDA pecan selections and some Chinese chestnut varieties.
Web only | 24 pages | - | PDF: 680 kb
Creep Grazing for Beef Calves
20000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Planning Fencing Systems for Intensive Grazing Management
300 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 646 kb
Principles of Home Landscape Fertilizing
4000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 183 kb
Residue Avoidance Program Injection Techniques in Swine
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Residue Avoidance Program Therapeutic Selection in Swine
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
The Flowering Crabapple
5000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 331 kb
The Flowering Dogwood
3000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 262 kb
Residue Avoidance Program Feed AdDitives and Residue Prevention in Swine
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 20 kb
Residue Avoidance Program Feed Handling System
2000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 14 kb
Aflatoxin in Corn
1500 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 321 kb
Swine Confinement Breeding Facilities
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 11 kb
Housing for Pleasure Horses
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 23 kb
Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree's Health
2000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | PDF: 200 kb
What's Wrong with My Taxus?
Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,010 words | PDF: 2300 kb
Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.
Web only | 11 pages | 4,025 words | PDF: 9000 kb
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 25 kb
Packaging and Handling Burley Tobacco in Bales at the Farm
1000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 39 kb
Preparing Burley in Bales
4000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 7 kb
Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers
Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.
3700 printed copies | 134 pages | 106,717 words | PDF: 1500 kb
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 7 kb
Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky
Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.
1000 printed copies | 20 pages | 10,516 words | PDF: 1000 kb
Beef Cattle Corrals and Handling Facilities
20000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 17 kb
Grass Loafing Paddocks for Dairy Cows
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 7 kb
Preventing Storage Rots of Grain
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 9 kb
Some Plants of Kentucky Poisonous to Livestock
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 59 kb
Understanding the Different Produce Safety Programs and Making a Food Safety Plan
Safety of fresh vegetables and fruits is very important because these products are often consumed raw or are minimally processed. For the safety of consumers, farmers who produce our food must know the best practices available to produce, process, handle, and store fresh produce.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,757 words | PDF: 189 kb
Know the Facts: Hazardous Chemicals and Your Body
2000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 377 kb
Hazardous Chemicals and Your Body
Environmental contaminants, such as persistent organic pollutants, may contribute to an increased risk for chronic disease if they occur for long enough or at high enough levels. Research has shown that some hazardous chemicals may even cause the body to be more vulnerable to such medical conditions as cancer, poor immune system response, altered nervous system function, and cardiovascular disease. The good news is that certain dietary strategies may provide a defense for combating the effects of these contaminants while improving your overall health.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,286 words | PDF: 310 kb
Know the Facts Before You Burn
4500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 3057 kb
A Guide to Open Burning
1500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 430 kb
Living Along a Kentucky Stream
Guidelines for maintaining a healthy stream and understanding stream stewardship.
5000 printed copies | 12 pages | 2,565 words | PDF: 6831 kb
Nutrient Management in Kentucky
90000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 278 kb
Consumer Trends: An Overview
1500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 201 kb
Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Building a Base
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 88 kb
Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Vegetables
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 90 kb
Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Fruits
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 89 kb
Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Dairy
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 87 kb
Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Protein Foods
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 91 kb
Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Fats, Oils and Sweets
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 92 kb
Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
3500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 641 kb
Assessment of the Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
1000 printed copies | 18 pages | - | PDF: 794 kb
Guidelines for Public Issues Education
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 311 kb
Fabric Insect Pests: Clothes Moths and Carpet Beetles
3000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 283 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Milking Center Wastewater Treatment
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 149 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Silage Storage
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 158 kb
Ky-A-Syst: LivesTock Yards Management
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 167 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Livestock Waste Storage
2000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 136 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Household Water Treatment
200 printed copies | 16 pages | - | PDF: 174 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Household Waste Management
200 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 138 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Petroleum Product Storage
200 printed copies | 12 pages | - | PDF: 164 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Agricultural Chemical Storage and Handling
4000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | PDF: 187 kb
Ky-A-Syst: Drinking Water Well Condition
2000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | PDF: 168 kb
Making Eggnog at Home
350 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 200 kb
Making Yogurt at Home
800 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 175 kb
Making Cottage Cheese at Home
300 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 8 kb
9000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 63 kb
Reducing the Risk of Food Borne Illness
6000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 18 kb
Indoor Air Quality
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 41 kb
Protecting Kentucky's Groundwater a Grower's Guide
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 19 kb
Food Safety Residues in Animal-Derived Foods
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 24 kb
Food Safety Pesticide Residues in Grains, Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts
300 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Using Activated Carbon Filters to Treat Home Drinking Water
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 50 kb
Summary Sheet Using Activated Carbon Filters to Treat Home Drinking Water
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 22 kb
Drinking Water Standards
7000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 96 kb
Cisterns for Kentucky
15000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 53 kb
Summary Sheet Building a Cistern for Home Water Supply
15000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 9 kb
Testing Private Water Sources
5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 35 kb
Conserving Water at Home
5000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Understanding the Water System
3000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 380 kb
Summary Sheet Understanding the Water System
3000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 247 kb
Trailblazers: Two Case Studies for Community Trails
The following two communities have successfully planned, designed, and implemented trails and greenways in different time lines, contexts and processes. Both projects share a range of trail project features, lessons learned and processes that can be adapted to be suitable for other locations, contexts, communities and cultures whether old or new, urban or rural, or large or small. These communities identified and utilized their natural resources to address potential issues prior to a disruptive event such as a flood or protected natural resources that were up against development pressure. Trail systems and greenway projects can be used to proactively propose alternative solutions that balance human needs with ecosystem processes which benefit both the communities and the larger region.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,863 words | PDF: 1500 kb
Beyond a Path 2: Trail Planning
There are two general ways to begin a trail project in a community. The first method is for the community (client) to hire design or planning professionals such as landscape architects, urban planners or engineers to lead a trail project on behalf of the community. The second way involves a grass roots approach where a community gets the project started and develops the conceptual ideas on their own and then later brings in professionals during the design phase. Regardless of the approach for the initial phase, professionals need to be involved to eventually construct the trail(s) but how much of the process and outcome they influence is ultimately up to the community. For the purpose of this document, we will focus on the second method to help projects get started in the community by the community. Collaboration, coordination and partnerships are essential for the success of a project due to the linearity of trails and complexity of trail systems. The specific outcomes of a trail, its benefits, and costs for the community depend on the specific location, region and potential of the community group as covered in the Beyond a Path 1 publication.
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Beyond a Path 1: Trails as Resource Connections in Your Community
The development of a trail system can help a community improve recreational, travel and health assets and generate revenue. Trail systems or greenways can indirectly have positive effects on adjacent property values and potentially boost economic activities within close proximity. Well developed trails support conservation efforts for wildlife habitat or agricultural land use while also connecting points of interest. Therefore, trails can provide many direct and indirect environmental, social, and economic benefits for communities to strengthen the health of their environment and longer term sustainability.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,076 words | PDF: 200 kb
Technology to Improve Sprayer Accuracy
A number of new technologies have been introduced over the last several years aimed at improving the accuracy of spray application, but do they really work? The purpose of this document is to highlight the most common causes of application errors then discuss the array of new sprayer technologies that are becoming available, how they might affect application accuracy, and pitfalls involved in using them.
500 printed copies | 10 pages | 5,166 words | PDF: 1500 kb
Implementing Precision Agriculture: Connecting a GPS to Other Devices
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 153 kb
Implementing Precision Agriculture: What Will This Investment Cost?
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 106 kb
Elements of Precision Agriculture: GPS Simplified
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 38 kb
Implementing Precision Agriculture: Choosing the Right Lightbar
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 114 kb
Elements of Precision Agriculture: Lightbar Guidance Aids
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 36 kb
Guidelines for Adopting Precision Agricultural Practices
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 85 kb
Elements of PrecIsion Agriculture: Basics of Yield Monitor Installation and Operation
500 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 234 kb
Personal Protective Equipment for Pesticide Applicators
5000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 107 kb
Napiap in Kentucky
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 100 kb
Greenhouse Pesticides and Pesticide Safety
1000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | PDF: 111 kb
Sprayer Nozzles: Selection and Calibration
4000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | PDF: 336 kb
Kentucky's Pesticide Applicator Training and Certification Program
3000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | PDF: 334 kb
Training Manual for Ornamental and Turf Pest Control
2000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | PDF: 933 kb
Applicator Training Manual for Right of Way Vegetation Management
1000 printed copies | 14 pages | - | PDF: 530 kb
Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.
Web only | 16 pages | 9,014 words | PDF: 6113 kb
Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6
Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.
Web only | 24 pages | 5,749 words | PDF: 5000 kb
An Alfalfa Disease Calendar
1500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | PDF: 168 kb
Ear Rot of Corn Caused by Stenocarpella Maydis
1000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | PDF: 183 kb
Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers
All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms.
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Virus Diseases of Corn
500 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 10 kb
Septoria Diseases of Wheat
3500 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 16 kb
Stewart's Wilt of Corn
10000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 6 kb
Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands
Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands.
1000 printed copies | 2 pages | 1,222 words | PDF: 253 kb
Diseases of Grain Sorghum
3000 printed copies | - | - | HTML: 23 kb
Diseases of Concern in Continuous Corn
Although most corn in Kentucky is planted following a rotation to other crops, individual producers are often interested in planting corn following corn. In these situations, one of the main concerns voiced by producers is increased pressure from diseases, and rightfully so. Crop rotation is one of the most fundamental disease control practices available. Rotating to other crops deprives pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) of a food source and exposes them to "starvation." Furthermore, as infested crop residues decompose, pathogens are exposed to antagonism by native soil microbes. These mechanisms have the effect of naturally reducing the populations of many pathogens in the soil.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,434 words | PDF: 233 kb
Seed and Seedling Diseases of Corn
Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system.
Web only | 2 pages | 430 words | PDF: 160 kb
Summertime Foliar Diseases of Alfalfa
Warm, humid weather can favor development of foliar diseases of alfalfa during summer.
Web only | 2 pages | 409 words | PDF: 194 kb
Risk Factors for Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot in Fall-Seeded Alfalfa
Alfalfa seeded during late summer or fall is susceptible to the destructive disease Sclerotinia crown and stem rot. Fall-seeded stands are particularly vulnerable to this disease because the young seedlings have not had sufficient time to develop adequate resistance before infectious spores of the pathogen are produced in late October. In contrast, spring-seeded stands are able to develop larger, more resistant crowns prior to this infectious period. Thus, spring plantings are better able to withstand an attack, should these air-borne spores be present in the field.
Web only | 3 pages | 977 words | PDF: 280 kb
Common Alfalfa Seedling Diseases and Disorders
Alfalfa seedlings are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic problems which can affect establishment. Several of the more common seedling diseases and disorders are described below. This information is being provided as a diagnostic aid; publications which provide specific management and production information can be found in the resource list.
Web only | 2 pages | 639 words | PDF: 115 kb
"Emergency" Inoculation for Poorly Inoculated Legumes
Frequently, stunted and yellowed legumes are thought by growers to be diseased. Close examination often reveals that such "diseased" plants are actually just poorly nodulated.
Web only | 3 pages | 912 words | PDF: 187 kb
Crown Rots of Alfalfa
Crown rots are chronic disease problems of alfalfa throughout the world. Crown rots cause loss of stand and forage yield in several ways. If the crowns are rotted severely enough, infected plants will die simply by being choked off. Carbohydrates for winter survival are stored in the crown and upper taproot. By rotting this area, crown rots also make alfalfa plants more sensitive to winter kill. Some crown rot fungi produce toxins, thus weakening or even killing the plant.
Web only | 2 pages | 565 words | PDF: 239 kb
Alfalfa Diseases Caused by Rhizoctonia Fungi
Rhizoctonia fungi, particularly Rhizoctonia solani, are found in most agricultural soils in Kentucky. These fungi are natural soil inhabitants that colonize and live on dead organic matter. Under the right environmental conditions, the Rhizoctonia organisms are often able to attack living plants, including alfalfa. When warm, wet conditions prevail, Rhizoctonia fungi can cause just about every conceivable type of alfalfa disease.
Web only | 3 pages | 701 words | PDF: 294 kb
Rating Scale for Brown Stripe of Orchardgrass
As of right now, there is little published on how to assess foliar disease severity in forage grasses in order to determine the percentage which may be diseased. This publication provides a tool for visually determining the percentage of diseased foliar tissue in orchardgrass. It is based on the observation of individual leaves; however, it is hoped that eventually a rating system will be devised that provides disease percentages for entire plots.
Web only | 3 pages | 511 words | PDF: 566 kb
Kentucky Plant Disease Management Guide for Forage Legumes
Disease management in forage legumes relies heavily on using disease-resistant varieties and employing sound agronomic practices. It is important to integrate both of these strategies into a comprehensive disease management program. Failure to consider one or the other will compromise the success of your efforts. The appropriate use of pesticides sometimes plays a significant role in managing certain diseases, but it is secondary to sound cultural practices and proper variety selection.
Web only | 7 pages | 2,707 words | PDF: 907 kb
Managing Diseases of Alfalfa
Alfalfa can be a vigorous and productive forage crop for Kentucky farmers. Like all farm crops, however, alfalfa is subject to infectious diseases that can limit forage production. Managing these diseases is an important part of economical alfalfa production.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,658 words | PDF: 756 kb
Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola
nterest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola.
Web only | 2 pages | 697 words | PDF: 600 kb
Brown Spot of Soybean
Brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines, is present in all soybean fields in Kentucky. In most years the disease causes little to no yield impact; however, up to 15% yield losses can occur in select environments. For example, brown sport tends to be worse where soybeans follow no-till soybeans, where early-maturing varieties are planted, and/or when fields are planted in late April. River bottom fields or fields subject to fog or morning shade are frequently impacted.
Web only | 2 pages | 666 words | PDF: 420 kb
Soybean Loss Prediction Tool for Managing Soybean Rust
Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a potentially devastating foliar disease of soybean. The disease was first detected in the Continental United States in the fall of 2004. Since that time, it has caused only sporadic yield losses in the U.S., primarily in the Gulf States. However, the potential still exists for devastating losses to occur in all soybean producing areas of the U.S. should the proper combination of weather conditions come together to support significant disease development by mid-summer. Currently, the only way to avert significant yield loss caused by SBR when disease risk is high is by applying foliar fungicides.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,542 words | PDF: 656 kb
Seed Treatment Fungicides for Soybeans: Issues to Consider
Kentucky soybean producers frequently ask the question "Is it advisable to treat soybean seed with fungicides?" There is no pat answer to this question because of the many variables involved. Historically, soybean has not been treated to the same extent that corn and wheat have in the U.S. There are many good reasons for this, and some of them are discussed below. However, the trend is toward greater use of fungicide seed treatment on soybean, both in Kentucky and nationally.
Web only | 3 pages | 974 words | PDF: 400 kb
Soybean Diseases Control Series: Soybean Cyst Nematode
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) exists virtually everywhere soybean is grown in Kentucky. The pest is insidious in that significant yield damage often occurs without the appearance of visible disease symptoms. This is an extremely important point because it suggests that farmers are frequently unaware that SCN is active and doing damage in a field.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | PDF: 336 kb
Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights
Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,197 words | PDF: 856 kb
Charcoal Rot of Soybean
Charcoal rot is a soil-borne fungal disease that is most evident in soybean plants as they approach maturity. While most fungal diseases of soybean are diminished when hot, dry weather prevails, charcoal rot is favored by these conditions. This disease is also worsened in plants weakened by such conditions as poor soil fertility, excessive seeding rates, soil compaction, and insect damage. Yield can be severely compromised by charcoal rot; however most producers tend to attribute low yields in dry years to the lack of soil moisture. Thus, growers may not realize that charcoal rot has also taken a significant toll.
Web only | 3 pages | 926 words | PDF: 515 kb
Cercospora Leaf Blight in Kentucky
In most years, Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is a minor disease problem in Kentucky soybeans. It is one of the more common "late-season" diseases, but usually comes in too little, too late to cause damage. However, in wet, late seasons like the one we experienced in 2009, significant yield and grain/seed quality losses can occur in fields that develop severe CLB before pod fill has completed.
Web only | 3 pages | 729 words | PDF: 296 kb
Soybean: Early Planting and Disease
Current production trends are resulting in soybean being planted earlier in the spring than has traditionally been the case in Kentucky. For example, late-April planting dates are no longer abnormal in some counties, and very early May planting dates are now commonplace. With this trend towards earlier planting, questions naturally arise about the consequences of this practice on diseases.
Web only | 2 pages | 871 words | PDF: 66 kb
Soybean Rust Fungicide Use Guidelines
Effective use of fungicides to control soybean rust is not very complicated. The whole idea is to wait to spray until the soybean rust risk is at least moderate, and make a fungicide application before significant infection has occurred. This means applying fungicides when plant pathologists in and around Kentucky are "sounding the alarm," but before symptoms are evident. Many soybean producers in the deep South have been using fungicides to control soybean rust since 2005 with considerable success. I believe we will have the same experience if it ever becomes necessary to apply fungicides for soybean rust in Kentucky.
Web only | 2 pages | 407 words | PDF: 473 kb
Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015
SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials.
Web only | 4 pages | 875 words | PDF: 546 kb
Downy Mildew of Soybean
Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust.
Web only | 2 pages | 512 words | PDF: 538 kb
Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean
Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRSR), caused by Phythophthora sojae, is infrequently encountered in Kentucky. However, where it does occur, the disease can be quite destructive. Soon after planting, P. sojae can cause damping-off of germinating seeds and/or young seedlings. Severe stand loss often necessitates replanting. Alternately, this pathogen can infect and kill established plants of susceptible soybean varieties any time during the season. Varieties that have some resistance to P. sojae may be stunted, but rarely die. PRSR is primarily a problem in poorly drained fields (due to high clay content, "hard pan," and/or soil compaction) or areas of fields that are prone to flooding.
Web only | 3 pages | 446 words | PDF: 355 kb
Pre- and Post-emergence Damping-off of Soybean
The push to maximize soybean yields, as well as recent research proving the benefits of early planting, has prompted many soybean producers to considering planting their full season soybean crops earlier than they did a decade ago. Early planting can give a crop many advantages, which often lead to higher yields, as long as a good stand is achieved and attention is paid to pest management.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,100 words | PDF: 488 kb
Southern Blight of Soybeans
Southern blight is a minor disease of soybeans in the United States. Although the disease can occur in plants anytime from emergence through pod fill, it most commonly occurs in isolated plants in the latter stages of reproductive development. Occasionally, southern blight develops when plants are in the early to mid-vegetative stages. When this occurs, the disease may spread rapidly down rows, resulting in serious stand losses in patches. However, even in the worst case scenario, it would be extremely rare for southern blight to cause measurable yield losses in a commercial soybean field.
Web only | 2 pages | 641 words | PDF: 207 kb
Stem Canker of Soybean
Stem canker, a disease that kills plants from midseason to maturity, can be devastating when it occurs at high incidence in a field. Fortunately for Kentucky soybean farmers, stem canker typically occurs as scattered plants or in small groupings of diseased plants; field-wide episodes are rare.
Web only | 3 pages | 925 words | PDF: 1808 kb
Value of Wheat Residue in Soybean Cyst Nematode Management
Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is the most widespread and significant pest of soybean in Kentucky. SCN is managed primarily by rotating fields to non-host crops (such as corn) and using SCN-resistant varieties. However, for a variety of reasons, producers occasionally desire to plant a SCN-susceptible variety.
Web only | 3 pages | 914 words | PDF: 218 kb
Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis
The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,169 words | PDF: 679 kb
The Importance of Scouting Wheat for Plant Diseases
For a variety of reasons, few Kentucky wheat producers place much emphasis on scouting their wheat diseases. Time and labor constraints (for do-it-yourselfers), the cost of hiring a crop consultant, and indifference to the need for scouting rank among the top reasons why this is the case. However, scouting is essential for those interested in managing diseases using an integrated approach.
Web only | 2 pages | 519 words | PDF: 195 kb
Wheat Bacterial Streak
Occasionally, wheat leaves and spikes are invaded by the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. When leaf tissue is affected, the resulting disease is known as bacterial streak. When the bacterium invades the head, the disease is called black chaff. While this disease has primarily been a problem in the lower mid-South, it is often found in Kentucky in fields that have been impacted by strong winds with blowing soil or following a damaging freeze.
Web only | 3 pages | 789 words | PDF: 247 kb
Barley Yellow Dwarf
Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is a virus disease that can cause serious yield loss when stunted and discolored plants are widely distributed in a field. Severe losses due to BYD occur state-wide about every five years or so, but individual fields are impacted to varying degrees each year. There are many diseases that can reduce wheat yields, but in the case of BYD, most of the disease management decisions (such as field selection, tillage practices, variety, and planting date) are made by the time the seed is actually sown in the fall.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,959 words | PDF: 602 kb
Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV)
Wheat spindle streak mosaic (WSSM), also known as wheat yellow mosaic, is a common virus disease that affects only wheat. In most years, WSSM has little to no impact on crops grown in Kentucky. However, significant yield damage can occur in highly susceptible varieties when conditions favor infection and subsequent disease development.
Web only | 3 pages | 765 words | PDF: 308 kb
Fungicide Use in Wheat
Disease management is a key component of high-yielding wheat production. In most years, it simply is not possible to produce high wheat yields without paying attention to disease control. Most diseases are best managed through the use of multiple tactics, both proactive (e.g., crop rotation, delayed and/or staggered planting plates, use of resistant varieties of varying maturities, proper fertility, and application of seed treatment and/or foliar fungicides) and reactive (e.g., application of foliar fungicides and timely harvest). Fungicides are just one tool in the disease management arsenal; however, growers often place too much emphasis on this one tool.
Web only | 8 pages | 3,557 words | PDF: 459 kb
Preplant Decisions Greatly Impact Disease Potential in Wheat
Kentucky wheat producers have a majority of their disease management program in place once the seed is in the ground. By that time, decisions have been made regarding the length of time since the last wheat crop, tillage method and seedbed preparation, variety selection, seed quality, seed treatment, planting date, seeding rate, seeding method, and fall fertility. Individually and collectively, these decisions play an important role in determining which diseases might develop, their severity, and their potential impact on crop yield, test weight, and grain quality. Because pre-plant and planting decisions are so important in the management of wheat diseases, you need to understand how they influence disease development.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | PDF: 413 kb
Black "Sooty" Head Mold of Wheat
Each year, just prior to and during wheat harvest, the Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratories at Princeton and Lexington receive many samples with questions about severe head molding. This condition is known as black head mold or sooty head mold.
Web only | 2 pages | 405 words | PDF: 264 kb
Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) in Kentucky
Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a potentially devastating virus disease of wheat. In the United States, WSM is most prevalent in hard red wheat grown in the central Great Plains region. Soft red winter wheat produced in the mid-south and Midwest is infrequently impacted by WSM. Epidemics are rare in Kentucky with the only recorded ones occurring in 1989 and 2000.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,453 words | PDF: 282 kb
Pythium Root Rot in Tobacco Float Systems
Pythium root rot is the most common disease found in tobacco float beds in Kentucky; it can cause severe losses or delays in transplanting. Damage caused by this disease can be minimized through a combination of sound management practices and timely application of fungicide.
Web only | 3 pages | 673 words | PDF: 883 kb
Managing Target Spot and Rhizoctonia Damping-Off in the Float System
Damping-off and target spot occur each year in Kentucky. They can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings if cloudy, rainy conditions prevail. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both diseases have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,344 words | PDF: 457 kb
Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System
Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky; it causes a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease are rare, but they can occur if care is not taken to minimize the risk of disease development and prevent further spread after it does appear.
Web only | 3 pages | 997 words | PDF: 472 kb
Blackleg of Tobacco
Blackleg becomes a concern whenever Kentucky experiences extended periods of warm, wet, overcast weather in the spring. This disease, also referred to as bacterial soft rot, is one of the most serious problems likely to be encountered on tobacco seedlings. Blackleg has the potential for destroying large numbers of plants in a relatively short period of time. As with other diseases in the float system, proper management goes a long way in preventing problems with blackleg.
Web only | 2 pages | 707 words | PDF: 428 kb
Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management
Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,356 words | PDF: 473 kb
Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2016
The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.
Web only | 6 pages | 1,980 words | PDF: 295 kb
Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot and Eutypa Dieback Diseases of Grape
"Cane and leaf spot" and "Eutypa dieback" were once thought to be the same disease. However, it is now known that each is a distinct disease caused by a different fungus. Grapes grown in areas where a moist environment persists are especially vulnerable to these fungal diseases.
Web only | 2 pages | 631 words | PDF: 183 kb
Kentucky blueberry growers sometimes experience plant and crop losses due to diseases. While most losses are due to root rot, or to stem and twig canker diseases, fruit rots and nutritional problems can also reduce yields. With good crop management, most blueberry diseases can be avoided.
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Grape Crown Gall
Crown gall is a common, devastating grape disease that has been known to result in losses of entire vineyards in Kentucky. Besides grapes, over 600 types of plants are known to be susceptible to crown gall, including apples, stone fruits and brambles.
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Powdery Mildew of Grape
Although dry weather can slow the development of many grape diseases in Kentucky, this is not the case with powdery mildew. This disease can be a serious problem even during periods of drought. Disease losses due to fruit infections can be severe, sometimes resulting in complete loss of the crop. If not controlled on susceptible cultivars, the powdery mildew fungus not only affects fruit yield and quality, but it also reduces vine growth and winter hardiness.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,086 words | PDF: 220 kb
Downy Mildew of Grape
Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury.
Web only | 3 pages | 987 words | PDF: 282 kb
Fruit Rots of Grape
Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot.
Web only | 7 pages | 2,467 words | PDF: 358 kb
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases
This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.
Web only | 3 pages | 885 words | PDF: 398 kb
Black Rot of Grape
Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,272 words | PDF: 555 kb
Anthracnose of Brambles
Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.
Web only | 2 pages | 775 words | PDF: 299 kb
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases
This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,450 words | PDF: 407 kb
Blueberry Root Rot
Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.
Web only | 3 pages | 993 words | PDF: 702 kb
Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides
A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers.
Web only | 3 pages | 599 words | PDF: 427 kb
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry
A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).
Web only | 1 pages | 197 words | PDF: 280 kb
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble
A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).
Web only | 1 pages | 152 words | PDF: 236 kb
Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide
A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).
Web only | 1 pages | 323 words | PDF: 351 kb
Backyard Grape Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,263 words | PDF: 1213 kb
Backyard Berry Disease and Disease Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,260 words | PDF: 1037 kb
Blackberry Rosette (Double Blossom)
Rosette disease, caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi, is a serious and destructive disease of blackberries in most parts of Kentucky. In some locations, growers have been forced out of growing blackberries because of rosette disease.
Web only | 2 pages | 516 words | PDF: 208 kb
Raspberry Fruit Rots
Rainy summer and fall weather in Kentucky can provide ideal conditions for fruit decay diseases of raspberries. The most damaging are the fungal diseases gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and soft rot, or leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.). Both diseases are favored by long periods of wet fruit and foliage, and by high humidity levels. During some parts of the season, fruit rots account for up to 50% loss of potential harvest, and additional losses after harvest.
Web only | 2 pages | 446 words | PDF: 181 kb
Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.
Web only | 3 pages | 815 words | PDF: 293 kb
Orange Rust of Brambles
Orange rust is a disease caused by one of two very similar fungi, Gymnoconia nitens in the Southeast, and Arthuriomyces peckianus in the Midwest. Both fungi, causing the same symptoms, may be active in Kentucky. In Kentucky, orange rust is severe on some wild and cultivated thorny blackberries. It infects black and purple raspberries and thornless blackberries somewhat, but is not known to infect red raspberries.
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Phytophthora Root Rot of Brambles
Brambles that are subjected to wet soil conditions or periods of flooding are often predisposed to Phytophthora root rot. Excess water not only promotes susceptibility of roots to this disease, but also aids the fungus in moving to new infection sites. Phytophthora root rot is primarily a disease of raspberries; however, it can also occur on blackberries.
Web only | 2 pages | 655 words | PDF: 296 kb
Strawberry Fruit Rots
Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky’s typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose.
Web only | 5 pages | 2,025 words | PDF: 274 kb
Poor Fruit Set in Brambles
Poor fruit set and sterility commonly occur on bramble fruits (red raspberries, black raspberries, and blackberries) both in commercial and home plantings. Typically the fruit fails to develop or small misshapen berries form. When an insufficient number of drupelets fully develop, they tend to separate so that the fruit "crumbles" when picked. This symptom, referred to as "crumbly berry," is another common result of poor fruit set.
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Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets
Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.
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Apple Rust Diseases
Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,395 words | PDF: 813 kb
2010 Research and Extension Beef Report
The 2010 Research and Extension Beef Report highlights advances in understanding of basic scientific principles of livestock production as well as applied research from which producers and the industry can benefit. Extension educational programs, on-farm demonstrations, and other activities help transfer this knowledge to producers so they can adopt of management changes as appropriate.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Staggers (Tremorgenic Syndrome)
"Staggers" is an all-inclusive term for a group of nervous system disorders caused by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins produced by various types of fungi on forages. These mycotoxins are collectively known as "tremorgens", and they may be found in several types of grasses at varying stages of maturity.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Ergotism
Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. It grows on rye, wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and various grasses. Rye and triticale are more susceptible than other grains because they require a longer period of pollination. Grasses potentially infected include tall fescue, bluegrass, brome, canarygrass, quackgrass, timothy, wild barley, and annual and perennial ryegrass. Shallow cultivation, no-till farming, and lack of crop rotation increase the likelihood of infection of crops. Environmental conditions of a cool, wet spring followed by hot early summer temperatures are ideal for the fungus to grow.
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Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves
During gestation, the placenta of the cow effectively separates the blood of the fetus from that of the dam and prevents any transfer of protective immunity while in the uterus. Therefore, the calf is born completely dependent on the absorption of maternal antibodies from colostrum after birth. Colostrum is the milk produced from the mammary gland in the first 24 hours after birth. A calf's gastrointestinal tract is designed to temporarily allow the absorption of large molecules including antibodies from the small intestine, but only during the first 24 hours after birth. Although colostrum contains several different types of immunoglobulins, IgG accounts for roughly 85 percent of the total volume. IgG absorption is most efficient in the first four hours of life and declines rapidly after 12 hours of age. At 24 hours, the gut is completely closed and there is no further immunoglobulin absorption. These absorbed antibodies must be consumed in order to protect the calf from disease organisms until its own immune system becomes functional.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,983 words | PDF: 280 kb
Tapeworms in Horses
5000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | PDF: 430 kb
A Health Calendar for Spring-Calving Herds
1000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 89 kb
Club Lamb Fungus Disease
2000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 37 kb
Preventing and Treating Disease in Exhibition Market Animals
5000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 30 kb
Chemical and Drug Residues in Livestock
5000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 34 kb
Brucellosis of Cattle
5000 printed copies | - | - | MS Word: 37 kb
E.I.A. Equine Infectious Anemia
300 printed copies | 2 pages | - | PDF: 107 kb
Controlling Internal Parasites of the Horse
5000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | PDF: 662 kb