University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

Recently completed new and revised publications

Using a SWOT Analysis: Taking a Look at Your Organization: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
A SWOT analysis is a simple review process. When combined with a goal-setting activity, SWOT is a useful tool that will provide your organization with a roadmap to set and reach its goals successfully.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 292 kb

Seed Inspection Report, 2015
The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky.
350 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 700 kb

Delivering Your Marketing Message: Planning Productive Promotions
Effective marketing messages build awareness and interest in an organization's programs, products, and services. Successful promotions begin with a plan to deliver the right message to the right people for greatest participation and impact.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 217 kb

Marketing Your Organization: The Power of Image
An effective marketing strategy includes four components: product, price, place, and promotion. These Four P's should be included when developing a marketing strategy for an organization.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 211 kb

Building a Marketing Toolkit
To begin assembling your organization's marketing toolkit, ask the following question: What are the most basic and useful tools that could be implemented to market our organization, its programs and activities?
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 258 kb

Group Mentoring
Mentoring serves an invaluable purpose, offering youth the resources they need for positive development. Meaningful relationships are the foundation for building strong connections and community ties, and caring adults can serve as allies to help foster youth development.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 160 kb

4-H Club Officer's Training Manual, Senior Level
An overview of the duties, roles and responsibilities of 4-H Club Officers
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1309 kb

A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns
Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 600 kb

Understanding the Different Produce Safety Programs and Making a Food Safety Plan
Safety of fresh vegetables and fruits is very important because these products are often consumed raw or are minimally processed. For the safety of consumers, farmers who produce our food must know the best practices available to produce, process, handle, and store fresh produce.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 189 kb

Home Canning Basics
People choose to can foods at home for many reasons: to preserve the harvest from their gardens or local farmers markets for year-round enjoyment; to gain more control over what is in their food by limiting or avoiding salt, sugar or preservatives; to save money; to get better-tasting canned foods; to follow family traditions; or just for the sense of satisfaction that home canning provides.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 436 kb

Beyond a Path 1: Trails as Resource Connections in Your Community
The development of a trail system can help a community improve recreational, travel and health assets and generate revenue. Trail systems or greenways can indirectly have positive effects on adjacent property values and potentially boost economic activities within close proximity. Well developed trails support conservation efforts for wildlife habitat or agricultural land use while also connecting points of interest. Therefore, trails can provide many direct and indirect environmental, social, and economic benefits for communities to strengthen the health of their environment and longer term sustainability.
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Beyond a Path 2: Trail Planning
There are two general ways to begin a trail project in a community. The first method is for the community (client) to hire design or planning professionals such as landscape architects, urban planners or engineers to lead a trail project on behalf of the community. The second way involves a grass roots approach where a community gets the project started and develops the conceptual ideas on their own and then later brings in professionals during the design phase. Regardless of the approach for the initial phase, professionals need to be involved to eventually construct the trail(s) but how much of the process and outcome they influence is ultimately up to the community. For the purpose of this document, we will focus on the second method to help projects get started in the community by the community. Collaboration, coordination and partnerships are essential for the success of a project due to the linearity of trails and complexity of trail systems. The specific outcomes of a trail, its benefits, and costs for the community depend on the specific location, region and potential of the community group as covered in the Beyond a Path 1 publication.
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Trailblazers: Two Case Studies for Community Trails
The following two communities have successfully planned, designed, and implemented trails and greenways in different time lines, contexts and processes. Both projects share a range of trail project features, lessons learned and processes that can be adapted to be suitable for other locations, contexts, communities and cultures whether old or new, urban or rural, or large or small. These communities identified and utilized their natural resources to address potential issues prior to a disruptive event such as a flood or protected natural resources that were up against development pressure. Trail systems and greenway projects can be used to proactively propose alternative solutions that balance human needs with ecosystem processes which benefit both the communities and the larger region.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2015
Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.
2500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2125 kb

How to Select and Buck Logs for Railroad Ties
As of 2014, railroads were purchasing in the neighborhood of 25 million wooden ties each year, so the railroad tie industry can be a reliable market for loggers and sawmillers. Prices for green ties are viewed as good compared to lower-grade lumber, though actual market prices depend on immediate demand, competing lumber prices, distance from the seller to the treating plant, and tie quality and species. If you're a logger reading this article, you'll learn to make better decisions about how to select trees and logs for crossties and switch ties, and you'll be able to buck them so that they're worth more money overall.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6000 kb

Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3600 kb

Facilitating Community Forums
Planning and conducting an effective community forum requires several key elements. Scheduling a meeting place and choosing a location and time should be carefully considered. Choosing the right people to lead the forum is also important.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 156 kb

Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6113 kb

Creating a Successful Coalition
Coalition can be defined as a group of people or groups who have joined together for a common purpose. How to start a coalition is not a mystery. First you identify your need, and then you find individuals or organizations that are interested in helping to find a solution for that need.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 167 kb

Community Power: Bringing the Right People to the Table
Empowerment--the ability to enable or share power--can be encouraged within the community context. In this publication we will share with you a traditional definition of community power, how to outline a community's power structure, and a process on how to bring the right "power players" to the table.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 185 kb

Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2400 kb

Hydrologic Modeling
Increased levels of urbanization result in reductions in the amount of rainfall that infiltrates and evapotranspires and increases the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. These changes can result in flooding, streambank erosion, and water quality degradation. Hydrologic models are useful in understanding watersheds and how changes in a watershed can affect hydrology. Hydrologic models can predict the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff under different scenarios.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 844 kb

Sediment Fingerprinting
Sediments in waterbodies cause a number of problems such as harming aquatic habitats, filling reservoirs, and worsening flooding. High amounts of sediment in the water inhibit the ability of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates to move, breathe, hunt and reproduce. Accumulated sediments in reservoirs reduces their useful life and increases costs associated with maintenance. Streams experiencing such sediment buildup carry less water during storm events.
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Measuring Discharge in Wadeable Streams
Knowing the amount of water flowing in a stream can improve management practices such as those related to streambank erosion, pollutant loading and transport, and flood control. Streamflow or discharge is defined as the volume of water moving past a specific point in a stream for a fixed period of time.
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Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1800 kb

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky
A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.
9000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 4000 kb

Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality
Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 485 kb

Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide
This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).
1030 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1400 kb

Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses
Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 465 kb

Diabetes and Cholesterol
People with diabetes should pay attention to their cholesterol levels because high levels of blood cholesterol can lead to heart disease. People with diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease. When they do, they are two to four times more likely to die from heart disease.
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 143 kb

Carbohydrate Counting
Carbohydrate (carb) counting is a way of keeping track of the amount of carbohydrates you get from the foods you eat. Carbohydrate counting can help you manage your blood glucose level
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 677 kb

Diabetes and Footcare
When blood glucose stays high for a long time it can cause problems for your feet, heart, eyes and kidneys. The main goal for people with diabetes is to keep their blood glucose within the target range set by the doctor or healthcare team.
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Monitoring Blood Glucose
Keeping your blood glucose level within the target range set by you and your doctor reduces the risk of diabetes complications. It is important to check your blood glucose regularly so you can see how certain foods, activities and medicine affect your blood glucose level.
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 163 kb

Introduction to Wood Structure and Characteristics
Knowing how to identify unknown pieces of wood using a hand lens is the only skill you will need for most situations---and that's the purpose behind most of this manual. A section at the end about how to identify wood using a microscope is available should you want to develop your wood identification expertise.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb

First Steps in Identifying Wood
Wood samples need to be identified for all sorts of reasons, and they come in all shapes, sizes and conditions. I've received samples that were sound, samples that were waterlogged, samples that were rotted or otherwise degraded, painted samples, furniture samples, even samples containing wood preservatives. Most of the samples I receive have a North American origin, but I also receive pieces from art museums and antique dealers that can originate from just about anywhere. This sometimes means that identifying the sample by a common name alone doesnít provide enough information.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1980 kb

Distinguishing Softwoods from Hardwoods
Softwood and hardwood trees are made up of different types of cells. With just a little magnification, it's easy to see that softwood growth rings look different from hardwood growth rings. Additionally, growth rings donít look the same for all of the trees, and the growth ring appearance is one of the things we will look at to identify wood.
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Grain Patterns and Growth Rings
Frequently you need to be able to observe wood cells from a particular perspective, and you will need to know where to look for different features on your sample. It's also very helpful to develop a kind of "visual vocabulary" that will let you match a term with a corresponding mental image, and the information in this chapter will start you on your way.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb

The First Separation of Softwood Species
Just making the separation between softwoods and hardwoods doesn't help much in identifying wood species; that would be sort of like identifying children by their hair color. Let's look at the next level of wood features that you need to be able to recognize.
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2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.
1000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1542 kb

Diabetes and Hemoglobin A1C
Diabetes is often called a "silent disease" because it can cause serious complications without symptoms. A person with diabetes may feel healthy and still have too high a level of blood glucose. It is important to know how well you are managing your blood glucose level.
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 132 kb

Diabetes and Blood Pressure
Two out of three adults living with diabetes also have high blood pressure. High blood pressure has no symptoms. It may be difficult to tell if your blood pressure is high. A person may have high blood pressure for years and not know it
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 190 kb

Diabetes and the Healthcare Team
Diabetes is a disease that affects many parts of the body, such as the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, heart, legs and feet. As a result, a team approach to taking care of the disease can be very helpful. When a team of individuals works together problems are identified earlier, and it is easier to reduce or prevent diabetes complications.
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 197 kb

Understanding Diabetes
Diabetes is a disease that affects 387 million people in the world, and this number is expected to double in the next 20 years. Approximately 46.3 percent of this population is undiagnosed. A diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, but to remain in good health you must learn all you can about the disease and how to manage it.
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 131 kb

Physical Activities and Diabetes
Physical activity plays an important part in the life of a person with diabetes. Being physically active helps you control your blood glucose and blood pressure. Taking part in physical activity provides protection against heart disease and stroke.
10 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 177 kb

Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry
The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green-industry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2013 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 152 kb

Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries
The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and regional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 399 kb

2015 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)
The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.
300 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb

2015 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.
1500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2500 kb

2015 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 525 kb

2015 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 530 kb

2015 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1200 kb

Investigating Your Health Insurance Options
Identifying healthcare wants and needs for you and your family is an important first step to finding a healthcare plan that will provide adequate healthcare coverage at a sufficient price. This publication will help you determine a health care plan that will best suit your needs.
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2015 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Management is similar to that for other cool-season grasses. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish. This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 700 kb

2015 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 875 kb

2015 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
Tall fescue is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. All bromegrasses have several advantages over tall fescue, including retaining quality as they mature and better growth during dry weather, but they are generally less well adapted in Kentucky. This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties, including summaries of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1240 kb

2015 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication. The severe winter of 2013-2014 showed those varieties that are not adapted to Kentucky. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass. Their use in Kentucky is still limited since they do not survive as long as tall fescue but some of the newer varieties are more adapted to Kentucky environmental conditions. This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties, as well as summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1880 kb

2015 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation.
2125 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1928 kb

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers
Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.
3700 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb

2015 Alfalfa Report
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highestyielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb

2015 Red and White Clover Report
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 875 kb

2015 Orchardgrass Report
Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is welladapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 850 kb

Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops
The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.
3650 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3500 kb

UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar
The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.
4000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 10700 kb

2015 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.
2200 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3300 kb

2015 Kentucky Silage Hybrid Performance Test
Hybrids were evaluated for silage performance on cooperating farms. Representatives from seed companies submitted hybrids of their choosing. University of Kentucky personnel or third-party contractors planted the hybrid seeds. Farmers applied the soil fertility and pest management. University of Kentucky personnel harvested, weighed, chopped, and packaged corn for quality analysis. University personnel conducted the statistical analyses and final reporting of hybrid performance.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 271 kb

Etymology of the Scientific Names of Some Endoparasites of Horses
The use of only common names for parasites can be confusing because of lack of uniformity. Fortunately a huge contribution for science was made by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus who is considered the father of taxonomy. English translation of the scientific names here are mainly from "dictionary" sources. A few are from the original descriptions. More than one possible meaning is listed for some of the scientific names.
25 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 114 kb

Understanding and Teaching Sportsmanship to Today's Youth
Sportsmanship is fair play, respect for opponents, and gracious behavior in winning and losing. Sportsmanship takes ethics into a competitive realm. We can remain ethical yet fail to be a good sport; however it is impossible to exhibit good sportsmanship without also being ethical.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 117 kb

Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process.
1400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1505 kb

Managing Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Precision dairy farming is the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators of individual animals to improve management strategies and farm performance.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1872 kb

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2014
Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.
2500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 790 kb

Turfgrasses of Kentucky
Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.
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KAES Annual Report, 2014
This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2014. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry. In 2014, research activities of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station were conducted at Lexington, Princeton, Quicksand, and Owenton and in counties throughout the state. Efforts are constantly made to ensure that the research studies have application to the problems of all Kentucky farmers and other clientele groups.
75 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3749 kb

Why Form a Coalition?
A coalition is two or more organizations that work together to reach a common goal. Usually the goals of a coalition include one of the following: changing or creating public policy, changing or influencing individual behavior or building a healthier community.
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All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities.
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Strongyles in Horses
Parasites live in a host from which they obtain food and protection. They may harm but usually do not benefit the host. The word "parasite" is derived from the Latin and Greek languages meaning, in general, "one who eats at the table of another." It is said that a "good" parasite does not overtly harm or kill its host. It is theoretically possible that a more benign parasite (e.g. Gasterophilus spp.) is much "older in eons of time" and it and its host have adjusted better to each other than a conceivably "newer" parasite (e.g. Strongylus spp.) which may be more harmful to its host.
40 printed copies
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Financial Oversight for a Nonprofit Organization: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
Successful organizations follow regulations and guidelines pertaining to sound financial management practices. The members, leaders and volunteers of an organization should understand the need for accurate and timely reporting and have both internal and external rules of management in place.
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Educating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Empower Your Group by Developing Leadership: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
Educating, empowering and equipping 4-H members, volunteers and leaders adds stability, quality and effectiveness to the organization and its provided programs.
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Mobilizing Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Calling the Group to Action: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
To effectively serve the needs of people in a community, members, volunteers and leaders of 4-H must be mobilized to action. Mobilizing is the key component of a volunteer program and is the step in which education, youth development, service and leadership all begin.
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Sustaining Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Strengthening an Organization by Building Traditions: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
Sustaining members, volunteers and leaders and their continued efforts and service to the program is imperative to the continued health and well-being of 4-H or any community organization. Sustaining adds stability, credibility and continuity to organizations.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Staggers (Tremorgenic Syndrome)
"Staggers" is an all-inclusive term for a group of nervous system disorders caused by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins produced by various types of fungi on forages. These mycotoxins are collectively known as "tremorgens", and they may be found in several types of grasses at varying stages of maturity.
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Food and Community: Sustainable Eating Module 1
The process of getting food to the right place and ready to eat is the work of many human hands. It uses natural resources such as sun, soil, air, and water. This publication describes trends in the U.S. food system that strengthen the social, economic, and environmental vitality of communities and the health of the people who live there.
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Eating from the Earth: Sustainable Eating Module 2
Food systems generally include growing, processing, distributing, retailing, preparing, eating, and the disposal of food waste. A 2010 USDA study of local food systems found that local markets account for a small but growing share of total U.S. agricultural sales. This publication examines local and regional food systems and how they impact the way we buy and consume food.
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Sustainable Community Food Systems: Sustainable Eating Module 3
The term "sustainable eating" describes a way that food consumers can make choices that support their social, economic, or environmental values. Eating for good health, making sure everyone has access to nutritious foods, and eating to minimize the impact on our planet are some commonly held values associated with sustainable eating.
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Seafood: Are You Reeling in the Benefits?
Seafood is an important part of a balanced diet because it contains high-quality protein and good fats called omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients. However, many of us do not include enough seafood in our diets to get the full range of benefits. This publication explains the benefits of adding more seafood to your diet.
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Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Cattle and Horses
Although black patch occurs only sporadically, the right temperature, moisture, and soil pH may combine and allow Rhizoctonia leguminicola to thrive. Be aware of the possible consequences of this fungus, especially profuse salivation or "Sobbers" in cattle and horses. Good forage management, will reduce the risk of problems when utilizing this forage.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Acute or Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP)
In the Southeastern United States, acute interstitial pneumonia has been produced by ingestion of the leaves and seeds of perilla mint (Perilla frutescens). Perilla ketone is the toxin absorbed from the rumen into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs where it damages the lung tissue in cattle.
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Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).
2500 printed copies
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2015 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.
1900 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2350 kb

Evaluation: Everyone Has a Role
Although there are a number of definitions for "evaluation," in basic terms, it is simply the process of determining whether a program is producing desired results. To meet the requirements of reporting and accountability, businesses, organizations and agencies must understand how to best measure the success of a program.
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Seed Inspection Report, 2010 - 2014
The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station's annual Seed Inspection Report provides results of the examination, analysis and tests of seeds distributed and sampled in our state. It is intended to be useful to individuals interested in evaluating the quality of seeds distributed in Kentucky. The report represents the commitment of the staff at Regulatory Services to provide consumer protection and service related to Kentucky's seed industry.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb

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