Online Publication Catalog


Most recently published titles:

In descending order, by date published.

 


HENV-711

Homeowners Guide to Rainwater Harvesting: Rain Barrels and Beyond

6/30/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Stormwater runoff is one of the many water quality and quantity challenges in urban settings. Urbanization increases the proportion of impervious surfaces (surfaces that prevent rainfall from soaking into the ground, such as roofs and driveways) in a landscape. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces increase the volume of stormwater runoff to storm sewers and local waterways. As stormwater flows across impervious surfaces, it can transport pollutants to nearby streams and rivers.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 2.31 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-266

Chemical Topping of Burley Tobacco

6/17/2022 (new)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Bob Pearce

Pastures for sheep and goats are fertilized to ensure a reliable supply of energy, protein, and other nutrients for a long season of grazing. Management of plant nutrients maintains a balance of improved grasses and legumes and improves forage species competitiveness with many pasture weeds. The most important part of obtaining fertilizer recommendations is collecting a representative soil sample to send to the lab.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 3



NEP-230

Cook Wild Kentucky: Fishing in Kentucky

5/25/2022 (new)
Authors: Elizabeth Coots, Jann Knappage, Annhall Norris, Gregg Rentfrow, Matthew Springer, Jackie Walters, Martha Yount

Kentucky offers some of the best fishing chances around. Among our rolling hills, you will find over 62,000 miles of fishable streams and 40 public lakes. Fishing is fun for all ages, and prime fishing spots can be found yearround across the state. Anglers take to the water each year for fun or food. Kentucky is home to bass, catfish, trout, sunfish, and more.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources, Woodford County
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 3.03 mb
Pages: 8



FCS3-633

Macronutrients: Why We Need a Balanced Diet

5/16/2022 (new)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Macronutrients are the main parts of food that give our bodies energy, and they are needed in large amounts in our diets. When we eat, our bodies can break macronutrients down into a useable form of energy for our cells.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 897 kb
Pages: 4



FCS3-634

Savor the Flavor: Exploring Cooking Methods

5/16/2022 (new)
Authors: Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Annhall Norris, Janet Tietyen-Mullins

Making food that provides exciting and delicious flavors can seem like a difficult task. Many people believe it is necessary to have more ingredients to make a better or tastier meal. Some may even feel they can only get these types of meals by eating out. That is not true!

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 589 kb
Pages: 4



FCS3-635

How to Get Out of a Mealtime Rut

5/16/2022 (new)
Authors: Jean Najor, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

When you or a family member find out what is on the menu for dinner, is the typical response ďAgain?Ē If you dread the thought of cleaning another dish or you just canít think of the last time you were excited by your own cooking, you may be in a cooking rut. Even the most avid cooks have cooking ruts from time to time. Fear not, because these ideas will spark your cooking creativity and make mealtimes more appealing!

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 4



4AJ-09PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Culinary Demonstration Contest: The Egg Chef Challenge

4/26/2022 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Participants in the Kentucky Egg-Preparation Demonstration are required to prepare a dish containing eggs while demonstrating proper food safety and cooking skills.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 838 kb
Pages: 6



FCS3-636

Savoring the Eating Experience: The Art of Eating Mindfully

4/26/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Courtney Luecking

Have you ever found yourself eating a bag of popcorn while watching a movie only to realize you have eaten all of it before you made it past the previews? This is an example of mindless eating, or eating without even realizing it.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 1.18 mb
Pages: 4



FCS3-637

Tips for Managing Stress Eating

4/26/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Courtney Luecking

Eating is one of the many ways we cope with negative emotions. Stress eating is just that-- "eating in response to acute or chronic stress or in response to negative emotional states" such as sadness or anger. Stress can cause some people to eat more and others to eat less. Some will reach for salty foods, and others will reach for sweets. No matter how stress affects your eating patterns, you are not alone.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 4



HENV-707

Residential Stormwater Site Assessment

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Urban areas can impact both the quality and quantity of water in local waterways. Homeowners can help protect water resources by utilizing stormwater management practices on their property. These practices, sometimes called green infrastructure or Low-Impact Development (LID) practices, aim to manage stormwater where it is generated instead of sending it into a storm sewer system. To select the best practices for residential settings it is important to make a site assessment.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 4



HENV-708

Alternative Pavement Options for Residential Stormwater Management

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Amanda A. Gumbert, Joe Luck, Lee Moser, Jonathan Villines

Urban areas are characterized by impervious surfaces such as roads, driveways, sidewalks, and building roofs. Stormwater occurs when precipitation runs off these impervious surfaces. Stormwater can present both water quality and water quantity issues in urban watersheds. Water quality of local waterways is threatened when stormwater carries pollutants to streams and rivers; increased water quantity in these local waterways can damage streambanks, cause flooding, and create more water quality problems.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.86 mb
Pages: 5



HENV-709

Sanitary Sewer Overflows: Risks and Homeowner Responsibilities

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

A sewer system is an underground network of pipes that carries sewage and wastewater from homes and businesses to a treatment plant. There are two types of sewer systems. Modern sanitary sewer systems are designed to be a separate network of pipes and infrastructure from those that manage stormwater; these are known as separate sanitary sewers. Some municipalities still have combined sewers that manage both sanitary sewage and stormwater in the same pipes; these are known as combined sewers.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 533 kb
Pages: 3



HENV-709S

Desbordamientos de Alcantarillado Sanitario: Riesgos y Responsabilidades de los Propietarios

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Un sistema de alcantarillado es una red subterranea de tuberias que transporta aguas residuales (sucias) desde hogares y negocios hasta una planta de tratamiento.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 488 kb
Pages: 3



HENV-710

Sanitary Sewer Overflows: Lexington, KY Remedial Measures and Helpful Tips

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

A sewer system is an underground network of pipes that carries sewage and wastewater from homes and businesses to a treatment plant. There are two types of sewer systems. Modern sanitary sewer systems are designed to be a separate network of pipes and infrastructure from those that manage stormwater; these are known as separate sanitary sewers. Some municipalities still have combined sewers that manage both sanitary sewage and stormwater in the same pipes; these are known as combined sewers.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.46 mb
Pages: 4



HENV-710S

Desbordamientos de Alcantarillado Sanitario: Lexington, Kentucky Medidas Correctivas y Consejos Utiles

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Un sistema de alcantarillado es una red subterranea de tuberias que transporta aguas residuales (sucias) desde hogares y negocios hasta una planta de tratamiento. Hay dos tipos de sistemas de alcantarillado.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.22 mb
Pages: 4



ID-2

Guide to Plants of Kentucky Potentially Poisonous to Livestock

4/22/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Michelle Arnold, J.D. Green, Megan Romano

Poisonous plants are responsible for considerable losses to farmers and stockmen in Kentucky. Many cases of plant poisoning are never diagnosed or even suspected. There are nearly 100 different species of plants growing in Kentucky that under certain conditions may be poisonous to livestock, although only one third of these are likely to cause serious trouble. The primary purpose of this publication is to enable individuals to recognize, at sight, some plants which are known to be dangerously poisonous, and to have knowledge of those additional plants, which, under certain conditions, may cause trouble.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 22.50 mb
Pages: 60



FCS5-475

Understanding Cryptocurrency

4/11/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Nichole Huff, Kelly May

Cryptocurrency--such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ether, or others--is a form of digital payment consumers can use to buy goods and services. It exists without tangible corresponding bills or coins, and it is not issued or backed by government agencies. At its core, cryptocurrency is essentially digital computer software. People or entities can transfer it online without the need for a bank or financial institution. The currency is stored within a digital wallet that consumers can maintain either online or offline using a hard drive or paper printout.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-476

The Costs of Distracted and Reckless Driving

4/11/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Nichole Huff

In a world that constantly demands our attention, it is all too easy to become distracted while driving. From smart phones to smartwatches, interacting with something in our car, listening to a navigation system, or letting our minds wander behind the wheel, the temptations we often face when driving are endless. While these actions may feel harmless in the moment, they have the potential to be costly, both physically and financially.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 1.13 mb
Pages: 5



FCS5-420

Estate Planning Part 1: Getting Started

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Many people fail to make plans to transfer their property and possessions at the time of their death. Some people think such plans are only for the rich. Other people think that they can plan for the transfer later and then never take time to do it. Some people think they do not need estate planning and that everything will be all right for their families when they die.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 480 kb
Pages: 4



FCS5-422

Estate Planning Part 2: Your Records and Personal Information

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Before you see an estate planning professional, do your homework. It will save you time and money if you prepare your legal documents ahead of time, and when your estate is settled. Take time now to put your estate planning information together in three-ring notebooks or folders. Clearly label everything, and let your family or executor know where to find the information at the time of your death. Keeping this information together will also make it easier for you to review it on a regular basis.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 12



FCS5-423

Estate Planning Part 3: Selecting Your Team

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Attorneys who specialize in estate planning are the most likely legal professionals to be up-to-date on state and federal laws related to wills, trusts, and taxes. Choose one with estate planning experience to help assure that your plans are carried out correctly. If you are considering establishing a trust, choose an attorney who also has experience in writing trusts.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-424

Estate Planning Part 4: Financial Planners

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

The term financial planner is appearing with increasing frequency in advertisements (including unsolicited mail and social media) and news articles. The alphabet soup of financial planning credentials may lead you to believe that someone is a financial planner when in fact he or she is not. Some people who call themselves financial planners are nothing more than salespeople for stocks, tax shelters, insurance, and other investments and have no special training in financial planning. It is important to do your research before hiring someone to advise you financially, or to allocate or invest your financial assets.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 590 kb
Pages: 2



FCS5-425

Estate Planning Part 5: Wills and Probate in Kentucky

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Unless you have made other provisions, such as a trust, your will is the way to make certain that your property is transferred or disposed of according to your wishes. Your will is also the document that allows you to designate who will be responsible for seeing that your wishes are carried out. This person is known as the executor of your estate. If you fail to make a will or some other legal document for the transfer of your property, Kentucky law will determine how your assets are transferred.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 4



FCS5-426

Estate Planning Part 6: Trusts

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

A trust is a legal entity that a person creates. It can be a flexible and useful tool in estate planning and can be designed in a variety of ways. A trust provides financial benefits for people and/or organizations designated in the trust document. The document also provides the details and instructions for the trust. The trust document should be written by a professional who has experience in writing trusts and who is familiar with current trust laws. The tax consequences of trusts should also be considered; trusts do not save money for your estate in all situations.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 580 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-427

Estate Planning Part 7: Federal and State Estate Taxes

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

When a person dies, the value of his or her estate is subject to federal estate taxes. Estate taxes must be paid before the executor can transfer ownership of the property to the heirs. A professional accountant or attorney who specializes in estate planning can help you calculate your potential estate tax.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-428

Estate Planning Part 10: A Glossary of Terms

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

A glossary of estate planning terms.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-436

Estate Planning Part 9: How to Settle an Estate

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

There are only three basic steps to settling an estate. But working on each step requires time and patience. Settling an estate is done in these three steps: 1. File a petition to probate the will and appoint the executor or fiduciary. 2. File an inventory of the estate. 3. Submit a final accounting of the estate's affairs.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 570 kb
Pages: 4



FCS5-465

Estate Planning Part 8: Planning Your Digital Estate

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Alex Elswick, Nichole Huff

With so much vital information stored online, the nature of estate planning has changed. Although you may still have many important documents in paper format, it is likely that much of your financial documents are digitized. It may seem obvious that important digital information such as online bank accounts should be addressed in estate planning, but other kinds of digital assets such as social media accounts, text messages, or even pictures stored in the cloud may have sentimental value for your loved ones. Email accounts and online retail accounts may house critical personal information that you may wish securely kept. Unfortunately, planning for these kinds of assets is typically neglected by individuals and their advisors. In order to ensure the safety and security of this kind of digital information, you will want to create a digital estate plan.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 560 kb
Pages: 4



RB-345

Seed Inspection Report, 2021

3/30/2022 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station's annual Seed Inspection Report provides results of the examination, analysis and tests of seed distributed and sampled in our state. It is intended to be useful to individuals interested in the evaluation of the quality of seeds distributed in Kentucky. The report represents the commitment of the staff at Regulatory Services to provide consumer protection and service related to Kentucky's seed industry.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 1.71 mb
Pages: 36



AEN-167

Backyard Chickens as Garden Fertilizer Generators

3/11/2022 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Having backyard chickens can be a fun, educational, and rewarding experience. There are many reasons why people keep backyard chickens, with availability of fresh, colored eggs, food security, and enjoying the birds as pets among them. However, for some, the goal is to obtain the rich manure that chickens produce to fertilize their garden. There is no better farmyard manure for the garden, as far as the nitrogen content, than poultry manure.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 2.16 mb
Pages: 6



AEN-166

Off Grid Solar Systems: Understanding Components and Variables for Small Systems

3/9/2022 (new)
Authors: Matt Adams, Daniel Carpenter, Morgan Hayes

Off grid solar systems are often considered on farms and small acreages in locations where power is difficult or expensive to run. These locations typically do not have huge power requirements; the land owners just wish to have lights in a barn, a fence charger, or to run a small motor or power tool. Off grid solar systems provide an opportunity to have power without the expense of an electric service. Before purchasing an off grid solar system, it is important to have an idea of what electrical items the system will be used to operate, and to understand the components that make up the solar panel system (batteries, fuses, controllers, and inverters).

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Hardin County, Larue County
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.88 mb
Pages: 4



FCS3-632

Making the Most of Meals While Traveling

3/3/2022 (new)
Authors: Nichole Huff, Sally Mineer, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

For many, planning your next travel adventure can be just as enjoyable as the trip itself. It is fun to daydream about where you will stay, how you will get there, and what you will do when you arrive--but what about the food you plan to eat during your travels? Research suggests meals and other food items can make up 25% of your travel budget. We look for deals and steals where we stay; however, we can also be strategic in planning, preparing, and purchasing food on vacation to ensure we still have exciting, nutritious, and cost-conscious meals. Food, like lodging and transportation, is a nonnegotiable vacation expense because you must get to your destination, have a place to sleep each night, and have food to eat each day. Saving money on meals leaves extra cash available for making memories or perhaps, extending the length of your vacation.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 1.43 mb
Pages: 5



4AH-12PO

Cantaloupe Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The cantaloupe exhibit allows you to display the cantaloupe that you have grown in your garden. Each cantaloupe exhibited is judged on the melon's condition and quality.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 440 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-13PO

Eggplant Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The eggplant exhibit allows you to display the eggplant that you have grown in your garden. The exhibit is judged on each eggplant's condition and quality, and required number of specimen.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 380 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-14PO

Summer Squash Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The summer squash exhibit allows you to display the summer squash that you have grown in your garden. The exhibit is judged on each squash's condition and quality, and required number of specimen.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 390 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-15PO

Sweet Corn Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Jessica Sayre

The sweet corn exhibit allows you to display the sweet corn that you have grown in your garden. Sweet corn comes in many different varieties and usually fits into three different color categories. Yellow, white, or bi-colored (a mixture of yellow and white kernels). The sweet corn exhibit is judged on three criteria including quality, uniformity, and required number of specimen.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Harrison County
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-16PA

Exhibiting and Judging Vegetables

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

What makes certain vegetables "better" or of higher quality than others? Do you know which vegetables to choose for exhibition? Do you know how to prepare vegetables for exhibition? This factsheet will help you as you prepare to exhibit or judge vegetables. Vegetables will be evaluated on different criteria including condition, quality, uniformity, trueness-to-type, and size. Whether you are going to exhibit or judge vegetables, you will need to learn the characteristics of all of these criteria.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 560 kb
Pages: 9



RB-346

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples July 2020 - June 2021

1/12/2022 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,484 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2020 through June 30, 2021 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 51,145 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,163,000 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,045 nitrogen, 1,530 phosphorus, 1,649 potassium, and 1355 secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples. Table 1 shows the manufacturers whose product the field inspection staff sampled, along with the number of samples taken and the percentage of those samples that passed. Table 2 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials. Table 3 contains the results of secondary and minor element and certain other analyses. Table 4 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer material by grade. Table 5 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of June 30, 2021.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 4.60 mb
Pages: 272



PR-809

2021 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/21/2021 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2008-2021 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, teff, and cereal crops. Cool season annual grasses (specifically cereal crops) are also used as forages crops for hay, baleage or grazing. The cereal crops used in this report are wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and triticale (Triticum secale).

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.90 mb
Pages: 36



PR-810

2021 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/21/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past twenty years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.37 mb
Pages: 28



AEN-165

Improving Cow Paths

12/17/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The energy expended by a large animal traveling on a slope can be tremendous. To compensate, grazing animals create trails, which run parallel to a slope. These trails allow animals to graze the upper slope, while standing on flat ground, which provides energy and grazing efficiencies.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.30 mb
Pages: 2



PR-798

2021 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Win Dunwell, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Krista Jacobsen, Rachel Rudolph, John Strang, Raul Villanueva, Shawn Wright

The 2021 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results from 12 different projects. The majority of projects were conducted on research farms, but a few were conducted on commercial farms with the assistance of grower-cooperators. We are truly grateful to the growers who invest their time, energy, and land in supporting research. Their contributions help other growers, and that is of immeasurable value. Research was conducted by University of Kentucky faculty and staff from the horticulture, plant pathology, and entomology departments, as well as faculty and staff of Kentucky State University.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 5.80 mb
Pages: 44



ID-196

UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2022

12/9/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Bob Coleman

The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 7.00 mb
Pages: 32



PR-807

2021 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/7/2021 (new)
Authors: Joao Costa, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass and festulolium can also be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the growing season. Overgrazing is not a recommended practice, but is done in these studies to determine how different varieties perform under conditions that are worse than occur during the life of a typical pasture. Varieties are primarily rated for percent survival but data on seedling vigor and grazing preference are also presented.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 12



PR-808

2021 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/7/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to evaluate varieties of these grasses for persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the growing season. The main focus will be on stand survival but data on seedling vigor and grazing preference are also included

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 8



PR-805

2021 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/3/2021 (new)
Authors: Joao Costa, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season. A summary of all alfalfa varieties tested in Kentucky during the last 20 years and information about distributors, fall dormancy ratings, and disease resistance is included at the end of this report.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 200 kb
Pages: 4



PR-802

2021 Tall Fescue, Bromegrass, and Meadow Fescue Report

12/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Selecting a good variety of tall fescue and bromegrass is an important first step in establishing a productive stand of grass. Proper management, beginning with seedbed preparation and continuing throughout the life of the stand, is necessary for even the highest-yielding variety to produce to its genetic potential.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 14



PR-806

2021 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Joao Costa, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-12

Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Shade Trees

11/30/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial leaf scorch has devastated many landscape and shade trees in Kentucky's urban forests in recent years. Especially hard hit have been the mature pin oaks lining many urban streets. First diagnosed in the U.S. in the early 1980s, this epidemic shows no signs of abating.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: 249 kb
Pages: 6



PR-803

2021 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

11/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 550 kb
Pages: 6



PR-812

2021 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/28/2021 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location. The hybrids submitted for testing are those most likely to be available for sale in 2022.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 23



PR-800

2021 Red and White Clover Report

11/23/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2-1/2 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. It is a dominant forage legume in Kentucky because it is relatively easy to establish and has high forage quality, yield, and animal acceptance.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 770 kb
Pages: 6



PR-804

2021 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/23/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 14



4FD-01LO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Leaders Guide

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

The goal of the Creating Fashion/Expressing Self program is to provide young people in high school the opportunity to explore fashion and textile programs in a non-sewing context. Fashion should be a celebration of the uniqueness of each young person. Creating Fashion/Expressing Self is a celebration of the things that make us unique and a tool that helps us express those qualities.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 4.90 mb
Pages: 117



4FD-02PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Exploring Self

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self will help you learn to customize your wardrobe--to choose clothing you like and enjoy wearing. There are several ways of doing this. By the time you work through the project, you will know what they are and you will be able to select clothing you really enjoy wearing.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 4.10 mb
Pages: 20



4FD-03PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Closet Couture

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Creating a wardrobe that reflects who you are as a person can be very intimidating. It is important to remember however that you donít need to buy all new things to make this happen. Often times you can coordinate and match items in your own closet to get the job done.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 16



4FD-04PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Curating You

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Shopping for clothing is motivated by a lot of things--much of which can be summed up in two words: need or want. Your need to purchase a new item or replace a current one may be the factor that causes you to shop. On the other hand, your favorite pastime may be shopping. Regardless of what gets you to the marketplace, you need to know the three W's of wise shopping: when to shop, where to shop, and what to shop for.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 4.70 mb
Pages: 20



4FD-05PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Empowering Fashion

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Fashion should help empower you to present your most confident and truest self to the world. Fashion is a tool to build a wardrobe that someone could examine and know it is yours. Using the knowledge you have of wardrobe planning, shopping, and clothing coordination, we can now explore how those skills can interact with the world to express you, your community, and your support for others.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 5.50 mb
Pages: 25



4AH-10PO

Windowsill Garden Project

11/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Dick LeMaster, Ashley Osborne

This guide is for volunteer leaders or county Extension personnel, and includes four lessons designed for youth in 3rd-5th grades. Each lesson focuses on an aspect of seeds, plants, and/or gardening. Three additional experiments are included in the Digging Deeper section that youth can do independently or in a group or classroom setting. At the end of the guide, additional resources and an appendix are available. The National 4-H Gardening Series, which includes 4 levels for grades 3rd-12th and a Helper's Guide, is recommended if additional background information is needed. The National 4-H Gardening Series includes projects and activities for youth that have an interest in continuing to learn more about plant science and gardening after completing their windowsill garden.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs, Fayette County, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 580 kb
Pages: 24



PR-811

2021 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

11/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Dalton Mertz, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2021 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 28



AGR-6

Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2022

11/16/2021 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green, Travis Legleiter

The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 6.60 mb
Pages: 140



PR-801

2021 Orchardgrass Report

11/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 6



PR-799

2021 Alfalfa Report

11/10/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.16 mb
Pages: 10



AGR-265

Soil Sampling and Nutrient Management in Small Ruminant Pastures

11/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Pastures for sheep and goats are fertilized to ensure a reliable supply of energy, protein, and other nutrients for a long season of grazing. Management of plant nutrients maintains a balance of improved grasses and legumes and improves forage species competitiveness with many pasture weeds. The most important part of obtaining fertilizer recommendations is collecting a representative soil sample to send to the lab.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-GEN-19

Botrytis Blight

11/8/2021 (new)
Authors: Michael Boice, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Caldwell County, Oldham County, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: mb
Pages: 5



4LE-08OO

Why Extension Abroad Matters at Home

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Rachel Guidugli

In order for U.S. universities and colleges to remain competitive and innovative forces for the greater good in a rapidly changing world, Cooperative Extension Systems (CES) must continue to globalize to serve new and more diverse audiences, provide enriching opportunities that produce global citizens, and strengthen long-term institutional capacity.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 225 kb
Pages: 3



4LE-09LO

Chinese Dumplings

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Rachel Noble

Dumplings are a type of food that is prepared and enjoyed all over the world. Dumplings can be a stuffing wrapped in a thin dough or pieces of dough cooked in boiling water. Dumplings can be boiled, fried, steamed and prepared in many different ways. Just like bread, dumplings probably arose independently in several cuisines. And in all likelihood, they were invented as a way to stretch a small amount of meat to feed more people.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 325 kb
Pages: 5



4LE-10LO

Argentina: Empanadas

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Breazeale, Rachel Guidugli

Empanadas are hand-held pies stuffed with a variety of delicious fillings that are extremely common in Latin America. Rich and poor alike serve them for impromptu dinners, stick them in lunch boxes, and enjoy them at public gatherings. Home cooks teach their children to make empanadas using special family recipes, but they also buy them from a multitude of shops, where you can often find a dizzying array of filling options (both sweet and savory). Sometimes they are fried and sometimes they are baked.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 630 kb
Pages: 9



AEN-164

Reprogramming a Tobacco Barn to Hay Storage and Self-Feeding: An Eden Shale Case Study

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Many farms contain buildings that were productive long ago but contribute little to the farming operation today. A good example is a tobacco barn on a farm that no longer grows the crop. However, the application of land use planning concepts allows these barns to be repurposed or reprogrammed to significantly contribute to the farming operation. Once repurposed, these old barns can reduce labor, waste, time, and money while improving efficiency and profits.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 4



ID-36

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2022-23

10/19/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Erica Fealko, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Rachel Rudolph, Shawn Wright

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 22.00 mb
Pages: 136



PR-797

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2021

10/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Nick Roy, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

Departments: Adair County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 255 kb
Pages: 3



FCS3-631

2020-2025 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans

10/14/2021 (new)
Authors: Courtney Luecking, Janet Tietyen-Mullins, Lucy Valdez, Jackie Walters

Each five years, law requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to review the latest science and update advice on what Americans should eat and drink. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are designed to provide current dietary advice to promote health, help reduce risk of chronic disease, and meet nutritional needs across the lifespan. The guidelines also serve as a foundation for federal food, nutrition, and health policies and programs like the National School Lunch Program and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), to reduce hunger and increase food security through access to healthy, affordable food.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 2.28 mb
Pages: 7



FOR-160

Monitoring for and Controlling Wild Pig Populations in Kentucky

10/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Elizabeth Evers, Matthew Springer

Wild pigs are widely considered to be the most destructive invasive species in the United States. They cause large amounts of agricultural damage, compete with native wildlife for resources, alter wildlife habitat, and threaten biological diversity.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 2.63 mb
Pages: 5



ID-271

Equine Layout and Facility Planning Checklist

10/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes

Horse facilities should be planned and laid out to meet the needs and goals of the operation. Horse owners need to consider how horses, humans, vehicles, equipment, and water will flow through the operation. This publication is designed to help horse owners design or redesign their facilities.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 625 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-12

Crazy Top of Corn

10/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Kiersten Wise

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-28

Root Knot Nematode in Vegetable Cropping Systems

10/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Victoria Bajek, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Rachel Rudolph

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: mb
Pages: 7



AEN-161

Planning and Designing Suburban-Urban Poultry Housing in Kentucky

9/29/2021 (new)
Authors: James Ash, Steve Higgins

Interest in suburban-urban poultry keeping continues to increase. The main reasons for keeping poultry are for eggs and meat, and to address food sustainability or security issues. Poultry are also enjoyed as pets, for ornamental purposes, and providing enjoyment. Poultry can contribute to pest control and provide nutrient-rich manure for gardening. However, there are also challenges to keeping poultry in a suburban-urban setting.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 24.70 mb
Pages: 7



AEN-162

Using Weaning and Cow Weight to Make Production-based Culling Decisions

9/16/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Joshua Jackson, Michael Montross

Weaning time is an excellent time for producers to make decisions to cull or keep cows. Culling is a management decision in which animals with substandard production performance or potential are removed from the herd. The easiest decision is culling open cows or cows with a bad temperament. Open cows are obvious candidates to cull. Poor disposition (temperament) of a cow is also a clear sign to cull. Docility is a trait that is moderately to highly heritable (0.36-0.45) trait in cattle, and from a behavioral standpoint, cows will exhibit either fight or flight response to people. If a cow is calving, fight or flight behavior is understandable; otherwise, aggressive behavior should not be tolerated.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 6



AEN-163

Creating a Hub with Dry Lots for Small Ruminants

9/16/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A typical small ruminant operation needs to graze, feed and water animals daily. In addition, other activities such as milking, winter feeding, kidding or lambing, managing sick stock and handling for herd health need to be accomplished routinely or seasonally. An excellent way to promote efficiency is to create a centralized area or hub for all livestock related activities.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 2.75 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-AG-H-1

Septoria Leaf Spot of Field Hemp

9/16/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Mostafa Rahnama

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Hemp: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-H series)
Size: mb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-8

Bacterial Canker and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruit

9/9/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kevin Lyons, Chris Smigell

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

Departments: Horticulture, Monroe County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 207 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-27

Cucurbit Downy Mildew in Kentucky

9/7/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Rachel Rudolph

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-17

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

9/2/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 636 kb
Pages: 3



4AJ-08PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Past Production Hens: Giving Oral Reasons

9/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Oral reasons are a very important part of a poultry judging contest. This is the opportunity participants have to defend their placings of an egg production class. In addition, oral reasons are an important tool in the development of organization and communication skills, which in turn will build self-confidence.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 8



4HA-10PA

Annual Container Garden

9/1/2021 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The Annual Container Garden Contest is a perfect opportunity to showcase a container garden that you have created and cared for. Remember that this contest is specific to annual, non-vegetable plants. Annuals are plants that survive for only one growing season. Kentucky's cold winter temperatures kill outdoor annuals. Annual plants are grown for their unique foliage or colorful flowers.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Energy: General (4HA series)
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 3



4HA-11PA

Vegetable Container Garden

9/1/2021 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The Vegetable Container Garden Contest is a perfect opportunity to showcase a container garden that you have created and cared for. Remember that this contest is specific to vegetable plants.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Energy: General (4HA series)
Size: 695 kb
Pages: 3



4FC-01LA

Code Name: Home Alone

8/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

The Code Name: Home Alone Curriculum was developed by the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service to address the issue of youth being alone without an adult present. The curriculum focuses on youth and guardians learning about issues related to youth self-care, safety and overall well-being when they are home alone and/or with siblings without adult supervision. It stresses family communication through individual, group/classroom, adult and youth activities, and Family Newsletters. It is designed to be used in the classroom, and in 4-H groups, youth groups, family groups, and as self-passed lessons with a video guide.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Community Service and Action (4FC series)
Size: 13.70 mb
Pages: 180



4FF-03PA

Home Environment Project Unit 3: Where I Live

8/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

In this project you will learn some guidelines for using the design elements. You'll learn how rhythm, balance, scale and proportion, emphasis and unity work together to make every project more attractive. You will have the opportunity to apply what you have learned while working on various projects and activities in and around your home. Some activities you can do by yourself. Other things you may want to do with other members of your family, your project leader or other club members.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 4.15 mb
Pages: 28



4FF-04PA

Home Environment Project Unit 4: In My Home

8/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Unit IV: In My Home offers more opportunities for you to work with design and find out more about yourself, your home, and your community. You can explore what you like about your home and why it's a special place to be. You'll learn how to make things for your home. You can also learn more about your family--where your ancestors lived, how they lived, and what that means to you. And you'll be able to do things with other 4-H members and friends.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 5.10 mb
Pages: 28



4AJ-05PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Grading Table Eggs

8/29/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Chicken egg production is a major agricultural industry in the United States. In a commercial egg production operation, eggs are evaluated for quality before being packed by weight (size). Egg quality is independent of egg weight and eggshell color. All shell colors are graded with the same standards.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 4.74 mb
Pages: 13



4FF-01PA

Home Environment Project Unit 1: Exploring Your Home

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Home Environment Unit I: Exploring Your Home introduces 4-H'ers to activities to help them become interested in their homes and learn how to make them more attractive. They can do some of the activities by themselves. Other things should be done with a guardian or a club leader giving guidance.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 24



4FF-02PA

Home Environment Project Unit 2: Living with Others

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Home Environment II: Living With Others builds on the skills and concepts 4-H'ers learned in Unit I, Exploring Your Home. If some of your members have not completed that unit, they should review the material in order to learn some of the basic concepts of design.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 1.17 mb
Pages: 28



4LE-01LO

Mexico: Dia de los Muertos Paper Crafts

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Day of the Dead (or Dia de los Muertos) is an important part of Mexican culture. A two-day celebration of life and death, Day of the Dead is not a version of how we typically think of Halloween--it is a cultural tradition to honor lost family members. Death is perceived as a natural phase of life in Mexico, and those who have passed on are remembered in spirit and memory. It is believed that during Dia de los Muertos, the spirits of the dead return to earth temporarily.

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 13



4LE-02LO

Asian Cultures: Lanterns

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Lanterns are found in several cultures and symbolize different things. Each year Taiwan hosts a world-renowned Lantern Festival. The Lantern Festival is celebrated annually on the 15th day of the first lunar month to mark the grand finale of the Chinese New Year celebrations. It is also the very first full moon day of the New Year, symbolizing the coming of the spring.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 529 kb
Pages: 6



4LE-03LO

Japanese Culture: One Thousand Paper Cranes

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Origami has a rich and complex history that spans culture, class and geography, composed of the Japanese words oru (to fold) and kami (paper) (PBS, 2017). Paper was first invented in China around 105 AD and was brought to Japan by monks in the sixth century. Handmade paper was a luxury item only available to a few, and paper folding in ancient Japan was strictly for ceremonial purposes, often religious in nature (PBS, 2017). Traditional origami is characterized by open-access folding patterns and sequences passed down orally or anonymously from generation to generation. Modern origami often features models created by designers (PBS, 2017).

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 4.00 mb
Pages: 6



4LE-04LO

Scandinavian Culture: Woven Heart Ornaments and Gnomes

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Folklore is sometimes referred to as folk culture and can be defined as the study of customs, traditions, and folk tales of a group of people. Swedish scholars have defined folklore in two ways: 1) folklivsforskning or the "study of folk life," including traditional materials and practices, and 2) folkminnesforsknin, referring to folk knowledge passed down from generation to generation, through stories, songs, and plays, to teach traditions, beliefs, and customs (Kongas, 1963).

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 1.28 mb
Pages: 11



4LE-05LO

Brazil: The Carnival Celebration

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

According to Britannica (2019) Brazil is the largest and furthest East country on the South American Continent. Brazil shares a border with every South American county except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world by size with 3,287,956 square miles of land and is the only country that the equator and the tropic of Capricorn run through it. Brazil is home to more than just the rainforest but also includes deserts and a variety of oceanic microclimates.

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 4



4LE-06LO

Peru: Llamas and Panpipes "Siku"

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

People living in the Andes Mountains have been using llamas as pack animals (animals used to move supplies and equipment) for hundreds of years. "Siku" is one name used for panpipes or pan flutes played in Peru! Sizes of panpipes can vary in Andes regions. Many are small yet others are as large as 4 feet long. In this craft, you will be creating a version of a siku (panpipe) that incorporates the same technique!

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 585 kb
Pages: 6



4LE-07LO

Costa Rican Rainforest Binoculars and Terrarium

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Costa Rica is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. It is not an island but is on the isthmus that connects North America and South America. Geographically it's a part of North America but has cultural roots in Latin America.

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 311 kb
Pages: 4



4AJ-07PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Evaluating Past Production Hens

8/19/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

In a 4-H poultry judging contest participants are required to rank a group of four hens from the most to least productive. The criteria used in judging the hens are based on pigmentation, abdominal capacity, abdominal fat condition and molt.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 3.30 mb
Pages: 8



4AJ-11PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Market Poultry: Ready-to-Cook Poultry Parts Identification

8/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

The market poultry division now includes one class of ready-to-cook broiler carcasses to grade, one class of ready-to-cook roaster carcasses to grade, one class of parts identification, one class of parts grading, and one class of further processed boneless poultry products. Each class is worth 100 points, for a total of 500 possible points for the division. This factsheet specifically looks at the 24 possible parts that will be selected from for use in the contest. This is an increase from the 17 possible parts in previous years.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 10.00 mb
Pages: 10



ID-269

Using Electric Offsets as Part of Fencing Systems

8/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Chris Teutsch

The objective of this publication is to provide practical tips for installing electrified offsets that can effectively control livestock and extend the life of new and existing fencing.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.90 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-26

Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot: Disease Management for Residential Growers

8/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Heather Graham

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant Pathology, Wolfe County
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



4AJ-04PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest (An Overview of the Project): Overview

8/2/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Judging contests are a tool used in the development of the life skills of 4-H members. Participation in judging and other competitive events helps 4-H'ers learn to make and defend decisions and to speak in public. Poultry judging also provides an excellent opportunity for 4-H'ers to learn about live chickens and the basis of grade and quality of eggs and poultry products.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 1.92 mb
Pages: 8



4AJ-12PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Market Poultry: Grading to Ready to Cook Parts

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

The market poultry division now includes one class of ready-to-cook broiler carcasses to grade, one class of ready-to-cook roaster carcasses to grade, one class of parts identification, one class of parts grading, and one class of further processed boneless poultry products. Each class is worth 100 points, for a total of 500 possible points for the division. This factsheet looks at the new class of grading ready-to-cook parts.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 11.30 mb
Pages: 9



ASC-246

Properly Maintaining a Backyard Poultry Facility

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

It is important that you properly maintain the poultry facility so that you do not attract rodents, flies, or create an odor problem. These are the three main reasons that non-poultry enthusiasts give for not wanting backyard flocks in their communities and neighborhood.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 1.47 mb
Pages: 4



ASC-247

Broodiness in Chickens

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Broodiness is the term used to describe a hen that is preparing to naturally incubate eggs and raise newly hatched chicks. When broodiness occurs in a hen certain behavioral changes may be evident. These changes include increasing the time spent in the nest, being overly protective of the eggs and nest, changes in the consumption of feed and water, and the stopping of egg production.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 375 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-H-11

Common Problems of Annuals and Perennials: An Index

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Entomology, Fayette County, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Size: mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-30

Common Problems of Common Trees: An Index

7/19/2021 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Entomology, Fayette County, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-31

Common Problems of Common Shrubs: An Index

7/19/2021 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Entomology, Fayette County, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



4AJ-06PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Grading Ready-to-Cook Poultry Carcasses

7/14/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

In 2021, major revisions were made to the market poultry division of the 4-H poultry judging contest. The market poultry division now includes one class each of ready-to-cook broiler carcasses to grade, ready-to-cook roaster carcasses to grade, parts identification, parts grading, and further processed boneless poultry products.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 6.48 mb
Pages: 12



4AJ-10PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Market Poultry: Evaluating Further Processed Poultry Products

7/14/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Boneless further processed poultry meat products are common in retail markets as precooked, poultry meat patties, tenders, nuggets, or other boneless products. This factsheet will cover the evaluation of further processed poultry products.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 8.13 mb
Pages: 7



PR-796

2021 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Phillip Shine, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale, and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties continually are being de-veloped by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.64 mb
Pages: 20



ID-270

Human-Horse-Environment Interface: Metals in Indoor Horse Arenas

6/21/2021 (new)
Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Erin Haynes, Staci McGill, Kimberly Tumlin

A University of Kentucky research collaboration analyzed footing samples for metal concentrations as part of a larger study on indoor arenas. By determining what metals are present within the indoor arena footing, we can begin to develop an idea of the metals which could potentially become airborne particulates as horses are worked in the arenas. To date, metals havenít been as widely considered when considering respirable particulate matter (PM) that can impact horses and humans in the arena environment.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, UK Epidemiology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



AEN-160

Decision Aid for Estimating the Cost of Using a Drone in Production Agriculture

6/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Gabriel Abdulai, Joshua Jackson, Karla Ladino

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), commonly known as drones, play an increasingly important role in production agriculture. UAS are already widely used in agriculture for monitoring livestock, inspecting fence lines, and evaluating crops and pastures (e.g., yield, quality, nutrients, water stress, pest pressure, disease impact). The cost of using a UAS will depend on a variety of factors, including platform-based capabilities, maintenance, and insurance. As with any investment, the economic benefit derived from using a UAS should be determined prior to purchase.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 9



AGR-172

Weed Management in Grass Pastures, Hayfields, and Other Farmstead Sites, 2021

5/19/2021 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

Weeds can reduce the quantity and the stand life of desirable forage plants in pastures and hayfields. These unwanted plants are often more aggressive than existing or desired forage species and compete for light, water, and nutrients. Weeds can also diminish the quality and palatability of the forage available for livestock grazing, and certain weed species are potentially poisonous to grazing animals. Therefore, it may be desirable to initiate weed management strategies that reduce the impact of weeds on forage production.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 660 kb
Pages: 16



AR-130

KAES Annual Report, 2017

5/18/2021 (new)
Authors:

Experiment station research spans both basic and applied sciences. The ability of Kentucky producers to be competitive in domestic and world markets requires an expanded base of knowledge in emerging areas of research applicable to agriculture, food, and natural resources. This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2017.

Departments:
Series: Experiment Station Annual Report (AR series)
Size: 5.20 mb
Pages: 68



PPFS-GH-8

Managing Tobamoviruses in Greenhouse Production

5/13/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Tobamoviruses, including tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the new tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), can be persistent in greenhouses and other protected cropping environments. Herbaceous ornamentals, vegetables, and tobacco can be affected by tobamoviruses. Once introduced into a site, these viruses can spread rapidly, reducing plant quality and yields. Prevention and careful sanitation are important to maintaining a virus-free production environment for current and future crops.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Size: 980 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-18

Edema

5/10/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, John Hartman

Edema is a non-parasitic disorder which, under the right environmental conditions, can affect a wide variety of herbaceous plants. We most frequently observe this problem on indoor plants, such as dracaena, geranium and schefflera. Edema tends to be more of a problem in greenhouses, but it may also occur on plants grown in homes and offices. Field and garden grown crops, such as cabbage, may also be affected.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: 770 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-4

Greenhouse Sanitation

5/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kenny Seebold

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Size: 640 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-263

Growing Wheat for Forage

4/14/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Wheat is a multipurpose crop that can be used for cover crops, stored forage or grazing. As much as 25% of Kentucky's wheat acreage is not harvested as grain but used for cover crop or forage production. Wheat has excellent winter hardiness and can be sown later in the fall than barley. Wheat is a good choice for planting following corn or soybean harvest to capture residual nitrogen, build soil organic matter and prevent erosion. Wheat provides high quality, early spring growth, but has limited fall growth compared to grazing types of cereal rye.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-11

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits

4/13/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 3



ID-232

Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide, 2021-22

4/8/2021 (reprinted)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, John Strang, Shawn Wright

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 180



AGR-232

Crabgrass

4/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Crabgrass possesses significant potential for supplying high quality summer forage although it is considered a weed by many. A primary advantage of crabgrass is that it is well adapted to Kentucky and occurs naturally in most summer pastures, especially those that have been overgrazed. It is also highly palatable and a prolific re-seeder. Planting an improved variety of crabgrass is recommended because the production of naturally-occurring ecotypes varies greatly. Crabgrass is best utilized by grazing.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 428 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-48

Bermudagrass: A Summer Forage in Kentucky

4/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Bermudagrass can be used successfully as part of a livestock forage program to supplement summer production of cool-season grasses. It is high-yielding, sod-forming, warm-season perennial grass that is most productive on well-drained, fertile soils. Bermudagrass is widely grown in the southern United States for pasture and hay.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 2.05 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-86

Growing Lespedeza in Kentucky for Cattle, Sheep and Goats

4/6/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual and perennial lespedezas are grown in Kentucky for pasture, hay, and soil stabilization. Lespedezas are warm season legumes that complement cool-season grasses in both pasture and hay situations. They are more tolerant of less fertile, more acid soils, but have lower yield potential than other forage legumes such as red clover and alfalfa.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.85 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-264

Improving Kentucky Small Ruminant Pastures

4/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Krista Lea, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

For many small ruminants, quality pasture can provide almost all nutrients needed for maintenance or light work for much of the year. Pasture reduces the cost of keeping livestock while minimizing impacts on the environment. Below are some guidelines for improving pastures.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.14 mb
Pages: 2



ASC-169

Beef Sire Selection Manual, 2021

4/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Darrh Bullock

In principle, genetic improvement is a straight-forward exercise that results from using above-average selection candidates as the parents of the next generation. In practice, the devil is in the details. Both bull breeders and bull buyers need to consider their breeding objectives, defining the list of traits that need to be modified to advance the towards their goal.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 7.30 mb
Pages: 56



RB-344

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2020

3/31/2021 (new)
Authors: Glen Harrison

Kentucky's commercial feed law provides protection for the state's livestock, poultry, and pet owners by regulating all feed materials offered for sale or for mixing into a feed. Products falling under regulation include all types of pet foods, livestock minerals, complete animal and poultry feeds, protein or mineral blocks, supplements, feed ingredients, specialty materials such as drug premixes, vitamin and mineral supplements, liquid feeds, pet supplements, pet treats, and other specialized pet foods. The law does provide for exemptions for whole and unprocessed grain, raw meat, hay, straw, stover, silage, cobs, husks, and hulls when not processed. Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 36



PPFS-OR-W-11

Juniper Twig Blights

3/29/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Carrie Spry

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-3

Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals

3/25/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



ASC-245

Feeding Soybeans to Beef Cattle

3/24/2021 (new)
Authors: Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Various factors such as delayed planting, early frost, drought or suppressed market prices may lead one to consider feeding soybeans to cattle. Soybeans can be fed to beef cattle as an energy and protein source. Depending upon the stage of development, soybeans will have varying degrees of feed value and a feed test for nutrient content is recommended.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 308 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-207

Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky Pastures, 2021

3/23/2021 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

A guide to the identification and control of broadleaf weeds in Kentucky pastures.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 3.90 mb
Pages: 2



ID-108

The Kentucky Beef Book, 2021

3/23/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Les Anderson, Michelle Arnold, Darrh Bullock, Kenny Burdine, Roy Burris, Ben Crites, Jimmy Henning, Steve Higgins, Steve Isaacs, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Lee Moser, Gregg Rentfrow, Kylie Schmidt, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch, Lee Townsend, Katherine VanValin, Paul Vijayakumar

Kentucky is ideally suited for cattle production. The main feed for cattle is a renewable resource Kentucky has in abundance--forages. The majority of the state's terrain favors cattle production over row crops. Kentucky farms cover 14 million acres, with approximately half of that occupied by forage grasses and legumes. Our natural resources and climate permit the growth of most cool-season and warm-season species. Water is readily available in all areas of the state, and we have a relatively long growing season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.50 mb
Pages: 164



NEP-229

Cook Wild Kentucky: Introduction to Wild Game in Kentucky

3/23/2021 (new)
Authors: Elizabeth Coots, Jann Knappage, Annhall Norris, Gregg Rentfrow, Matthew Springer, Jackie Walters, Martha Yount

In Kentucky, many people enjoy being outdoors to hunt, fish, and trap. Kentucky is home to a wide range of wildlife with nearly 1,000 kinds of animals. We have the most elk this side of the Mississippi River. You can also find black bear, white-tailed deer, turkey, waterfowl, and bobwhite quail in our state.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources, Woodford County
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 1.45 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-5

Strawberry Anthracnose Fruit and Crown Rot

3/22/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 293 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-14

Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases

3/20/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



RB-343

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples July 2019 - June 2020

3/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,460 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 48,500 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,123,000 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,050 nitrogen, 1,649 phosphorus, 1,661 potassium, 1224 secondary and minor element, and certain other analyses on these samples. Table 1 shows the manufacturers whose product the field inspection staff sampled, along with the number of samples taken and the percentage of those samples that passed. Table 2 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials. Table 3 contains the results of secondary and minor element and certain other analyses. Table 4 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials by grade. Table 5 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of June 30, 2020.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 266



PPFS-AG-C-11

Drone Fungicide Applications in Corn

3/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Pat Hardesty, Nick Roy, Kiersten Wise

Foliar fungicide applications occur commonly in corn to manage foliar diseases such as gray leaf spot. University of Kentucky research indicates that the most effective application timing for both foliar disease control and yield benefits is at tasseling/early silking (VT/R1). Because of the height of corn at this growth stage, these applications are typically applied aerially, with fixed wing or helicopter aircraft. However, many Kentucky fields are small, surrounded by trees or other obstacles to aircraft, meaning that fungicide application is not an option in these areas.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 3



NEP-227

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Beets

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Beets, planted in the spring, grow well in Kentucky. They are easy to grow and quick to mature. Both the roots and the leaves are edible.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-228

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Radishes

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Radishes are easy and fast to grow and only take up a little space. Radish roots are low in calories and high in vitamins C, K, and B6. Because they require little time and space, radishes are great vegetables for children to grow. This publication will discuss only spring radishes.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-2

Seedling Diseases of Corn

3/8/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: 160 kb
Pages: 2



ID-230

Blackpatch of Forage Legumes: Cause of Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Animals

3/5/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Michelle Arnold, Shane Bogle, Bob Coleman, Ray Smith, Kiersten Wise

Blackpatch is an important fungal disease of forage legumes in Kentucky. A metabolite produced by the fungus can result in slaframine toxicosis or "slobbers" in many animals. The fungal disease was first reported in Kentucky in 1933 on red clover. Most Extension literature associates blackpatch and slaframine with red clover, which is very susceptible to the disease. However, many forage legumes including alfalfa can be infected by the causal fungus.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Caldwell County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-50

Drone Fungicide Applications in Corn

3/5/2021 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Pat Hardesty, Nick Roy, Kiersten Wise

Drone technology has improved in recent years and has also become more accessible. In Kentucky, commercial drone fungicide application is now an option in several areas. Drones specifically designed to apply products can potentially be used to apply fungicide in fields that are not accessible to other aircraft. This publication describes experiments to determine if drone fungicide applications can reduce foliar diseases in corn and discusses factors to consider when using drone technology to apply fungicides.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Size: 300 kb
Pages: 2



ID-128

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2021

3/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Rachel Rudolph, Mark Williams, Shawn Wright

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.80 mb
Pages: 56



AEN-159

Using Drones to Monitor Fence Lines

2/16/2021 (new)
Authors: Joshua Jackson

The escape of livestock is a serious concern for producers. Escaped animals can potentially damage property and/or injure people, especially when they are loose in undesired areas. Fence line inspection and the monitoring of gates, wires, and latches is a time-consuming task that must be regularly conducted to mitigate the risk of escape. The use of drones to evaluate fence lines is one of the newer methods being evaluated for farmers. With their onboard camera, rapid flight speed, and ability to fly over obstacles, drones have potential to expedite fence line inspection.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-AG-C-10

Northern Corn Leaf Blight

2/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) is a significant foliar corn disease in Kentucky. This disease has been damaging in the United States Corn Belt since the early 1900s, but has increased in severity and prevalence throughout the U.S., including Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and signs of NCLB, conditions that favor disease development, and management methods to reduce impact on yield.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: 800 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-262

Utilizing Drought Stressed Soybeans for Forage

2/10/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch, Katherine VanValin

Although soybeans are commonly grown as a grain crop, they can be grazed or harvested as either a hay or silage crop. This most commonly occurs when the grain potential of the soybean crop has been reduced by drought, hail damage, or early frost. A realistic forage yield expectation for drought stressed soybeans would be 1.5 to 2.0 tons of dry matter per acre. The objective of this article is to provide practical tips for successfully, grazing, conserving and feeding drought stressed soybeans.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 380 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-T-13

Managing Spring Dead Spot in Bermudagrass

2/4/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Size: 816 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-16

Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck of Apple

1/26/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a common late summer disease complex. The resulting superficial blemishes do not cause fruit decay, but they can reduce market value for commercial produce. Infections of the waxy cuticle can also shorten storage life, as it allows for accelerated desiccation during refrigerated storage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 682 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-7

Fruit Diseases of Cucurbits

1/26/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 315 kb
Pages: 5



PR-795

2020 Soybean Yield and Quality Contest

1/26/2021 (new)
Authors: Danny Adams, Matt Adams, Samantha Anderson, Ricky Arnett, Daniel Carpenter, Graham Cofield, Meagan Diss, Greg Drake, Colby Guffey, Clint Hardy, Carrie Knott, Leann Martin, Jason Phillips, Paul Andrew Rideout, Glen Roberts, Ben Rudy, Michelle Simon, Darrell Simpson, Mike Smith

In Kentucky, farmers grow soybeans in two common soybean production systems: full season and double crop. Farmers plant full season soybeans in the spring and harvest them that fall, so they have harvested one crop in one calendar year. Farmers plant double crop soybeans after wheat harvest in June. These soybeans are harvested later that fall, making them the second crop harvested in the same calendar year. Both systems are important to the overall production of soybean in Kentucky. Therefore, in 1980, an annual soybean yield contest was initiated in Kentucky to document the agronomic practices utilized by producers.

Departments: Boone County, Butler County, Clinton County, Daviess County, Fulton County, Graves County, Green County, Hardin County, Henderson County, Larue County, Logan County, Muhlenberg County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Simpson County, Trigg County, Union County, Wayne County
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 984 kb
Pages: 12



CLD2-1-ANR

Understanding Your Organization's Culture: ANR Facilitator's Guide

1/19/2021 (new)
Authors: Kristina Hains, Janet Johnson

Effective leaders have a profound effect upon the culture of their organizations. Leaders hire and fire, determine policies, and are organizational role models. All of these factors impact an organization's culture. Therefore, it is important that leaders understand the basics behind culture and how to influence it toward desired results.

Departments: Allen County, Community and Leadership Development
Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
Size: 175 kb
Pages: 5



ID-268

Kentucky Grain Crop Production at a Glance

1/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, John Grove, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Sam McNeill, Edwin Ritchey, Raul Villanueva, Kiersten Wise

A quick resource on grain crop production.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 370 kb
Pages: 8



ID-268P

Kentucky Grain Crop Production at a Glance (poster)

1/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, John Grove, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Sam McNeill, Edwin Ritchey, Raul Villanueva, Kiersten Wise

A quick resource on grain crop production. NOTE: This poster is 25 x 38 inches. ID-268 is the booklet-sized version.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 191 kb
Pages: 1



RB-342

Seed Inspection Report, 2020

1/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 534 kb
Pages: 32



AGR-173

Baling Forage Crops for Silage

1/11/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage may be stored for winter feeding when pasture production is limited, for use in confinement feeding systems, or for cash hay. Dry hay is the most popular storage method since it stores well for long periods and is better suited to cash sale and shipping than high moisture forages. However, silage may be more suitable in situations where hay curing is difficult. It is possible to make high quality silage or haylage using long (unchopped) forage crops baled with large round balers, although balers may need modification to handle wet material.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 957 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-158

Raised Wicking Bed

1/8/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A raised bed is an excellent addition to many backyard gardens. A modification of this design may be of interest to gardeners. A raised wicking bed is a self-contained method for growing vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers. The bed provides a built-in water reservoir that allows plants to water themselves. The design is ideal for individuals who are new to gardening, but experienced gardeners will find it helpful as well. The greatest benefit of this system is that it provides control of the water supply to the plants within the defined area.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-S-6

Rust Diseases of Brambles

1/5/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jessica Sayre

The three most important rust diseases occurring on brambles in Kentucky are cane and leaf rust, late rust, and orange rust. The most destructive of these diseases is orange rust, which is ultimately lethal to plants. Once infected, entire plants must be removed and destroyed. In contrast, cane and leaf rust, along with late rust, are not lethal to plants and can be managed using cultural practices and fungicides. Distinguishing between these rust diseases is critical for proper management.

Departments: Harrison County, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 5



PR-779

2020 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/18/2020 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Win Dunwell, Bob Perry, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Snyder, John Strang

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmer markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. Evaluation of varieties is a continuing necessity and allows us to provide the most up to date information in communications with vegetable growers. The vegetable variety trial results are the basis for updating the recommendations in our Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36).

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 6.06 mb
Pages: 40



AGR-259

Multi-SOA Pre-emergence Herbicides for Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp Control

12/17/2020 (new)
Authors: Travis Legleiter

Waterhemp and Palmer amaranth are among the most troublesome and hard to control weeds in soybean fields in Kentucky. Both species have spread across the state over the past ten to fifteen years. Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides [Group 2] and glyphosate [Group 9] is widespread in both species, while PPO-resistance [Group 14] is continually spreading especially in waterhemp. Herbicide manufacturers have developed several herbicide premix formulations targeted at controlling waterhemp and Palmer amaranth that contain multiple effective sites of action, thus farmers have options to choose from.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-255

Strategies for Reclaiming Hay Feeding Areas

12/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch

Hoof damage from livestock during the winter months can result in almost complete disturbance of desired vegetation and soil structure in and around hay feeding areas. Even well-designed hay feeding pads will have significant damage at the edges where animals enter and leave. Highly disturbed areas create perfect growing conditions for summer annual weeds like spiny pigweed and cocklebur. Weed growth is stimulated by lack of competition from a healthy and vigorous sod and the high fertility from the concentrated area of dung, urine, and rotting hay. The objective of this publication is to outline strategies for rapidly establishing stands of desirable forage species on these areas.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 985 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-25

Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato - Disease Management for Commercial Grower

12/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Early blight and Septoria leaf spot are the most common fungal diseases of tomato in Kentucky. Often occurring together, these diseases can significantly reduce yields during seasons with humid, wet weather.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-260

Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp Control in Corn and Soybean

12/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Travis Legleiter

Understanding the biology of a weed is the first step in implementing an effective weed control program. This is especially true with Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), as understanding their emergence patterns, competitiveness, adaptability, and seed production all need to be considered when developing a control program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



ID-160

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2021-2022

12/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Ric Bessin, Lowell Bush, Ann Fisher, J.D. Green, Bob Miller, Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer, Edwin Ritchey, Wayne Sanderson, Will Snell

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 41,507.63 mb
Pages: 88



PR-792

2020 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past twenty years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.20 mb
Pages: 28



PR-794

2020 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

12/7/2020 (new)
Authors: Dalton Mertz, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2020 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.48 mb
Pages: 29



PR-791

2020 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/4/2020 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2013-2019 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, teff, and cereal crops. Cool season annual grasses (specifically cereal crops) are also used as forages crops for hay, baleage or grazing. The cereal crops used in this report are wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and triticale (Triticum secale).

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.10 mb
Pages: 30



AGR-252

Soil Sampling Pastures and Hayfields

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Edwin Ritchey, Chris Teutsch

Adequate soil fertility in pastures and hayfields is key to maintaining productivity and optimizing profitability. Soil testing is the basis of well-designed fertilization and liming programs. In order to develop effective programs, soil samples must be collected in a manner that results in an accurate representation of each pasture or hayfield area. The objective of this publication is to provide guidelines that, when followed, result in representative soil samples.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 480 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-254

Grain Drill Calibration: Don't Make a Mistake--CALIBRATE!

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Jessica Buckman, Chris Teutsch

Grain drill calibration is a critical, yet often ignored part of successful forage establishment and pasture renovation. Planting lower seed rates than recommended can result in thin stands that are susceptible to weed encroachment. Planting more than the recommended seeding rate is undesirable due to increased seed costs. The following calibration method can be applied across a wide range of grain drill types and manufacturers and minimizes the need to carry out detailed mathematical calculations.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-257

Hay Sampling: Strategies for Getting a Good Sample

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Jordyn Bush, Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Chris Teutsch

Knowing the nutritional quality of forage and hay is an integral part of a profitable and efficient livestock operation. Accurate estimation of forage quality starts with obtaining a representative sample of the forage to be fed. Proper sampling technique is critical. Hay is preserved in different packages ranging from the small square bale weighing 40-50 lb to the large square bale weighing more than 1500 lb. In Kentucky, most hay is packaged in large round bales weighing between 500 and 1500 lb. Wrapped bale silage is also gaining popularity and should be sampled in a similar manner to large round hay bales with the exceptions listed here.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 5.16 mb
Pages: 3



ID-262

Considerations for Utilizing Frozen Small Grains for Forage

12/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott, Chris Teutsch, Katherine VanValin

Once wheat and other small grains adapt to cooler weather in the fall, they are relatively tolerant of cold temperatures and freeze injury. Frost injury in the spring normally occurs when February and March are unusually warm and small grains initiate growth earlier than normal or from an unusually late frost event. Freezing temperatures during sensitive growth stages can significantly impact grain yield. In some cases, the impact on yield can be moderate to severe.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 429 kb
Pages: 4



PR-784

2020 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

12/1/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. Much of the tall fescue in Kentuckys infected with an internal fungus (endophyte) that produces ergot alkaloids and results in decreased weight gains in growing ruminants and lower pregnancy rates in breeding stock, especially in hot weather. Varieties are now available that are free of this fungal endophyte or infected with a nontoxic endophyte. Varieties in the latter group are also referred to as "novel" or "friendly" endophyte varieties, because their endophyte improves stand survival without creating animal production problems.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 14



PR-789

2020 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/1/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the bromegrasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 12



PR-790

2020 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/1/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 704 kb
Pages: 128



PR-783

2020 Orchardgrass Report

11/24/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 699 kb
Pages: 8



PR-787

2020 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

11/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 4



PR-788

2020 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

11/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 393 kb
Pages: 4



PR-785

2020 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

11/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 550 kb
Pages: 6



PR-786

2020 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. Perennial ryegrass can be used as a short-lived hay or pasture plant and has growth characteristics similar to tall fescue. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 14



PR-793

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2020

11/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Nick Roy, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky. Corn hybrids were evaluated for silage performance on cooperating farms. Representatives from seed companies submitted hybrids of their choosing. Most companies submitted only two (2) hybrids. One company supplies a third hybrid that serves as a check.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 275 kb
Pages: 4



PR-780

2020 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 18



PR-781

2020 Alfalfa Report

11/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 10



PR-782

2020 Red and White Clover Report

11/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield and persistence data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. Tables 14 and 15 show a summary of all clover varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website at forages.ca.uky.edu contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 8



PPFS-VG-6

Bacterial Canker of Tomato

11/14/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Bacterial canker is a potentially serious disease of tomato that can occur in commercial plantings and home gardens. This infectious disease is capable of spreading rapidly, resulting in devastating losses. It is a particularly difficult disease to manage because not only is there no cure, but the pathogen can be hard to eradicate once it has been introduced into a greenhouse, garden, or field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 392 kb
Pages: 4



CLD2-9-ANR

Sustaining Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Strengthening an Organization by Building Traditions: ANR Facilitator's Guide

11/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Faye Kuosman

Sustaining members, volunteers and leaders and their continued efforts and service to the program is imperative to the continued health and well-being of any community organization. Sustaining adds stability, credibility and continuity to organizations. Sustaining, the fourth and final category of the GEMS Model of Volunteer Administration, consists of five steps: evaluate, recognize, retain, redirect and disengage.

Departments: Woodford County
Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
Size: 175 kb
Pages: 6



FCS2-342

Shoe Savvy

11/10/2020 (reviewed)
Authors: Jeanne Badgett, Marjorie Baker

Putting your best foot forward is much easier if you have the right footwear. Most people agree that shoes are an important wardrobe item. Everyone wears them. Not only are they a necessity, but shoes are also a major fashion accessory. For such an important item, most of us know less about selecting footwear than any other element of clothing

Departments: 4-H Programs, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Clothing and Textiles (FCS2 series)
Size: 190 kb
Pages: 4



FCS2-347

Accessories The Finishing Touch

11/10/2020 (reviewed)
Authors: Jeanne Badgett, Marjorie Baker

Clothing experts predict accessories will be more important as styles become more classic and investment dressing a necessity. Wise consumers can no longer afford to purchase clothes having a short fashion life; they are buying fewer clothing items of better quality. Accessories make basic clothing versatile by changing the mood and image of an outfit.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Clothing and Textiles (FCS2 series)
Size: 2.80 mb
Pages: 16



FCS2-809

Wardrobe Strategies

11/10/2020 (reviewed)
Authors: Jeanne Badgett, Marjorie Baker

Learning to look and feel beautiful begins with recognizing, understanding and accepting yourself. Fitting the full-figured woman is not merely a case of enlarging a small silhouette; it requires detailed attention to scale and proportion. Garment size is not the issue--body image is!

Departments: 4-H Programs, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Clothing and Textiles (FCS2 series)
Size: 175 kb
Pages: 4



FCS2-844

Color is Key

11/10/2020 (reviewed)
Authors: Jeanne Badgett, Debra Cotterill, Kim Miller-Spillman, Pam Sigler, Janet Tietyen-Mullins

Each person has unique skin, hair, and eye coloring. Clothing and cosmetics that compliment an individual's coloring make a person appear healthier and more attractive.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Mason County, Merchandise and Apparel, Program and Staff Development
Series: FCS: Clothing and Textiles (FCS2 series)
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 5



FCS2-845

Finding the Right Bra

11/10/2020 (reviewed)
Authors: Jeanne Badgett, Jennifer Downey, Kim Miller-Spillman, Pam Sigler

A bra that fits properly can improve posture, prevent back pain and injury, relieve muscle tension, and enhance your overall look.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Merchandise and Apparel, Program and Staff Development
Series: FCS: Clothing and Textiles (FCS2 series)
Size: 869.78 mb
Pages: 4



FCS2-848

Shed Five Pounds with Wardrobe Basics

11/10/2020 (reviewed)
Authors: Jeanne Badgett, Jennifer Downey, Kim Miller-Spillman, Pam Sigler, Janet Tietyen-Mullins

Selecting clothing that compliments your body shape can make you look five pounds thinner.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Merchandise and Apparel, Program and Staff Development
Series: FCS: Clothing and Textiles (FCS2 series)
Size: 792 kb
Pages: 6



HO-108

Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry

11/6/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green in-dustry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2018 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 300 kb
Pages: 4



CLD2-7-ANR

Educating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Empower Your Group by Developing Leadership: ANR Facilitator's Guide

10/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Faye Kuosman

Educating, empowering and equipping 4-H members, volunteers and leaders adds stability, quality and effectiveness to the organization and its provided programs.

Departments: Woodford County
Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
Size: 210 kb
Pages: 8



HO-124

Water Use and Water Footprint in Container-Grown Nursery and Greenhouse Crops

10/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

The objective of this publication is to define the analytical terms that characterize water management and present case studies to illustrate those terms. The comparison of water use and water footprint among specialty crop growers is not only affected by the production system (including species and management strategies) but by geography and season. This document builds upon published models of representative plant production systems. These models include container production using recycled water in the mid-Atlantic, Ohio Valley, southwest, and Pacific northwest regions of the U.S. and greenhouse production implementing rainfall capture and overhead and ebb/flood irrigation strategies in the southeast.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 8



AEN-157

Self-Watering Wicking Container

10/28/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A wicking container is a self-contained method for growing vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers. This container provides a built-in water reservoir that allows a plant to self-irrigate. The design is ideal for individuals who are new to gardening or have limited space, but is also used by seasoned gardeners. The greatest benefit of the system is that it provides the plant with control of its water supply, which helps free up more of the gardener's time.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.80 mb
Pages: 5



ID-265

Riding Arena Footing: Materials and Characteristics

10/26/2020 (new)
Authors: Claire Burnham, Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Staci McGill

This publication provides an overview of riding arena characteristics, and in particular, footing. Many different factors must be considered when planning to build an arena or determining how to care for an existing arena. This basic guide explains how arenas are structured, describes the components that generally make up arena surfaces, and discusses various considerations that all arenas need.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 536 kb
Pages: 5



ID-266

Riding Arena Maintenance: Dragging and Watering

10/26/2020 (new)
Authors: Claire Burnham, Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Staci McGill

Maintenance is a key aspect to extend an arena's lifespan, and it is extremely important for the horses and riders who use the surface. Arena maintenance is essential for the casual recreational rider up to the high-performance athlete. The surface the horse encounters during work has a profound impact on the horse's biomechanics, which can affect the horse's soundness over time. Having a well-maintained surface increases your horse's performance capabilities and enhances training.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 1.09 mb
Pages: 5



ID-267

Riding Arena Maintenance: Equipment Guide

10/26/2020 (new)
Authors: Claire Burnham, Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Staci McGill

This guide gives a basic overview of drags, their component parts, and other arena maintenance equipment. Selecting the proper equipment and maintenance protocol is essential for keeping a usable and well-maintained arena. Because there is variation in the terminology used between manufacturers, this compilation of basic terms, descriptions, and pictures will improve the arena manager's understanding of common terms.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 6.78 mb
Pages: 8



AEN-156

Using a Kit to Set up a Cattle Scale System under a Squeeze Chute

10/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Joshua Jackson

On cattle operations, the use of a scale system to weigh animals is vital to the proper administration of health products such as dewormers and antibiotics, and for making management decisions. A scale system mounted to a chute allows animals to be securely restrained for measuring weights accurately and minimally impacts cattle flow through the working facilities. Excitable animals can be properly restrained and, with their movement limited, cattle can be weighed accurately.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 6.83 mb
Pages: 9



AGR-261

Double Crop Soybean Production in Kentucky

10/20/2020 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott

The double crop soybean system was pioneered in Kentucky. Traditionally, double crop soybean are planted in June following harvest of a small grain: wheat, barley, and in some cases cereal rye. Since the early 2000's, about 25% of the total soybean production in Kentucky has been double crop soybean. Many agronomic management strategies are similar between double crop soybean and full season soybean: soybean planted in the spring following corn from the previous year. However, there are certain management strategies that are important for double crop soybean, which not only increase yield potential but also offer opportunities to increase profitability.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 427 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-256

Identification of Palmer Amaranth, Waterhemp and Other Pigweed Species

10/16/2020 (new)
Authors: Travis Legleiter

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) are two species of the Amaranthus family that have enveloped the corn and soybean growing landscape of the United State over the past decade. Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth first began infesting western Kentucky along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers in the early 2000's and has spread along the rivers and into the uplands over the last two decades. The introduction and spread of waterhemp had not been as widespread in Kentucky, although a rapid spread of waterhemp over the last 5 to 10 years has been noted especially in central Kentucky. Both Amaranthus species can be very difficult to control in soybean and corn due to herbicide resistance. The first step in effectively managing or controlling both species is to properly identify them when they first invade your fields. Early management decisions when Palmer amaranth and waterhemp first invade is key to long-term control.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 2.21 mb
Pages: 2



FCS3-595

Recommended Food Storage Times

10/7/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Sandra Bastin, Annhall Norris

Americans spend, on average, around 6% of their budgets on food. Knowing how to safely store foods will help you protect your investment with high quality results. Properly storing food gives you better nutrient retention, reduces waste, decreases risk of foodborne illness, and ensures fresher, better tasting food. Food held beyond the recommended storage time may still be safe, but the quality may have started to deteriorate.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 10



HO-89

Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries, 2020

10/5/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and re-gional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2018, 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners. Information is presented relative to employment, plant types sold, product types, markets and marketing channels, sales methods and marketing practices, advertising expenditures, integrated pest management practices, water sources, and irrigation methods.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 569 kb
Pages: 11



AGR-258

Production of Connecticut Broadleaf Cigar Wrapper Tobacco in Kentucky and Tennesse

9/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Bob Pearce

There has been recent interest from tobacco dealers in purchasing Connecticut Broadleaf tobacco produced in Kentucky and Tennessee. Connecticut Broadleaf has traditionally been grown in areas of the Connecticut River Valley in Connecticut and Massachusetts. However, decreased production in this area along with increased demand for natural leaf cigar wrappers has caused tobacco dealers to pursue other tobacco-producing areas for this type. At first glance, Connecticut Broadleaf tobacco resembles dark air-cured tobacco, but generally has enhanced leaf quality characteristics that can increase its potential value for use as cigar binders and wrappers.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 806 kb
Pages: 4



ID-264

Feeding Corn Silage to Beef Cattle

9/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Donna Amaral-Phillips, Greg Halich, Chad Lee, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Kentucky is in the upper transition zone which allows for the growth of warm- and cool-season forages. Corn, a warm season grass, grows well in the state and may be harvested for either grain or silage. Corn harvested as silage can be an economical alternative for beef cattle. Implementing sound management strategies and determining the nutrient content to balance rations will allow for successful feeding of corn silage to beef cattle.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 690 kb
Pages: 4



CLD2-6-ANR

Developing and Implementing an Action Plan for Community Organizations: Giving New Direction to Established Organizations: Facilitator's Guide

9/24/2020 (new)
Authors: Faye Kuosman

A clear plan is necessary for your organization to move toward achieving its objectives. What, specifically, is the role of the organization in the community? What are the needs of the community? What is the role of the organization in addressing or serving the needs of the community? If you are in a new leadership role with your organization, utilize this process to develop a focus or purpose. For established leadership, review this process and see which topics you've missed or perhaps haven't addressed in a while. Remember--to build an organization and to keep an effective organization going, you need to plan for the future.

Departments: Woodford County
Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
Size: 234 kb
Pages: 8



NEP-225

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Broccoli

9/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Broccoli is a cool-season plant in the same family as cabbage and cauliflower. It, and others in the same family, is known as a cole crop. Broccoli can be grown in both the fall and the spring and can be eaten many ways.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.38 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-226

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Kale

9/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

In recent years, kale has been a "super food" because of the ways it can benefit our health. Kale contains many vitamins like A, K and C. It promotes heart health and can help prevent cancer. Kale is a cool-season crop and may be among the first vegetables you harvest from your garden.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 1.97 mb
Pages: 4



HO-126

Consumer Horticulture Benefits for Businesses, Workplaces, and Employees

9/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham

Consumer Horticulture is the cultivation, use, and enjoyment of plants, gardens, landscapes and related horticultural items to the bene?t of individuals, communities, and the environment. These activities rely on the understanding and application of the art and science of horticulture. Consumer horticulture doesn't just impact our lives in terms of our homes, families, and communities. It also intersects with business and industry both in terms of the overall economy as well as the workplace environment that can improve the economic bottom line as well as the health and well-being of employees. In this publication we will focus on ways plants enhance the attractiveness of businesses and how their placement in the workplace may increase the productivity and wellbeing of employees.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 2.36 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-T-6

Necrotic Ringspot and Summer Patch in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns

9/11/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Necrotic ring spot and summer patch are two patch diseases that can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. In addition to bluegrass, certain fine-leaved fescues are susceptible.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Size: 793 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-155

The Importance of Water Source Layout in Farm Infrastructure

8/28/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Water source layout is a critical infrastructure component for cattle and cattle producers. Strategic water resource layout is a part of a farmstead plan that does not always get adequate attention, despite its critical importance. Nonetheless, when farm infrastructure planning incorporates the latest practices, rules, and knowledge, the resulting design can satisfy generations of users.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.56 mb
Pages: 6



NEP-222

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Summer Squash

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Summer squash is a low-growing, bush-type squash. Examples are yellow (straight and crookneck), scalloped, and zucchini. They are fast growing and well-liked garden crops.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 1.96 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-223

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Collards

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Collards (or collard greens) are quick and easy to grow. They can be planted in early spring and can withstand frosty weather. They can also be planted later in the summer to mature in the fall after weather becomes cooler.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 3.21 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-224

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Tomatoes

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Tomatoes are a popular summer crop that many consider to be a basic part of the home garden. However, growing tomatoes can require more labor compared to other vegetables, but the results can be very rewarding.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 3.53 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-253

Identifying Freeze Damage in Wheat

8/11/2020 (new)
Authors: Carrie Knott

Wheat and other small grains can be damaged when air temperatures fall below certain thresholds for two or more continuous hours. These temperatures do not necessarily mean that damage will occur. Rather, these temperatures are general guidelines of when damage may occur. It is important that the crop be scouted to determine the extent of the damage, if any.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 4.50 mb
Pages: 4



4AH-01PO

Sweet Pepper Exhibit

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Blake Newton, Ashley Osborne

The sweet pepper exhibit allows you to display a variety of sweet pepper that you have grown in your garden. In horticulture, the word "variety" refers to a plant that is slightly different from other plants of its kind. There are many varieties of sweet peppers available besides the popular sweet banana pepper, such as Cubanelle, pimento, and lunchbox.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs, Entomology
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 456 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-02PO

Bell Pepper Exhibit

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The bell pepper exhibit allows you to display a variety of bell pepper that you have grown in your garden. In horticulture, the word "variety" refers to a plant that is slightly different from other plants of its kind. For example, bell pepper varieties come in several different colors, including green, yellow, orange, red, purple and even white.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 468 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-03PO

Production and Marketing

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

When producing a horticulture crop, it is important to consider how you will market and sell the product. In the Production and Marketing Project, you will research a horticulture plant or crop and develop a plan for producing and marketing it.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 588 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-04PO

Experimental Horticulture

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The Experimental Horticulture Project is similar to a science fair project. You choose a horticultural scientific experiment you would like to learn about, and conduct the experiment using the seven steps in the scientific method.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 522 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-05PO

Horticultural Project Exhibit

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The Horticultural Project Exhibit is a "how-to" type project that allows you to look at the steps involved in completing a horticulture task from beginning to end and documenting the procedure along the way.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 521 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-06PO

Hot Pepper Exhibit

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The hot pepper exhibit allows you to display a variety of hot pepper that you have grown in your garden. In horticulture, the word "variety" refers to a plant that is slightly different from other plants of its kind. For example, hot pepper varieties may have different colors, tastes, shapes, and growing requirements. Many varieties of hot peppers are available, such as jalapeno, habanero, Thai chili, hot banana, poblano, and cayenne.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 489 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-07PO

Garden and Orchard Displays

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The Vegetable and Orchard Display Contest is a perfect opportunity to showcase a wide variety of the items you have grown.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 632 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-08PO

Environmental Awareness

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

A key component to horticulture and sustainable agriculture is striving to be environmentally friendly. Through your Environmental Awareness Project, you will highlight way(s) in which horticulture can be environmentally friendly. Choose a horticulture project that you can do at your home or in your community that will display environmental awareness.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 877 kb
Pages: 3



4AH-09PA

Making a Desert Dish Garden

8/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

A dish garden is a collection of similar plants grown in an open container. In a desert garden, the plants are all succulents. Succulents are plants that can survive in a hot, dry climate because they can store moisture in their stems or leaves during rainy periods. During drier times, succulents give off moisture much more slowly than most plants. Evaporation is slowed down by wax or hairs or by a reduced surface area. (Many succulents have a spherical shape because a sphere has the smallest surface area for a given volume.) Succulents grow naturally in semi-deserts where long, dry-periods are broken by short, rainy periods.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 550 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-153

How Understanding and Managing Soil Organic Matter Can Improve Beef Cattle Production

8/6/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Steve Higgins

Beef cattle production is directly affected by soils, but active soil management is limited. Most producers' soil management decisions are limited to submitting a soil sample, getting the analysis back, and then applying the tons of fertilizer or lime recommended at the bottom of the sheet. Meanwhile, producers request assistance to reduce or eliminate mud, weeds, gully erosion, and compaction (if they have identified compacted ground). Occasionally, producers don't have enough forage or hay to get cattle through drought or winter because of low forage production. These issues may have little to do with soil fertility but instead be directly related to soil properties.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 143 kb
Pages: 2



AEN-154

Land and Water Use Planning Applied to a Pasture-based Beef Operation

8/6/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A typical cow-calf grazing operation needs to feed and water cattle on a daily basis. Ideally, this is accomplished by rotating cattle from field to field and providing them with a convenient source of water to drink. Cattle operations can better manage cattle when facilities are designed to meet the needs of cattle and the producer. Land use-planning can increase production and reduce production costs.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 884 kb
Pages: 4



CLD3-4-FG

Why Form a Coalition? Facilitator's Guide

8/6/2020 (new)
Authors: Daniel Kahl

Working in partnership with others brings expanded expertise, resources and networks to any initiative. When addressing difficult and complex community issues, sustained solutions often require the support and investment of many community members. But working in a coalition means giving up some of the credit and control. Working in a coalition is one way to organize to work on shared outcomes, but is it the right way? This guide will help a group reflect on the pressing question: Why form a Coalition?

Departments: Community and Leadership Development
Series: Using Leadership Skills to Improve Quality of Life (CLD3 series)
Size: 165 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-7

Cleaning and Sanitizing Commercial Greenhouse Surfaces

8/3/2020 (new)
Authors: Samantha Anderson, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Josh Knight, W. Garrett Owen

Greenhouse and nursery sanitation practices help prevent the introduction and spread of plant diseases and pests, as well as eliminate safety hazards. In general, being proactive in maintaining a clean growing environment will often be less expensive and more effective than reacting to a disease or pest issue after it emerges.

Departments: Graves County, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 4



FCS8-120

Understanding the Basics of Cancer

7/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Kerri Ashurst, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. each year. Kentucky faces the highest cancer occurrence and death rates in the United States. Fortunately, through prevention and treatments those numbers can be reduced.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 4



FCS8-121

Interacting with Someone with Cancer

7/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Kerri Ashurst, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Talking to someone with cancer often creates fears of saying something inappropriate or making the person upset. As a result, many people talk in whispers or opt to say nothing at all. This publication will provide tips on ways to communicate and interact with someone living with cancer.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 850 kb
Pages: 5



FCS8-122

Caring for Someone with Cancer

7/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Kerri Ashurst, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

As a cancer patient's needs change with the course of the disease and/or treatment, a primary cancer caregiver may wear many hats. They may serve as a companion, home health aide, chauffer, chef, housekeeper, financial manager or appointment maker. This publication will help caregivers prepare for the evolving emotional and physical demands of cancer caregiving and highlight ways to take care of oneself.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 4



FCS8-123

Managing Nutrition during Cancer

7/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Kerri Ashurst, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Katie Lewis, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Nutrition status affects cancer outcomes, tolerance to treatment, and quality of life. Cancer treatment can increase calorie, protein, vitamin, and mineral needs, but at the same time cause side effects that make obtaining adequate nutrition difficult. This article offers healthy ways to maintain body weight and muscle mass, including a recipe for a nutritional wellness shake.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Nutrition Services
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 1.72 mb
Pages: 7



FCS8-124

Taking Care of Your Mental Health during Cancer

7/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Kerri Ashurst, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

A cancer diagnosis can be a source of considerable emotional stress on both you and your loved ones. You may experience feelings of depression, anxiety and fear after a cancer diagnosis. This article discusses normal reactions to a cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as signs that you might have a mental health concern.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 825 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-152

Building a Hoop Barn

7/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Joshua Jackson

Hoop barns are a cost-effective alternative to pole barns. For example, a farmer might choose a hoop barn when deciding to expand hay sales, or for providing cover for costly equipment. Hoop barns have the additional benefit of being a construction project that can be done by the farmer (and a group of friends), which can provide an additional cost savings. This publication goes through the steps involved by following the construction of two hoop barns built by a local farmer. In this case, hoop barns were built to increase the farm's hay storage capacity.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 8.14 mb
Pages: 14



ID-224

Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing

7/13/2020 (reprinted)
Authors: Greg Halich, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Lee Meyer, Gregg Rentfrow, Ray Smith

Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 1.51 mb
Pages: 48



AGR-18

Grain, Forage, and Cover Crop Guide

7/8/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Erin Haramoto, Jimmy Henning, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Ray Smith

A quick resource on agronomic management of grain, forage, and cover crops.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 506 kb
Pages: 12



PPFS-OR-W-28

Laurel Wilt Disease and Redbay Ambrosia Beetle

7/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Tyler Dreaden, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Laurel wilt is a newly discovered fungal disease that presents a major threat to sassafras in Kentucky. The disease was first detected in the U.S. in 2003 and in southwestern Kentucky in 2019. Currently, laurel wilt is known to occur in eleven southeastern states bordered by Kentucky (north), North Carolina (east), Florida (south), and Texas (west). Research is ongoing to determine the impact and distribution of both the laurel wilt fungus and the redbay ambrosia beetle that carries it.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: 1.58 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-18P

Grain, Forage, and Cover Crop Guide (poster)

7/7/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Erin Haramoto, Jimmy Henning, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Ray Smith

A quick resource on agronomic management of grain, forage, and cover crops. NOTE: This poster is 25 x 38 inches. AGR-18 is the booklet-sized version.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 277 kb
Pages: 1



ID-263

Alternative Protein Sources for Cattle

7/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Darrh Bullock, Darrell Johnson, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Kentucky has several bourbon distilleries and one fuel ethanol plant. The spent grains from the production of ethanol is utilized as a protein source in livestock feed. Shutdowns for fuel ethanol plants may also occur as a result of unfavorable profit margins when crude oil prices are low. Most distilleries and fuel ethanol plants will have a scheduled maintenance shutdown each year. During a shutdown, availability of distillers grains and other coproducts from these plants may be limited or unavailable. So, the question is what else can I feed in place of distillers grains?

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Regulatory Services
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 300 kb
Pages: 2



PR-778

2020 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Phillip Shine, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance trials is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale, spelt, and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties continually are being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.93 mb
Pages: 20



PPFS-GEN-17

Cleaning and Disinfecting Home Garden Tools and Equipment

6/26/2020 (new)
Authors: Kara Back, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger

Dirty tools, containers, and surfaces come as no surprise to home gardeners (Figure 1). Rinsing with water to remove obvious soil or plant residues is a common practice. However, this type of basic cleaning can fail to remove microscopic plant pathogens that can remain on surfaces. Tools, containers, shoes, and surfaces should also be disinfected to remove fungal, bacterial, and viral plant pathogens to prevent transmission to healthy plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: 707 kb
Pages: 4



NEP-219s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Preparando Su Huerto

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Una buena tierra es la base para un huerto saludable. La tierra suministra nutrientes a las plantas para el crecimiento y el apoyo para las raices. Una buena tierra ayuda a producir verduras saludables.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 8



NEP-220s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Los Ejotes

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Los ejotes son faciles de sembrar y rapidos de producir cuando se recogen mientras todavia estan verdes o inmaduro. Ellos son aun mas nutritivos cuando se les permite madurar ligeramente para producir frijoles verdes "shelly beans".

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.25 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-221s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Los Pimientos

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Los pimientos son relativamente faciles de cultivar y pueden proporcionar una cosecha consistente durante todo el verano. Puede comerlos crudos o cocidos para agregar sabor a muchos alimentos.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.62 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-251

Quick Identification Tips for Turfgrasses Commonly Grown in Kentucky

6/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Species of both warm- and cool-season turfgrasses are grown in Kentucky. Identification of these grasses is critical for implementation of proper management practices. Grass identification is commonly performed by observing specific parts of the plant. For a review of the parts of the grass plant, see AGR-216: 'Turfgrasses of Kentucky'. The objective of this extension publication is to provide concise identification tips to properly identify Kentucky turfgrasses.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 4.10 mb
Pages: 4



ID-260

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Peach in Kentucky

6/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky peach plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 20.77 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-GEN-6

Mulch Mushrooms, Slime Mold, and other Saprophytes

6/4/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Nikki Bell, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic mulches, such as shredded cypress and pine bark, are commonly used in commercial and home landscapes. Mulches provide numerous benefits, including conservation of soil moisture and suppression of weeds, as well as offer a visually pleasing background for landscape plantings. However, mulch is also a substrate for a diverse group of saprophytic organisms (saprobes), such as mushrooms and slime molds. While often causing alarm to gardeners unfamiliar with them, saprobes do not infect plants or cause plant diseases.

Departments: Marshall County, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: 208 kb
Pages: 2



PR-777

2019 Soybean Yield and Quality Contest

6/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Matt Adams, Danny Adams, Matt Futrell, Clint Hardy, Curt Judy, Carrie Knott, Leann Martin, Tyler Miller, Michelle Simon, Darrell Simpson, Mike Smith

In Kentucky, farmers grow soybeans in two common soybean production systems: full season and double crop. Farmers plant full season soybeans in the spring and harvest them that fall, so they have harvested one crop in one calendar year. Farmers plant double crop soybeans after wheat harvest in June. These soybeans are harvested later that fall, making them the second crop harvested in the same calendar year. Both systems are important to the overall production of soybean in Kentucky. Identifying management practices that maximize yield of each system is a vital step in identifying the most profitable management systems for Kentucky. Therefore, in 1980, an annual soybean yield contest was initiated in Kentucky to document the agronomic practices utilized by producers.

Departments: Boone County, Christian County, Daviess County, Hardin County, Henderson County, Lincoln County, Logan County, Muhlenberg County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Todd County, Wayne County
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 985 kb
Pages: 12



ASC-244

Feeding Distillery Stillage to Beef Cattle

6/1/2020 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Darrh Bullock, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler

The growth of the bourbon industry has provided an increase in distillery byproduct feedstuffs that can be utilized by cattle as a source of energy and protein. Learning the nutritional characteristics of these feedstuffs will facilitate proper feeding, allowing for improved cattle performance.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 130 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-30

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Strawberry Production

5/27/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 6



AEN-150

Understanding Soil Mechanics to Improve Beef Cattle Winter-Feeding Areas and Production

5/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Steve Higgins

Understanding soil mechanics and management in winter-feeding areas could improve beef cattle production, with less effort on the producer and cattle. This publication is intended to guide evaluating soil strength for winter-feeding areas, the pollution potential of winter-feeding areas, and to provide solutions for correcting structural deficiencies and reducing mud on both the ground and on the cattle.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 93 kb
Pages: 2



AEN-151

Lanes for Beef Cattle Operations

5/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The benefits of lanes can be applied to pasture-based Kentucky cattle operations of any size. Lanes can be used to move cattle from pasture to pasture, and to access structures or barns, handling facilities, load-out areas, and areas with shade.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 2.89 mb
Pages: 2



ID-261

Are Common Stall Fans Effective? Orientation, Placement, and Fan Style

5/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Staci McGill, Kimberly Tumlin

During summer months, horse owners hang fans around their barn and stalls in an effort to increase air movement to reduce temperature and flies in stall areas. These fans typically are 20-inch 3-speed box fans or 20-inch high velocity mounted fans. Both fans are easy to find at any home improvement or big box store and are ready to use with little to no assembly. But are these commonly used fans really serving these intended purposes?

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Epidemiology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-29

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Blueberry Production

5/12/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 376 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-28

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Brambles Production

5/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 347 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-250

Remediation of the Fragipan Using Annual Ryegrass

4/29/2020 (new)
Authors: Dottie Call, John Grove, A.D. Karathanasis, Chris Matocha, Lloyd Murdock

The fragipan is a naturally occurring restrictive soil horizon that virtually stops water movement and root growth through the soil. It is commonly located 18-32 inches below the surface of most of Kentucky's fragipan soils. The dense nature of this layer is due to the cementation and binding of the soil particles with a silicate rich amorphous aluminosilicate in association with iron. The binding agents seal the pores and pack soil particles close together. The fragipan is found in 2.7 million acres in Kentucky, and about 50 million acres in the United States.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 5.68 mb
Pages: 8



PPFS-FR-T-27

Brown Rot of Peach

4/17/2020 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Erica Wood

Brown rot is the most devastating disease of peach in Kentucky. The disease affects both commercial and backyard orchards. Crop losses occur primarily as a result of fruit decay; however, blossom blight is also part of the disease cycle. All stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) are susceptible to brown rot.

Departments: Hopkins County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



RB-341

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2019

4/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Glen Harrison

Kentucky's commercial feed law provides protection for the state's livestock, poultry, and pet owners by regulating all feed materials offered for sale or for mixing into a feed. Products falling under regulation include all types of pet foods, livestock minerals, complete animal and poultry feeds, protein or mineral blocks, supplements, feed ingredients, specialty materials such as drug premixes, vitamin and mineral supplements, liquid feeds, pet supplements, pet treats, and other specialized pet foods. The law does provide for exemptions for whole and unprocessed grain, raw meat, hay, straw, stover, silage, cobs, husks, and hulls when not processed. Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 1.35 mb
Pages: 36



PPFS-AG-T-7

Target Spot and Frogeye Leaf Spot of Field-grown Tobacco

3/31/2020 (new)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Target spot and frogeye leaf spot are the major fungal leaf spot diseases of tobacco grown in Kentucky. Burley and dark tobacco are susceptible to these leaf spot diseases; however, dark tobacco tends to be affected to a lesser extent than burley. Yield losses to target spot can exceed 50% in some years; frogeye reduces yields up to 30%, but can affect quality so severely that cured leaf may be declined. Integrated approaches, including good greenhouse production practices, crop rotation, and timely fungicide applications, will optimize management of these diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-148

Considerations in Goat Barn Design

3/30/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Katie Jackson, Joe Taraba

Farmers who raise goats for meat or milk need guidance in the interrelated tasks of choosing a barn design and managing temperatures for their herd. Barn orientation, ventilation design, and stocking density are all important considerations which impact goats socially and physiologically, potentially impacting production. While other species are relatively well studied in these areas, research on goats is somewhat limited. The goal of this publication is to provide recommendations drawn from research in goats and sufficiently similar species.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 175 kb
Pages: 5



AEN-149

Heat Stress in Goats

3/30/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Katie Jackson, Joe Taraba

Heat stress is prevalent in most livestock species, but especially in dairy animals where large quantities of energy are necessary to sustain milk production. Both dairy goats in lactation and meat goats, which are being fed for growth, are susceptible to heat stress. Knowing the physiological signs to observe (like panting or excessive drinking) can make heat stress more apparent.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 159 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-1

Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations, 2020-2021

3/18/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey

Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 29



SR-112

Science of Hemp: Production and Pest Management, 2020

3/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Bernadette Amsden, Samantha Anderson, Ric Bessin, Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Ross Guffey, Tom Keene, Tyler Mark, Bob Pearce, Christopher Schardl, Jonathan Shepherd, Frank Sikora, Desiree Szarka, Raul Villanueva

Hemp is grown for fiber, grain, and cannabinoid extraction in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Until recently, Cannabis sativa has been classified as a Schedule 1 controlled substance in the US. The Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill) allowed for reintroduction of industrial hemp under a pilot research program. Acreage increases and addition of state legislation resulted in over 78,000 acres of hemp grown in 23 states by the end of 2018. Hemp became a legal commodity under the 2018 Farm Bill, and by the end of 2019, over 500,000 licensed acres were documented across 45 states. Canada re-introduced the crop in 1998, and in 2018, almost 78,000 acres of hemp were licensed and planted.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Graves County, Lyon County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Special Report (SR series)
Size: 9.60 mb
Pages: 54



4AJ-03PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Barbecue Contests

3/9/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

In the chicken barbecue contest, participants prepare four bone-in, skin-on chicken thighs provided by the contest monitors. The four thighs together will weigh 1.5-2.0 lb. They are judged on their cooking skills. The participants submit three of the thighs for sensory evaluation. No garnishes, dips, or additional items shall be presented on the plates and or submitted to the judges. In the turkey barbecue contest, each contestant will be provided two pounds of ground turkey. The turkey will not be available prior to the contest starting time. They need to prepare and cook turkey burgers. Each burger must be one-quarter pound of meat prior to cooking.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 934 kb
Pages: 8



AEN-146

UAV How-To: Create a Forage Canopy Model with Photogrammetry

3/9/2020 (new)
Authors: Joe Dvorak, Joshua Jackson, Cameron Minch, Tucker Sheffield

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are quickly becoming more integrated into producers' on-farm operations. With the advent of this new technology, users must understand how to convert raw UAV data into an applicable medium. Often the goal of UAV flights is to create a map of the output from a certain type of sensor. Thompson et al. (2018) have defined a general mapping process independent of drone type, sensor type, and mapping software. However, general mapping is significantly different than trying to record a three-dimensional model of the plant canopy structure. This article expands upon the workflow and details the process for developing a canopy model of a crop.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.28 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-AG-T-6

Black Shank of Tobacco

3/9/2020 (new)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Black shank is one of the most important diseases of burley and dark tobacco in Kentucky. It tends to cause the greatest losses in fields with a history of black shank, during seasons with a wet to moderate early season followed by a dry August. Management is dependent on the successful combination of crop rotation, resistant varieties, and soil-directed fungicide applications.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-27

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Grape Production

3/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-9

Peach Fruit Diseases

3/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach fruit diseases can cause significant losses in yield and quality in commercial and home orchards. Often these diseases go unnoticed until late in the season or at harvest. Although there are no curative treatments for infected fruit, many diseases can be prevented using cultural practices and (optional) fungicides. Accurate diagnosis, however, is critical to determine the best management practices and to prevent future losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 915 kb
Pages: 4



PR-767

2019 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

3/2/2020 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 521 kb
Pages: 6



AGR-248

The Fate of Nitrogen Applied to Kentucky Turfgrass

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The quality of Kentucky's surface and ground waters are of utmost importance to flora and fauna living in these waters. The growth of flora and fauna is directly related to the amount of available nutrients in these waters. In addition, we use these waters as the primary source of drinking water for ourselves and our families. A wide range of compounds may be found in these waters, the most common of which may be nitrate (NO3-). The sources of nitrogen (N) may include, but are not limited to, atmospheric deposition, septic tanks, effluent water disposal, agricultural fertilization, and landscape fertilization. The objective of this publication is to identify and describe the sources and potential fates of N applied to Kentucky turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 748 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-249

Potassium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Potassium (K) is an essential plant element and is the most abundant mineral, macro-nutrient in turfgrass after nitrogen (N). Sufficient concentrations of K are important to maximize turfgrass tolerance to stresses caused by temperature, drought, traffic, and salinity. Understanding the function, soil content, and fertilizer forms of K is essential to creating an efficient nutrient management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 286 kb
Pages: 3



AEN-147

Structures for Beef Cattle

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Livestock housing, whether simple or sophisticated, must perform the required functions. It should meet the thermal and physical needs of the animal; it should provide a place to store and feed materials without damage or loss; it should increase the performance of cattle; and, it should allow the producer to conduct all chores associated with cattle production efficiently. A building can contribute to management efficiency and animal performance, which itself is defined by productivity, health and welfare. The building should create optimum environmental conditions for cattle by providing light, air flow, appropriate flooring, space, and ventilation.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 956 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-245

Nitrogen for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is required by turfgrass in larger quantities than any other mineral nutrient because the plant demand for N is high and the supply of N from the natural environment is normally low. In instances where N is not applied according to the University of Kentucky recommendations, applied N can increase the risk of surface and ground water contamination. The objective of this document is to describe the function of N in turfgrass, explain how soil and tissue tests can be used to manage N applications, and to describe the various N fertilizer sources available for application to turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 168 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-247

Manganese for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Manganese (Mn) is a common component of micronutrient packages applied to turfgrass and has been documented to result in increased greening of turfgrass. In order to effectively manage Mn applications, it is important to understand the function of Mn in turfgrass, the dynamics of Mn in the soil, and the various forms of Mn available for turfgrass applications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 879 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-T-4

Anthracnose in Commercial Turfgrass

2/13/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of intensely managed turfgrass, such as creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass, on golf course putting greens. Outbreaks are generally induced by environmental conditions or cultural practices that result in stress to the turf. The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Size: 527 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-145

Designing or Reworking Your Cattle-handling Facilities: A Checklist for Success

2/3/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Joshua Jackson

Cattle-handling facilities should be designed to match the management goals of the operation. The safety of workers and cattle should be the highest priority when designing or reworking a handling facility. A well-designed facility will make working cattle faster, safer, less labor intensive, and less frustrating.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 126 kb
Pages: 4



FOR-135

Softwood Growth Rings

1/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Terry Conners

Many softwoods look similar to the naked eye at first; the colors are often similar, maybe light-colored overlaid with tinges of yellow-brown or perhaps a slight pinkish cast. Even the weights of similarly-sized pieces (the densities) might seem similar. There are, however, differences in the wood structure that we can use to separate the various species. Two of the most important characteristics we look at are 1) the presence or absence of resin canals (as discussed previously) and 2) the appearance of the earlywood--latewood transition in annual growth rings.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 14.61 mb
Pages: 6



FOR-136

Further Distinguishing Softwood Species

1/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Terry Conners

Recognizing that an unidentified sample is a resinous or non-resinous softwood, with either an abrupt or a gradual transition is a good start towards identifying an unknown specimen. The problem is that this information is rarely enough! Other characteristics need to be combined with that data. Some of the things to look out for include characteristic odors, the diameter of the tracheids, and the presence of storage cells. Sometimes the context or original location of the material can be helpful.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 3.34 mb
Pages: 4



FOR-137

Hardwood Growth Rings

1/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Terry Conners

As in softwoods, hardwood species identification is accomplished by looking at species-specific combinations of features. Almost all hardwood species (including all of those from North America) contain vessels which appear as holes (pores) on wood cross-sections; hardwood species without vessels are unlikely to be encountered in North America. Those species are more commonly found in the southern hemisphere and are rarely sold as commercial species.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 14.73 mb
Pages: 8



FOR-138

Wood Structure and Mechanical Performance are Related

1/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Terry Conners

There is a strong correlation between wood density and mechanical properties, and this is true for both softwood and hardwood species. Density and strength properties can vary even within species due to different growth conditions.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 3.17 mb
Pages: 4



PR-776

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2019

1/10/2020 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Matthew Campbell, Chad Lee, Linda McClanahan, Nick Roy

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky. Corn hybrids were evaluated for silage performance on cooperating farms. Representatives from seed companies submitted hybrids of their choosing. Most companies submitted only two (2) hybrids. One company supplies a third hybrid that serves as a check.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Mason County, Mercer County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 228 kb
Pages: 3



RB-340

Seed Inspection Report, 2019

1/9/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 34



AGR-246

Iron for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/20/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Iron (Fe) is commonly applied using granular or foliar sources to enhance turfgrass color. Iron applications can result in darker green turfgrass as a result of increased Fe uptake or Fe oxidation on the leaf surface. In many cases, Fe results in no turfgrass response at all. Understanding the dynamics of Fe both in the plant and in the soil can enhance your nutrient management programs. The objective of this publication is to explain the function of Fe within the plant, describe the Fe sources available for turfgrasses, and identify which Fe fertilizers are most effective.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-242

Calcium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calcium (Ca) is the dominant cation in all soils of agronomic importance and Kentucky soils are no different. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Ca. Consequently, Ca deficiency in Kentucky turfgrasses is extremely rare, and the probability of observing a Ca response on golf courses, home lawns, sod production, or sports fields is very low. Applying Ca fertilizers to artificially increase soil Ca above the level necessary for proper plant growth normally does not result in an increase in plant uptake because Ca uptake is genetically controlled. Regardless, Ca is commonly applied in both granular and liquid forms.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 112 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-243

Magnesium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Magnesium is an essential element for all plants. Soluble magnesium (Mg) exists in soils primarily as Mg2+, a positively charged divalent cation. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Mg and, thus, Mg applications to turfgrass are normally unnecessary. However, turfgrasses grown in sand-based rootzones, such as golf course putting greens and sand-based sports fields, are prone to Mg deficiency. When Mg is necessary, it is essential to understand the function of Mg in the plant, the dynamics of Mg in the soil, and the forms of Mg fertilizers.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 826 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-244

Phosphorus for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and a common component of many turfgrass nutrition programs. Although P application can improve turfgrass quality in some soils, most soils of Kentucky already have adequate plant-available P to support healthy turfgrass growth. What is the function of P within the plant, and how much P is required to sustain acceptable turfgrass in Kentucky? Also, if P applications are necessary, when and how should P be applied?

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 481 kb
Pages: 4



PR-774

2019 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/18/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.26 mb
Pages: 28



FCS5-474

Moving out of Your Parents' Basement: Should You Buy or Rent?

12/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Caitlin Grasson, Jennifer Hunter

It is increasingly more common for emerging adults to live with their parents for longer or to move back in with them after college. Either way, emerging adults (and their parents) have a goal of eventually being fully independent. Before moving out of your parents' house, there are some things you need to know, things you can be doing to prepare, and some things to consider. Let's start with some basics you may need to know before you get out into the real world by yourself.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 562 kb
Pages: 3



PR-773

2019 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2013-2019 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, teff, and cereal crops. Cool season annual grasses (specifically cereal crops) are also used as forages crops for hay, baleage or grazing. The cereal crops used in this report are wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and triticale (Triticum secale).

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 28



VET-36

Anaplasmosis in Beef Cattle

12/9/2019 (new)
Authors: Michelle Arnold

Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by Anaplasma marginale, an organism that invades cattle red blood cells (RBCs), resulting in severe anemia, weight loss, fever, abortion and death in adult cattle. Anaplasmosis is considered a "tick-borne" disease because ticks transmit the organism when feeding on cattle. However, spread of this disease can be by any method that moves fresh blood from infected to susceptible cattle. In addition to ticks, the Anaplasma organism may be spread by biting insects (mosquitoes, horse flies, stable flies) or using blood-contaminated tools such as dehorners, ear taggers, castration tools, and implant guns without disinfection between animals. A very common method of transmission is using the same hypodermic needle on multiple animals when administering vaccines to the herd. Transmission may also be from cow to calf during gestation.

Departments: Veterinary Science
Series: Veterinary Science (VET series)
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 3



PR-762

2019 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Daniel Becker, Win Dunwell, Rachel Rudolph, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmer markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.Evaluation of varieties is a continuing necessity and allows us to provide the most up to date information in communications with vegetable growers. The vegetable variety trial results are the basis for updating the recommendations in our Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 6.67 mb
Pages: 34



PR-771

2019 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the bromegrasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.12 mb
Pages: 12



PR-772

2019 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 8



PR-769

2019 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 354 kb
Pages: 4



PR-770

2019 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/4/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 451 kb
Pages: 6



PR-765

2019 Orchardgrass Report

11/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 767 kb
Pages: 8



PR-768

2019 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. Perennial ryegrass can be used as a short-lived hay or pasture plant and has growth characteristics similar to tall fescue. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 16



PR-775

2019 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

11/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Joshua Duckworth, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2019 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 2.95 mb
Pages: 28



PR-763

2019 Alfalfa Report

11/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 8



PR-764

2019 Red and White Clover Report

11/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report provides current yield and persistence data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. Tables 14 and 15 show a summary of all clover varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website at forages.ca.uky.edu contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 873 kb
Pages: 8



PR-766

2019 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report

11/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. Much of the tall fescue in Kentuckys infected with an internal fungus (endophyte) that produces ergot alkaloids and results in decreased weight gains in growing ruminants and lower pregnancy rates in breeding stock, especially in hot weather. Varieties are now available that are free of this fungal endophyte or infected with a nontoxic endophyte. Varieties in the latter group are also referred to as "novel" or "friendly" endophyte varieties, because their endophyte improves stand survival without creating animal production problems

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 12



AEN-144

Four Beef Cattle Barn Flooring Options: A Case Study

11/21/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Barn floor design is critical to the physical and thermal comfort, health and safety of cattle. Generally speaking, barn flooring is the surface on which an animal stands, lies down, and excretes its urine and manure. Therefore, to meet animal needs, it must be durable, not slippery, and well drained, as well as comfortable, warm, and dry. In addition to providing animal comfort, the flooring should easily be cleaned. No single material, from concrete to soil, meets all of these specifications.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.55 mb
Pages: 3



PPA-1

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2020

11/19/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 34



AEN-142

Loose Housing for First-Calf Heifers: A Case Study

11/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The loose housing system increases the productivity of the replacement herd and the stockman by providing the optimum environment for production and management. While there is work in creating the system upfront, the design will reduce effort later by creating greater efficiency, flow, and movement of materials.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.94 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-143

Calf Areas, Pens or Pastures: A Case Study

11/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The creation of a creep pen or pasture area can be accomplished using various methods and materials. Using what is on hand and/or revitalizing an unused area of the farm that has infrastructure may reduce expenses. The cost of one fallen calf could pay for the implementation of the practice. This practice may benefit spring calves over fall calves, so that might be a consideration when choosing a time to plan construction of your creep area.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 3



HO-115

Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Green Industry Professionals

11/4/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

This publication is meant to assist green industry professionals in marketing and customer education efforts as they explore marketing their products and services to improve green infrastructure. Consumers are placing increasing value on and acknowledging the critical role that landscape plants play in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 2.55 mb
Pages: 12



HO-121

Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Consumers and Communities

11/4/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

This publication is intended to assist consumers and community groups in learning about the value of landscape plants. Landscape plants play an important role in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home. Further, there is a growing body of scientific literature evaluating the critical role of trees in landscaping within urban and suburban environments like residential neighborhoods, commercial/industrial areas, and associated green infrastructure like park systems and green belts. One useful tool for articulating the functions landscape plants perform for us is the concept of ecosystem services.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 2.48 mb
Pages: 10



HO-111

Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management

10/24/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 157 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-12

Brown Patch in Home Lawns and Commercial Turfgrass

10/21/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Brown patch, also known as Rhizoctonia blight, is a common disease of turfgrass. All cultivated grasses grown in Kentucky can be affected; however, this disease is usually only destructive in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Fine fescues (hard fescue, creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, and sheep fescue) are all moderately susceptible to the disease. Occasionally, Kentucky bluegrass lawns can be affected by brown patch, although this grass is less susceptible than others.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 4



HO-82

Rootstocks for Kentucky Fruit Trees

10/15/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, John Strang, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Most fruit trees that can be grown in Kentucky do not come true from seed. For example, a tree grown from a Golden Delicious apple seed will produce an apple tree, but the fruit will have different characteristics than Golden Delicious in color, taste, and shape. This is why fruit trees are reproduced by asexual propagation, such as budding and grafting.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 250 kb
Pages: 6



PR-761

2019 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

10/15/2019 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Matthew Piersawl, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 28



ID-259

Suitable Spaces for Indoor Horse Activities

10/14/2019 (new)
Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Staci McGill

Many horse owners involved in the industry look for an indoor arena in which to work horses regardless of weather. These facilities might be at home or at a community location for many riders to access. The following highlights some common characteristics and requirements of indoor arenas. While these act as minimums, many disciplines and activities may require additional investment in facilities, such as larger dimensions, more lighting, special footing, etc.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 2



FCS5-472

Savvy Sellers and Bargain Hunters: Online Edition

10/4/2019 (new)
Authors: Alex Elswick, Jennifer Hunter

For centuries, the town marketplace has been the hub of buying and selling. The same is true today, although the nature of the marketplace has changed. Buying and selling is shifting from brick-and-mortar-type stores to online retailers. The U.S. Census Bureau reported nearly $453.5 billion in e-commerce sales in 2017. As a consumer, it is important to know the pros and cons of online marketplace transactions. It is helpful to be aware of potential pitfalls when buying and selling online, ways to protect your identity, and which online marketplaces are available.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Science
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 271 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-473

Understanding Credit and Credit Scores as a Young Adult

10/4/2019 (new)
Authors: Caitlin Grasson, Jennifer Hunter

Talking about credit and credit scores can be both boring and overwhelming for young adults. However, it is important to know what credit is and how it impacts your future. Do not put off learning about credit scores until you are ready to buy your first house or car. Being proactive can help you avoid future headaches and put you on a path toward being an independent adult.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 276 kb
Pages: 2



RB-339

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples July 2018 - June 2019

10/4/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,691 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2018 through June 30, 2019 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 61,000 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,058,000 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,206 nitrogen, 1,757 phosphorus, 1,871 potassium, and 1,371 secondary and minor element analyses on these samples. Table 1 shows the manufacturers whose product the field inspection staff sampled, along with the number of samples taken and the percentage of those samples that passed. Table 2 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials. Table 3 contains the results of secondary and minor element analyses. Table 4 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of June 30, 2019.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 6.85 mb
Pages: 200



PPFS-GEN-1

Crown Gall

10/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Embry, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 5



ID-258

Weaning Beef Calves

9/17/2019 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Michelle Arnold, Darrh Bullock, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Weaning is the process of separating suckling offspring from their dam. Weaning is a management procedure applied by the herd manager. Cattle are herd animals and their gregarious nature can lead to stress as a result of this separation. Managing the weaning process can aid in reducing stress for the animals and livestock managers.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 821 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-241

Improved Turfgrass Varieties Can Reduce Your Environmental Impact

8/29/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Turfgrasses have many benefits, but oftentimes people question if pesticides, fertilizers, and water are justified to sustain a quality turfed area. Although these inputs have long been required to produce thick and dark green turfgrass, some turfgrass breeders have focused on improving the genetics of turfgrasses to produce high quality turf with fewer inputs. Improved turfgrass varieties with increased density, better color, deeper rooting, and improved disease resistance through improved breeding can reduce the overall environmental footprint. Many people select a turfgrass species and variety based on cost, but choosing an improved variety can reduce environment risk and overall maintenance costs in the long-run.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 4.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-52

Selecting the Right Grass for Your Kentucky Lawn

8/29/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The best grass for your lawn is not necessarily the one you like the best, but the one that is best adapted to where you live and will take less work and fewer inputs (water, fertilizer, pesticides). Many people think that since Kentucky is the "Bluegrass State," it's best to grow Kentucky bluegrass across our state. Actually, Kentucky bluegrass is only marginally adapted to our climate and can require more inputs to keep an appealing lawn than some other choices. In general, Kentucky bluegrass can be an option for parts of central and eastern Kentucky, while zoysiagrass may be a better option in western Kentucky. Tall fescue is adapted to the entire state so is a good choice for most locations. Perennial ryegrasses and fine fescues are occasionally useful in different areas of the state, depending on specific conditions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 4.46 mb
Pages: 7



NEP-219

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Preparing Your Garden

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

This publication provides easy to follow advice on how to start and maintain your garden. For specific fruit and vegetable guides, refer to the NEP "Grow your own" series.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 7



NEP-220

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Green Beans

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Green beans are easy to grow and fairly quick to produce when picked while still green or immature. They are even more nutritious when allowed to slightly mature to produce "shelly" beans. Pole beans in the garden are often popular with children since the bean vines on their supports create great hiding places.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-221

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Peppers

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Peppers are generally easy to grow and provide good summer crops that you can eat raw or cooked to add flavor to many foods. There are many different types of peppers, which are set apart by their shape or spiciness (heat), and most will grow well in Kentucky. Many heirloom, or vintage, varieties exist as well.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.65 mb
Pages: 4



HO-117

Guide to Landscape Appraisal of Tree Species in Kentucky Landscapes

8/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain

This publication is intended to aid professionals in determining the value of species in Kentucky (the Commonwealth). This valuation method is not appropriate for valuation of shrubs, forest trees, pasture trees, trees being used for income (i.e. orchards, nursery production, Christmas tree production, etc.). It is solely for trees that are an integral part of a formal, managed landscape.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: mb
Pages:



ID-253

Species Failure Profile for Trees Common to the Ohio River Valley

8/23/2019 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Bill Fountain

Tree failures, especially in urban and recreational areas can result in harm to human life and property. While this is rare, it is important to recognize that the environmental and sociological benefits provided by trees significantly outweighs the limited risks presented by trees. This is especially true when defects and species profiles that increase the potential for failure can be observed or detected. Many of these defects are associated with certain species. This is referred to as the species failure profile.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 320 kb
Pages: 8



ID-194

Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7

8/22/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Jessica Bessin, Rick Durham, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, Andrea Stith, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Stacy White, Erica Wood

For those with a green thumb, growing plants may seem easy. However, when plant problems arise, determining the cause of these issues can be difficult. Developing the skills necessary to determine the cause of a plant problem takes experience and time. The steps involved in the diagnostic process first require analysis of information regarding the history of the symptomatic plant and the surrounding area. Plant symptoms and signs provide additional evidence to aid in determination of a possible cause.

Departments: Barren County, Bell County, Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Franklin County, Hopkins County, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 28



AGR-240

Cover Crop Benefits and Challenges in Kentucky

8/7/2019 (new)
Authors: Chad Lee, Hanna Poffenbarger, Dan Quinn

A cover crop is a plant species that is grown between cash crops primarily to provide cropping system services rather than to produce a harvestable product. Services provided by cover crops include soil health improvement, soil conservation, nutrient release and capture, and weed suppression. However, like any management practice, cover crops also have challenges and limitations. This publication is intended to provide an overview of cover crop use in Kentucky and the challenges and benefits of this practice.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 4.82 mb
Pages: 6



FOR-133

Using Camera Surveys to Estimate White-tailed Deer Populations

8/7/2019 (new)
Authors: Jonathan Matthews, Matthew Springer

For the past 20 plus years, wildlife biologists have used game camera surveys to estimate population size and health in many wildlife species including white-tailed deer. Population estimates of wildlife populations have historically been conducted through capture-mark-recapture surveys, line-transect surveys, helicopter surveys, and other methods. These methods, while proven accurate, are often costly, time-consuming, and are not readily available to the average landowner. In the 1990s, researchers evaluated the reliability of camera surveys based on proven methods of population estimates. Studies indicated that camera surveys are a reliable method for accurate population estimates of white-tailed deer, and more recent studies have continued to support this method. The simple yet robust method has created a reliable, rather easily implementable tool to the public, allowing them to inventory their deer herds on the properties they own or lease.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 847 kb
Pages: 8



FOR-134

Identifying and Mitigating Plant Damage Caused by the Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker

8/7/2019 (new)
Authors: Matthew Springer

Woodpeckers cause various types of damage to plants, trees, and even human structures. There are several species of woodpeckers present in Kentucky, and damage varies with species. One species of woodpecker that creates a rather unique type of damage is the yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varus), which overwinters in Kentucky and then migrates north in spring.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 398 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-2

Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 306 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-24

Bitter Rot of Apple

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-25

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 986 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-26

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 7



ID-188

Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure

7/30/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Sarah Wightman

Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 737 kb
Pages: 4



ID-255

BerryCare: Building a Blackberry Community

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

So you've heard how blackberries are good for your health. Growing blackberry bushes as a garden project can be quite rewarding, especially if you do it as a group. Your local Cooperative Extension Office or non-profit organization may have the perfect place for planting the bushes where berries can be shared with an identified community. With a little sunshine and good drainage, the right variety, and proper blackberry plant care, a group can work towards a successful harvest.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 1.87 mb
Pages: 3



ID-256

BerryCare: When Blackberries and Other Berries are in Season

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

Blackberries are fresh and in season during the mid summer months. But this does not mean you cannot eat them year round. In addition to buying frozen berries during the winter months, you can also plan ahead and freeze your berries when they're in season. Frozen berries are just as healthy and easy to use as fresh.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 2.14 mb
Pages: 4



ID-257

BerryCare: Protection from Pollution with Phytonutrient-Rich Berries

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

Pollution in the environment cannot always be avoided. However, eating for good health may help reduce the effects of pollution in the body. Choosing more nutritious foods, such as those high in phytonutrients, may reduce oxidative stress and protect the body from the negative health effects of pollution.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 2.28 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-134

Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation

7/29/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 2.55 mb
Pages: 13



ASC-243

Managing Dry, Open Ewes

7/25/2019 (new)
Authors: Debra Aaron, Don Ely

Ewes on vacation should remain healthy, but not become obese. Keeping them in a BCS of 1.5 to 2.0 will not be an easy chore because all they have to do is graze and deposit body fat. Limiting forage dry matter consumption to 2.0% of body weight daily through stocking rate management and rotational grazing is the best way to keep ewes from becoming excessively fat. If ewes have an optimum BCS at the beginning of nutritional flushing, and are flushed correctly, 95 to 98% of the ewes will conceive in a short period of the breeding season and lambing rate can be increased by 15 to 20% above that of less intensely managed ewes.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 749 kb
Pages: 2



PR-760

2019 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Matthew Piersawl, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The 2019 soft red winter wheat growing season ended with Kentucky farmers harvesting approximately 340,000 acres of the 450,000 acres planted, for a total production of 26.2 million bushels of grain. An average yield of 77 bushels per acre was estimated by NASS. The acreage not harvested for grain was primarily used for forage production and cover cropping.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 2.25 mb
Pages: 28



HENV-402

Water Quality and Nutrient Management at Home

7/2/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw, Suzette Walling

Fertilizers and other lawn amendments benefit the residential landscape by providing or supplementing the essential nutrients for plant growth and maintenance. Commercial fertilizers are commonly formulated based on three major nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and each plays an important role in plant development. However, improper application of fertilizers and amendments may increase the risk of non-point source pollution of surface and ground waters.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 381 kb
Pages: 4



AR-129

KAES Annual Report, 2016

7/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Bennett

This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2016. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry. In 2016, research activities of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station were conducted at Lexington, Princeton, Quicksand, and Owenton and in counties throughout the state. Efforts are constantly made to ensure that the research studies have application to the problems of all Kentucky farmers and other clientele groups.

Departments: Administration (Research)
Series: Experiment Station Annual Report (AR series)
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 72



PPFS-AG-C-9

Curvularia Leaf Spot

7/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Curvularia leaf spot is a corn disease that was reported for the first time in the United States in Louisiana in 2017, and was confirmed in Kentucky in 2018. While the impact of Curvularia leaf spot in Kentucky is not yet known, this disease causes yield loss in tropical areas, and is considered to be one of the most important diseases of corn in China. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and foliar diseases that have similar symptoms.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-5

Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Size: 473 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-18

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 407 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-21

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-23

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 351 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-24

Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-25

Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-26

Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 230 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-18

Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Beth Wilson

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Pulaski County
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-20

Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-21

Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-22

Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 890 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-23

Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 458 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GEN-15

Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

Departments: County Extension, Franklin County, Hardin County, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: 3.38 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-2

Reducing the Risk of Resistance to Fungicides Used to Control Diseases of Turfgrasses

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Fungicides can be an important tactic in an overall integrated program for turf disease control. In order to insure that products available today remain available in the future, golf course superintendents should be aware of the need to use fungicides in ways that minimize the risk of fungicide resistance.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-1

Black Rot of Crucifers

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Davis, Emily Pfeufer

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga.

Departments: Clark County, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 227 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-10

Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 327 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-11-QF

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Steve Osborne, Kenny Seebold

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 2