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ANR Publications



HO-82
Rootstocks for Kentucky Fruit Trees
10/15/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, John Strang,
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Most fruit trees that can be grown in Kentucky do not come true from seed. For example, a tree grown from a Golden Delicious apple seed will produce an apple tree, but the fruit will have different characteristics than Golden Delicious in color, taste, and shape. This is why fruit trees are reproduced by asexual propagation, such as budding and grafting.

web only | 6 pages | 6,736 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 250 kb



ID-259
Suitable Spaces for Indoor Horse Activities
10/14/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, St
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses

Many horse owners involved in the industry look for an indoor arena in which to work horses regardless of weather. These facilities might be at home or at a community location for many riders to access. The following highlights some common characteristics and requirements of indoor arenas. While these act as minimums, many disciplines and activities may require additional investment in facilities, such as larger dimensions, more lighting, special footing, etc.

150 printed copies | 2 pages | 1,010 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,250 kb



PPFS-GEN-1
Crown Gall
10/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: David Embry, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,044 kb



ID-258
Weaning Beef Calves
9/17/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Les Anderson, Michelle Arnold,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: beef cattle, livestock

Weaning is the process of separating suckling offspring from their dam. Weaning is a management procedure applied by the herd manager. Cattle are herd animals and their gregarious nature can lead to stress as a result of this separation. Managing the weaning process can aid in reducing stress for the animals and livestock managers.

web only | 4 pages | 2,594 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 821 kb



AGR-241
Improved Turfgrass Varieties Can Reduce Your Environmental Impact
8/29/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, turfgrass

Turfgrasses have many benefits, but oftentimes people question if pesticides, fertilizers, and water are justified to sustain a quality turfed area. Although these inputs have long been required to produce thick and dark green turfgrass, some turfgrass breeders have focused on improving the genetics of turfgrasses to produce high quality turf with fewer inputs. Improved turfgrass varieties with increased density, better color, deeper rooting, and improved disease resistance through improved breeding can reduce the overall environmental footprint. Many people select a turfgrass species and variety based on cost, but choosing an improved variety can reduce environment risk and overall maintenance costs in the long-run.

web only | 4 pages | 1,313 words | - | PDF: 4,782 kb



AGR-52
Selecting the Right Grass for Your Kentucky Lawn
8/29/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, turfgrass

The best grass for your lawn is not necessarily the one you like the best, but the one that is best adapted to where you live and will take less work and fewer inputs (water, fertilizer, pesticides). Many people think that since Kentucky is the "Bluegrass State," it's best to grow Kentucky bluegrass across our state. Actually, Kentucky bluegrass is only marginally adapted to our climate and can require more inputs to keep an appealing lawn than some other choices. In general, Kentucky bluegrass can be an option for parts of central and eastern Kentucky, while zoysiagrass may be a better option in western Kentucky. Tall fescue is adapted to the entire state so is a good choice for most locations. Perennial ryegrasses and fine fescues are occasionally useful in different areas of the state, depending on specific conditions.

web only | 7 pages | 2,439 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 4,463 kb



HO-117
Guide to Landscape Appraisal of Tree Species in Kentucky Landscapes
8/26/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, trees

This publication is intended to aid professionals in determining the value of species in Kentucky (the Commonwealth). This valuation method is not appropriate for valuation of shrubs, forest trees, pasture trees, trees being used for income (i.e. orchards, nursery production, Christmas tree production, etc.). It is solely for trees that are an integral part of a formal, managed landscape.

web only | - | 4,100 words | 12 downloads | PDF: kb



ID-253
Species Failure Profile for Trees Common to the Ohio River Valley
8/23/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Tree failures, especially in urban and recreational areas can result in harm to human life and property. While this is rare, it is important to recognize that the environmental and sociological benefits provided by trees significantly outweighs the limited risks presented by trees. This is especially true when defects and species profiles that increase the potential for failure can be observed or detected. Many of these defects are associated with certain species. This is referred to as the species failure profile.

web only | 8 pages | 4,014 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 320 kb



ID-194
Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7
8/22/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jessica Bessin, Rick Durham,
 Departments: Barren County, Bell County, Entomology,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

For those with a green thumb, growing plants may seem easy. However, when plant problems arise, determining the cause of these issues can be difficult. Developing the skills necessary to determine the cause of a plant problem takes experience and time. The steps involved in the diagnostic process first require analysis of information regarding the history of the symptomatic plant and the surrounding area. Plant symptoms and signs provide additional evidence to aid in determination of a possible cause.

web only | 28 pages | 9,487 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



AGR-240
Cover Crop Benefits and Challenges in Kentucky
8/7/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Chad Lee, Hanna Poffenbarger,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops

A cover crop is a plant species that is grown between cash crops primarily to provide cropping system services rather than to produce a harvestable product. Services provided by cover crops include soil health improvement, soil conservation, nutrient release and capture, and weed suppression. However, like any management practice, cover crops also have challenges and limitations. This publication is intended to provide an overview of cover crop use in Kentucky and the challenges and benefits of this practice.

web only | 6 pages | 3,178 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 4,823 kb



FOR-134
Identifying and Mitigating Plant Damage Caused by the Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker
8/7/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Springer
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags: wildlife

Woodpeckers cause various types of damage to plants, trees, and even human structures. There are several species of woodpeckers present in Kentucky, and damage varies with species. One species of woodpecker that creates a rather unique type of damage is the yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varus), which overwinters in Kentucky and then migrates north in spring.

web only | 2 pages | 1,084 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,010 kb



FOR-133
Using Camera Surveys to Estimate White-tailed Deer Populations
8/7/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Jonathan Matthews, Matthew Springer
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

For the past 20 plus years, wildlife biologists have used game camera surveys to estimate population size and health in many wildlife species including white-tailed deer. Population estimates of wildlife populations have historically been conducted through capture-mark-recapture surveys, line-transect surveys, helicopter surveys, and other methods. These methods, while proven accurate, are often costly, time-consuming, and are not readily available to the average landowner. In the 1990s, researchers evaluated the reliability of camera surveys based on proven methods of population estimates. Studies indicated that camera surveys are a reliable method for accurate population estimates of white-tailed deer, and more recent studies have continued to support this method. The simple yet robust method has created a reliable, rather easily implementable tool to the public, allowing them to inventory their deer herds on the properties they own or lease.

web only | 8 pages | 5,409 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 847 kb



PPFS-FR-S-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases
8/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 398 kb



PPFS-FR-T-26
Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,385 kb



PPFS-FR-T-25
Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 986 kb



PPFS-FR-T-24
Bitter Rot of Apple
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

web only | 6 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,492 kb



PPFS-FR-T-2
Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest
8/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 306 kb



ID-257
BerryCare: Protection from Pollution with Phytonutrient-Rich Berries
7/30/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel,
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Pollution in the environment cannot always be avoided. However, eating for good health may help reduce the effects of pollution in the body. Choosing more nutritious foods, such as those high in phytonutrients, may reduce oxidative stress and protect the body from the negative health effects of pollution.

web only | 4 pages | 998 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 2,278 kb



ID-256
BerryCare: When Blackberries and Other Berries are in Season
7/30/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel,
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Blackberries are fresh and in season during the mid summer months. But this does not mean you cannot eat them year round. In addition to buying frozen berries during the winter months, you can also plan ahead and freeze your berries when they're in season. Frozen berries are just as healthy and easy to use as fresh.

web only | 4 pages | 1,042 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,142 kb



ID-255
BerryCare: Building a Blackberry Community
7/30/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel,
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

So you've heard how blackberries are good for your health. Growing blackberry bushes as a garden project can be quite rewarding, especially if you do it as a group. Your local Cooperative Extension Office or non-profit organization may have the perfect place for planting the bushes where berries can be shared with an identified community. With a little sunshine and good drainage, the right variety, and proper blackberry plant care, a group can work towards a successful harvest.

web only | 3 pages | 612 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,870 kb



ID-188
Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure
7/30/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Jeff Lehmkuhler,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, li

Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience.

web only | 4 pages | 2,255 words | 182 downloads | PDF: 737 kb



AEN-134
Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation
7/29/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, li

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area.

web only | 13 pages | 3,500 words | 232 downloads | PDF: 2,550 kb



ASC-243
Managing Dry, Open Ewes
7/25/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron, Don Ely
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, sheep

Ewes on vacation should remain healthy, but not become obese. Keeping them in a BCS of 1.5 to 2.0 will not be an easy chore because all they have to do is graze and deposit body fat. Limiting forage dry matter consumption to 2.0% of body weight daily through stocking rate management and rotational grazing is the best way to keep ewes from becoming excessively fat. If ewes have an optimum BCS at the beginning of nutritional flushing, and are flushed correctly, 95 to 98% of the ewes will conceive in a short period of the breeding season and lambing rate can be increased by 15 to 20% above that of less intensely managed ewes.

550 printed copies | 2 pages | 1,763 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 749 kb



HENV-402
Water Quality and Nutrient Management at Home
7/2/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Gregg Mun
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

Fertilizers and other lawn amendments benefit the residential landscape by providing or supplementing the essential nutrients for plant growth and maintenance. Commercial fertilizers are commonly formulated based on three major nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and each plays an important role in plant development. However, improper application of fertilizers and amendments may increase the risk of non-point source pollution of surface and ground waters.

web only | 4 pages | 2,273 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 381 kb



PPFS-AG-C-9
Curvularia Leaf Spot
7/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Curvularia leaf spot is a corn disease that was reported for the first time in the United States in Louisiana in 2017, and was confirmed in Kentucky in 2018. While the impact of Curvularia leaf spot in Kentucky is not yet known, this disease causes yield loss in tropical areas, and is considered to be one of the most important diseases of corn in China. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and foliar diseases that have similar symptoms.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,779 kb



PPFS-AG-T-5
Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 473 kb



PPFS-FR-S-26
Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 230 kb



PPFS-FR-S-25
Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,037 kb



PPFS-FR-S-24
Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,213 kb



PPFS-FR-S-23
Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 351 kb



PPFS-FR-S-21
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 280 kb



PPFS-FR-S-18
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 407 kb



PPFS-FR-T-23
Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 458 kb



PPFS-FR-T-22
Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 890 kb



PPFS-FR-T-21
Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,013 kb



PPFS-FR-T-20
Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 672 kb



PPFS-FR-T-18
Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 626 kb



PPFS-FR-T-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 385 kb



PPFS-GEN-15
Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger,
 Departments: County Extension, Franklin County, Hardin
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

web only | 6 pages | - | - | PDF: 3,377 kb



PPFS-OR-T-2
Reducing the Risk of Resistance to Fungicides Used to Control Diseases of Turfgrasses
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Fungicides can be an important tactic in an overall integrated program for turf disease control. In order to insure that products available today remain available in the future, golf course superintendents should be aware of the need to use fungicides in ways that minimize the risk of fungicide resistance.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 183 kb



PPFS-VG-11-QF
Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Steve Osborne, K
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Plant Patholog
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 786 kb



PPFS-VG-10
Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 327 kb



PPFS-VG-1
Black Rot of Crucifers
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: David Davis, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Clark County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 227 kb



AEN-141
Maps for Farm Planning
6/18/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Planning and design are critical steps when modernizing a farm to meet the current and future operational needs. Farm renovations and redevelopment must always consider the cost/benefit of changes, while staying consistent with good agricultural practice guidelines that conserve labor and the resources of the farm. The process of developing a farm map will be used to guide producers on the concepts and considerations necessary to make decisions related to planning renovations and developing new infrastructure on the farm.

web only | 4 pages | 1,938 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 1,318 kb



AEN-140
Constructing a Platform Alley Scale System
6/17/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Joshua Jackson
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Most producers would like information on cattle weight to improve management. The widespread use of cattle scales on most farms in Kentucky is limited by the cost of purchasing the equipment. Local cattlemen's associations or extension office's frequently have scale systems to rent or borrow. This has challenges due to scheduling conflicts, reliability, rental fees, or the scale may not align with the handling facility layouts. There are two options for producers to obtain cattle weights--in the alley or at the chute. An alley scale provides the ability to measure cattle weight independent of the head gate or cattle chute. This publication describes the measurement of cattle in the alley leading to a head gate or cattle chute.

web only | 6 pages | 2,822 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 2,904 kb



ID-254
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky
6/11/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, <

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

2,500 printed copies | 36 pages | 9,801 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



HO-123
What Is a Carbon Footprint and How Does It Relate to Landscape Plants?
6/10/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants

Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a product or activity. The objective of this publication is enhance the reader's understanding of carbon footprint (CF) terminology and the science underlying its determination. Having such an understanding is necessary for managers and developers to minimize the negative environmental impacts of new product development and assess positive or negative cradle-to-grave life-cycle impacts. Life cycle assessment has been used to characterize the CF of representative field-grown and container-grown landscape plants.

web only | 5 pages | 2,856 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 450 kb



PPFS-FR-T-14
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases
6/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 401 kb



PPFS-VG-24
Biological Products for Tomato Disease Management
6/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, nursery and landscape, plant

Disease management products with biologically-based active ingredients are often labeled for numerous diseases, but can vary markedly in their efficacy. This Extension publication summarizes factors to consider when choosing biological controls and data available pertaining to tomato disease management efficacy.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 268 kb



AEN-139
Kentucky Wind Directions and Magnitudes: A Tool for Siting Barns
5/13/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Dixon, Morgan Hayes,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Wind is variable in time and space. This is especially true across the state of Kentucky, considering the geographical variety from the Eastern Kentucky mountains to the flatter grain production region in Western Kentucky. In particular, there is a region of potentially variable wind around Cincinnati, near the Ohio River. In trying to account for this variability, monthly wind maps across the state of Kentucky have been developed using the past 30 years of recorded wind data. These data can be used to assist in site evaluations for barns and planning farmstead layouts. Knowing wind speed and direction will help optimize the natural ventilation taking place within agricultural buildings.

web only | 3 pages | 842 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 2,023 kb



HO-122
Go with the Flow: Simple Calculations for Drip Irrigation
5/10/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Brent Rowell
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

While drip irrigation is relatively easy, information about drip irrigation is often more complicated and confusing than it needs to be. Well-meaning professors and engineers use terms like "head" and "flow rate" without explaining exactly what they mean and how they are used. And it's often difficult to get help planning a small farm system in states without large irrigated acreages and irrigation traditions. The purpose of this bulletin is to help farmers understand the simple calculations involved in designing a small drip irrigation system.

web only | 6 pages | 3,172 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 450 kb



CCD-CP-80
Hops
5/3/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is a native herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor, aroma and bitterness to beer.

web only | 6 pages | 2,869 words | - | PDF: 1,900 kb



ASC-242
Composting Poultry Litter in Your Backyard
5/2/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, poultry

Keeping laying hens in the backyard is popular, but along with a daily supply of eggs, the hens also produce a large supply of manure. Fresh poultry manure has an unpleasant odor and will attract flies. Bedding material, such as pine shavings, is put down on the coop floor to help control odors and flies, but eventually the litter (manure and bedding material) needs to be replaced. While poultry manure can be an excellent fertilizer, it should not be used fresh. "Raw" manure can burn plants and may contain pathogens that could contaminate any plants being grown for consumption. Composting makes the manure safe to use as a fertilizer on any lawn or garden. Composting involves a process by which billions of beneficial soil organisms decompose the organic material. Simply piling up waste is not really composting. With the right proportions for materials, the process has minimal offensive odor and destroys most of the pathogens in the manure. Compost is both science and art.

web only | 3 pages | 1,400 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 893 kb



PPFS-OR-T-7
Kentucky Turfgrass Disease Calendar
5/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

A graphic representation showing the times of year that diseases of cool-season grasses are likely.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 161 kb



CCD-MP-17
Grower Cooperatives (Co-ops)
4/25/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

ooperatives have historically been utilized to market wholesale quantities of produce in Kentucky. In the early 2000s, as many as four grower co-ops in Kentucky were actively marketing tomatoes, melons, sweet corn, cabbage, bell peppers, pumpkins and other crops to wholesale buyers. By 2006, however, produce marketing by grower co-ops had largely disappeared from Kentucky's produce industry, with only one co-op still operating as growers found other ways to market produce. The involvement of co-ops in marketing produce from Kentucky has since been limited. Cooperatives remain a potential form of business organization for specialty crop growers located in a similar geographic area. Producers interested in exploring the cooperative business structure can investigate resources available from the Kentucky Center for Agriculture and Rural Development (KCARD), which is recognized by USDA Rural Development as a cooperative development center.

web only | 3 pages | 1,712 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,712 kb



ID-128
Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2019
4/16/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

8,500 printed copies | 48 pages | 32,300 words | 547 downloads | PDF: 4,000 kb



AEN-138
Protecting Pastured Cattle using Windbreaks and Mounds
4/10/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Research shows that cattle benefit from summer shade and winter shelter. Pastured cattle seek shelter around structures, under trees, and in forested streamside zones. These areas are often heavily trafficked and become muddy, compacted loafing areas. Mud creates further stress on cattle and compounds the problems of temperature stress and feed inefficiencies. One option that could be used to lure cattle from these areas and provide winter shelter and summer shade is a constructed windbreak fence on a mound.

web only | 4 pages | 1,875 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 1,795 kb



CCD-CP-77
Bamboo
4/9/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Bamboo is the general name used for a number of perennial, woody-stemmed grasses. Native cane (Arundinaria gigantea), which is commonly referred to as river cane, grows naturally in Kentucky and throughout much of the Southeast. It is one of three bamboo species native to North America. There are more than a hundred introduced species that can be grown in the U.S., with growth habits ranging from low-growing groundcovers to full-sized trees that reach a height of over 30 feet at maturity. Bamboos are well known for their vigorous growth and variety of uses.

web only | 4 pages | 2,012 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



PPFS-FR-S-20
Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags:

A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 427 kb



PPFS-FR-T-19
Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 337 kb



PPFS-GEN-8
Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 431 kb



PPFS-GEN-7
Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 491 kb



PPFS-VG-23
Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 788 kb



PPFS-VG-22
Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 460 kb



PPFS-VG-21
Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 874 kb



PPFS-VG-20
Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 896 kb



PPFS-VG-19
Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 995 kb



CCD-CP-56
Bedding Plants
3/26/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general, the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden or large containers (such as patio pots).

web only | 3 pages | 1,200 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



AGR-239
Calibrating Boom Sprayers for Turf Applications
3/12/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved is too confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. Whereas, over applying can be bad for the environment, damage the grass, and wastes money. There are several methods for calibrating sprayers. Choose the one that makes the most sense to you. Three different methods are described below. All these methods are reliable and will provide very similar application accuracy.

web only | 4 pages | 1,993 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,075 kb



CCD-CP-137
Gourds
3/12/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Gourds, which are related to pumpkins and squash, are generally grown for their hard outer rind. The fruit is dried for fall decorations, handicrafts and functional items. The various types of gourds include hard-shell gourds (Lagenaria spp.; used for dippers, containers and birdhouses), soft-shell gourds (Cucurbita pepo; decorative and ornamental uses), and luffa gourds (their soft interior fiber is used like a sponge).

web only | 3 pages | 1,283 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-OR-W-27
Canker Sampling of Trees and Woody Ornamentals
3/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Cankers on woody plants can result in dieback, decline, structural failure, or plant death. Cankers form when plant pathogens enter woody tissues. Plants stressed by poor planting practices, improper maintenance, extreme weather, insect damage, mechanical damage, or other wounds are at increased risk for infection by canker causing pathogens.

web only | 5 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



AEN-137
Farm Gates: Design Considerations
2/18/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Farm gates are a necessity for controlling traffic and increasing security. There are many design considerations for optimizing a system of farm gates. Very few gates incorporate all the recommended design components that will be discussed in this publication. However, to move people, materials, equipment, and livestock through a gateway, the gateway should economize time, be navigable, and operate in an efficient manner. Time spent operating a poorly designed gateway is time wasted and a hindrance to production. This publication is a guide to aid producers in creating more functional designs for gateways.

web only | 6 pages | 2,558 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 2,500 kb



HENV-204
What is a Watershed?
2/11/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ashley Osborne
 Departments: Ag Programs
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

A watershed is an area of land that drains water to a single water body. Watersheds are as small as a few acres draining into a stream or as large as several states draining into the ocean. Smaller watersheds join together to make larger watersheds. Kentucky is divided into seven major watersheds, or basins. Knowing what watershed you live in is a first step toward protecting water quality.

300 printed copies | 8 pages | 586 words | 78 downloads | PDF: 4,306 kb



HENV-203
Stormwater
2/11/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Ashley Osborne
 Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

As stormwater moves across lawns and paved areas, it picks up bacteria, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals before traveling through the storm sewers to our water bodies. Because the stormwater is not cleaned or treated, it creates harmful conditions for the environment and for us.

300 printed copies | 8 pages | 500 words | 141 downloads | PDF: 3,675 kb



HENV-202
Planting Along Your Stream, Pond, or Lake
2/11/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Ashley Osborne
 Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

Kentucky has more than 90,000 miles of rivers and streams and thousands of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. You can improve your surroundings and the quality of your stream, pond, or lake by planting an area called a riparian buffer or buffer zone.

300 printed copies | 8 pages | 710 words | 146 downloads | PDF: 3,994 kb



ID-242
Central Kentucky Backyard Stream Guide
2/11/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Amanda A. Gumbert,
 Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Many urban homeowners are not sure what to do about the stream in their backyard. Who owns it? How can I take care of it? What plants are good for my streambanks? These common questions lead to some confusing answers. This publication is designed to help the homeowner of a backyard stream appreciate this resource, protect personal property, and improve water quality and habitat.

750 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,530 words | 154 downloads | PDF: 15,699 kb



CCD-CP-2
Apples
2/5/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems.

web only | 4 pages | 1,698 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb



ID-232
Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20
2/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

1 printed copies | 168 pages | - | - | PDF: 3,500 kb



ID-232
Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20
2/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

1 printed copies | 168 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 3,500 kb



CCD-PFS-4
Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA): Produce Safety Rule Agricultural Water, Part 2
1/29/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Bryan Brady, Badrinath Vengari Jagannathan,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Food Connection
 Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-PFS series)
 Tags:

Although the compliance dates for the Produce Safety Rule Agricultural Water have been extended, growers are encouraged to start familiarizing themselves with the process of water sampling. In continuation to Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA): Produce Safety Rule Agricultural Water, Introduction that discussed the different types of water sources, how to calculate a water sample and a brief overview of how to properly take a sample, this paper will explain in detail how and where to take water samples for testing. In addition, it will also provide details on how to read and understand the results of your water test and how to build a water profile. Finally, it will include a list and map with the locations of all labs with approved methods to make compliance as simple as possible.

web only | 5 pages | 1,751 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



AEN-136
Fence Line Stiles, Escapes, and Refuges
1/23/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Michele McHugh,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Opening farm gates for trucks, tractors, equipment, and livestock is unavoidable. However, opening a large gate, or a set of gates, for a person on foot is extremely inefficient, especially if the entrance does not put the producer where they need to be. An inconveniently located gate can lead to additional steps and unnecessary movements. Opening gates may require dealing with clasps, chains, or ropes just to get the gate unfastened. The gate may then have to be lifted or dragged open and closed. The bottom-line is that entering a poorly installed and unmaintained gateway can make the experience of opening and closing gates a time consuming nuisance.

web only | 4 pages | 1,538 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 9,300 kb



CCD-CP-16
Plasticulture Strawberries
1/16/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Fresh strawberries (Fragaria spp.) are a consumer favorite, and growers able to provide the earliest local strawberry crop often have the marketing edge. The annual plasticulture system can produce strawberries in Kentucky about one month sooner than the traditional matted row system. This can give an advantage to growers willing to invest time and resources into annual plasticulture strawberry production, which can either be used as a stand-alone enterprise or as part of a diversified operation. However, plasticulture production requires careful attention to details and involves more risk than matted row production due to earlier fruit ripening and a greater potential for frost losses.

web only | 3 pages | 1,347 words | - | PDF: 696 kb



CCD-CP-9
High Tunnel Blueberries
1/15/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels

web only | 6 pages | 3,333 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



CCD-FS-9
High Tunnel Planting Calendar
1/14/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Josh Knight, Rachel Rudolph
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

This publication was developed to be provided with the High Tunnel Planting Calendar and not meant to be a comprehensive guide to high tunnel production. The reader should consult the Center for Crop Diversification (CCD) Publication titled High Tunnel Overview (CCD-SP-2) for a concise guide on the use and principles of high tunnel production and season extension.

web only | 2 pages | 838 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 858 kb



CCD-IG-3
High Tunnel Planting Calendar (Region 3)
1/10/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Josh Knight, Rachel Rudolph
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Info-graphics: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-IG series)
 Tags:

A calendar to aid high tunnel growers in parts of Eastern Kentucky determine approximate times to direct seed, transplant, and harvest annual crops.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 13,600 kb



CCD-IG-2
High Tunnel Planting Calendar (Region 2)
1/10/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Josh Knight, Rachel Rudolph
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Info-graphics: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-IG series)
 Tags:

A calendar to aid high tunnel growers in Central and parts of Eastern and Southeastern Kentucky determine approximate times to direct seed, transplant, and harvest annual crops.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 13,300 kb



CCD-IG-1
High Tunnel Planting Calendar (Region 1)
1/10/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Josh Knight, Rachel Rudolph
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Info-graphics: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-IG series)
 Tags:

A calendar to aid high tunnel growers in Western and far Eastern Kentucky determine approximate times to direct seed, transplant, and harvest annual crops.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 14,600 kb



4NB-01LO
4-H Bee Ambassador Program
1/8/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Blake Newton, Ashley Osborne
 Departments: Ag Programs, Entomology
 Series: 4-H Insects (4NB series)
 Tags:

The 4-H Bee Ambassador Program addresses key concepts related to bees, pollination, beekeeping, and honey. Kentucky 4-H agents, assistants, and volunteer leaders are encouraged to incorporate lessons and activities related to bees and honey in their clubs, school enrichment programs, and community outreach events. Twelve lessons are included in this guide, each are geared towards youth ages 9 to 18 years old.

web only | 80 pages | - | 15 downloads | PDF: 4,620 kb



CCD-CP-74
Turfgrass Sod Production
1/2/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sod production involves growing a solid stand of high quality turfgrass and then harvesting the grass along with roots and a thin layer of topsoil. Many sod producers also transport and install the sod. The primary markets for sod are landscapers and building contractors. Sod is used in parks, golf courses, athletic fields, schools, garden centers, home lawns, road construction sites, commercial properties, and cemeteries. The 2014 USDA Census of Horticultural Specialties reported slightly less than 1,000 acres of sod harvested in Kentucky. The value of sod sales in Kentucky was split almost evenly between wholesale and retail sales.

web only | 3 pages | 1,109 words | - | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPFS-FR-T-7
Plant Diseases of Fruit Prediction Models for Kentucky Counties
1/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Evan Tate,
 Departments: Hancock County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Numerous plant diseases impact fruit crops throughout Kentucky. Factors such as plant growth stage, as well as rainfall, temperature, and other weather conditions, can be used to determine risk for plant disease. Prediction models are critical tools for growers, as they allow for protective management strategies to be deployed when disease risk is high. Use of these models can provide growers with cost savings, as unnecessary chemical applications are eliminated when risk of infection is low.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,586 kb



ID-252
Equine Cushing's Disease or PPID
12/18/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda Adams, Fernanda Camargo,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is one of the most common endocrine diseases in horses, generally affecting those over the age of 15 years. It is also frequently referred to as Equine Cushing's Disease. PPID is caused by degenerative changes in an area of the brain known as the pituitary gland, hence the name of the disease. This gland is located at the base of the brain. In horses with PPID, the specific section of the pituitary gland that is most affected is called the pars intermedia. Unfortunately, in horses with PPID, changes occur within this gland, which results in increased production of a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,250 kb



CCD-CP-136
Organic Cucurbits
12/13/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Cucurbits, vegetables in the family Cucurbitacae, include cucumber, pumpkin, squash, muskmelon and watermelon. Certified organic cucurbits are produced without using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, according to organic crop production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). For more information on the exact requirements to be organic certified in Kentucky, please visit the Kentucky Department of Agriculture website. Growers commercially producing cucurbits in Kentucky's climate must manage key insect pests such as cucumber beetle and squash bug as well as economically important diseases such as bacterial wilt, cucurbit yellow vine decline, powdery mildew, and downy mildew. This profile provides an overview of organic cucurbit production in Kentucky, including market demand potential, key production considerations, and baseline economics

web only | 5 pages | 2,091 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,091 kb



CCD-CP-114
Pumpkins
12/10/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The name "pumpkin" is commonly applied to any plant in the taxonomically diverse Cucurbita genus that produces the characteristic yellow to orange, round fruit. Pumpkin cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata and C. mixta.

web only | 3 pages | 1,250 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb



ASC-238
Beginning a Sheep Operation
12/7/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron, Don Ely
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, sheep

Kentucky has the resources required for successful sheep production systems. The state has a vast forage production potential, under-utilized labor and facilities, and access to a well-established market. Many Kentucky farmers should consider the sheep enterprise and its benefits, particularly if they want to make more efficient use of their forages, labor, and facilities. In developing this enterprise, the following must be considered: feed supply, labor, facilities and equipment, foundation stock, and the production system.

50 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,595 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 675 kb



ASC-237
Breeding Habits of the Ewe
12/7/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron, Don Ely
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, sheep

Reproduction is the beginning of a series of significant events involved in the production of lambs for market. Obviously, the higher the reproduction rate in ewes, the greater the chances of achieving maximum profit. A knowledge of the mating (breeding) habits of the ewe can improve the chances for higher reproductive rates, marketing more pounds of lamb per ewe, increasing the efficiency of labor use, and ultimately increasing the chances of greater profit.

50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,775 words | - | PDF: 700 kb



ASC-241
Urban Poultry
12/4/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, poultry

The terms urban poultry and backyard poultry both refer to flocks kept on a residential lot. Keeping chickens in urban areas is becoming increasingly popular throughout the country. The main reasons given for keeping chickens are as pets and for egg production--pets with benefits. Small numbers of hens kept in the backyard can provide an urban family with entertainment, eggs, and fertilizer. For those with children, backyard poultry flocks can also teach them responsibility and be used for 4-H poultry projects.

web only | 6 pages | 4,608 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 2,240 kb



CCD-CP-19
Strawberries
12/4/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

To many, nothing says summer like the first local ripe strawberries of the season. A versatile fruit, strawberries (Fragaria spp.) can be consumed fresh, frozen or in processed foods. Growers able to provide the earliest crop of these popular berries will often have the marketing edge

web only | 3 pages | 1,384 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



ID-160
Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2019-2020
12/4/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Andy Bailey, Ric Bessin, Lowell
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, tobacco

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco.

6,000 printed copies | 84 pages | 68,090 words | 211 downloads | PDF: 4,150 kb



ID-196
UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2019
11/26/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Shane Bogle, Fernanda Camargo,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Ballard County,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses

The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.

2,400 printed copies | 32 pages | 5,598 words | - | PDF: 12,000 kb



CCD-CP-125
Watermelon
11/19/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Shubin Saha
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture,
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a warm-season crop in the Cucurbit family. Watermelons are grown across the state, including larger areas in Casey County, Lincoln County, Hart County, Allen County and Daviess County. Kentucky farms annually harvest more than 1,000 watermelon acres, the Commonwealth's second largest fresh market vegetable by area.

web only | 4 pages | 1,439 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



CCD-CP-15
Peaches
11/15/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors:
 Departments:
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected.

web only | 3 pages | 1,497 words | - | PDF: 1,487 kb



AGR-238
Establishing and Managing Bermudagrasses in the Transition Zone
11/12/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Bermudagrasses have been successfully grown on athletic fields and golf courses in the transition zone for many years. Although each year some level of winterkill threat exists, bermudagrass remains an excellent surface for golf and sports. Seeded varieties of bermudagrasses have been the most common choices in Kentucky due to the availability of seed of good varieties as well as the ease of planting seed versus living plant material. There are, however, several outstanding vegetative bermudagrass cultivars that are adapted to the transition zone.

web only | 3 pages | 1,842 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 900 kb



ASC-240
Blanketing Horses: Do's and Don'ts
11/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses

Blanketing can be a hot-button topic among horse owners and caretakers. Some people are adamant about blanketing and some people are the exact opposite: unyielding about not-blanketing their horses in the winter. So the question remains, do horses NEED to be blanketed when the weather turns cold?

web only | 5 pages | 2,850 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb



AGR-6
Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2019
10/31/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green, Travis Legleiter
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.

3,200 printed copies | 140 pages | - | 102 downloads | PDF: 2,254 kb



CCD-MP-9
Marketing Organic Produce
10/26/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

This fact sheet summarizes concerns for Kentucky produce growers that are interested in beginning or expanding the marketing of organic produce. It is intended only as a starting point; further information will be found through various university and government resources and by consulting with experienced growers of organic produce.

web only | 5 pages | 1,922 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb



ASC-239
Warm Up Ring Etiquette
10/24/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses

While it is understood that the warm up ring is a chaotic place to be, warm up ring etiquette should be expected at every show, and taught in every lesson program. A good warm up is extremely important for the health of the horse, and it helps the rider and horse to get acclimated with the new environment. So in the name of having a more productive ride both in the warm up ring and then later in the show ring, there are some rules (sometimes untold rules) that everyone should follow.

web only | 2 pages | 1,213 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 210 kb



ID-235
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
10/17/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Jo
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, hi

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 5,200 words | 81 downloads | PDF: 1,938 kb



CCD-CP-73
Ornamental Grasses
9/26/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors:
 Departments:
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery.

web only | 3 pages | 1,324 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb



ID-251
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky
9/13/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, C
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, <

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

2,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,827 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 2,500 kb



CCD-CP-5
Elderberry
9/12/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit.

web only | 4 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-121
Summer Squash
9/10/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining.

web only | 3 pages | 1,057 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-MP-24
Selected Internet Resources for Herb Marketing
9/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

This list of internet resources has been selected for the benefit of Kentucky commercial producers wanting to learn more about marketing herbs. The broad definition for herbs (herbaceous plants valued for their flavor, scent or medicinal properties) was used in gathering this information. These online resources are provided strictly for informative purposes only; the list does not constitute endorsement of herbal uses, products, businesses or cultural recommendations for herb production. Producers should always research herb production, uses and markets on their own before beginning production.

web only | 4 pages | 904 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 630 kb



PPFS-AG-C-8
Diplodia Leaf Streak
9/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diplodia leaf streak of corn is a disease that has become more prevalent in Kentucky in recent years. It is commonly observed in fields in western Kentucky and is easily confused with other corn foliar diseases. Small, round, dark brown-to-tan lesions are first observed on leaves. Dark concentric rings may be observed in the center of early lesions at the infection site on the leaf. These lesions expand lengthwise in long streaks from the infection point and form elongated elliptical lesions. In severe cases, lesions can coalesce to blight large areas of affected leaves.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: kb



FOR-132
A Start-Up Guide for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
8/31/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags: forestry, natural resources, timber

Step-by-step procedures so you can keep your dry kiln operation well-organized and running properly.

web only | 12 pages | 4,434 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,900 kb



FOR-131
A Checklist for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
8/31/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags: forestry, natural resources, timber

Drying air-dried hardwood lumber to the finished moisture content (MC) requires care and attention, but it's not difficult. This document describes the steps a kiln operator should follow to get the best lumber from his/her air-dried material. It will probably be most useful for operators of small kilns, but the principles are the same regardless of kiln size or type of kiln.

web only | 12 pages | 4,430 words | - | PDF: 2,400 kb



CCD-CP-98
Field-grown Tomatoes
8/3/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price.

web only | 3 pages | 1,268 words | - | PDF: 861 kb



PPFS-GEN-16
Southern Blight
8/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Southern blight affects hundreds of different plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals, and fruit. This disease is also known as southern stem blight, basal stem rot, Sclerotium blight, crown rot, and white mold (not to be confused with Sclerotinia white mold). Depending on host plant, production system, and environmental conditions, the severity of this disease can vary from a minor problem on isolated plants to extensive damage causing significant crop losses.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: kb



PPFS-OR-W-20
Boxwood Blight
8/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Boxwood blight is a disease of boxwood (Buxus spp.), causing rapid defoliation and plant dieback. The fungal disease is particularly devastating to American boxwood cultivars, which can defoliate within a week and die within one growing season. Plants are eventually weakened by repeated defoliation and dieback, and resulting plant stress and consequent colonization by secondary invaders result in plant death.

web only | 5 pages | 1,000 words | - | PDF: 1,440 kb



CCD-CP-14
Pawpaw
7/31/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort.

web only | 3 pages | 1,320 words | - | PDF: 778 kb



CCD-CP-3
Asian and European Pears
7/31/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears.

web only | 3 pages | 1,247 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb



CCD-CP-135
Figs
7/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape

Figs are harvested for both fresh consumption and processing. There are three main types of cultivated Ficus carica: Common, San Pedro and Smyrna. Common figs produce fruit parenthocarpically, without any pollination. Smyrna figs require pollen transfer from male trees that produce small caprifigs for fruit growth. Pollen transfer is obtained by the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.), a species unable to survive the southern U.S. winter temperatures. San Pedro figs are intermediate between the two; a minor summer "breba" crop will set without fertilization but the later main crop requires pollination by the fig wasp. The common fig is the only type suggested for cultivation in the southern U.S.

web only | 3 pages | 1,224 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-133
Heirloom Beans
7/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Heirloom beans are vintage varieties of the warm-season crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) that have been handed down from generation to generation. There is a long tradition of saving bean seed in Appalachia, and heirloom beans are sought by customers at Kentucky farmers markets. Heirloom bean varieties, often named after particular areas or families, appeal to buyers because of both taste characteristics and cultural heritage.

web only | 3 pages | 1,410 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb



ID-250
An Introduction to Industrial Hemp and Hemp Agronomy
7/20/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Rich Mundell, David Williams
 Departments: KTRDC, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Cannabis sativa is a summer annual plant that is strongly photoperiod-sensitive (flowers according to day length/photoperiod; not physiological maturity). It is mostly dioecious in that male and female flowers occur on separate plants (i.e. there are both male plants and female plants). However, there are also several monoecious commercial varieties (male and female flower parts on the same plant). Different plant parts are harvested for specific purposes, and modern day hemp may be produced for one or more purposes. Depending on the harvestable component of interest, (i.e. fiber, grain or cannabinoids) male plants and/or pollen might be vitally necessary or completely unwanted.

web only | 6 pages | 3,294 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 3,173 kb



CCD-CP-122
Sweet Corn
7/18/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content.

web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-123
Sweet Potato
7/16/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The terms "sweet potato" and "yam" are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools.

web only | 3 pages | 1,423 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 810 kb



AEC-101
Days Suitable for Fieldwork in Kentucky
7/2/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Tyler Mark, Jordan Shockley
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Agricultural Economics (AEC series)
 Tags:

Weather risk plays a unique role and influences many decisions made on the farm. Weather determines when you can get into the field and your ability to perform timely operations such as planting, fertilizing, spraying, and harvesting. Delays from weather events of time sensitive operations will result in substantial yield and economic losses. Therefore, having an expectation of the number of days suitable for fieldwork will allow producers to size farm machinery to mitigate such yield losses appropriately.

web only | 6 pages | 1,603 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 857 kb



CCD-CP-134
Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky
6/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth.

web only | 4 pages | 1,676 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



HO-121
Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Consumers and Communities
6/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

This publication is intended to assist consumers and community groups in learning about the value of landscape plants. Landscape plants play an important role in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home. Further, there is a growing body of scientific literature evaluating the critical role of trees in landscaping within urban and suburban environments like residential neighborhoods, commercial/industrial areas, and associated green infrastructure like park systems and green belts. One useful tool for articulating the functions landscape plants perform for us is the concept of ecosystem services.

web only | 10 pages | 3,703 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 2,480 kb



CCD-CP-4
Blackberries
6/18/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort.

web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-CP-57
Greenhouse Tomatoes
6/12/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, gre

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise.

web only | 4 pages | 1,415 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



ID-249
A Comprehensive Guide to Soybean Management in Kentucky
6/7/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Bradley, J.D. G
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans

This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky.

2,500 printed copies | 84 pages | 44,074 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 38,987 kb



CCD-CP-132
Heirloom Tomatoes
6/6/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most popular of heirloom vegetables, which are vintage varieties preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. Heirloom tomato purchases grew in popularity as consumers sought flavorful, historic varieties. Many heirloom tomato varieties have unique coloration and appearance, but poor shipping characteristics, giving heirloom tomatoes an advantage for local sales.

web only | 3 pages | 1,825 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-10
Jujube and Aronia
6/6/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale.

web only | 4 pages | 2,168 words | - | PDF: 832 kb



CCD-PFS-3
Dehydrating Fruits and Vegetables for Home Use
6/6/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Felix Akharume, Michael Montross,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-PFS series)
 Tags: food and nutrition, food science, fruits,

Many farm-harvested or market-purchased fresh fruits and vegetables are consumed fresh or frozen, with little to none utilized as dry products; in general, dried fruits and vegetables are purchased directly from the market whenever needed. With the wide availability of tabletop kitchen equipment for fruit and vegetable processing (mechanical cutters, slicers, homemade dehydrators, blenders, etc.), consumers and small farmers with excess harvest or unsold fresh products can take the opportunity to process their fresh fruits and vegetables into dried snacks for direct use or sale at a farmer's market. The advantage of these dried products is their stable shelf life, versatility, and overall value addition. Dried products can be used at any time (6-12 months) with little or no loss in quality and can be used as intermediate goods in other products such as breakfast cereals. This publication presents easy-to-follow guidelines and conditions for processing selected fruits and vegetables into dried products.

web only | 8 pages | 3,748 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 693 kb



CCD-PFS-2
Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA): Produce Safety Rule Agricultural Water, Introduction
6/6/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Bryan Brady, Badrinath Vengari Jagannathan,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Food Connection
 Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-PFS series)
 Tags:

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law in 2011 with the goal of preventing food safety problems. The FSMA Produce Safety Rule (PSR) is the first mandatory federal standard for fruit and vegetable production in the United States. Prior to FSMA, growers, packers, and the produce industry were encouraged to follow voluntary guidance such as the FDA's 1998 "Guide to Minimize Food Safety Hazard for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables." The FDA has very detailed guidelines for handling produce when it might touch water or a surface that is wet. Water in this situation would be called agricultural water. There are two kinds of agricultural water: water used to grow and care for the plants (production water) and water used to wash the produce during harvest and after it is state or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

web only | 5 pages | 2,390 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 920 kb



CCD-CP-87
Bell Peppers
5/17/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers.

web only | 3 pages | 1,530 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-88
Broccoli
5/15/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.

web only | 3 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 786 kb



CCD-CP-104
Microgreens
5/8/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish.

web only | 3 pages | 1,340 words | - | PDF: 819 kb



CCD-CP-102
Kohlrabi
5/7/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is a cool-season annual cole crop that is related to broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Kohlrabi originated in northern Europe in the 16th century. It forms a round globe just above the soil line with leaves emerging in a spiral from the stem. The edible portion is actually an enlarged stem, not root tissue. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw or cooked. In flavor, it is like a mild, sweet broccoli stem or turnip. Once the thick skin is peeled off, the crisp flesh can be eaten like a carrot often with a dip or in salads. It can be boiled, braised, used in soups and stews, made into home fries and even pies. In Kentucky, kohlrabi does well in the spring but is best as a fall crop.

web only | 3 pages | 981 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb



CCD-FS-2
What to Think About Before You Plant: Marketing Considerations for Kentucky Specialty Crop Growers
5/3/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

This publication poses questions that can benefit farmers who are considering planting a new crop. The publication is divided into the following six sections, with the majority of the content focused in the first two: 1) Market options by size and scale of production, 2) Conducting basic market research, 3) Certifications, 4) Insurance and risk management, 5) Management and labor needs, and 6) Resources needed beyond the field or garden.

web only | 11 pages | 3,898 words | - | PDF: 8,700 kb



AGR-148
Weed Control in Alfalfa and Other Forage Legume Crops
4/23/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green, Travis Legleiter
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, weeds

The importance of weed control in forage production should not be overlooked, especially when you consider the high investment associated with alfalfa and other legume forages. Weeds reduce forage yield by competing for water, sunlight, and nutrients. In addition to yield losses, weeds can also lower forage quality, increase the incidence of disease and insect problems, cause premature stand loss, and create harvesting problems. Some weeds are unpalatable to livestock or, in some cases, may be poisonous.

web only | 12 pages | 7,240 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 528 kb



CCD-CP-113
Potatoes
4/17/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,411 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-CP-101
Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers
4/13/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color.

web only | 5 pages | 2,445 words | - | PDF: 823 kb



CCD-CP-70
Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
4/9/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

web only | 3 pages | 1,594 words | - | PDF: 729 kb



PPFS-AG-T-8
Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2018
4/1/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors:
 Departments:
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 295,340 kb



AGR-175
Forage Identification and Use Guide
3/28/2018 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Jimmy Henning,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. They provide most of the feed for beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and wildlife. In addition, forage crops play a critical role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. The purpose of this publication is to provide both agronomic and identification information on several forage grasses and legumes.

2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 3,500 words | 122 downloads | PDF: 9,100 kb



CCD-CP-106
Okra
3/20/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled.

web only | 2 pages | 799 words | - | PDF: 762 kb



AGR-236
Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands
3/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Dixon, Jimmy Henning,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Wide fluctuations in springtime temperature are common in Kentucky. Late freezing temperatures in the spring can cause damage to alfalfa depending on how far along it is in breaking dormancy. This publication provides information on the effect of low spring temperatures on both established and new alfalfa stands that have begun growth, as well as a method of predicting sensitivity to late frosts or freezes.

web only | 3 pages | 2,110 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 2,397 kb



CCD-CP-91
Cauliflower
3/15/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases.

web only | 2 pages | 844 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-SP-9
Starting a Nursery Business
3/14/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success.

web only | 5 pages | 2,442 words | - | PDF: 860 kb



CCD-CP-129
Pecans
3/7/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, nuts

The pecan and Eastern black walnut are Kentucky's most significant nut crops. Commercial pecan plantings are located near Paducah and Henderson, and native pecan groves have long been harvested near the Mississippi River. Only northern pecan cultivars are recommended for cultivation in Kentucky, as the state's usual growing season is not long enough for southern pecan varieties to mature. The established popularity of pecans with consumers could offer potential for producers willing to carefully establish pecan plantings on appropriate sites.

web only | 4 pages | 1,891 words | - | PDF: 647 kb



AGR-235
Baleage: Frequently Asked Questions
3/5/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Mike Collins, Dennis Hancock,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, other

Baled silage, or "baleage", is an excellent method for forage harvest, storage and feed efficiency. Baled silage allows forage to be harvested at higher whole plant moisture levels than required for dry hay. Baleage is ideal for spring cuttings of annual and perennial forages when seasonally frequent rainfall events provide little opportunity for properly curing dry hay. Many producers who want to harvest high quality small grain crops have found baleage to be a good fit for their operation.

web only | 4 pages | 2,625 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 145 kb



AGR-229
Warm Season Annual Grasses in Kentucky
3/5/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

In Kentucky, cool-season grasses produce ample forage in the spring and fall, but high temperatures and short-term drought stress often limits growth during the summer months. Warm-season annual grasses can fill this gap with relatively high quality forage when properly managed. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of the various summer annuals for Kentucky.

2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,032 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 1,316 kb



AGR-206
Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15
3/5/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, A.J. Powell
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, turfgrass

Turf is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface. Quality lawns greatly increase the economic and sociological value of urban homes. They beautify and reduce the often harsh urban environment by decreasing noise, glare, heat, dust, and mud. Lawns and other recreational turf areas are an integral part of our daily activities.

web only | 22 pages | 12,270 words | 88 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



AGR-237
Grass Options for Athletic Fields in the Transition Zone
3/2/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Mundell
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

There are several grasses that will grow in the transition zone, but none all that well. Our summers are often too hot for cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and our winters are often too cold for warm-season grasses like bermudagrass. Keep in mind, however, that the problem with most poor athletic fields is not grass selection, but rather over use, lack of maintenance, and/or use when field is wet or cannot recover.

web only | 3 pages | 1,626 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 2,320 kb



CCD-CP-96
Ethnic Vegetables: Asian
3/2/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky.

web only | 5 pages | 1,967 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



PPFS-AG-T-3
Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky, causing a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease tend to be rare but can occur if care is not taken to minimize risk of disease development and reduce spread after it appears.

web only | 3 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 666 kb



PPFS-AG-T-2
Managing Rhizoctonia Damping-off and Target Spot in the Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Damping-off and target spot occur each year in tobacco transplant crops in Kentucky. These diseases can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 727 kb



CCD-FS-8
Organic Regulations and Resources
2/28/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

Two challenges for beginning organic crop production are meeting certified organic requirements and sourcing crop inputs that are approved for organic use. This fact sheet will summarize key considerations for meeting these challenges and list important sources of additional information for a producer interested in evaluating the feasibility of organic production on his or her farm.

web only | 4 pages | 1,305 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



ASC-236
Molting Small-Scale Commercial Egg Flocks in Kentucky
2/27/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, poultry

Molting is a common event in the annual life cycle of most avian species. Each year chickens lose feathers and grow new ones, and this occurs in both wild and domestic birds. During molt, laying hens go out of egg production and feathers are replaced. Molting, regardless of what stimulates it, is more than just the replacement of the plumage. Hormonal and physiological changes occur as well.

web only | 2 pages | 1,077 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 280 kb



CCD-MP-4
Roadside Farm Markets
2/23/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

A roadside farm market is sometimes distinguished from a roadside stand by location and hours. The term "roadside farm market" can refer to those markets located in permanent facilities at the farm or food manufacturing location; they are typically open most of the year. Roadside stand, by contrast, is a more general term referring to those markets that may be located off the farm and are seasonal in operation.

web only | 4 pages | 1,757 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb



AGR-234
Sudangrass and Sorghum-sudangrass Hybrids
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are developed by crossing sorghum with true sudangrass. The result is an annual grass that resembles sudangrass, but has coarser stems, taller growth habit, and higher yields. Like sudangrass, hybrids will regrow after grazing if growth is not limited by environmental factors. The coarse stems are difficult to cure as dry hay, therefore these grasses are best utilized for grazing, chopped silage and baleage.

web only | 2 pages | 999 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 785 kb



AGR-233
Foxtail Millet
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Foxtail millet (German millet) is a fine-stemmed summer annual used mainly for emergency hay or pasture for cattle. It is the lowest yielding of the summer annual grasses since it will not regrow after cutting. It can also be used as a smoother crop when transitioning to other perennial forage crops. Foxtail millet is also commonly used for wildlife plantings to produce food and cover for doves, quail, and other birds.

web only | 2 pages | 665 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 960 kb



AGR-232
Crabgrass
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Crabgrass possesses significant potential for supplying high quality summer forage although it is considered a weed by many. A primary advantage of crabgrass is that it is well adapted to Kentucky and occurs naturally in most summer pastures, especially those that have been overgrazed. It is also highly palatable and a prolific re-seeder. Planting an improved variety of crabgrass is recommended because the production of naturally-occurring ecotypes varies greatly. Crabgrass is best utilized by grazing.

web only | 2 pages | 803 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 428 kb



AGR-231
Pearl Millet
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

The primary benefits of pearl millet are that it does not contain prussic acid and is not susceptible to the sugarcane aphid. Dwarf varieties are available, which are leafier and better suited for grazing.

web only | 2 pages | 681 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,183 kb



AGR-230
Forage Sorghum
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Forage sorghum is the tallest of the summer annuals, reaching 6 to 15 feet in height and is best harvested as silage. Taller varieties produce high forage yield but can lodge, making them difficult to harvest mechanically. Some varieties have been developed that are shorter with increased resistance to lodging. Forage sorghums, like corn, are harvested once per season by direct chopping. While forage sorghum yields are similar to corn, they are lower in energy. The primary advantage of utilizing sorghum for silage production is its greater drought tolerance.

web only | 2 pages | 926 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 567 kb



PPFS-AG-F-10
Possible Causes of Yellowing Alfalfa
2/16/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Chris Teutsch, Paul Vincelli,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

During spring, several leaf spotting diseases--including Leptosphaerulina (Lepto) leaf spot and spring black stem/leaf spot--are common in alfalfa. Leaf spotting diseases result in distinct round to elongated spots that sometimes have a dark margin. Very wet weather in spring and early summer favor activity of leaf spotting diseases in first and second cuttings. Wet and humid weather during summer favor other leaf spotting and blighting diseases. All leaf spots and blights weaken plants, but alfalfa often outgrows the damage in later cuttings. Maintain a regular cutting schedule, cutting at 30- to 35-day intervals.

web only | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 754 kb



CCD-MP-20
Marketing Fresh Produce to Food Retailers (Grocery Stores)
2/1/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The food retail industry saw a renaissance of interest in local and regional sourcing of fresh fruits and vegetables during the 2000s. This interest came within an industry characterized by heavy investment in fewer and larger centralized distribution centers. Although the distribution center model remains prominent within the food retail industry, some retailers have created flexibility within their distribution models to answer consumer demand for local produce. Large retailers are also finding transportation and distribution cost savings by sourcing fresh produce items from new or expanding producers. Smaller chains and local grocers remain potential markets for fresh produce growers expanding to wholesale volumes. Producers of value-added produce products may also find local groceries a possible market for their product.

web only | 4 pages | 1,737 words | - | PDF: 3,000 kb



PPFS-AG-C-7
Physoderma Brown Spot
2/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Brenda Kennedy,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management.

web only | 2 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 743 kb



ENT-68
Insects: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 8
1/29/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Lee Townsend
 Departments: Entomology
 Series: Entomology (ENT series)
 Tags: insects

Insects, spiders, mites, etc. are among the oldest and most numerous animals on Earth. Some species, like the house fly, occur in every county of the state, while others live in very specific areas, such as a western Kentucky wetland or an eastern Kentucky mountain meadow. Like it or not, insects have a major impact on our lives, health, and environment. Learning more about them can increase your enjoyment of nature and help you to manage problem species more effectively.

web only | 12 pages | 5,421 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 1,382 kb



ASC-233
Feeds and Feeding for Small-Scale Egg Production Enterprises
1/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, nutrition and health, poultry

Animals eat in order to get the energy and nutrients they need to live, grow and reproduce. Animals use energy to perform normal body functions such as breathing, walking, eating, digesting, and maintaining body temperature. Different types of nutrients provide energy as well as the building blocks needed for the development of bone, flesh, feathers, and eggs. These nutrients include: water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Each of these components is important and a deficit of even one can have serious health consequences for poultry.

web only | 12 pages | 5,611 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 2,536 kb



ASC-232
Raising Replacement Pullets for Small-Scale Egg Production
1/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Poultry producers who raise their own replacement pullets have better control over the growth, condition, and development of the flock. The quality of the pullet flock will have a direct effect on the subsequent level of egg production. The two most important quality factors for a replacement flock are proper body weight and uniformity. Pullet weight at 6 weeks of age has been shown to influence subsequent egg production. Once the pullets start to lay, it is too late to solve problems from poor nutrition or management during the pullet rearing period.

web only | 9 pages | 4,407 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb



ASC-230
Factors to Consider Before Starting a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise in Kentucky
1/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: business and records, livestock, poultry

There are several things to consider before starting an egg production operation. The most important is market availability. Before you start production you need to have a market that your production can supply, in terms of both quantity of product and the price you need to get in order to be profitable. You will need to make sure that local regulations allow for poultry production on the land available to you. Cash flow is also an important consideration. A flock will require a considerable investment before the hens start to lay eggs to produce an income. You also need to have a way to deal with the manure produced, and any dead birds. You also need to have a plan for the hens after they have finished laying (referred to as spent hens).

web only | 4 pages | 2,113 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 126 kb



CCD-MP-21
Marketing Fresh Produce to Restaurants
1/25/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

Sourcing and serving fresh produce from local farms remains a trend in the U.S. foodservice industry. The practice of sourcing locally grown fresh produce, first featured by niche and high-end restaurants, moved into mainstream foodservice distribution channels in the early 2000s. A focus on local food appears to be persisting into the 2020s. The National Restaurant Association's 2018 Culinary Forecast, based on surveys of nearly 700 chefs, identified hyper-local sourcing as the top restaurant concept trend, with local produce also among the Top 10 concept trends.

web only | 5 pages | 2,260 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb



HO-120
Off the Grid: Ultra-Low Pressure Drip Irrigation and Rainwater Catchment for Small Plots and High Tunnels
1/24/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Krista Jacobsen, Brent Rowell
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel

All forms of irrigation need a push or pressure to move water from its source to its destination. Water sources include wells, springs, lakes, creeks, canals, rivers, cisterns, elevated tanks, or municipal water supplies. The amount of pressure or push required depends on many things including the height water must be lifted, length and size of the delivery pipe(s), crop and size of the area to be irrigated, and the distance water needs to be moved from the source to the field, greenhouse, or tunnel.

400 printed copies | 12 pages | 3,615 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 9,416 kb



ID-248
Gardening in Small Spaces
1/24/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Ashley O
 Departments: Ag Programs, Horticulture, Plant and So
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables

Although most would agree that gardening is a worthwhile endeavor, traditional gardening with long neat rows spaced 3 or 4 feet apart to allow cultivation by a tractor or tiller may not be feasible for everyone. Individuals that live in urban areas, especially those living in townhomes, condominiums, and apartments may not have the outdoor space needed for this conventional style of gardening. In addition, those with limited mobility may not be able to establish and maintain this type of garden. For many, raised bed gardening and container gardening may be a more practical and manageable choice for those gardening in small spaces and those with limited mobility.

web only | 8 pages | 6,239 words | 113 downloads | PDF: 1,141 kb



ENT-70
Pesticides and Pesticide Safety: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 10
1/23/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Lee Townsend
 Departments: Entomology
 Series: Entomology (ENT series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, insect pests

"Pest" is not a biological term for an organism's environmental role as are the words plant, herbivore, predator, and scavenger. It is a term for an organism that is either causing damage or is somewhere where it's not wanted. Pests can include plants, insects and their relatives, and microorganisms that cause plant diseases. Often, pests are a problem because we use cultural practices or create conditions favoring organisms that they feed on, compete with, or infect the desirable species.

web only | 10 pages | 5,153 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 310 kb



FOR-121
Vertebrate Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 19
1/23/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Tom Barnes, Matthew Springer
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Most people enjoy watching wildlife around the home, whether it is birds at a feeder, butterflies on flowers, or the occasional deer or turkey wandering through the yard. In some instances, wildlife come into contact with humans and are in the wrong place at the wrong time. For the gardening enthusiast, this encounter can create conflict.

web only | 10 pages | 4,896 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 750 kb



AGR-205
Weed Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 20
1/22/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, weeds

Every garden has weeds, and every gardener wonders what to do about them. Gardening involves lots of small decisions that can have a cumulative effect on those weed problems. This chapter will explore the origin of weeds, their adaptation and impact, and the techniques you can use to manage weeds in your landscape.

web only | 14 pages | 6,440 words | 78 downloads | PDF: 965 kb



AGR-1
Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations, 2018-2019
1/22/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nutrient management, soil and land

Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.

web only | 24 pages | 11,300 words | 198 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



ASC-235
My Mare's in Heat: Predicting and Recognizing Signs of Estrus
1/22/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Amy Lawyer
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses, reproduction and genetics

You have heard the term frequently that a mare is in heat, but what does it mean exactly? Heat is the layman's term for showing signs of estrus. Whether you are planning to breed your mare or not her body will continue to prepare to be pregnant.

web only | 2 pages | 1,125 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 85 kb



ASC-234
Use of Biosecurity and Natural Remedies for the Prvention of Poultry Disease in "Natural" and "Organic" Flocks
1/22/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

It is easier to prevent disease than it is to treat an outbreak. A biosecurity plan is essential to an effective health management plan. "Bio" refers to life and "Security" is protection. A biosecurity program for a poultry farm is a series of common-sense activities designed to keep disease (bacterial, viral, parasitic) out of the poultry flock.

web only | 6 pages | 3,526 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 157 kb



CCD-CP-131
Eggplant
1/22/2018 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson.

web only | 3 pages | 919 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,500 kb



ASC-231
Breed Selection for a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise
1/12/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, poultry

Once you have decided you are going to go into egg production, you need to determine what breed of chicken will best suit your needs. A variety of different commercial breeds are available for use in small-scale commercial egg production operations. Most lay a brown-shelled egg, which is typically preferred by the people purchasing eggs produced in alterative production systems. Most of these commercial chickens are hybrids selected specifically for these systems.

web only | 5 pages | 1,023 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,280 kb



ASC-229
Marketing Regulations Affecting Small-scale Egg Producers in Kentucky
1/12/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: business and records, livestock, poultry

It is important that you comply with all the laws and regulations with regards to the marketing of eggs. Eggs are capable of carrying bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis. As a result, eggs are considered a hazardous food and their sale is regulated. With regard to small-scale producers, if you sell more than 60 dozen eggs in any one week, you will require an egg handler's license. You will also need an egg handler's license if you sell to someone who sells eggs to someone else. This would include grocery stores, restaurants, or wholesalers. The same will hold true if you sell to a bakery, confectionary or ice-cream manufacturer.

web only | 4 pages | 1,756 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 267 kb



CCD-MP-11
MarketReady Producer Training Program
12/15/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Miranda Hileman
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The MarketReady Producer Training Program instructs producers in the key business functions that small farmers and ranchers must manage as they seek to develop supplier relationships with restaurants, grocers, wholesalers, and foodservice buyers, including schools. While significant opportunity exists to build on the demand for local products in local markets, many farmers are hesitant or unprepared to meet the transactional requirements expected by these buyers to manage their own food safety, insurance, product quality, and traceability risks. MarketReady addresses these issues. After training, producers will be prepared for business transactions when selling a variety of products including dairy, fruits, meats and vegetables.

web only | 3 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



ID-36
Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2018-19
12/11/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Emily Pfeufer, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.

3,000 printed copies | 140 pages | 109,401 words | 121 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



PPFS-FR-S-3
Blackberry Rosette (Double Blossom)
12/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Michele Stanton, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Kenton County, Plant Pathology<
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags:

Rosette disease, caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi, is a serious and destructive disease of blackberries in most parts of Kentucky. In some locations, growers have been forced out of growing blackberries because of rosette disease.

web only | 3 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 637 kb



CCD-BG-11
2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Small-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags:

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet. Most of the worksheets assume all production is sold at the same price, but there is also a blank line for a second quantity/cost for users to add if desired, such as already done in sweet potatoes.

web only | - | - | 26 downloads | Excel: 1,200 kb



CCD-BG-10
2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Large-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags:

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet.

web only | 1 pages | - | 26 downloads | Excel: 1,600 kb



HO-119
Reducing Heat Stress to Container-Grown Plants
11/14/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants

Production of plants in containers offer many advantages over field production. Shorter production cycles, larger numbers of plants per acre, and the ability to continuously market and ship plants are among those advantages. However, there are some disadvantages including more intense cultural practices, a relatively short window of optimum marketability due to container size restrictions, and rapid daily temperature fluctuations within the container substrate (growing medium). This publication will provide information about plant response to high root-zone temperatures, identify critical temperatures, describe the factors that influence temperature fluctuations, and suggest cultural practices to reduce heat stress in container-grown plants.

web only | 6 pages | 3,953 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 1,240 kb



AEN-135
Rainwater Harvesting for Livestock Production Systems
11/7/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Abundant, clean drinking water is an essential nutrient for livestock. The obvious water source that is recommended by veterinarians is city water. However, city water has its drawbacks. City water distribution systems are often expensive to install and have a recurring usage charge. In some instances, city water is unavailable, may have inadequate pressure, or producers consider it too expensive to operate, forcing them to use streams and ponds to water livestock. Collecting rainwater from a catchment area, is a low cost, high quality alternative water source that can supplement traditional water distribution systems and improve the environmental quality of farming operations. Rainwater harvesting involves the collection of rainfall from rooftops or land based catchments systems for storage and distribution as needed. Capturing rainfall has the added benefit of improving water quality by reducing soil erosion and runoff. Strategically installed rainwater harvesting systems can be used to direct stormwater around sensitive areas of the farm where animal waste is present, thus reducing the potential for nutrient and pathogen delivery to nearby waterways. Rainwater harvesting and stormwater management techniques can also reduce the volume of water that must be managed in liquid manure management systems by diverting clean water away from manure pits and lagoons.

web only | 5 pages | 2,801 words | 83 downloads | PDF: 807 kb



CCD-PFS-1
Produce Food Safety: Packing and Storing
11/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-PFS series)
 Tags:

: If you intend to sell your produce, you'll need to package it. Some growers immediately assume that they'll need a large, complicated packing shed with state-of-the art technology. Typically this is not the case, and for some situations you might not need a packing facility at all. Before we go into some of the best practices for managing a packing shed, you should first consider whether you need one at all. Many of the practices discussed in this publication will depend on the requirements of your buyer. The first step before making upgrades to your food safety infrastructure is to talk to your buyer--ask them how they expect products packaged, box sizes, and whether they expect the product to be washed. Do they currently expect a third-party Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) audit? Do they anticipate requiring one in the near future? As long as you are meeting all regulatory requirements and taking common sense steps to keep your produce safe, there is no need to exceed the expectations of your buyer. In the case of Farmers Markets and CSAs, the expectations for washing can be highly variable.

web only | 7 pages | 1,176 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb



PPFS-FR-S-17
Cane Diseases of Brambles
11/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

web only | 5 pages | 800 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 299 kb



CCD-CP-118
Snap Beans
10/24/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The snap bean or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. Prior to the development of the stringless bean in the 1890s, snap beans were referred to as "string beans" because of the fiber or "string" running along the pod seam. While stringless beans are more common today, many consumers still prefer the flavor of the stringed types.

web only | 3 pages | 1,176 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 668 kb



CCD-FS-7
Risk Management in Specialty Crops: Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)
10/24/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

The Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) is a financial assistance program provided through the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). The program provides producers of crops not eligible for crop insurance with some level of risk management when natural disasters cause crop low yields, crop losses or prevent crop planting.

web only | 2 pages | 574 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



AEN-115
Appropriate All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock
10/16/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Stephanie Mehlhope,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, livestock

Many livestock producers would say that mud is a natural part of livestock production. But the creation of mud costs producers money and makes them less competitive. Livestock that walk through mud require more feed for energy but actually eat less because walking in mud requires more effort to get to feed and water. Therefore, mud decreases average daily gains. Mud accumulation on the coat increases the amount of energy needed to generate heat in the winter or to keep cool in the summer. Also, it can lower sale prices due to hanging tags. The creation of mud also increases animal stress and leads to a variety of health problems, including protozoan and bacterial infections. It is essential that livestock producers understand that mud hinders cost-efficient livestock production and efforts should be made to limit the creation of mud. This publication explains how mud is created and describes different types of hardened surfaces and pads that agricultural producers should use to reduce mud creation and ultimately increase production efficiency and protect natural resources.

web only | 8 pages | 3,441 words | 243 downloads | PDF: 2,730 kb



ID-149
2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates
10/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, John Strang, Tim
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: business and records, farm crops, fruits

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions.

web only | 20 pages | 11,224 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 265 kb



PPFS-AG-C-6
Holcus Leaf Spot
10/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, K
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Holcus leaf spot, a bacterial disease, can be seen sporadically in Kentucky cornfields, and it is challenging to diagnose. This publication describes the disease symptoms, conditions that favor disease, and how to distinguish holcus spot from herbicide injury that can mimic this disease.

web only | 3 pages | 483 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 889 kb



PPFS-AG-C-5
Diplodia Ear Rot
10/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, K
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Diplodia ear rot can reduce yield and grain quality by damaging kernels, lowering grain test weight, and reducing grain fill. Incidence of affected ears in the field can vary from 1% or 2% to as high as 80%. Although mycotoxins have been associated with Diplodia ear rot in South America and South Africa, there have been no reports of livestock feeding issues due to mycotoxins linked to Diplodia ear rot in the United States.

web only | 3 pages | 514 words | - | PDF: 990 kb



CCD-CP-116
Romaine Lettuce
10/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 1,753 words | - | PDF: 692 kb



CCD-CP-117
Root Crops
10/4/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 1,728 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb



HO-118
A Beginners Guide to Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky: Plans and Preparations
10/2/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Ken Hunter, Betha
 Departments: County Extension, Family and Consumer Sciences,
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables

Begin by thinking about vegetables you and your family like to eat. Then think about what you want to grow. Some vegetables will grow better in Kentucky than others because of the average daily temperatures and amount of rainfall. It is also important to learn about the needs of each vegetable variety you are thinking about planting in your garden. Does it grow better in sun or shade? How much water does it need? What type of soil does it grow best in? Is it a cool season crop or a warm season crop?

web only | 7 pages | 2,832 words | 119 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPA-49
Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Corn Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) developed ratings for how well fungicides control major corn diseases in the United States. The CDWG determined efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in the table by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations. Ratings are based on the product's level of disease control and does not necessarily reflect yield increases obtained from product application. A product's efficacy depends upon proper application timing, rate, and application method as determined by the product label and overall disease level in the field at the time of application.

web only | 2 pages | 690 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,120 kb



PPA-48
Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Wheat Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

The North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA-184) has developed the following information about fungicide efficacy for the control of certain foliar diseases of wheat for use by the grain production industry in the United States. The efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in this table were determined by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations by the members of the committee.

web only | 2 pages | 649 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



ID-247
Pastured Poultry
9/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: livestock, nutrition and health, poultry

There has been an increased interest in pasture-raising poultry for both meat and egg production in the last decade. Raising poultry on pasture was a common occurrence until the latter half of the 20th century. Fresh forage provided an important ration balancing factor during the years before poultry nutritionists fully understood the required essential vitamins and minerals for growth and optimum meat and egg production. With the development of balanced rations, poultry no longer require access to pasture and year-round production of meat and eggs is possible. However, there are still some benefits from the lush forage, invertebrates, and exercise that pasture provides. In addition, we continue to learn more and more about the positive influence that fresh grasses and legumes have on fatty acid profiles and general bird health. As a result, there is an increased interest in pasture-raised poultry for both meat and eggs.

web only | 7 pages | 4,900 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb



CCD-CP-120
Specialty Melons
9/20/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations.

web only | 3 pages | 1,431 words | - | PDF: 950 kb



ASC-206
Common External Parasites of Poultry
9/8/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available.

web only | 4 pages | 1,817 words | 78 downloads | PDF: 839 kb



ID-244
Landscape Site Assessment
9/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham,
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

The most common reason trees and shrubs fail to perform as anticipated is that their cultural requirements differ from the site characteristics. People often plant things they know and love from a distant state, purchase because they are on sale, or find attractive but don't understand the environmental requirements. In some cases, a site can be easily modified to make it more suitable for a desired species. Most of the time, it is difficult or impossible to change the site characteristics enough for the plant to thrive. Appropriate watering is essential for establishment of recently transplanted trees and shrubs. This becomes even more important (and challenging) for plants poorly matched to their sites. Selecting plant species that will thrive under particular site conditions is an easier and less expensive option. The first step in doing this is to understand the site where you plan to plant.

web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 125 kb



CCD-CP-62
High Tunnel Tomatoes
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, hi

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

web only | 4 pages | 2,063 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-55
Stevia
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

web only | 4 pages | 1,145 words | - | PDF: 791 kb



AEC-ES-2017-12
The Unique Qualities of the Southern Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Owen Townsend,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Ag Economics Extension Series (AEC-ES series)
 Tags:

Milk is a heavily regulated commodity, and therefore there are a large number of rules that pertain to its production and processing. These regulations are enforced within regional boundaries called federal milk marketing orders. Most milk marketing orders have similar regulations, but the Appalachian, Florida, and Southeast Orders are somewhat unique when it comes to diversion limits, transportation credits, and delivery day requirements. This publication will highlight these distinctive qualities of Southern milk marketing orders and how those qualities can influence production and processing in those orders.

web only | 10 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 551 kb



AEC-ES-2017-13
The History and Class Pricing of the Federal Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Owen Townsend,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Ag Economics Extension Series (AEC-ES series)
 Tags:

The regulation of milk is an important part of the development of the milk industry and an understanding of the history of milk regulation is critical to understanding the pros and cons of the current industry. Additionally, to understand milk pricing it is important to understand the history of the federal milk marketing orders. This publication will provide information on how milk became regulated and how the class pricing system works.

web only | 11 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 283 kb



ASC-228
Body Condition Scoring Ewes
8/25/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron, Don Ely
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, nutrition and health, sheep

Body condition scoring is a system of classifying breeding ewes on the basis of differences in body fat. While it is subjective, with practice it can be accurate enough to indicate the nutritional status of individual ewes as well as the entire flock. Thus, it allows the shepherd to identify, record, and adjust the feed intake of ewes determined to be thin, in average flesh, or fat. In the long run, this can save money for producers and/or prevent problems attributable to ewe condition.

50 printed copies | 5 pages | 1,567 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 2,200 kb



CCD-CP-130
Malabar Spinach
8/25/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade.

printed copies | 3 pages | 1,133 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-90
Cabbage
8/25/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures.

web only | 2 pages | 949 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 725 kb



CCD-CP-76
Woody Cuts
8/22/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

web only | 3 pages | 1,519 words | - | PDF: 909 kb



HO-116
Wine Distribution for Small Farm Wineries in Kentucky
8/22/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ryan Baumgardner, Seth DeBolt
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Small farm wineries in the state of Kentucky face a major issue when they look to expand, through wholesale distribution, into retail outlets. Like many states, Kentucky uses a "three-tier system" of distribution, where wineries must sell their product to a distributor, who then can legally sell the product to retailers. But because small- to medium-sized wineries rarely produce a volume that is attractive to major brand distributors, their products either don't make it to the retail shelves, or are placed suboptimally for their target market. Here, we look at ways to address this issue in order to help promote the wine industry from the wholesale point-of-view.

20 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,356 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 173 kb



CCD-CP-95
English and Edible Pod Peas
8/16/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas.

web only | 2 pages | 993 words | - | PDF: 647 kb



CCD-CP-93
Cucumber
8/15/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,120 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 729 kb



CCD-FS-6
Three-Year Average Prices and Quantities at Kentucky Produce Auctions: 2014-2016
8/15/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Martin Bechu, Alex Butler, Bre
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags: business and records, farm crops, vegetables<

This report compares average volumes and prices for 18 crops from two major Kentucky produce auctions for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons.

web only | 22 pages | 1,705 words | - | PDF: 1,300 kb



CCD-CP-50
Catnip
8/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties.

web only | 3 pages | 999 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 451,725 kb



CCD-CP-1
American Persimmon
8/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow-growing, moderately sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which are high in tannins, have an undesirable astringent taste. Fully ripened fruit, which are golden orange to reddish and occasionally blue in color, are very sweet. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall.

web only | 3 pages | 1,235 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 676 kb



AEN-133
Tire Tanks for Watering Livestock
8/8/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, livestock

Kentucky's abundant forage and extensive stream system have helped the Commonwealth become the largest beef producing state east of the Mississippi River. While streams and ponds serve as a water source for many operations, livestock can quickly degrade soil and water quality by trampling streambanks and defecating and urinating in and around waterbodies. These actions increase sediment, pathogen, and nutrient loads to streams, rivers, and lakes which in turn can causes eutrophication. To help protect the health of Kentucky's soil and water, producers can implement best management practices (BMPs). These practices help reduce the sources of pollutants and/or the transport of pollutants to waterways. One such practice or BMP is limiting cattle access to streams and ponds. When producers exclude livestock access to stream and ponds and their associated riparian buffers, an alternative source of water is required. Automatic water fountains are one commonly used means of providing cattle with water from an alternate source. A water tank constructed using a heavy equipment tire may serve as a viable option for supplying livestock with an alternate source of water.

web only | 8 pages | 4,702 words | 136 downloads | PDF: 4,650 kb



PPFS-OR-W-26
Volutella Blight of Boxwood
8/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases,

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

web only | 4 pages | 226 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,568 kb



PPFS-OR-W-6
Flowering Dogwood Diseases
8/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sarah Stolz, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings.

web only | 6 pages | 586 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 500 kb



ID-246
Measuring the Ph of Different Food Products
7/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Akinbode Adedeji, Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

The scientific scale for measuring how acidic or basic a substance is when it is dissolved in water is called pH. The pH scale runs from 0 - 14. 0 means it is very acidic, 7 means it is neither acidic nor basic, but just right in the middle like plain water (neutral), and 14 means it is very basic. If you are producing a food product that depends on the acidic components or ingredients of the product to extend its shelf life and ensure the safety of the product, monitoring the pH of food products is very important. Food safety is the biggest reason for monitoring pH, but pH also influences the quality of food products.

web only | 2 pages | 1,743 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 365 kb



CCD-CP-100
Heirloom Vegetables
7/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping

web only | 4 pages | 1,769 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 652 kb



CCD-CP-71
Garden Mums
7/13/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

web only | 3 pages | 969 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-60
High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs
7/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, hi

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries.

web only | 5 pages | 2,531 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 893 kb



PPFS-OR-W-25
Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine
7/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, trees

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 256 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,053 kb



CCD-CP-63
Hydroponic Lettuce
6/30/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: hydroponics, nursery and landscape, vegetab

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water.

web only | 4 pages | 1,872 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPA-47
Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
6/28/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: science and technology

In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.

web only | 16 pages | 9,014 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 5,892 kb



CCD-FS-5
Vegetable Transplant Production
6/22/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise.

web only | 4 pages | 1,351 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



CCD-MP-23
Regional Food Hubs
6/19/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The term "regional food hub" has been devised by the USDA to refer to facilities that aid farmers in getting locally produced products to consumer markets.

web only | 3 pages | 1,492 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



ID-181
Manejo Integrado de Plagas
6/15/2017 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin
 Departments: Entomology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

La sociedad moderna demanda alimentos variados y de buena calidad, esto implica un reto para los agricultores de frutas, hortalizas y granos, ya que deben producir lo suficiente para obtener ganancias y al mismo tiempo, evitar la contaminacion del producto requerido por la poblacion. El Manejo Integrado de Plagas, es una herramienta importante en el manejo de los cultivos, ya que propone alternativas de control que no se limitan unicamente al uso de pesticidas, sino tambien, a tomar ventaja de los recursos existentes en el campo, tales como, organismos beneficos, plantas florales, biologia de la plaga, rotacion de cultivos, labores culturales apropiadas y otros mas que permiten manejar con perspectiva ambiental los problemas encontrados.

1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | 9,096 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 651 kb



CCD-SP-8
Propagation Nursery
6/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use.

web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb



AGR-228
Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone
5/31/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Bermudagrass is an excellent choice for use on athletic fields throughout the transition zone (which includes Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and Missouri) because of its tolerance to close cutting heights, summer vigor, positive traction characteristics for athletes, resistance to divoting and ability to withstand and recover from significant traffic during active growth. The major limitation to successful bermudagrass persistence in transition zone locations is a general lack of cold tolerance and susceptibility to winterkill.

web only | 10 pages | 4,267 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 6,633 kb



CCD-MP-1
Community Supported Agriculture
5/25/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)is relatively new to the United States, beginning in Massachusetts in 1986 and growing to 60 CSA farms in the U.S. in 1990. The CSA structure grew significantly in popularity among both producers and consumers during the 2000s; by 2009, as many as 6,000 farms were operating a CSA. The 2015 USDA Local Food Marketing Practices Survey reported 7,398 farms nationally selling by CSA for a sales value of $226 million. There were nearly 60 CSAs listed for Kentucky, in 2016, in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture CSA directory. The CSA marketing channel continues to increase in popularity, moving to new demographics besides the original core affluent urban consumer.

web only | 8 pages | 4,511 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 3,300 kb



CCD-FS-4
Weed Management
5/12/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags: weeds

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states.

web only | 3 pages | 1,209 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb



ID-245
Predator Management for Small-Scale Poultry Enterprises in Kentucky
5/4/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

As urban expansion spreads, there is a loss of natural habitat for wildlife. Wildlife has come into closer contact with livestock operations, and some of these animals are predators of poultry.

web only | 8 pages | 3,090 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 2,401 kb



CCD-CP-103
Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge.

web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



PPFS-OR-H-1
Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals
5/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases,

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

web only | 19 pages | 669 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 3,137 kb



CCD-FS-3
Three-year Average Weekly Prices at Kentucky Farmers Markets: 2014-2016
4/27/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Martin Bechu, Alex Butler, Bre
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

This report compares average prices for 17 crops from Kentucky farmers markets across the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons. Farmers markets are inherently difficult to track and compare. For example, vendors at markets from across the state sell the same products in a wide variety of units. Do you want to buy your beets by the pound, quart, bunch, or bulb? What about broccoli? By the head, pound, ounce, pint or "bag"? Beyond units, farmers markets also offer immense varietal and crop diversity, sold by vendors with a wide range of experience, in a variety of market conditions. These conditions, crops and other variables also change by season. For the first time, recognizing the caveats of slight crop differences and unit harmonization, we have assembled 3-year average prices in hopes of drawing out some trends in our Kentucky Farmers Market prices.

web only | 10 pages | 626 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 422 kb



CCD-CP-127
Lavender
4/25/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,339 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 897 kb



CCD-CP-128
Black Walnuts
4/19/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production.

web only | 4 pages | 2,000 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 672 kb



CCD-CP-11
Juneberries
4/19/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 700 kb



CCD-SP-6
Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap.

web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-SP-5
Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season.

web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb



CCD-CP-107
Onions
4/12/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions.

web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 881 kb



CCD-CP-86
Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli).

web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 975 kb



CCD-CP-85
Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization.

web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 688 kb



PPA-30
Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands
4/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ray Smith, Tina Tillery, Paul
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology,
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands.

web only | 2 pages | 1,222 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 253 kb



FOR-128
Hardwood Dry Kiln Operation: A Manual for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
4/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Green lumber is used mostly for local uses such as fence boards, barn siding and so forth. Lumber that will be glued or finished has to be dried, however, and that includes just about all the higher-value wood products used indoors such as flooring, furniture, wall paneling, cutting boards and so forth. Dry lumber can be used for more types of products and has greater marketability. Dry lumber is also worth more than green lumber.

web only | 114 pages | 31,161 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 11,025 kb



CCD-FS-1
Irrigation Systems
4/3/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

Irrigation is used in Kentucky for both specialty and row crops. Irrigation systems reduce risks of low profitability from low yields and crop stress. Drip irrigation, essential for producing many specialty crops, is used throughout the state on farms of all sizes. Overhead irrigation systems are concentrated in western Kentucky, where farms of 1,000 or more acres account for most of the annual acreage changes in Kentucky's irrigated farmland. This fact sheet focuses on drip irrigation, which increased in use as more Kentucky farms began specialty crop production.

web only | 4 pages | 1,287 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb



AGR-130
Soybean Production in Kentucky
3/22/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Soybean seed quality is very important for crop establishment. In general, seed quality is an indicator of a seed's ability to produce a seedling in field conditions and includes both seed germination and seed vigor. Most producers are familiar with seed germination since they have seen it on a seed tag. Fewer are familiar with seed vigor.

web only | 6 pages | 4,076 words | 71 downloads | PDF: 1,395 kb



CCD-CP-124
Tomatillo
3/1/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 680 kb



AGR-227
Identifying Canola Growth Stages
2/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, oil crops

To effectively manage canola in Kentucky, the ability to identify key developmental growth stages is important. The most common canola growth stage system describes developmental stages. Several canola growth stages are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability.

web only | 8 pages | 788 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 7,332 kb



CCD-SP-7
Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production
1/31/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods.

web only | 5 pages | 2,325 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 918 kb



HO-115
Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Green Industry Professionals
1/23/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

This publication is meant to assist green industry professionals in marketing and customer education efforts as they explore marketing their products and services to improve green infrastructure. Consumers are placing increasing value on and acknowledging the critical role that landscape plants play in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home.

web only | 12 pages | 4,507 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 2,547 kb



AGR-225
Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017
1/19/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University.

web only | 96 pages | - | 48 downloads | PDF: kb



ID-243
Management of Wildlife and Domestic Animals on Your Farm: Good Agricultural Practices
1/10/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Springer, Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) are necessary to ensure that fresh fruits and vegetables are harvested, handled, and packaged in a sanitary manner. Field crops are at a higher food safety risk than processed foods because of regular exposure to several sources of contamination, including soil, manure, human handling, domestic and wild animals, and water. While it is impossible to completely eliminate these risks, GAPs ensure that these risks are as small as possible when implemented correctly.

150 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,023 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 908 kb



PPFS-AG-C-4
Stewart's Wilt of Corn
1/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, E
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Historically, Stewart's wilt of corn has resulted in losses for corn producers. Although this disease still occurs occasionally, it has become less prevalent in recent years in Kentucky and surrounding states. Stewart's wilt has been known by other names, such as bacterial leaf blight, Stewart's leaf blight, and maize bacteriosis.

web only | 3 pages | 1,079 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,445 kb



AGR-226
Identification and Control of Henbit and Purple Deadnettle
12/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Mike Barrett, Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: weeds

Most of the winter annual broadleaf weeds are distinguishable from each other and thus fairly easy to key out or identify. However, there are two that show up each spring that often get people scratching their heads as to which is which---is it purple deadnettle? Or is it henbit? There are several similarities between these weeds---both are members of the mint family, both have square stems, both have sparsely hairy oval- to egg-shaped leaves, leaves of both are opposite, and both have small purple flowers that appear in the axils of the upper leaves during the spring.

web only | 4 pages | 812 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 5,381 kb



ID-241
After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant
12/22/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

web only | 5 pages | 4,224 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 247 kb



ID-240
What Is Your Tree Worth?
12/22/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate.

web only | 5 pages | 3,041 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 903 kb



CCD-CP-83
Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly.

web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 786 kb



CCD-CP-79
Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here.

web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 778 kb



CCD-CP-111
Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales.

web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 566 kb



CCD-CP-110
Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth.

web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 604 kb



AGR-199
Extending Grazing and Reducing Stored Feed Needs
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Garry Lacefield
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: livestock

For most livestock producers, extending the grazing season for their animals, or otherwise filling gaps in pasture forage availability to reduce stored feed needs, should be a high priority objective. This publication outlines strategies that can be used in some or many areas to extend grazing and reduce stored feed needs, thus increasing profit.

2,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 74 downloads | PDF: 1,512 kb



ID-143
Rotational Grazing
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Roy Burris, Bob Coleman, Jimmy
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

A rotational grazing program can generally be defined as use of several pastures, one of which is grazed while the others are rested before being regrazed. Continuous grazing is the use of one pasture for the entire grazing season.

2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 113 downloads | PDF: 887 kb



ID-238
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings.

1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb



CCD-CP-20
Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 881 kb



CCD-CP-58
Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhous

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 503 kb



FOR-129
Black Vulture Damage Control
11/11/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Springer
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Vultures, as with all other wildlife, will take advantage of resources available to them, and unfortunately this behavior sometimes involves human dwellings or livestock operations. Fortunately, vultures respond well to relatively simple methods that discourage them from congregating or feeding in critical areas.

web only | 4 pages | 2,427 words | 63 downloads | PDF: 1,931 kb



CCD-CP-12
Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 799 kb



CCD-MP-19
Marketing Crops to Schools and Institutions: An Overview
10/31/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

Schools and institutions have long been identified as potential markets for local and regional food crops. These markets have both generated greater interest and purchases during the past 20 years due to consumer interest, food and health policy initiatives, and changes in school and institutional purchasing and procurement systems.

web only | 4 pages | 1,579 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 864 kb



AEN-132
Modeling Best Management Practices
10/20/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Understanding the effectiveness of BMPs based on their location in the watershed and in relation to different types of pollutants is an important part of protecting waterbodies. One way to do this is with the use of models.

web only | 3 pages | 1,386 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 652 kb



AEC-100
Post-Harvest Management: The Economics of Grain Transportation
10/13/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jordan Shockley
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Agricultural Economics (AEC series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

While transporting grain to the market may be the last input cost in the production of grain, it is a critical decision a producer has to make, especially when margins are thin. Determining which market to sell your grain (if you have options) can be a complex decision, as the market that provides the highest price is not always the most profitable price.

web only | 5 pages | 2,727 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 458 kb



ASC-226
Help! My Horse Roars! What Is Laryngeal Hemiplegia?
10/10/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Various ailments can affect the different parts of the larynx of horses. Diseases of the larynx can produce airway obstruction and sometimes dysphagia. Obstructive diseases, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, often produce an abnormal respiratory noise and, most important, they limit airflow, which leads to early fatigue and poor exercise performance.

web only | 4 pages | 2,122 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 402 kb



CCD-CP-52
Echinacea
10/10/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Bob Geneve, C
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture,
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long-lasting cut flowers.

web only | 5 pages | 2,206 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



ID-224
Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
10/6/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Greg Halich, Jeff Lehmkuhler,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process.

700 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | 81 downloads | PDF: 1,505 kb



ID-239
Equine Metabolic Syndrome: Is My Horse Just Fat, or Is He Sick?
10/4/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda Adams, Fernanda Camargo
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is an endocrine disorder that affects equids (horses, ponies, and donkeys) in three defining ways: they are obese and/or have localized fat deposits, they are in an insulin resistance (IR) state, now referred to as insulin dysregulation (ID), and they are predisposed to developing laminitis.

web only | 3 pages | 1,558 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 1,473 kb



PPFS-MISC-7
Genetically Engineered Crops: A Review of Concerns and Benefits
10/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Genetically engineered crops are plants that have had their genetic material (DNA) purposefully manipulated in the laboratory to produce a particular beneficial outcome. These types of crops are often called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. Commercial genetically engineered crops are designed to have limited and precise genetic changes that provide one or more benefits to humans or the environment.

web only | 5 pages | 1,238 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,260 kb



AGR-224
Identifying Wheat Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Identifying growth stages of any crop is important to enable timely crop management decisions that maximize yields and profitability. There are several wheat growth stages that are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability.

web only | 8 pages | 907 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 5,271 kb



AGR-223
Identifying Soybean Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans

Accurate identification of soybean growth stages is important to maximize grain yield and profitability, because most management decisions are based upon the growth stage of soybean plants within the fields. Key features of soybean growth stages are highlighted within this guide.

web only | 8 pages | 1,382 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 4,815 kb



ASC-227
Foodborne Illness: Risks and Prevention
9/27/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Melissa Newman, Gregg Rentfrow,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

In recent memory, there has been a considerable increase in food recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. To ensure food safety, everyone involved in the food production chain needs to understand the different factors that could contaminate food and lead to foodborne illness.

web only | 4 pages | 1,597 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 142 kb



CCD-CP-99
Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves.

web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 593 kb



HO-114
Planting Container-Grown Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

Many landscape plants are installed as container-grown (containerized) specimens. These, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and bareroot, are the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting.

web only | 4 pages | 1,791 words | 51 downloads | PDF: 1,553 kb



HO-113
Planting Bareroot Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

Many landscape plants can be installed as bareroot specimens. This method, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and container grown plants, one of the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting.

web only | 4 pages | 1,846 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 1,441 kb



ID-237
Soil Percolation: A Key to Survival of Landscape Plants
9/14/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham,
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: soil and land

Eighty to 90 percent of disease and insect problems on landscape plants can be traced back to soil problems. Plants must be adapted to the site if they are to meet our expectations of growing, remain healthy, and attractive.

web only | 4 pages | 1,929 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 3,289 kb



CCD-CP-97
Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets.

web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 617 kb



CCD-CP-94
Edamame
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility.

web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 598 kb



CCD-CP-53
Ginseng
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 967 kb



CCD-CP-81
Maple Syrup
8/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production.

web only | 5 pages | 1,405 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



AGR-222
Estimating Carrying Capacity of Cool Season Pastures in Kentucky Using Web Soil Survey
8/10/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Krista Lea, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: soil and land

While many factors influence how many animals a farm can carry, soil type has a major influence and should be considered when purchasing, leasing, planning, or managing livestock on pastures.

250 printed copies | 16 pages | 1,629 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 4,214 kb



CCD-CP-109
Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 575 kb



ID-236
Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
8/2/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kevin Laurent,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production.

web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | 108 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb



AGR-50
Lawn Establishment in Kentucky
7/27/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.

web only | 6 pages | 3,796 words | 87 downloads | PDF: 3,039 kb



AGR-221
Wildlife Benefits of Switchgrass Production in Kentucky
7/26/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Tom Keene, Krista Lea, Laura Schw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Switchgrass is a versatile grass that can be utilized for forage or biomass production. Establishing and maintaining switchgrass is also beneficial to many types of wildlife by providing suitable habitat and cover.

web only | 4 pages | 1,568 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 385 kb



AGR-55
Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky
7/22/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them.

web only | 1 pages | 583 words | 81 downloads | PDF: 119 kb



CCD-CP-66
Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 594 kb



CCD-BG-9
Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, T
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 6 pages | 1,318 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 336 kb



CCD-BG-8
Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, T
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 6 pages | 1,365 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 340 kb



CCD-BG-7
Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Steve Isaacs,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 5 pages | 1,094 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 119 kb



CCD-BG-6
2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, T
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,177 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 193 kb



CCD-MP-10
Kentucky MarketMaker
7/11/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

Kentucky MarketMaker is a web-based marketing aid adapted for Kentucky markets. The primary purpose of this resource is to provide a link between agricultural producers and potential buyers of food products. In addition to a searchable database of markets and growers, MarketMaker also contains a wealth of demographic and business data which can be summarized in a map-based format.

web only | 2 pages | 802 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 963 kb



CCD-CP-17
Plums
7/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 750 kb



CCD-CP-78
Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops.

web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 934 kb



CCD-CP-18
Raspberries
6/9/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 713 kb



AEN-131
Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
6/6/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals.

web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | 141 downloads | PDF: 516 kb



CCD-CP-108
Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June.

web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 513 kb



PPFS-OR-W-24
Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame.

web only | 5 pages | 1,627 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 2,118 kb



CCD-BG-1
Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky
5/2/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management.

web only | 6 pages | 1,128 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 389 kb



CCD-CP-84
Asparagus
5/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June.

web only | 4 pages | 1,387 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 542 kb



CCD-CP-54
Goldenseal
4/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

web only | 4 pages | 1,799 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 582 kb



AGR-220
A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns
4/7/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.

web only | 2 pages | 1,018 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 600 kb



PPFS-FR-S-22
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

web only | 1 pages | 152 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 236 kb



PPFS-GEN-13
Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.

web only | 3 pages | 2,173 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 388 kb



PPFS-GH-3
Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 737 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



PPFS-OR-W-14
Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 734 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



FOR-122
How to Select and Buck Logs for Railroad Ties
3/4/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

As of 2014, railroads were purchasing in the neighborhood of 25 million wooden ties each year, so the railroad tie industry can be a reliable market for loggers and sawmillers. Prices for green ties are viewed as good compared to lower-grade lumber, though actual market prices depend on immediate demand, competing lumber prices, distance from the seller to the treating plant, and tie quality and species. If you're a logger reading this article, you'll learn to make better decisions about how to select trees and logs for crossties and switch ties, and you'll be able to buck them so that they're worth more money overall.

web only | 9 pages | 4,194 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb



ID-211
Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
3/4/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.

web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | 176 downloads | PDF: 3,600 kb



PPA-46
Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6
3/2/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.

web only | 24 pages | 5,749 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 5,000 kb



PPFS-FR-T-6
Cherry Leaf Spot
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

web only | 1 pages | 311 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 500 kb



PPFS-GH-1
Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Philip Konopka, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread.

web only | 6 pages | 2,233 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,494 kb



PPFS-OR-T-13
Managing Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well.

web only | 4 pages | 1,638 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 816 kb



AEN-130
Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
2/25/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser, Kyl
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm.

web only | 7 pages | 3,539 words | 63 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



ID-125
A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, J.D. Green, John
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months.

1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb



AEN-129
Measuring Discharge in Wadeable Streams
2/9/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Whitney Blackburn-Lynch,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Knowing the amount of water flowing in a stream can improve management practices such as those related to streambank erosion, pollutant loading and transport, and flood control. Streamflow or discharge is defined as the volume of water moving past a specific point in a stream for a fixed period of time.

web only | 4 pages | 1,273 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 2,288 kb



AEN-128
Sediment Fingerprinting
2/9/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Sediments in waterbodies cause a number of problems such as harming aquatic habitats, filling reservoirs, and worsening flooding. High amounts of sediment in the water inhibit the ability of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates to move, breathe, hunt and reproduce. Accumulated sediments in reservoirs reduces their useful life and increases costs associated with maintenance. Streams experiencing such sediment buildup carry less water during storm events.

web only | 4 pages | 1,721 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 1,506 kb



AEN-127
Hydrologic Modeling
2/9/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Richard Warner
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Increased levels of urbanization result in reductions in the amount of rainfall that infiltrates and evapotranspires and increases the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. These changes can result in flooding, streambank erosion, and water quality degradation. Hydrologic models are useful in understanding watersheds and how changes in a watershed can affect hydrology. Hydrologic models can predict the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff under different scenarios.

web only | 5 pages | 2,704 words | 51 downloads | PDF: 844 kb



ID-234
Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
2/8/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Doug Johnson,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.

web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb



AGR-207
Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky Pastures
2/4/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green, Bill Witt
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, weeds

A guide to the identification and control of broadleaf weeds in Kentucky pastures.

7,500 printed copies | 2 pages | 250 words | 158 downloads | PDF: 4,200 kb



CCD-CP-26
Chia
2/4/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers.

web only | 3 pages | 1,155 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 922 kb



PPFS-FR-T-3
Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

web only | 3 pages | 785 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,003 kb



PPFS-GEN-14
Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths.

web only | 5 pages | 1,611 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,283 kb



PPFS-OR-W-23
Shade Tree Anthracnose
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Flynt, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens.

web only | 4 pages | 1,279 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 869 kb



PPFS-OR-W-10
Black Spot of Rose
2/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Black spot is the most common and serious disease of roses in Kentucky. It is a problem in greenhouse production and outdoor plantings.

web only | 1 pages | 344 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 350 kb



ID-163
Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality
1/13/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Josh McGrath,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Regulatory Services
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrient management, soil and land

Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.

web only | 6 pages | 2,749 words | 78 downloads | PDF: 485 kb



ID-233
Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses
12/22/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Shubin Saha
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations.

web only | 6 pages | - | 60 downloads | PDF: 465 kb



FOR-127
The First Separation of Softwood Species
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Just making the separation between softwoods and hardwoods doesn't help much in identifying wood species; that would be sort of like identifying children by their hair color. Let's look at the next level of wood features that you need to be able to recognize.

web only | 6 pages | 2,711 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 4,200 kb



FOR-126
Grain Patterns and Growth Rings
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Frequently you need to be able to observe wood cells from a particular perspective, and you will need to know where to look for different features on your sample. It's also very helpful to develop a kind of "visual vocabulary" that will let you match a term with a corresponding mental image, and the information in this chapter will start you on your way.

web only | 3 pages | 1,527 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



FOR-125
Distinguishing Softwoods from Hardwoods
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Softwood and hardwood trees are made up of different types of cells. With just a little magnification, it's easy to see that softwood growth rings look different from hardwood growth rings. Additionally, growth rings don't look the same for all of the trees, and the growth ring appearance is one of the things we will look at to identify wood.

web only | 4 pages | 1,722 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



FOR-124
First Steps in Identifying Wood
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Wood samples need to be identified for all sorts of reasons, and they come in all shapes, sizes and conditions. I've received samples that were sound, samples that were waterlogged, samples that were rotted or otherwise degraded, painted samples, furniture samples, even samples containing wood preservatives. Most of the samples I receive have a North American origin, but I also receive pieces from art museums and antique dealers that can originate from just about anywhere. This sometimes means that identifying the sample by a common name alone doesn't provide enough information.

web only | 8 pages | 4,482 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 1,980 kb



FOR-123
Introduction to Wood Structure and Characteristics
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Knowing how to identify unknown pieces of wood using a hand lens is the only skill you will need for most situations---and that's the purpose behind most of this manual. A section at the end about how to identify wood using a microscope is available should you want to develop your wood identification expertise.

web only | 4 pages | 2,540 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



HO-108
Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry
12/16/2015 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green-industry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2013 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,841 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 152 kb



HO-89
Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries
12/16/2015 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and regional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners.

web only | 10 pages | 3,937 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 399 kb



PPFS-FR-T-4
Black Knot
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

web only | 2 pages | 617 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 784 kb



PPFS-FR-T-1
Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

web only | 3 pages | 667 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 887 kb



PPFS-FR-T-8
Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits
11/1/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

web only | 2 pages | 559 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 207 kb



PPFS-OR-W-4
"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals
11/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee, Tracey Parriman,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium.

web only | 4 pages | 1,199 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,362 kb



CCD-CP-32
Industrial Hemp: Legal Issues
9/24/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Industrial hemp was widely grown in the United States from the Colonial Period until the mid-1800s. During that time, Kentucky established itself as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. After the Civil War, hemp production declined in Kentucky, as well as in other areas of the country. Production temporarily resumed as part of the war effort during World War II. However, once the war was over, acreages dwindled until U.S. production ended in 1958. However, the last couple of decades have brought a renewed interest in commercial hemp as an alternative or supplementary crop. As the pro-hemp movement has spread, a number of states, including Kentucky, have passed laws favoring its production, generally in connection with scientific, economic, and environmental research studies.

web only | 3 pages | 1,072 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 803 kb



CCD-CP-33
Industrial Hemp Production
9/23/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture,
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs.

web only | 6 pages | 2,682 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



ASC-225
Managing Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
9/22/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Jeffrey Bewley, Lauren Mayo,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Precision dairy farming is the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators of individual animals to improve management strategies and farm performance.

web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 1,872 kb



PPFS-OR-W-1
Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi
9/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain, Traci Missun,
 Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Path
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.

web only | 7 pages | 1,947 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,953 kb



CCD-CP-67
Christmas Trees
8/18/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 492 kb



AGR-216
Turfgrasses of Kentucky
8/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.

web only | 12 pages | 3,123 words | 70 downloads | PDF: 8,500 kb



PPFS-FR-T-5
Apple Rust Diseases
8/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

web only | 5 pages | 1,395 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 813 kb



ID-229
All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
7/28/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kevin Laurent,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities.

web only | 6 pages | 2,612 words | 96 downloads | PDF: 2,980 kb



VET-35
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Staggers (Tremorgenic Syndrome)
7/20/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold
 Departments: Veterinary Science
 Series: Veterinary Science (VET series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

"Staggers" is an all-inclusive term for a group of nervous system disorders caused by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins produced by various types of fungi on forages. These mycotoxins are collectively known as "tremorgens", and they may be found in several types of grasses at varying stages of maturity.

web only | 2 pages | 758 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 588 kb



ID-231
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Acute or Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP)
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

In the Southeastern United States, acute interstitial pneumonia has been produced by ingestion of the leaves and seeds of perilla mint (Perilla frutescens). Perilla ketone is the toxin absorbed from the rumen into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs where it damages the lung tissue in cattle.

web only | 3 pages | 1,551 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 507 kb



ID-230
Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Cattle and Horses
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Although black patch occurs only sporadically, the right temperature, moisture, and soil pH may combine and allow Rhizoctonia leguminicola to thrive. Be aware of the possible consequences of this fungus, especially profuse salivation or "Sobbers" in cattle and horses. Good forage management, will reduce the risk of problems when utilizing this forage.

web only | 2 pages | 948 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 256 kb



ID-91s
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
7/15/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Chery
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).

2,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 8,426 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 1,743 kb



CCD-CP-92
Celery and Celeriac
6/8/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity.

web only | 3 pages | 1,139 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 635 kb



AGR-219
Practicing Good Stewardship When Applying Herbicides for Pasture Weed Control
5/14/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: weeds

Various methods and strategies can be used to combat weed problems in pasture fields. These include mechanical and cultural practices such as mowing or clipping fields, maintaining a good soil fertility program, grazing methods, and other management practices that promote the growth of desirable forage grasses which in turn compete against weeds. Herbicides can be the best alternative to effectively control several troublesome broadleaf weeds. However, it is important to understand the proper use of herbicides and practice good stewardship.

500 printed copies | 2 pages | 1,466 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 190 kb



ID-228
Aquatic Macroinvertebrates: Biological Indicators of Stream Health
5/12/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Blake Newton,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Streams are an important part of the landscape. Streams transport water, sediment and energy; provide habitat for aquatic life and support terrestrial life; provide a place for recreation; and in many cases serve as a water supply. The health of streams---or their ability to perform these important functions---is dependent on the conditions of the watersheds which they drain. Changes in land use within a watershed can affect a stream's health.

web only | 5 pages | 1,962 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 4,800 kb



CCD-MP-22
Produce Auctions
5/1/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

A produce auction is a market outlet for locally produced wholesale products. Fresh produce, as well as a variety of other agricultural products, are offered for sale to the highest bidder. The auction charges the seller a commission, usually a percent of sales, to cover the auction's operating expenses.

web only | 5 pages | 1,843 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-FR-S-19
Blueberry Root Rot
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

web only | 3 pages | 993 words | 1 download | PDF: 702 kb



PPFS-OR-H-10
Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ray Tackett, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management.

web only | 7 pages | 461 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,803 kb



CCD-CP-51
Culinary Herbs
4/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme.

web only | 4 pages | 1,620 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb



PPFS-OR-W-22
When White Pines Turn Brown: Common Problems of White Pines in Kentucky
4/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is a popular conifer in many Kentucky landscapes, although its use may be limited to loose, well-drained, pathogen-free soil. Often, needle browning is the primary symptom that alerts homeowners and nursery growers of health problems. In Kentucky, brown needles on white pine are often caused by one of the following three conditions: white pine decline, white pine root decline (Procerum root rot), or Phytophthora root rot.

web only | 4 pages | 1,497 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,170 kb



AGR-218
Herbicide Recommendations for Weed Control in Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns for Professional Applicators
3/30/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gre
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

The best method to control weeds is to grow a dense and healthy lawn. This objective should be primary for turf professionals. Lawn weed control is facilitated by identification of the turfgrass and weed species present. Not all herbicides will control all weeds, and not all herbicides are safe on all lawn grasses. This publication contains herbicide recommendations for licensed professionals. For information on weed control for non-professionals, see AGR 208: Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns.

web only | 4 pages | 1,478 words | 59 downloads | PDF: 240 kb



PPA-41
Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers
3/9/2015 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: plant diseases

All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms.

web only | 7 pages | 3,473 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb



ID-140
Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program
2/6/2015 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Jim Akers, Donna Amaral-Phillips,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) is a program developed to ensure that beef and dairy cattle are managed in a manner that will result in safe and wholesome beef and milk products for the consumer. Specifically, BQA is designed to enhance carcass quality by preventing drug residues, injection-site blemishes, and bruises. The Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program is based on recommended national guidelines and scientific research. This program enables beef and dairy producers to enhance their product, maximize marketability, and strengthen consumer confidence.

4,000 printed copies | 83 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 2,353 kb



HENV-105
Planning a Zero-Waste Event
2/4/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ashley Osborne
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

The goal of a zero-waste event (e.g., meeting, business event, birthday party, field day, wedding, etc.) is to minimize the amount of waste produced. The key to hosting a zero-waste event is good advanced planning. This publication will guide you as you plan and carry out your event.

web only | 8 pages | 1,897 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 3,353 kb



ID-227
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky
1/30/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.

1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,479 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 33,000 kb



AGR-217
Determining Soil Texture by Feel
1/22/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: soil and land

Soil texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil. Texture influences almost every aspect of soil use, both in agricultural and engineering applications, and even how natural ecosystems function. Many scientists consider soil texture the most important soil property as it can influence soil/water relationships, gas exchange, and plant nutrition. Accurately determining soil texture in a lab requires time and money; therefore, it is often necessary to estimate soil texture in the field by feel, which can be very accurate if done correctly.

web only | 3 pages | 1,049 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 250 kb



ID-225
Organic Corn Production in Kentucky
1/15/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Chad Lee, Will Martin, Sam McNeill
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms.

2,000 printed copies | 30 pages | 19,856 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



PPFS-OR-W-21
Diplodia Tip Blight of Pine
1/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, D.J. Scully,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Tip blight is a serious disease of landscape pines in Kentucky. Pines such as Austrian (Pinus nigra), Scots (P. sylvestris), and Mugo (P. mugo) are most commonly affected. Other landscape conifers occasionally may be affected by tip blight as well. Tip blight disease has not been found on eastern white pine (P. strobus).

web only | 3 pages | 922 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,268 kb



ASC-221
Keeping and Using Flock Performance Records
12/17/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Performance records serve as the cornerstone of any good livestock management program. Unfortunately, the task of collecting, maintaining and using performance records is the one area of livestock production in general that gets the least attention. This fact sheet provides ten reasons why all sheep producers need to keep performance records on their flocks. Then, some ways of maintaining and using those records are discussed.

50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,390 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 890 kb



ASC-224
Crossbreeding Considerations in Sheep
12/16/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Crossbreeding is the mating of individuals from different breeds. To a certain extent, it is a simple concept, but embarking upon a crossbreeding program, in sheep or any other livestock species, involves long-term decisions. The primary benefits of a crossbreeding program are heterosis and breed complementarity.

50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,680 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 677 kb



ASC-223
Inbreeding in Sheep
12/16/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Inbreeding is broadly defined as the mating of individuals that are related. Strictly speaking, however, all animals within a breed are related. So, in a sense, every purebred sheep producer practices some degree of inbreeding. In most cases this relationship is very slight. Therefore, inbreeding is more practically defined as the mating of individuals more closely related than the average of the breed. This practice includes mating brother to sister, sire to daughter and son to dam.

50 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,809 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 896 kb



ASC-222
Sheep Breeding: Heritability, EBVs, EPDs, and the NSIP
12/16/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Genetic improvement in a flock depends on the producer's ability to select breeding sheep that are genetically superior for traits of economic importance. This is complicated by the fact that an animal's own performance is not always a true indicator of its genetic potential as a parent.

50 printed copies | 5 pages | 2,618 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,082 kb



ASC-220
Basic Sheep Genetics
12/16/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Genetics is the science of heredity. It seeks to explain differences and similarities exhibited by related individuals. The application of genetics to livestock improvement is known as animal breeding. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide a refresher course on basic genetics and to show how knowledge of genetics can be used to improve sheep production.

50 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,064 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 465 kb



ASC-219
An Introduction to Sheep
12/16/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron, Don Ely
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

The information in this fact sheet was developed to provide a quick reference to the most frequently asked questions about sheep and sheep production.

50 printed copies | 5 pages | 3,221 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 1,072 kb



CCD-CP-126
Winter Squash
12/10/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter.

web only | 2 pages | 794 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 668 kb



ASC-218
Proper Handling and Transportation of Eggs for Sale at Kentucky Farmer's Markets
12/4/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. This publication will give you the information and guidelines in the proper handling and transportation of eggs for sale.

web only | 2 pages | 799 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 1,275 kb



ASC-217
So You Want to Produce Your Own Eggs?
12/4/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock. This publication will give you the information you need decide if producing your own eggs is right for you.

web only | 6 pages | 2,161 words | 124 downloads | PDF: 3,047 kb



ASC-216
Reading a Feed Tag
12/4/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Feed stores carry a variety of feed types. How do you chose which to buy? You need to read the feed tag. A lot of information is on a feed tag that can help you make your selection and this publication breaks it down for you.

web only | 4 pages | 2,671 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 181 kb



PPFS-AG-F-9
Managing Diseases of Alfalfa
12/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Alfalfa can be a vigorous and productive forage crop for Kentucky farmers. Like all farm crops, however, alfalfa is subject to infectious diseases that can limit forage production. Managing these diseases is an important part of economical alfalfa production.

web only | 4 pages | 1,658 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 756 kb



PPFS-OR-T-12
Brown Patch Disease in Kentucky Lawns
12/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Brown patch, also called Rhizoctonia blight, is a common infectious disease of turfgrass. All turfgrasses grown in Kentucky lawns can be affected by brown patch. However, this disease is usually destructive only in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass during warm, humid weather. While brown patch can temporarily harm a lawn's appearance, it usually does not cause permanent loss of turf except in plantings less than 1 year old.

web only | 4 pages | 1,767 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 745 kb



CCD-CP-59
Hanging Baskets
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

web only | 4 pages | 1,460 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 631 kb



AEN-126
Common Hazards in Karst Terrain
11/11/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Karst refers to terrain largely drained by subsurface conduits and caves. Karst landscapes are characterized by surface features such as springs, sinkholes, shallow depressions, and rolling hills. Karst regions are also known for their subsurface or below-ground features such as conduits and caves. What makes a karst region unique is the way runoff drains from the land. In karst regions, some of the runoff flows into surface features such as sinkholes where it then travels underground. Some of this infiltrated water re-emerges at springs, and some continues moving underground.

web only | 4 pages | 1,581 words | 78 downloads | PDF: 2,704 kb



AGR-115
Irrigation Tips to Conserve Water and Grow a Healthy Lawn
11/11/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

The goal of water conservation in the landscape does not need to be as drastic as eliminating all irrigation, but we should choose plant material wisely and decide if and when irrigation is necessary. This publication is designed to promote a healthy lawn through watering while promoting water conservation through best management practices. One of the easiest things you can do to reduce the need for irrigation in your yard is to plant species that naturally need less water. When choosing plants, remember that just because a particular plant is drought tolerant does not mean that it is suitable for Kentucky's climate.

web only | 4 pages | 2,765 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 892 kb



CCD-BG-5
Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns
11/10/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production.

web only | 2 pages | 695 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 332 kb



AGR-54
Aerifying and Dethatching Lawns
11/3/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Lawns in Kentucky will occasionally suffer due to compacted (hard) soils and excessive thatch layers. Although most lawns will not have problems with these issues, you may occasionally need to dethatch or aerify (core) to maintain a high quality lawn.

web only | 4 pages | 1,899 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 4,398 kb



AGR-51
Improving Turf Through Renovation
11/3/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Often a poor lawn can be improved by using proper maintenance practices, including mowing, fertilizing, watering, and pest control. In some instances, however, portions of the lawn must be reseeded. Usually one of two methods is used to re-establish a lawn: conventional or renovation. The conventional method involves killing existing vegetation, tilling the soil, and replanting. The advantages of conventional tillage include more complete control of weeds and undesirable grass, a smoother soil surface, and the opportunity to improve the existing soil by adding organic matter and sand. Renovation involves replanting without completely tilling the soil and often without destroying all existing vegetation.

web only | 5 pages | 2,947 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 3,140 kb



ASC-215
Mineral and Protein Blocks and Tubs for Cattle
11/3/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Donna Amaral-Phillips, Roy Burris,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs. Since there are differences in the blocks and tubs being marketed today, familiarity with how to compare products and determine their differences will enable producers to decide which product best fits their needs.

web only | 4 pages | 2,891 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 159 kb



PPFS-AG-S-24
Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015
11/1/2014 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials.

web only | 4 pages | 875 words | 1 download | PDF: 546 kb



PPFS-OR-T-11
Disease Management in the Home Lawn
11/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This publication describes lawn management practices that can help control diseases of turfgrasses commonly used in home lawns--Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and perennial ryegrass. You can control diseases of turfgrasses most effectively by using as many of the following lawn management practices as feasible.

web only | 4 pages | 1,670 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,018 kb



PPFS-OR-T-6
Patch Diseases in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns
11/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

"Patch diseases" can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. Two patch diseases with similar symptoms can occur. Necrotic ring spot often appears in early summer. Summer patch, the more common disease in Kentucky landscapes, develops in middle to late summer.

web only | 4 pages | 1,892 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 793 kb



CCD-MP-7
Social Meida/Mobile Technology Tools for Ag Businesses
10/7/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Miranda Combs
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The way we communicate with each other is changing. Many consumers are now using their smartphones or tablet devices to connect to and interact with local businesses. It is becoming very practical to connect your business to your clientele through social media using mobile technology tools. These tools offer easy methods to communicate, connect, and engage with your customers. Social media is increasingly important to marketing your business. Mobile technology tools are becoming more accessible to rural areas and they offer different options to both businesses and customers in increasing the ease of transactions and finding more connections.

web only | 8 pages | 3,650 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 12,800 kb



PPFS-AG-F-8
Kentucky Plant Disease Management Guide for Forage Legumes
10/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Disease management in forage legumes relies heavily on using disease-resistant varieties and employing sound agronomic practices. It is important to integrate both of these strategies into a comprehensive disease management program. Failure to consider one or the other will compromise the success of your efforts. The appropriate use of pesticides sometimes plays a significant role in managing certain diseases, but it is secondary to sound cultural practices and proper variety selection.

web only | 7 pages | 2,707 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 907 kb



PPFS-VG-18
Blackleg and Bacterial Soft Rot of Potato
10/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Blackleg and soft rot are bacterial diseases that cause heavy losses in Kentucky potato patches in some years. These diseases may result in missing hills when seed pieces are destroyed or the sprouts decay before they emerge from the ground. Serious rotting of tubers in potato hills and in storage can also occur.

web only | 2 pages | 754 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 707 kb



CCD-MP-5
Roadside Stands
9/26/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Roadside stand is generic term for a type of marketing site in which a farm producer sells directly to consumers. A roadside stand is a seasonal, temporary or semi-temporary structure that may be located on or off the farm. A roadside stand may be distinguished from a roadside market in that the latter is usually a permanent structure that is often open year-round.

web only | 4 pages | 1,547 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 774 kb



ID-226
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Hypomagnesemic Tetany or "Grass Tetany"
9/18/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or "grass tetany" is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany.

web only | 3 pages | 1,726 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 121 kb



ASC-214
Is Creep Feeding Lambs a Profitable Undertaking?
9/8/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Ely, Endre Fink
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Creep feeding is a technique of providing feed to nursing lambs to supplement the milk they consume. Creep-fed lambs grow faster than noncreep-feds and are more aggressive in nursing ewes. This aggression stimulates greater ewe milk production which, in turn, increases creep feed intake because these lambs will be bigger at a given age. Typically, the creep diet is a grain-protein supplement mixture and is made available in an area constructed so lambs can enter, but ewes cannot. Some situations when it may be economical to creep feed are described in this document.

300 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,940 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 309 kb



CCD-CP-89
Brussels Sprouts
9/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Currently there is little production of brussels sprouts in Kentucky. Much of the commercial production for brussels sprouts produced in the United States is concentrated in California. The Census of Agriculture reported that two Kentucky farms harvested brussels sprouts in the 2012 growing season.

web only | 3 pages | 1,329 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 626 kb



PPFS-AG-R-1
Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola
9/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Carrie Knott
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Canola Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-R series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Interest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola.

web only | 2 pages | 697 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 600 kb



PPFS-VG-17
Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato
9/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

web only | 3 pages | 786 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 636 kb



CCD-BG-4
Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 7 pages | 1,573 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 352 kb



CCD-BG-3
Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 2 pages | 1,573 words | 1 download | PDF: 352 kb



CCD-BG-2
Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years.

web only | 4 pages | 1,164 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 561 kb



CCD-CP-13
Organic Blueberries
8/20/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 633 kb



AGR-215
Evaluating Land Resource Potentials in Kentucky
8/15/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Edwin Ritchey, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

The most successful land use decisions are those where the intended use matches the capabilities of the land. Determining the capability of the land begins with a visual assessment of the landscape such as topography (percent slope) and surface drainage patterns followed by a closer examination of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this publication is to provide a basic understanding of the relationship between these landscape and soil properties to facilitate wise land use decisions.

web only | 3 pages | 3,493 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 630 kb



ID-223
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Brassicas--Be Aware of the Animal Health Risks
8/12/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Although infrequent, brassica crops can cause animal health disorders if grazing is managed improperly. Most brassica-related disorders in cattle tend to occur during the first two weeks of grazing while adjusting to the forage. The primary potential disorders are polioencephalomalcia or PEM, hemolytic anemia (mainly with kale), nitrate poisoning, and pulmonary emphysema. Other possible clinical disorders include bloat and rumen acidosis, and metabolic problems such as hypomagnesemia and hypothyroidism with goiter. Glucosinates present in brassicas are precursors of irritants that can cause colic and diarrhea. Large bulbs may lodge in the esophagus and lead to choking. Certain brassicas (specifically rape) can cause sunburn or "scald" on light-skinned animals, especially when grazed while the plants are immature. Other potential problems include oxalate poisoning and off-flavoring of meat and milk.

web only | 3 pages | 1,867 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 913 kb



AEN-125
Closing a Liquid Manure Storage Structure
8/11/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kylie Schmidt
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure(s) as part of their Kentucky No Discharge Operational Permit. To help offset the costs of closing the structure, producers may want to apply for cost share funds through the Division of Conservation. Before beginning to close a liquid manure structure, the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) must be provided with a closure plan. This publication outlines the preferred practices and steps for closing a liquid manure structure to meet the guidelines of the KDOW.

web only | 2 pages | 1,148 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 106 kb



PPFS-VG-16
Bean Diseases
8/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Anthracnose can reduce bean quality, as well as yield. Losses can be severe during cool, rainy weather. It is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which appears on all aboveground parts of the plant but rarely on roots. Lesions generally are dark brown and may contain pink spore masses during moist weather. Elongate, angular spots appear on lower leaf veins. As the fungus spreads into surrounding tissue, lesions eventually appear on the upper side of veins. Affected seeds become discolored. Plants grown from infected seed may develop lesions on the cotyledons.

web only | 6 pages | 2,129 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,154 kb



ID-222
Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach
7/30/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.

web only | 8 pages | 4,099 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb



AEN-124
Streambank Erosion
7/23/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Matthew Burnette
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Streambank erosion refers to the removal of soil and other material, such as rock and vegetation, from the streambank. Streambank erosion is a naturally occurring process, but the rate at which it occurs is often increased by anthropogenic or human activities such as urbanization and agriculture. Changes in land use can cause streambanks to erode at rates much faster than those seen in natural, undisturbed systems.

web only | 8 pages | 2,133 words | 102 downloads | PDF: 3,112 kb



AGR-214
Liming Kentucky Lawns
7/22/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Edwin Ritchey
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nutrient management

Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn.

web only | 4 pages | 1,758 words | 85 downloads | PDF: 909 kb



AGR-212
Fertilizing Your Lawn
7/22/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nutrient management

Lawns require fertilizer to remain healthy. Proper fertilization practices will lead to a thick, dark green, uniform lawn that is competitive against weed and disease invasions. The nutrients contained in fertilizers are necessary to support many processes occurring within the plants. If any essential nutrient is limiting, the plants will not perform at their highest level.

web only | 4 pages | 2,468 words | 91 downloads | PDF: 425 kb



CCD-CP-105
Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)
7/21/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002.

web only | 3 pages | 1,054 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 612 kb



HO-112
Understanding Soilless Media Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
7/17/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: soil and land

Although choosing or formulating media with optimum physical properties (such as pore air space and water holding capacity) for a given production environment and crop plant is important, this publication focuses on the chemical properties of soilless media determined with a laboratory test as conducted through the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service at the Division of Regulatory Services Soil Testing Laboratories.

web only | 4 pages | 2,443 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 252 kb



ID-172s
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky
7/9/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.

1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 5,600 kb



CCD-CP-82
Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms
7/3/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations.

web only | 4 pages | 1,689 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 561 kb



ID-221
Fescue Toxicosis
7/3/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

"Fescue toxicosis" is the general term used for the clinical diseases that can affect cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tall-fescue pastures containing ergot alkaloids are responsible for the toxic effects observed in livestock, including hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), gangrene of the extremities, decreased weight gain, and poor reproductive performance. Clinical signs vary depending on the cattle, the environmental conditions, and the level and duration of the exposure. Early clinical signs are often reversible after removal from contaminated pastures or hay.

web only | 4 pages | 2,470 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 740 kb



ID-89
How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
7/1/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.

web only | 7 pages | 2,439 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb



ID-50
Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
7/1/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jamie Dockery, Kristin Goodin,
 Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Path
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.

web only | 11 pages | 4,025 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb



CCD-MP-3
Pick-Your-Own (U-Pick) Marketing
6/30/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Pick-Your-Own (PYO), also referred to as U-Pick, occurs when farmers "invite the public onto the farm to harvest their own food."1 Producers searching for new crops, combined with a growing Kentucky population, renewed interest in PYO during the past 20 years.

web only | 4 pages | 1,399 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



CCD-CP-7
Grapes
6/23/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented.

web only | 4 pages | 1,653 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 694 kb



CCD-MP-8
Marketing Asian Produce in Kentucky
6/19/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Burgeoning Asian populations and consumer interest in Asian cuisine helped stimulate increased interest in purchasing fresh Asian vegetables to prepare at home, a trend expected to continue. Caucasian consumers tend to prefer value-added and processed vegetables, but there are market niches for fresh Asian vegetables. Kentucky producers have received inquiries to source edamame (vegetable soybean) and daikon (Chinese radish) at wholesale quantities.

web only | 6 pages | 1,403 words | 1 download | PDF: 758 kb



ID-184
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky
6/3/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry J
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

4,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,437 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 1,054 kb



PPFS-OR-W-11
Twig Blights of Juniper
6/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

web only | 2 pages | 720 words | 1 download | PDF: 600 kb



AEN-123
Lowering Somatic Cell Counts with Best Management Practices
5/14/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kylie Schmidt,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

As health and food safety concerns grow, dairy producers are facing more stringent regulations. In 2010, the European Union (EU) set the somatic cell count (SCC) upper limit, an indicator of milk quality, for exported milk at 400,000 cells per milliliter. However, the current U.S. SCC limit is 750,000 cells per milliliter. As of January 2012, any U.S. milk used in export markets must meet the EU standards. It is projected that US milk processors will gradually adopt the EU upper limit, making it difficult for dairy producers to sell milk containing more than 400,000 somatic cells per milliliter. Dairy producers will have to find innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce the somatic cell count of their milk. This publication will discuss how agriculture best management practices can be used to lower SCC.

web only | 4 pages | 2,808 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 350 kb



ID-210
Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
5/12/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Tom Barnes, Cheryl Kaiser, C
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

1,500 printed copies | 58 pages | 28,039 words | 90 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



ID-219
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
5/7/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

3,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 5,056 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



CCD-CP-27
Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy
5/5/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed.

web only | 3 pages | 773 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb



CCD-CP-64
Poinsettias
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

web only | 3 pages | 1,262 words | 1 download | PDF: 409 kb



CCD-CP-31
Grain Sorghum
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose.

web only | 3 pages | 901 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 496 kb



CCD-MP-2
Marketing Via the Internet
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The Internet can be utilized in a variety of marketing strategies. Producers may sell their products online through e-commerce, use a website to take orders for their goods, or simply advertise their operation through a "billboard" type website. Social media and blogs provide yet another way the Internet can be used for promoting a farm enterprise. The increase in access to Web-based services through handheld devices makes many customers more immediately accessible to products and services.

web only | 4 pages | 1,937 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 442 kb



HENV-205
Residential Rain Garden: Design, Construction, Maintenance
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Brad Lee,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

This publication covers the design, construction, and maintenance of residential ran gardens. Rain gardens are one of several stormwater management practices that homeowners can use to reduce their property's negative impact on water quality and flooding.

web only | 15 pages | 6,021 words | 165 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb



PPFS-GEN-10
Root-knot Nematode in Commercial and Residential Crops
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Root-knot nematode (RKN) is a soil-dwelling microscopic roundworm. This nematode is parasitic on numerous plants, including vegetables, fruits, field crops, ornamentals, and common weeds. RKN can occur in commercial and homeowner plantings. Frequently, the nematode interacts with other plant pathogens to form a disease complex in which the resulting disease is much more severe than that caused by either component alone. Root-knot nematode is particularly serious when high populations are allowed to build up due to continuous replanting of susceptible plants on the same site.

web only | 4 pages | 1,619 words | 1 download | PDF: 917 kb



PPFS-OR-W-19
Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Mike Klahr,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs.

web only | 10 pages | 706 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb



PPFS-VG-15
Tomato Wilt Problems
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are two fungal diseases that cause similar wilts in tomato. Fusarium wilt tends to be more common during warm weather, while Verticillium wilt is found more often when temperatures are cool. Both diseases share similar symptoms and can be hard to tell apart visually; laboratory tests are often needed for an accurate diagnosis.

web only | 4 pages | 1,510 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 2,070 kb



ID-21
Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky
4/29/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, John St
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.

1,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 10,516 words | 134 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



AGR-213
Soybean Nutrient Management in Kentucky
4/24/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: John Grove, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, nutrient management<

Soybean grows best on fertile soils. For decades, the University of Kentucky has conducted field studies to establish the relationship between soil nutrient supplies and soybean yield. Adequate soil fertility must be present so that yields are not limited.

web only | 5 pages | 2,814 words | 62 downloads | PDF: 1,015 kb



CCD-CP-72
Ornamental Corn
4/24/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

web only | 3 pages | 984 words | - | PDF: 643 kb



AEN-121
Increasing Dry Cow and Bred Heifer Performance with Environmental Management
4/23/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kylie Schmidt
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Producers must understand that dry cows and bred heifers are the next milking herd, so focusing on their management can maintain or actually increase future profitability. This publication focuses on environmental management strategies that improve dry cow and bred heifer performance.

web only | 3 pages | 1,606 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 454 kb



ID-220
Cyanide Poisoning in Ruminants
4/21/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication.

web only | 2 pages | 973 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 255 kb



ID-180
Collection and Preparation of Milk Samples for Microbiological Culturing
4/16/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeffrey Bewley,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions.

500 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,439 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 873 kb



CCD-SP-10
Organic Certification Process
4/14/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: organic production

Growers who plan to market their agricultural products as "organic" or "certified organic" must first be certified by a USDA accredited certifier. Certification, required by federal regulation, provides third party verification that the grower is complying with production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). Annual inspections and detailed record keeping are required for continuing certification. These strict regulations are meant to protect consumers by ensuring that all organic producers are adhering to the same set of uniform standards.

web only | 4 pages | 1,334 words | - | PDF: 430 kb



CCD-CP-8
High Tunnel Brambles
4/7/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels.

web only | 6 pages | 2,906 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 619 kb



CCD-CP-61
High Tunnel Strawberries
4/4/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops,

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

web only | 4 pages | 2,061 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 528 kb



ASC-213
How to Make a Country Ham
4/3/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Rentfrow, Surendranath Suman
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Country hams can be found in grocery stores and specialty shops throughout Southeast and on the internet. Nonetheless, there are some do-it-yourselfers who want to start their own family traditions. Country hams are not difficult to make. The process requires a few easy-to-find ingredients and a secure storage area. Country hams are made in three steps: curing, salt equalization, and aging. These steps are outlined in the manual.

100 printed copies | 9 pages | 4,433 words | 170 downloads | PDF: 6,791 kb



ID-218
A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System
4/2/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Donna Amaral-Phillips, Michelle Arnold,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Researchers at the University of Kentucky combined existing disease detection systems to produce a fresh cow examination system that may help producers detect diseases earlier by monitoring subtle changes every day during a cow's fresh period. Compiling daily information about each animal will enable producers to notice changes in health that may otherwise have been overlooked. These records may help producers detect illnesses early, thus reducing the long-term effects (reduced milk production or fertility) and costs (re-treatment, milk loss, or death) of a disease. Learning what diseases are common on a particular farm can focus producers' efforts towards preventive measures specific to their operation. Preventing disease, rather than treating, can save producers time and money and can improve overall cow well-being.

web only | 15 pages | 3,501 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb



PPFS-VG-11
Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits
4/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

web only | 3 pages | 1,044 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 575 kb



VET-34
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Ergotism
3/31/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold
 Departments: Veterinary Science
 Series: Veterinary Science (VET series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. It grows on rye, wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and various grasses. Rye and triticale are more susceptible than other grains because they require a longer period of pollination. Grasses potentially infected include tall fescue, bluegrass, brome, canarygrass, quackgrass, timothy, wild barley, and annual and perennial ryegrass. Shallow cultivation, no-till farming, and lack of crop rotation increase the likelihood of infection of crops. Environmental conditions of a cool, wet spring followed by hot early summer temperatures are ideal for the fungus to grow.

web only | 2 pages | 964 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 400 kb



PA-9
Technology to Improve Sprayer Accuracy
3/26/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Tim Stombaugh
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Precision Agriculture (PA series)
 Tags:

A number of new technologies have been introduced over the last several years aimed at improving the accuracy of spray application, but do they really work? The purpose of this document is to highlight the most common causes of application errors then discuss the array of new sprayer technologies that are becoming available, how they might affect application accuracy, and pitfalls involved in using them.

500 printed copies | 10 pages | 5,166 words | 68 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



AGR-211
Calibrating Fertilizer Spreaders for the Home Lawn
3/25/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nutrient management

How much fertilizer should you use on your lawn? Too much can result in turf burn, wasted product and money, and potential environmental concerns. Too little will result in a low-density lawn that will not be attractive or competitive against weed invasions. To insure that you apply the proper amount of fertilizer to your lawn, you must calibrate your fertilizer spreader. You should calibrate your spreader each time you use a new (different) fertilizer because not all fertilizers have the same particle size or density. The information on the fertilizer bag is a good starting point for the calibration process but remember that spreaders can differ significantly. Calibrating your spreader will take a little bit of work, but the series of fairly simple steps below will help you complete the task.

web only | 4 pages | 2,182 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 2,900 kb



CCD-MP-6
Selling Farm Products at Farmers Markets
3/25/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Farmers markets are used by Kentucky growers of all farm sizes and scales. "Market gardeners" often tend less than an acre of land for selling strictly at the local farmers market. On the other hand, some of Kentucky's largest orchards use local farmers markets as a retail outlet during the fall to command a premium price for their crop.

web only | 6 pages | 2,340 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 811 kb



AGR-129
Soybean Variety Selection
3/20/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Edwin R
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans

Soybean variety selection is one of the most important and most difficult management decisions a producer must make each year. It takes careful identification of the problems and needs of the production system. When done properly it increases the chance the variety will reach its full yield potential while eliminating costs for unnecessary traits, resulting in highly profitable returns.

1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,941 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 570 kb



ASC-212
Stereotypic Behavior in Horses: Weaving, Stall Walking, and Cribbing
3/14/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Many stabled horses perform a variety of repetitive behaviors such as weaving, stall walking, cribbing, headshaking and pawing. These behaviors have been called many different names including stereotypic behavior, stereotypies, stereotypes, obsessive compulsive disorders, vices and habits. Although it may be difficult to know why exactly each horse performs these vices, there may be specific causal factors for these activities in the horse. These behaviors are not simply learned and not simply inherited, but may be a mixture of both. Studies show that some families of horses have a higher prevalence of certain vices, which suggests heritability and genetic components. However, the tendency to perform the behavior only becomes apparent when other risk factors are also in place.

web only | 2 pages | 1,401 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 480 kb



HO-110
Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses
3/14/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, sustai

Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued.

web only | 17 pages | 9,670 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 5,953 kb



ID-217
Forage-Related Disorders in Cattle: Nitrate Poisoning
3/10/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Cynthia Gaskill,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Few plants normally contain high nitrate levels, since under normal growing conditions the nitrates are converted to protein as quickly as they are absorbed from the roots. However, under certain conditions plants can develop dangerously high nitrate levels which can cause nitrate intoxication. Death or abortion may result. Care must be taken to recognize possible toxic forages and manage them appropriately to avoid animal loss.

web only | 3 pages | 2,447 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 314 kb



CCD-CP-36
Millet
3/7/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning.

web only | 3 pages | 1,035 words | - | PDF: 406 kb



AEN-122
Restoring Streams
3/4/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Evan Wesley
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Stream restoration is the re-establishment of the structure (dimension, pattern, and profile) and function (transport of water, sediment, and nutrients; habitat provision) of a degraded stream as closely as possible to pre-disturbance conditions.

web only | 5 pages | 1,752 words | 121 downloads | PDF: 3,632 kb



CCD-CP-43
Sunflower for Seed
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sunflower is classified as either an oil type or a confection (non-oil) type, each with its own distinct market. Seeds from oil types are processed into vegetable oil or as meal in livestock feed. Most confection type seed is sold, with or without the hull, as snack foods. While either type can be packaged for birdseed, the confectionery type is grown in Kentucky for this purpose. Sunflowers are not recommended for oil crop production here.

web only | 3 pages | 898 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 377 kb



CCD-CP-35
Kura Clover
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north.

web only | 2 pages | 751 words | - | PDF: 389 kb



PPFS-GEN-11
Diagnosis of "No Disease"
3/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, S
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Extension Agents and growers may occasionally receive diagnostic reports from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory that indicate "no disease was found." One or both of the following explanations may account for the diagnosis of "No Disease."

web only | 3 pages | 916 words | 1 download | PDF: 867 kb



PPFS-GEN-9
Submitting Plant Specimens for Disease Diagnosis
3/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, S
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the many ways that the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and UK Cooperative Extension serve the citizens of Kentucky. This publication is designed to help growers collect and submit the best plant samples for an accurate diagnosis.

web only | 7 pages | 872 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 2,312 kb



CCD-CP-34
Kenaf
2/18/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products

web only | 2 pages | 909 words | - | PDF: 426 kb



ASC-211
Expected Progeny Differences: Trait Definitions and Utilizing Percentile Tables
2/7/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Sean Bessin, Darrh Bullock
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Expected progeny differences (EPDs) are useful tools in providing the best estimate of the genetic value of a particular animal as a parent. Differences in EPDs between parents of the same breed predict the performance differences of their future offspring if environmental factors are the same. EPD values should not be compared between breeds; for example, you should not compare an Angus bull's weaning weight EPD with a Simmental bull's weaning weight EPD. Most established breeds have EPDs for calving ease, growth, maternal, and carcass traits. When used properly, producers can make genetic improvements to their herd through parental selection. This publication is intended to help producers better understand EPDs and how one might use them in selection of replacement animals.

web only | 3 pages | 1,781 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 370 kb



HO-111
Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
2/6/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production.

web only | 6 pages | 3,971 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 264 kb



VET-33
Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves
1/22/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold
 Departments: Veterinary Science
 Series: Veterinary Science (VET series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

During gestation, the placenta of the cow effectively separates the blood of the fetus from that of the dam and prevents any transfer of protective immunity while in the uterus. Therefore, the calf is born completely dependent on the absorption of maternal antibodies from colostrum after birth. Colostrum is the milk produced from the mammary gland in the first 24 hours after birth. A calf's gastrointestinal tract is designed to temporarily allow the absorption of large molecules including antibodies from the small intestine, but only during the first 24 hours after birth. Although colostrum contains several different types of immunoglobulins, IgG accounts for roughly 85 percent of the total volume. IgG absorption is most efficient in the first four hours of life and declines rapidly after 12 hours of age. At 24 hours, the gut is completely closed and there is no further immunoglobulin absorption. These absorbed antibodies must be consumed in order to protect the calf from disease organisms until its own immune system becomes functional.

web only | 3 pages | 1,983 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 280 kb



AGR-210
Fertilizer Management in Alfalfa
1/8/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Lloyd Murdock,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Alfalfa is a high quality, valuable forage crop that can be successfully produced on most well-drained soils in Kentucky for hay, silage, and grazing. Fertilizing alfalfa can be uniquely challenging because it is a high-yielding crop that removes a tremendous amount of soil nutrients when compared to other crops grown in Kentucky. A thorough understanding of alfalfa's growth habits, nutrient requirements, and soil nutrient supply mechanisms is necessary to effectively manage fertilizer inputs and maximize profitability while minimizing environmental impact.

500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,657 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 4 kb



AEN-120
Groundwater Quality
1/6/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Groundwater is an important water source for activities such as drinking, bathing, cooking, and crop irrigation. Keeping our groundwater sources clean is becoming more challenging with an ever growing population. In watersheds underlain with karst, such as many of those in Kentucky, the groundwater is more susceptible to contamination. This is because surface waters, such as runoff and in some cases streamflow, travel into the subsurface of karst by way of fractures, sinkholes, swallow holes, conduits and caves Such direct paths into the groundwater mean that pollutants reach the aquifer much more quickly with little to no filtration. Thus, while waters from springs and wells may look clean, they may actually contain unsafe levels of pollutants such as bacteria and nitrogen.

web only | 3 pages | 888 words | 84 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb



ASC-205
Selecting Feeds for Horses
1/6/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo, Laurie Lawrence
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Feeds should be selected with the nutrient requirements of the horse in mind, recognizing that requirements vary with the life stage of the horse (growing, pregnant, lactating, working, idle). Feeds for horses should always be clean and free from toxins. Feeds should also promote gastrointestinal health. The large intestine (cecum and colon) of the digestive tract contains a diverse population of beneficial microbes that can easily be upset by poor feed selection. In nature horses will spend more than 50% of their time grazing; therefore, feed that promotes similar feeding behavior may be desirable. Once appropriate feeds have been selected, it is important that they are fed in the correct amounts using good feeding management strategies.

web only | 5 pages | 3,082 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,450 kb



PPFS-AG-S-9
Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis
1/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility.

web only | 3 pages | 1,169 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 679 kb



PPFS-MISC-2
Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance
1/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Fungicides are important tools in modern crop production. Unfortunately, one of the risks of using these products is that fungi sometimes develop resistance to them. Resistance development is a concern because the products may become less effective--or even useless--for controlling resistant pathogens and pests. This is a concern for all pesticides, including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. This fact sheet is intended to help pesticide applicators better understand this process.

web only | 10 pages | 5,690 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,325 kb



ASC-203
Avian Digestive System
11/20/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

An understanding of the avian digestive system is essential to developing an effective and economical feeding program for your poultry flock. Knowledge of avian anatomy, and what the parts normally look like, will also help you to recognize when something is wrong and take the necessary actions to correct the problem.

web only | 4 pages | 1,879 words | 56 downloads | PDF: 2,065 kb



ASC-202
Avian Skeletal System
11/20/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

All animals have a skeleton to allow them to stand up and to protect their internal organs and tissues. The avian skeletal system looks similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, but there are some important differences.

web only | 2 pages | 836 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 310 kb



ASC-201
Avian Female Reproductive System
11/20/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Anyone raising poultry for eggs, whether for eating or for incubation, should have an understanding of the reproductive system. This will help them understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.

web only | 4 pages | 2,250 words | 63 downloads | PDF: 914 kb



ASC-204
Avian Muscular System
11/19/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

If you raise poultry for meat, it is always a good idea to have an understanding of the muscular system of poultry so you can better understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.

web only | 2 pages | 766 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 1,887 kb



AEN-119
Keeping Trash Out of Streams
11/14/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Rachel Williams
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Fresh water is an essential natural resource that is used every day for drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, and recreation. In Kentucky, the water used for these tasks mainly comes from streams and rivers, but it can also come from groundwater. Because our streams, rivers, and aquifers are so vital to our daily lives, it is important that we protect them from trash, debris, and other pollutants found in stormwater. What happens to the land around these water sources affects their condition and health.

web only | 2 pages | 941 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



HENV-206
Understanding and Protecting Kentucky's Watersheds
11/8/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jenny Cocanougher, Amanda A. Gumbert,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, County Extension
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

Regardless of where you are, you are always in a watershed. A watershed is any area of land that drains water to a single water body such as a stream or lake.

web only | 3 pages | 6,687 words | 104 downloads | PDF: 2,511 kb



ASC-200
Avian Respiratory System
11/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Knowledge of avian anatomy and what the parts normally look like will help you to recognize when something is wrong and to take the necessary actions to correct the problem.

web only | 2 pages | 1,304 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 200 kb



ASC-199
Avian Male Reproductive System
11/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

The avian male reproductive system is all inside the bird, unlike the males of mammalian species which have their reproductive systems outside of the body. This is one of the really remarkable things about birds; the sperm remain viable at body temperature.

web only | 2 pages | 678 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 843 kb



ASC-210
Processing Chickens
10/31/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

When processing poultry, remember that you are producing a perishable food product that will eventually be consumed by people. The goal is to produce a safe, nutritious product.

web only | 7 pages | 3,190 words | 100 downloads | PDF: 3,105 kb



ASC-209
Raising Guinea Fowl
10/31/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Guinea fowl are rough, vigorous, hardy, and mostly disease-free game birds. They are increasing in popularity for a variety of reasons.

web only | 5 pages | 3,750 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 730 kb



ASC-198
Selecting Ducks
10/31/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

As with many domesticated species, ducks are selected for different purposes, primarily meat or egg production. They are also valued for their feathers and down. It is important to choose a breed of duck that best suits your particular needs.

web only | 4 pages | 2,311 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 758 kb



ASC-197
Selecting Turkeys
10/31/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Raising wild turkeys is illegal in some states, including Kentucky. The prohibition includes domestic strains of wild birds. The law is meant to protect native populations of wild turkeys. Learn more about selecting the right breed of turkey in this publication.

web only | 3 pages | 1,675 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 664 kb



ASC-196
Selecting Geese
10/31/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Size, behavior and egg production vary according to breed, and the right breed of goose for your flock will depend on what you intend to use them for. This publication will help you decide on the right breed for you.

web only | 3 pages | 1,822 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 663 kb



ID-84
Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
10/16/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Edwin Ritchey,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.

web only | 4 pages | 1,862 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 3,130 kb



HENV-401
Managing Insects and Spiders in the Home
8/29/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Blake Newton
 Departments: Entomology
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

This guide is designed to help you tell the "bad" bugs from the harmless ones and to show you a few basic steps that you can take to detect the most common indoor pests and to prevent problems before they happen.

web only | 11 pages | 4,738 words | 84 downloads | PDF: 7,891 kb



AEN-118
Managing Stormwater Using Low Impact Development (LID) Techniques
8/21/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, John McMaine
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

As more land is covered by impervious surfaces, less rainfall infiltrates into the ground and instead becomes runoff. Too much runoff is problematic. Flooding increases, streambanks erode, and water quality is reduced. An increase of impervious area of as little 10 percent has been shown to negatively impact streams. The purpose of this publication is to explain low impact development strategies and how they can be used to improve stormwater management by reducing impacts on streams.

web only | 8 pages | 3,384 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 5,300 kb



PPFS-GEN-5
Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation
8/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

web only | 3 pages | 919 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 723 kb



CCD-MP-16
Selected Resources for Developing Value-added Products in Kentucky
7/27/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The following list is intended to provide Kentucky growers with resources that will help them on their way to adding value to their raw farm products. Included are the names and contact information of pertinent agencies and departments at the University, State, and Federal levels. Links to government regulations and laws related to processing value-added food products are included, as well as links to other selected Internet resources, fact sheets, and guidebooks.

web only | 7 pages | 2,114 words | - | PDF: 745 kb



HENV-509
How Water Use Impacts Septic System Performance
7/25/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

The purpose of this publication is to discuss home water use patterns and suggest water conservation measures that could improve septic system performance and reduce the risks of hydraulic overload or other kinds of system failure.

web only | 4 pages | 1,613 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



ID-216
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky
7/22/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

3,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,491 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 5,300 kb



CCD-CP-75
Willows for Cuttings
7/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

web only | 3 pages | 1,137 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 430 kb



CCD-CP-48
White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market.

web only | 2 pages | 809 words | 1 download | PDF: 344 kb



CCD-CP-29
Dry Beans
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are beans grown to maturity and harvested for the seeds within the pods. Also referred to as field beans, dry beans are primarily grown in the U.S. for human consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,084 words | - | PDF: 438 kb



CCD-MP-18
Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program
7/1/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) is providing an incentive to local restaurants to purchase eligible Kentucky Proud products. The Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program reimburses participating restaurants and caterers with a percentage of the purchase cost of qualifying products.

web only | 4 pages | 1,215 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 639 kb



ID-215
Stormwater Wetlands
7/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Kristi Meier
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

As our population has grown, so have our towns and cities, and this growth has led to an increase in stormwater runoff. Stormwater best management practices help mitigate the impact of stormwater runoff on water quality by reducing pollutant loads through physical, chemical and/or biological processes. One of the most effective BMPs at improving stormwater quality is the stormwater wetland.

web only | 4 pages | 2,647 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb



PPFS-AG-F-7
Rating Scale for Brown Stripe of Orchardgrass
7/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Leah Saylor, Ray Smith, Paul Vi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

As of right now, there is little published on how to assess foliar disease severity in forage grasses in order to determine the percentage which may be diseased. This publication provides a tool for visually determining the percentage of diseased foliar tissue in orchardgrass. It is based on the observation of individual leaves; however, it is hoped that eventually a rating system will be devised that provides disease percentages for entire plots.

web only | 3 pages | 511 words | - | PDF: 566 kb



PPFS-GEN-4
Landscape Sanitation
7/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda Sears, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home landscape plantings (Figure 1a), resulting in premature leaf drop, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

web only | 3 pages | 951 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 644 kb



CCD-CP-25
Cereal Straw Production
6/21/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | - | PDF: 532 kb



CCD-CP-28
Corn for Grain and Silage
6/15/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products

web only | 3 pages | 1,003 words | - | PDF: 360 kb



ID-52
What's Wrong with My Taxus?
6/5/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.

web only | 4 pages | 2,010 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb



CCD-CP-38
Popcorn and Blue Corn
6/4/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels.

web only | 2 pages | 894 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 532 kb



PPFS-OR-W-17
Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants
6/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below.

web only | 4 pages | 1,587 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 681 kb



CCD-CP-39
Red and White Clover
5/28/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Red and white (ladino) clovers are high quality forage legumes with excellent feed value and animal palatability. Red clover (Trifolium pretense), a tall-growing and short-lived perennial, is used for hay, pasture, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitats. While white clover (Trifolium repens), a low-growing perennial, is best suited for grazing, it can also be used for soil improvement and reclaiming disturbed land.

web only | 2 pages | 731 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 512 kb



ID-167
On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Spencer Guinn, Amanda A. Gumbert,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Animal mortalities are an expected part of animal production. Depending on the scale of the animal enterprise, animal mortalities can overwhelm the producer with a large number and mass of dead animals. This publication provides guidance to the producer for handling animal mortalities in accordance with Kentucky law.

web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | 76 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



ID-166
On-Farm Composting of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

On-farm composting can provide animal producers with a convenient method for disposing of animal mortalities and also provide a valuable soil amendment. In addition, the finished compost can be stockpiled and reused to help compost other mortalities.

web only | 6 pages | 2,973 words | 110 downloads | PDF: 2,800 kb



ID-133
Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens, 2013
5/6/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Tim Coolong, Rick Durham, Terry
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases.

web only | 8 pages | 814 words | 128 downloads | PDF: 425 kb



ASC-194
Poultry Production Troubleshooting
5/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

When investigating a problem with a poultry flock, the questions in this publication can help you determine the cause and possible solution.

web only | 4 pages | 1,649 words | 83 downloads | PDF: 272 kb



CCD-CP-46
Switchgrass for Bioenergy
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Greg Halich, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial bunchgrass native to portions of Kentucky. Once a major component of the Midwestern prairies, switchgrass stands have dwindled as natural grasslands have given way to expanding farms and developments.

web only | 4 pages | 1,779 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 557 kb



PPFS-AG-S-19
Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky.

web only | 6 pages | 2,197 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 856 kb



ID-214
Mulching with Large Round Bales between Plastic-covered Beds
4/26/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Tim Coolong, Tim Stombaugh,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Large round bales lend themselves very well to the application of mulching rows of vegetables because the bales can be unrolled to peel off layers that are about the right thickness for mulch. An innovative implement that offsets the bale so that it can be unrolled between the rows while the tractor straddles the row can make the practice of mulching with round bales considerably more efficient.

250 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,335 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



ID-213
2011 Kentucky Compost Bedded Pack Barn Project
4/26/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jeffrey Bewley, Randi Black,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Kentucky dairy producers are adopting compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) as dairy cattle housing at a rapid rate. When properly managed, as an alternative dairy housing system, CBPs may decrease somatic cell count (SCC), increase production, and reduce lameness. Because the system is relatively new, however, many questions remain regarding best management practices and key factors for success. University of Kentucky dairy scientists and agricultural engineers conducted a comprehensive observational study of Kentucky CBPs from October 2010 to March 2011. The goal of this research was to determine key management concepts that determine success or failure in the compost-bedded pack system.

web only | 13 pages | 6,600 words | 87 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



ID-212
Using DHIA Records for Somatic Cell Count Management
4/26/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Donna Amaral-Phillips, Michelle Arnold,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

DHIA (Dairy Herd Improvement Association) records are an essential part of dairy herd management for many progressive dairy operations. However, for producers new to DHIA, interpreting the meaning of all this information can be a bit overwhelming. Even producers who have been DHIA members for many years may not fully understand all the value that DHIA records can provide for SCC management. What follows is a description and interpretation of SCC-related information available to dairy producers on DHIA test reports.

web only | 5 pages | 1,560 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 915 kb



AEN-117
Modifying a Bale Unroller for Mulching between Plastic-covered Beds
4/25/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: John Wilhoit
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Round bales of hay or straw can be used to mulch between rows of plastic film mulch used in vegetable production. This practice may be particularly useful for organic production where herbicide use is prohibited. To make the job of unrolling round bales between rows of plastic easier, a commercially available three-point hitch mounted bale unroller was modified by extending the toolbar and adding a second mast so that the bale is offset, allowing the tractor to straddle a row of plastic while unrolling the bale between the rows.

250 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,496 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 3,400 kb



ID-200
Environmental Compliance for Dairy Operations
4/24/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Some farmers are reluctant to talk about the environment, but because farms are under increasing review by state and federal regulatory agencies, producers need to be familiar with environmental issues and regulations. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can help farmers continue to protect the environment and increase productivity.

web only | 6 pages | 4,179 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-44
Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel
4/18/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results.

web only | 3 pages | 1,465 words | 1 download | PDF: 434 kb



CCD-CP-23
Broomcorn
4/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors.

web only | 2 pages | 992 words | - | PDF: 623 kb



CCD-SP-4
Selected Resources and References for Commercial Greenhouse Operators
4/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Books can be obtained from the publisher (known links are provided), by ordering through a local bookstore, or by ordering through an industry trade magazine (books are generally advertised in each issue). Book sources can also be located by searching the Internet using the title as the keyword.

web only | 3 pages | 862 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 553 kb



AGR-209
Mowing Your Kentucky Lawn
4/15/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Mowing is a recurring cutting of a portion of a grass shoot. Lawns are mowed to maintain topgrowth within a specific range, to control weed plants that are intolerant to mowing, or to sustain an ornamental turf. Mowing is usually thought of as the most simple of lawn maintenance practices; however, even though we perform it more than any other, it can result in mistakes.

web only | 4 pages | 2,119 words | 100 downloads | PDF: 4,500 kb



CCD-CP-45
Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses.

web only | 3 pages | 1,161 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb



CCD-CP-21
Alfalfa
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the highest yield potential and highest feeding values of all adapted perennial forage legumes. It is a versatile crop that may be used for pasture, hay, silage, green-chop, pellets, cubes, soil improvement, and soil conservation.

web only | 3 pages | 998 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 426 kb



ID-202
Feedlot Design and Environmental Management for Backgrounding and Stocker Operations
3/21/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Jeff Lehmkuhler,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Kentucky's cattle industry represents the largest beef cattle herd east of the Mississippi, ranking eighth in the nation for number of beef cows. This industry is extremely important to Kentucky's economy. This publication discusses site evaluation strategies, production area management techniques, and a variety of facility types for intensive cattle production that preserve natural resources and improve production.

125 printed copies | 12 pages | 6,071 words | 140 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb



CCD-CP-41
Specialty Soybeans
3/19/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

The first commercial use of soybean (Glycine max) was for its oil; however, this crop is now considered a valuable source of protein as well. Specialty or novel soybeans are used to produce various soyfoods of Asian origin, such as tofu, miso, soy sauce, natto, soymilk, and tempeh. Assorted health food snacks, energy foods, and cereals are also produced from specialty soybeans. Other uses include bean sprouts and soy nuts.

web only | 4 pages | 1,605 words | 1 download | PDF: 922 kb



ASC-208
Pre-Investment Considerations for Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
3/18/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jeffrey Bewley, Karmella Dolecheck
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Precision dairy farming involves the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual animals. The primary goals of precision dairy farming are to 1) maximize individual animal performance, 2) detect diseases early, and 3) minimize the use of medication through preventive health measures.

web only | 3 pages | 1,858 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 270 kb



ASC-207
Stall Bases: Are Your Cows Comfortable?
3/18/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jeffrey Bewley, Barbara Wadsworth
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Cow comfort generally refers to minimizing animal stress in order to maximize milk production and animal well-being. Lying behavior plays a critical role in the production, profitability, and well-being of dairy cattle. The potential economic impact of increased production, reduced lameness, improved milk quality, reduced culling rates, and increased longevity are immense.

web only | 3 pages | 1,703 words | 67 downloads | PDF: 640 kb



CCD-CP-40
Specialty Field Corns
3/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use.

web only | 3 pages | 995 words | - | PDF: 512 kb



FOR-91
Growing Forest Botanicals and Medicinals
3/15/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Deborah Hill
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

If you are interested in producing some of Kentucky's native medicinal plants, the first step is to gather as much information about them as possible. This publication includes useful information including a list of helpful books, contacts, and organizations.

100 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,685 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 2,695 kb



FOR-90
Shiitake Production: Production Options
3/12/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Deborah Hill
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

This series of publications emphasizes growing shiitake mushrooms on natural hardwood logs. The denser hardwoods (oaks, hickories, chestnut) seem to produce better over the long run, and other hardwoods (maples, sweetgum) may begin to produce more quickly but will exhaust more quickly also.

100 printed copies | 4 pages | 864 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 242 kb



FOR-87
Shiitake Production: Marketing
3/12/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Deborah Hill
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

The most common outlets for marketing your shiitake mushrooms are farmers markets, whole food and health food stores, restaurants and restaurant suppliers, supermarkets (especially locally owned rather than the national chains), produce buyers, and produce wholesalers.

100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,326 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 623 kb



FOR-86
Shiitake Production: Processing and Storage
3/12/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Deborah Hill
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

How you handle your mushrooms depends on whether you plan to market them fresh or dried, retail or wholesale.

100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,687 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 740 kb



FOR-84
Shiitake Production: Pest Control
3/12/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Deborah Hill
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Shiitake mushrooms do not have many pests. Many problems with insects and competitive fungi can be avoided by timely cutting and inoculating of shiitake logs, and by good hygiene and maintenance practices.

100 printed copies | 3 pages | 966 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 1,620 kb



FOR-83
Shiitake Production: Incubation and Stacking
3/12/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Deborah Hill
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Monitor your logs for shade, moisture, and pest and disease problems while they are incubating. If firewood- or teepee-stacked logs are losing too much moisture, you may need to rearrange the stacks. (The bottom logs will always retain more moisture). Lean-to stacked logs should be more even in their moisture content, but they too can be reversed if necessary.

100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,138 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 1,675 kb



FOR-79
Shiitake Production: Log Selection and Preparation
3/12/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Deborah Hill
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Shiitake mushrooms grow well on many species of hardwood tree. The Shii tree, native to Japan where these mushrooms originate, is in the same family as our oak trees, so all kinds of oaks are useful for shiitake production.

100 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,105 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 477 kb



PPFS-GH-4
Greenhouse Sanitation
3/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

web only | 3 pages | 942 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 640 kb



PPFS-OR-W-18
Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants
3/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease.

web only | 3 pages | 806 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 534 kb



AGR-208
Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns
2/25/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gre
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

The best defense against weed problems in home lawns is a healthy and dense lawn. In thick lawns, weed seeds may not germinate because light may never reach the soil surface. A thick lawn is competitive with weeds, keeping them from growing and reproducing. Developing a healthy and dense lawn comes from using cultural practices such as proper grass species and cultivar selection, proper mowing heights and fertilization, and other good management practices. The need for herbicides to control weeds in home lawns can be greatly reduced if the lawn is well maintained.

500 printed copies | 6 pages | 1,878 words | 132 downloads | PDF: 390 kb



HENV-508
Landscaping Septic Systems with Native Plants
2/15/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

Septic system components sometimes have unsightly aboveground pipes, risers, ventilation systems, or large mounds. Homeowners can improve the appearance of these functional features through site design and, in particular, plant material selection.

web only | 6 pages | 2,782 words | 91 downloads | PDF: 1,384 kb



ID-205
Drought-Stressed Corn Silage Valuation, 2012
2/6/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Greg Halich,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

Extended dry conditions have impacted the corn crop severely in many areas of the state this year. As the condition of the corn crop deteriorates, many have been forced to look at salvage options such as cutting corn for silage and possibly hay for some fields. Due to the extreme weather conditions this year, this publication will focus on valuing drought-stressed corn silage.

web only | 6 pages | 4,213 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 445 kb



HO-109
Sustainable Production Systems: Efficient Wholesale Nursery Layout
1/31/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, sustai

This publication provides the framework for planning and implementing efficient wholesale nursery layout. Concepts and ideas presented here are applicable to new construction or the modification of an existing nursery. A basic approach toward creating efficient systems will be discussed as well as common nursery activities that may require consideration during the planning stages. Functional areas will be defined, and a framework for understanding the relationships between these functional areas will be presented.

web only | 10 pages | 7,699 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 4,000 kb



AEN-116
Algae-Based CO2 Mitigation for Coal-Fired Power Plants
1/22/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Czarena Crofcheck, Tabitha Graham,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

As the world's population swells and the needs of developing countries increase, the world's overall energy usage also continues to rise. Recent international legislation emphasizes the effects of climate change and the crucial need to find a way to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions being released into the environment. Consequently, power plants have an increased urgency to find a viable way to decrease their GHG emissions. This issue has prominent implications for Kentucky due to our economy's dependence upon coal production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,233 words | 92 downloads | PDF: 1,938 kb



ASC-195
Development of the Chick
1/14/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Poultry eggs are part of a unique reproductive system. The egg serves to protect and provide nutrients to the developing embryo. Since the embryo receives no additional nutrients from the hen, the egg must contain all the nutrients essential for life. Nutrients are found in the yolk, the albumen, and the shell of the egg. The egg is a convenient, self-contained package for studying embryology.

web only | 3 pages | 1,151 words | 93 downloads | PDF: 700 kb



AEC-97
2012 Land Value and Cash Rent Survey
1/9/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Greg Halich, Sarah Lovett, K
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Agricultural Economics (AEC series)
 Tags:

In January 2012, Agriculture and Natural Resource (ANR) agents were surveyed to estimate land values and rental rates for various types of farmland. This document summarizes the results from the agent survey. Dollar values are rounded to the nearest $5-$10 for rental rates and $100 for land values.

web only | 4 pages | 1,249 words | 105 downloads | PDF: 728 kb



ASC-193
Poultry Producer Liability
12/10/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

As more and more producers begin to have small- or medium-sized poultry operations the issue of liability and responsibility has become a concern. It is important producers are aware of what is expected of them by consumers and society as a whole.

web only | 2 pages | 1,554 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 270 kb



ASC-191
How Much Will My Chickens Eat?
12/10/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Before purchasing chicks (or chickens) it is important to consider the cost of keeping them. Much of this cost is in the feed they consume. So the key question is, "How much will my chickens eat?" Chickens need a complete feed that contains protein (with the right balance of amino acids), energy, vitamins, and minerals. Today we know more about the nutritional requirements of chickens than any other animal. The amount of feed they need will depend on several factors.

web only | 3 pages | 2,070 words | 94 downloads | PDF: 320 kb



ASC-190
Selecting the Right Chicken Breed
12/10/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Many factors should be considered before selecting a chicken breed for your flock, whether you are planning to start a new flock or to add to an existing one. You might be looking for a meat breed, an egg breed, or perhaps a breed that performs reasonably well at both (referred to as a dual-purpose breed). Perhaps you just want a pet or chickens to show at exhibitions.

web only | 3 pages | 2,290 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 300 kb



ASC-189
Making a Hoop Pen for Pasture Poultry
12/10/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Interest in pasture poultry production has been on the rise. This kind of poultry production typically involves housing the birds in a bottomless pen that is placed on pasture and moved at regular intervals. The flock has access to the pasture (plants and any associated insects) while providing them some protection from predators.

web only | 8 pages | 2,254 words | 157 downloads | PDF: 4,600 kb



AEC-99
The Kentucky Agricultural Economic Outlook for 2013
12/5/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Alison Davis, Will Snell, Jef
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Agricultural Economics (AEC series)
 Tags:

web only | 4 pages | - | 72 downloads | PDF: 490 kb



ID-209
Management of the Dry Cow to Prevent Mastitis
11/30/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeffrey Bewley
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

As we move into a new era of lower acceptable somatic cell count levels, the prevention and control of mastitis takes on increased importance. For many years, the contagious mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis were the focus of control measures primarily implemented in the milking parlor to stop the spread of these organisms from cow to cow. These contagious organisms often cause high individual somatic cell counts and ultimately high bulk tank somatic cell counts. As these high somatic cell count cows have been culled due to milk marketing regulations and more dairymen have adopted NMC recommended milking procedures, the contagious pathogens are decreasing.

100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,647 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 430 kb



ID-208
Recommended Milking Procedures for Maximum Milk Quality
11/30/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeffrey Bewley
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

When it comes to minimizing mastitis and lowering somatic cell counts, the area where you have the most control is your milking procedures. Understanding and following proper milking procedures is a critical step to maintaining maximum milk quality.

web only | 4 pages | 1,807 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb



ASC-192
Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?
11/27/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Egg production in a chicken flock follows a typical curve. While the curve is similar for most breeds of chickens, the specific numbers can vary significantly, especially with regards to age at first egg, peak production rate, and egg weight.

web only | 5 pages | 3,399 words | 83 downloads | PDF: 400 kb



ID-206
Compost Bedded Pack Barn Design: Features and Management Consideration
11/12/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Jeffrey Bewley, Randi Black,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

The compost bedded pack barn is a housing system for lactating dairy cows. It consists of a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings and manure composted into place and mechanically stirred on a regular basis.

web only | 32 pages | 5,724 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 15,444 kb



AEN-114
Using Weep Berms to Improve Water Quality
11/9/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Ross Guffey,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Non-point source pollution (NPS) occurs when rainfall and snowmelt flows over the ground, picking up pollutants such as pathogens, sediments, and nutrients on its way to streams, rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. More than 50 percent of the nation's rivers and streams and nearly 70 percent of the nation's lakes are impacted by NPS. Pathogens, sediments, and nutrients are the biggest contributors to impairment of rivers and streams while mercury, nutrients, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are the biggest contributors to the impairment of lakes. One method of managing NPS pollution is through the use of structural best management practices (BMPs). Structural BMPs are designed to decrease the volume of runoff that enters water bodies by increasing infiltration rates. Examples of structural BMPs include rain gardens, stormwater wetlands, and riparian buffers. A newer structural BMP is a weep berm.

web only | 8 pages | 3,832 words | 104 downloads | PDF: 4,400 kb



CCD-CP-47
Wheat
10/24/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals.

web only | 3 pages | 1,225 words | - | PDF: 434 kb



CCD-CP-22
Barley
10/24/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,482 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb



CCD-CP-65
Sprouts
10/23/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

web only | 4 pages | 1,887 words | 1 download | PDF: 439 kb



HENV-601
Saving Water at Home
10/17/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Ashley Osborne, Joe Taraba
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

By conserving water, we decrease our demand for energy-intensive systems that obtain, treat, and distribute water. Simply put, by conserving water we save energy.

web only | 7 pages | 3,036 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 1,902 kb



ID-207
Considerations for Starting an On-Farm Dairy Processing Enterprise
10/17/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Jeffrey Bewley, Elizabeth Chaney,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

With proper facilities and education, entreprenuers can successfully produce value-added dairy products on-farm.

web only | 5 pages | 3,084 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 327 kb



PPFS-FR-S-16
Black Rot of Grape
10/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

web only | 4 pages | 1,272 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb



ID-135
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis ("Pinkeye") in Cattle
9/24/2012 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, John Johns,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as pinkeye, is a costly disease for the beef producer. Tremendous losses stem from poor weight gain and loss of appetite in affected animals suffering from visual impairment and ocular pain.

100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,053 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 325 kb



HENV-507
Flood Conditions and Your Septic System
9/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

The most common septic systems used in the United States employ soil treatment area to treat and disperse wastewater into the environment. The soil treatment area consists of a network of perforated pipes within gravel-filled trenches. Under normal environmental conditions, well designed and managed septic systems work very well at dispersing wastewater and removing pathogens from the wastewater before they reach groundwater or surface waters.

web only | 3 pages | 1,078 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,002 kb



HENV-505
Impacts of Additives on Septic System Performance
9/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Mark Coyne, Brad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

Septic system additive vendors often market their products as necessities that improve septic system performance or repair failing systems. Rather than address specific products, this publication examines general categories of these additives. This publication also describes the treatment functions of septic systems and the available scientific data regarding the effectiveness of septic system additives.

web only | 4 pages | 1,438 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 697 kb



HENV-504
Importance of Wastewater Biological Oxygen Demand in Septic Systems
9/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Mark Coyne, Brad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

A high BOD value means potential septic system problems for homeowners; a low BOD means fewer problems for homeowners. This publication describes the environmental impacts of BOD, shows how BOD is distributed in septic systems, and describes remediation strategies for excess BOD.

web only | 4 pages | 1,432 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,224 kb



HENV-503
Septic Tanks: The Primary Treatment Device of Septic Systems
9/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

Septic tanks play an essential role in effectively treating wastewater in areas without municipal sewage treatment. Homeowners often assume that the septic tank in their backyard is their septic system. Actually, the tank is merely the first of a series of components that make up a well-designed septic system.

web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 1,720 kb



HENV-502
Septic System Failure and Environmental Impacts
9/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

More than one-third of new homes and over half of the mobile homes in the U.S. depend on septic systems. Here in Kentucky, approximately 40 percent of the homes have septic systems. This is common in the southeast, where there are more septic systems per capita than any other region of the country.

web only | 3 pages | 1,196 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 630 kb



HENV-501
Septic System Maintenance: Care and Feeding of Your System
9/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

This publication provides homeowners with a basic introduction to septic systems by explaining how septic systems function and suggesting ways to better maintain systems and increase their longevity.

web only | 4 pages | 1,337 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,596 kb



HENV-506
Turfgrass Color: Indicator of Septic System Performance
9/13/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
 Tags:

Many homeowners notice color differences in the turfgrass over their septic system soil treatment area. Most often, homeowners observe green or brown stripes in their turfgrass relative to the surrounding lawn. This discoloration is worth keeping an eye on because turfgrass color is often an early sign that serious problems are about to occur.

web only | 3 pages | 697 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 1,135 kb



CCD-CP-69
Edible Flowers
9/5/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 396 kb



PPFS-AG-S-3
Downy Mildew of Soybean
9/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust.

web only | 2 pages | 512 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 538 kb



CCD-CP-119
Southernpean (Cowpea)
8/28/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed.

web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | 1 download | PDF: 432 kb



ASC-185
Feeding the Broodmare: Four Easy Steps
8/22/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo, Laurie Lawrence
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

The nutritional needs of broodmares change as they go through the stages of reproduction. This publication begins with nutritional strategies to enhance the likelihood a mare will become pregnant, then it discusses feeding management of the mare during pregnancy and lactation, and it ends with some nutritional considerations for the post-weaning period.

web only | 4 pages | 2,998 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 1,750 kb



HO-107
Selecting and Planting Wody Ornamental Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 21
8/6/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

Woody ornamental plants are key components of a well-designed landscape. Landscape plantings divide and define areas, add aesthetic and psychological benefits, and increase a property's environmental and economic values.

web only | 18 pages | 9,171 words | 103 downloads | PDF: 880 kb



HO-106
Mulch Myths
8/6/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

Mulch is one of the essentials of good landscaping. It can be used to protect trees, suppress weeds, fertilize plants and retain soil moisture. Like many traditional practices, the use of mulch has some myths attached to it. You can improve the look of your landscape as well as the health of your plants and trees by learning the facts--and discarding the myths--about mulch.

web only | 2 pages | 414 words | 145 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb



ID-203
Trees, Turf, and People
8/6/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain, Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

The shade trees and fruit trees that we treasure in our landscapes were originally adapted to growing in forests in close association with other trees. In the forest they can remain small for many years. As soon as there is an opening in the canopy allowing light to reach the forest floor they grow rapidly. This great height allows trees to assume a place of dominance over other plants; their trunks lift their leaves high into the air, allowing them to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight before it reaches other plants. Thus, trees grow tall and provide us with their much-appreciated shade.

web only | 4 pages | 2,432 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



PPFS-FR-T-13
Apple Scab
8/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring.

web only | 3 pages | 1,045 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 486 kb



PPFS-FR-T-12
Fire Blight
8/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

web only | 4 pages | 1,556 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 650 kb



ID-204
Introductory Safety Training for Tobacco Workers
7/25/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Pearce, Mark Purschwitz,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, tobacco

This safety bulletin is intended to offer introductory safety training to tobacco workers in conjunction with a farm walk-around. It was written as if you and your workers are standing in or around the object currently being discussed, e.g., a tractor, with you or a designated assistant pointing out the various safety issues listed in the bulletin. It is not meant to be used as a stand-alone bulletin, especially just in a room, unless you have already gone through the walk-around and are reviewing points or having a discussion. It must be used out by the barn, equipment, or other subject being discussed.

2,500 printed copies | 16 pages | 2,237 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 476 kb



PPFS-AG-S-4
Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean
7/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRSR), caused by Phythophthora sojae, is infrequently encountered in Kentucky. However, where it does occur, the disease can be quite destructive. Soon after planting, P. sojae can cause damping-off of germinating seeds and/or young seedlings. Severe stand loss often necessitates replanting. Alternately, this pathogen can infect and kill established plants of susceptible soybean varieties any time during the season. Varieties that have some resistance to P. sojae may be stunted, but rarely die. PRSR is primarily a problem in poorly drained fields (due to high clay content, "hard pan," and/or soil compaction) or areas of fields that are prone to flooding.

web only | 3 pages | 446 words | 1 download | PDF: 355 kb



CCD-SP-14
Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Legal Considerations
6/28/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Wildcrafters who want to harvest materials outside their own property lines need to know there are laws which protect other privately owned property and public areas from unauthorized harvesting and trespassing. Poaching, the illegal taking of wild plants or animals, is a serious problem in Kentucky. Not only are there legal ramifications, but poaching is also responsible for the decline in selected native Kentucky plant species, such lady slipper orchids. Some plant species are protected by state and/or federal laws. Even plant material collected and sold from personally owned property is not without its legal restrictions.

web only | 6 pages | 2,733 words | - | PDF: 713 kb



CCD-SP-2
High Tunnel Overview
6/12/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer.

web only | 7 pages | 3,489 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 963 kb



CCD-SP-13
Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Environmental Issues
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Whether collecting for personal use or for commercial sales, wildcrafting has the potential of adversely impacting our native plant populations. While the effects of collecting NTFPs are not always as obvious as, for example, harvesting timber in logging operations, some wildcrafting activities can cause subtle but lasting damage to the forest ecology.

web only | 3 pages | 1,403 words | - | PDF: 815 kb



CCD-SP-12
Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income.

web only | 6 pages | 2,512 words | 1 download | PDF: 877 kb



PPFS-AG-S-1
Brown Spot of Soybean
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines, is present in all soybean fields in Kentucky. In most years the disease causes little to no yield impact; however, up to 15% yield losses can occur in select environments. For example, brown sport tends to be worse where soybeans follow no-till soybeans, where early-maturing varieties are planted, and/or when fields are planted in late April. River bottom fields or fields subject to fog or morning shade are frequently impacted.

web only | 2 pages | 666 words | 1 download | PDF: 420 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-8
Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) in Kentucky
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a potentially devastating virus disease of wheat. In the United States, WSM is most prevalent in hard red wheat grown in the central Great Plains region. Soft red winter wheat produced in the mid-south and Midwest is infrequently impacted by WSM. Epidemics are rare in Kentucky with the only recorded ones occurring in 1989 and 2000.

web only | 4 pages | 1,453 words | 1 download | PDF: 282 kb



HO-100
Organic Gardening: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 18
5/7/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Krista Jacobsen
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: organic production

Organic gardening offers the gardener many benefits--a safe, low-chemical gardening environment, produce free from synthetic pesticide residues, and gardens that can increase in fertility and natural pest control over time. However, reaping the benefits of organic management requires planning, observation, and thinking about the garden as an interconnected system of soils, plants, pests, and beneficial organisms.

web only | 12 pages | 5,684 words | 101 downloads | PDF: 615 kb



PPFS-OR-W-16
Rose Rosette Disease
5/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Rose rosette is a devastating disease that is a threat to virtually all cultivated roses (Rosa spp.) in Kentucky, regardless of cultivar. Even rose cultivars known for their exceptional disease resistance and hardiness are susceptible to rose rosette disease. Losses can occur in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and botanical garden plantings.

web only | 3 pages | 962 words | 1 download | PDF: 383 kb



PPFS-OR-W-3
Black Root Rot of Ornamentals
5/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Chery
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Black root rot can affect a wide range of ornamentals in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and greenhouses. In Kentucky, this disease is commonly observed on Japanese and blue hollies, inkberry, pansy, petunia, and vinca. In addition to ornamentals, numerous vegetable and agronomic crops are susceptible.

web only | 3 pages | 873 words | 1 download | PDF: 585 kb



CCD-CP-68
Corn Shocks
4/24/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower.

web only | 2 pages | 767 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb



ID-199
Prechilling Switchgrass Seed on Farm to Break Dormancy
4/23/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Holly Boyd, Cindy Finneseth, T
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Regulatory Services
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial bunch-type grass native to the North American Tallgrass Prairie. It has been investigated as a renewable energy crop due to its high productivity across a wide geographic range including various environmental conditions and soil types. Switchgrass has also been used for erosion control, summer grazing in pasture and hay systems for cattle, native prairie restoration, wildlife habitat, fiber production, and as an ornamental grass.

500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,590 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 300 kb



ASC-187
Help! My Horse is Too Fat!
4/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo, Bob Coleman,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

As we understand more about the impact that obesity has on animal health, it is imperative that we strive to keep our horses at an optimum body condition.

web only | 4 pages | 2,833 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 413 kb



AEN-113
Nutrient Management Concepts for Livestock Producers
3/27/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Sarah Wightman
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients (specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.

web only | 5 pages | 2,133 words | 124 downloads | PDF: 345 kb



ID-118
Roses
3/27/2012 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Rick Durham, Tim
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Roses have many landscape uses. They can be placed as accent plants or used to form hedges or ground covers. They offer a rainbow of colors and a variety of forms and fragrances, and their sizes range from miniatures to tall climbing plants. Roses may be grown under many climatic and soil conditions and, with care, thrive and produce flowers for many years.

2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 7,927 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 3,331 kb



ID-201
Your Yard and Water Quality: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 11
3/26/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

We generally view gardening as a wholesome activity that enhances our environment. But pesticides, fertilizers, and erosion from gardens and landscapes can contaminate lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Since the quality of our water resources affects our quality of life, we must learn how gardening practices can contribute to water contamination and how to reduce the threat to water quality.

web only | 8 pages | 2,589 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 410 kb



ID-88
Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky
3/22/2012 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides.

web only | 16 pages | 7,345 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 3,700 kb



AEN-112
A New Concept in On-Farm Biofuel Production
3/19/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Will Adams, Michael Montross,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

For many social, political, and economic reasons, biofuels are moving quickly from the fuel of tomorrow to the fuel of today. Researchers at the University of Kentucky are working on a new system of biofuel production that involves on-farm processing of biomass. This factsheet provides a general overview of this new concept that could have a great impact on agriculture and the fuel-production industry.

500 printed copie