University of Kentucky College of Agriculture
 

Online Publications

Recently Published Documents



FCS3-610
Meal Kits: Are They Worth It?
4/10/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Heather Norman-Burgdolf
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

There is high demand for convenience in our society. As a result, meal kit services have become increasingly popular. These meal kits are mailed directly to your front door each week. These kits include recipes and pre-measured ingredients ready to be used right away. Some of the most popular services include BlueApron, HelloFresh, and Plated. Since their beginning in 2012, meal kit services have grown into a $2.2-billion-dollar industry. There are over 100 companies in the US providing meal kit services.

web only | 4 pages | 1,533 words | 1 download | PDF: 598 kb



AGR-175
Forage Identification and Use Guide
3/28/2018 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. They provide most of the feed for beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and wildlife. In addition, forage crops play a critical role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. The purpose of this publication is to provide both agronomic and identification information on several forage grasses and legumes.

2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 3,500 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 9,100 kb



AGR-236
Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands
3/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Dixon, Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Wide fluctuations in springtime temperature are common in Kentucky. Late freezing temperatures in the spring can cause damage to alfalfa depending on how far along it is in breaking dormancy. This publication provides information on the effect of low spring temperatures on both established and new alfalfa stands that have begun growth, as well as a method of predicting sensitivity to late frosts or freezes.

web only | 3 pages | 2,110 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,397 kb



RB-334
Seed Inspection Report, 2017
3/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve McMurry
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky.

web only | 37 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 3,200 kb



RB-333
Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples July 2016 - June 2017
3/7/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve McMurry
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,623 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2016 through June 30, 2017 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 55,241 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,046,305 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,237 nitrogen, 1,797 phosphorus, 1,938 potassium, and 982 secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples. Table 1 shows the manufacturers whose product the field inspection staff sampled, along with the number of samples taken and the percentage of those samples that passed. Table 2 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials. Table 3 contains the results of secondary and minor element and certain other analyses. Table 4 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of June 30, 2017.

web only | 182 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



AGR-206
Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15
3/5/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, A.J. Powell
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, turfgrass

Turf is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface. Quality lawns greatly increase the economic and sociological value of urban homes. They beautify and reduce the often harsh urban environment by decreasing noise, glare, heat, dust, and mud. Lawns and other recreational turf areas are an integral part of our daily activities.

web only | 22 pages | 12,270 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



AGR-229
Warm Season Annual Grasses in Kentucky
3/5/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

In Kentucky, cool-season grasses produce ample forage in the spring and fall, but high temperatures and short-term drought stress often limits growth during the summer months. Warm-season annual grasses can fill this gap with relatively high quality forage when properly managed. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of the various summer annuals for Kentucky.

2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,032 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,316 kb



AGR-235
Baleage: Frequently Asked Questions
3/5/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Mike Collins, Dennis Hancock, Jimmy Henning, Brandon Sears, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, other crops

Baled silage, or "baleage", is an excellent method for forage harvest, storage and feed efficiency. Baled silage allows forage to be harvested at higher whole plant moisture levels than required for dry hay. Baleage is ideal for spring cuttings of annual and perennial forages when seasonally frequent rainfall events provide little opportunity for properly curing dry hay. Many producers who want to harvest high quality small grain crops have found baleage to be a good fit for their operation.

web only | 4 pages | 2,625 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 145 kb



AGR-237
Grass Options for Athletic Fields in the Transition Zone
3/2/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Mundell
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, turfgrass

There are several grasses that will grow in the transition zone, but none all that well. Our summers are often too hot for cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and our winters are often too cold for warm-season grasses like bermudagrass. Keep in mind, however, that the problem with most poor athletic fields is not grass selection, but rather over use, lack of maintenance, and/or use when field is wet or cannot recover.

web only | 3 pages | 1,626 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 2,320 kb



PPFS-AG-T-2
Managing Rhizoctonia Damping-off and Target Spot in the Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Damping-off and target spot occur each year in tobacco transplant crops in Kentucky. These diseases can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 727 kb



PPFS-AG-T-3
Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky, causing a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease tend to be rare but can occur if care is not taken to minimize risk of disease development and reduce spread after it appears.

web only | 3 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 666 kb



ASC-236
Molting Small-Scale Commercial Egg Flocks in Kentucky
2/27/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, poultry

Molting is a common event in the annual life cycle of most avian species. Each year chickens lose feathers and grow new ones, and this occurs in both wild and domestic birds. During molt, laying hens go out of egg production and feathers are replaced. Molting, regardless of what stimulates it, is more than just the replacement of the plumage. Hormonal and physiological changes occur as well.

web only | 2 pages | 1,077 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 280 kb



AGR-230
Forage Sorghum
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Forage sorghum is the tallest of the summer annuals, reaching 6 to 15 feet in height and is best harvested as silage. Taller varieties produce high forage yield but can lodge, making them difficult to harvest mechanically. Some varieties have been developed that are shorter with increased resistance to lodging. Forage sorghums, like corn, are harvested once per season by direct chopping. While forage sorghum yields are similar to corn, they are lower in energy. The primary advantage of utilizing sorghum for silage production is its greater drought tolerance.

web only | 2 pages | 926 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 567 kb



AGR-231
Pearl Millet
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

The primary benefits of pearl millet are that it does not contain prussic acid and is not susceptible to the sugarcane aphid. Dwarf varieties are available, which are leafier and better suited for grazing.

web only | 2 pages | 681 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,183 kb



AGR-232
Crabgrass
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Crabgrass possesses significant potential for supplying high quality summer forage although it is considered a weed by many. A primary advantage of crabgrass is that it is well adapted to Kentucky and occurs naturally in most summer pastures, especially those that have been overgrazed. It is also highly palatable and a prolific re-seeder. Planting an improved variety of crabgrass is recommended because the production of naturally-occurring ecotypes varies greatly. Crabgrass is best utilized by grazing.

web only | 2 pages | 803 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 428 kb



AGR-233
Foxtail Millet
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Foxtail millet (German millet) is a fine-stemmed summer annual used mainly for emergency hay or pasture for cattle. It is the lowest yielding of the summer annual grasses since it will not regrow after cutting. It can also be used as a smoother crop when transitioning to other perennial forage crops. Foxtail millet is also commonly used for wildlife plantings to produce food and cover for doves, quail, and other birds.

web only | 2 pages | 665 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 960 kb



AGR-234
Sudangrass and Sorghum-sudangrass Hybrids
2/19/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are developed by crossing sorghum with true sudangrass. The result is an annual grass that resembles sudangrass, but has coarser stems, taller growth habit, and higher yields. Like sudangrass, hybrids will regrow after grazing if growth is not limited by environmental factors. The coarse stems are difficult to cure as dry hay, therefore these grasses are best utilized for grazing, chopped silage and baleage.

web only | 2 pages | 999 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 785 kb



PPFS-AG-F-10
Possible Causes of Yellowing Alfalfa
2/16/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Chris Teutsch, Paul Vincelli, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases

During spring, several leaf spotting diseases--including Leptosphaerulina (Lepto) leaf spot and spring black stem/leaf spot--are common in alfalfa. Leaf spotting diseases result in distinct round to elongated spots that sometimes have a dark margin. Very wet weather in spring and early summer favor activity of leaf spotting diseases in first and second cuttings. Wet and humid weather during summer favor other leaf spotting and blighting diseases. All leaf spots and blights weaken plants, but alfalfa often outgrows the damage in later cuttings. Maintain a regular cutting schedule, cutting at 30- to 35-day intervals.

web only | 4 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 754 kb



FCS3-604
Understanding Healthy Food Choices
2/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Heather Norman-Burgdolf
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Have you ever heard that shopping the perimeter of a grocery store is healthier? Many healthy foods are on the outer walls of the store, yet several other healthy options are also tucked in the middle aisles. If you know what you are looking for and how to find them, several other items in the middle of the store should be on your grocery list.

web only | 4 pages | 869 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,666 kb



FCS3-605
Navigating the Grocery Store
2/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Heather Norman-Burgdolf
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

age American makes over 200 food and beverage-related choices each day. This number seems high, but it makes sense when we think about the decisions we make. We decide what food and beverages we will eat. We are exposed to a multitude of items in our grocery stores. We are bombarded with television advertisements to choose specific food. And there are many fast food restaurant options available in our communities.

web only | 3 pages | 1,504 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,068 kb



FCS3-606
Modifying Recipes
2/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Heather Norman-Burgdolf
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

To make recipe modification a common practice, we should frequently think about how increasing the nutrition of our recipes relates to our health. For example, lowering the amount of sodium in the diet over time through small recipe modifications may reduce risk of high blood pressure and heart disease.

web only | 3 pages | 889 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 834 kb



FCS3-607
Dining Out in a Healthy Way
2/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Heather Norman-Burgdolf
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Sodium is an important mineral to the body. It helps keep body fluids in balance, helps the body to absorb certain nutrients, and also aids in muscle performance and sending nerve messages. Excessive sodium in the diet is linked with high blood pressure or hypertension. Hypertension can result in diabetes, heart disease, kidney failure, or stroke.

web only | 5 pages | 767 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 2,684 kb



FCS3-608
Fitting Nutrition into Your Busy Lifestyle
2/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Heather Norman-Burgdolf
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Your overall nutrition picture depends on selections of food and serving sizes over a period of time. To make wise food choices you need to know a little about food and healthful cooking techniques. A balanced diet contains a wide variety of foods. The key to making good food choices is to plan.

web only | 2 pages | 988 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 871 kb



FCS3-609
Shaking Down on Salt
2/9/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Heather Norman-Burgdolf
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

The demand for convenience and a change in eating habits have contributed to the popularity of dining out. Busy schedules often force people to eat on the run. Take out, frozen foods, and home-delivered meals are habits characteristic of many Americans. Meals eaten away from home can potentially contribute excess calories, fat, and sodium while limiting the intake of calcium, dietary fiber, and vitamins A and C. Excess snacking from calorie-laden, low nutrient-dense foods can lead to consuming too much fat and sugar. The two trends of dining out more and an increased interest in health, fitness, and nutrition seem to be incompatible, but with careful planning, healthful eating can be achieved regardless of our busy lives.

web only | 2 pages | 1,607 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 351 kb



ID-128
Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2018
2/6/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Emily Pfeufer, Shubin Saha, John Strang, Mark Williams, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

8,500 printed copies | 48 pages | 32,300 words | 480 downloads | PDF: 4,000 kb



FCS3-578
Home Canning Basics
2/2/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Annhall Norris
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

People choose to can foods at home for many reasons: to preserve the harvest from their gardens or local farmers markets for year-round enjoyment; to gain more control over what is in their food by limiting or avoiding salt, sugar or preservatives; to save money; to get better-tasting canned foods; to follow family traditions; or just for the sense of satisfaction that home canning provides.

web only | 6 pages | 2,913 words | 277 downloads | PDF: 359 kb



FCS3-580
Home Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
2/2/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Annhall Norris
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Home canning tomatoes and tomato products can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning.

web only | 14 pages | 4,000 words | 205 downloads | PDF: 402 kb



FCS3-583
Home Canning Vegetables
2/2/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Annhall Norris
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Home canning vegetables from your garden or local farmers market can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.

web only | 13 pages | 3,926 words | - | PDF: 444 kb



FCS3-584
Home Canning Fruit
2/2/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Annhall Norris
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Home canning fruit from your garden, orchard, or local farmers market can help save you money and gain control over what's in your food, while preserving the taste of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.

web only | 12 pages | 3,675 words | - | PDF: 542 kb



FCS3-585
Home Canning Meat, Poultry and Seafood
2/2/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Annhall Norris
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Home canning your own meat, poultry, wild game or fish can help you save money, gain control over what's in your food, and save time in meal preparation. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.

web only | 9 pages | 3,232 words | 97 downloads | PDF: 412 kb



PPFS-AG-C-7
Physoderma Brown Spot
2/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Brenda Kennedy, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management.

web only | 2 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 743 kb



ENT-68
Insects: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 8
1/29/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Lee Townsend
 Departments: Entomology
 Series: Entomology (ENT series)
 Tags: insects

Insects, spiders, mites, etc. are among the oldest and most numerous animals on Earth. Some species, like the house fly, occur in every county of the state, while others live in very specific areas, such as a western Kentucky wetland or an eastern Kentucky mountain meadow. Like it or not, insects have a major impact on our lives, health, and environment. Learning more about them can increase your enjoyment of nature and help you to manage problem species more effectively.

web only | 12 pages | 5,421 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,382 kb



ASC-230
Factors to Consider Before Starting a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise in Kentucky
1/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: business and records, livestock, poultry

There are several things to consider before starting an egg production operation. The most important is market availability. Before you start production you need to have a market that your production can supply, in terms of both quantity of product and the price you need to get in order to be profitable. You will need to make sure that local regulations allow for poultry production on the land available to you. Cash flow is also an important consideration. A flock will require a considerable investment before the hens start to lay eggs to produce an income. You also need to have a way to deal with the manure produced, and any dead birds. You also need to have a plan for the hens after they have finished laying (referred to as spent hens).

web only | 4 pages | 2,113 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 126 kb



ASC-232
Raising Replacement Pullets for Small-Scale Egg Production
1/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Poultry producers who raise their own replacement pullets have better control over the growth, condition, and development of the flock. The quality of the pullet flock will have a direct effect on the subsequent level of egg production. The two most important quality factors for a replacement flock are proper body weight and uniformity. Pullet weight at 6 weeks of age has been shown to influence subsequent egg production. Once the pullets start to lay, it is too late to solve problems from poor nutrition or management during the pullet rearing period.

web only | 9 pages | 4,407 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb



ASC-233
Feeds and Feeding for Small-Scale Egg Production Enterprises
1/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, nutrition and health, poultry

Animals eat in order to get the energy and nutrients they need to live, grow and reproduce. Animals use energy to perform normal body functions such as breathing, walking, eating, digesting, and maintaining body temperature. Different types of nutrients provide energy as well as the building blocks needed for the development of bone, flesh, feathers, and eggs. These nutrients include: water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Each of these components is important and a deficit of even one can have serious health consequences for poultry.

web only | 12 pages | 5,611 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 2,536 kb



HO-120
Off the Grid: Ultra-Low Pressure Drip Irrigation and Rainwater Catchment for Small Plots and High Tunnels
1/24/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Krista Jacobsen, Brent Rowell
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel

All forms of irrigation need a push or pressure to move water from its source to its destination. Water sources include wells, springs, lakes, creeks, canals, rivers, cisterns, elevated tanks, or municipal water supplies. The amount of pressure or push required depends on many things including the height water must be lifted, length and size of the delivery pipe(s), crop and size of the area to be irrigated, and the distance water needs to be moved from the source to the field, greenhouse, or tunnel.

400 printed copies | 12 pages | 3,615 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 9,416 kb



ID-248
Gardening in Small Spaces
1/24/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Ashley Osborne
 Departments: Ag Programs, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables

Although most would agree that gardening is a worthwhile endeavor, traditional gardening with long neat rows spaced 3 or 4 feet apart to allow cultivation by a tractor or tiller may not be feasible for everyone. Individuals that live in urban areas, especially those living in townhomes, condominiums, and apartments may not have the outdoor space needed for this conventional style of gardening. In addition, those with limited mobility may not be able to establish and maintain this type of garden. For many, raised bed gardening and container gardening may be a more practical and manageable choice for those gardening in small spaces and those with limited mobility.

web only | 8 pages | 6,239 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 1,141 kb



ENT-70
Pesticides and Pesticide Safety: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 10
1/23/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Lee Townsend
 Departments: Entomology
 Series: Entomology (ENT series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, insect pests

"Pest" is not a biological term for an organism's environmental role as are the words plant, herbivore, predator, and scavenger. It is a term for an organism that is either causing damage or is somewhere where it's not wanted. Pests can include plants, insects and their relatives, and microorganisms that cause plant diseases. Often, pests are a problem because we use cultural practices or create conditions favoring organisms that they feed on, compete with, or infect the desirable species.

web only | 10 pages | 5,153 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 310 kb



FOR-121
Vertebrate Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 19
1/23/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Tom Barnes, Matthew Springer
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Most people enjoy watching wildlife around the home, whether it is birds at a feeder, butterflies on flowers, or the occasional deer or turkey wandering through the yard. In some instances, wildlife come into contact with humans and are in the wrong place at the wrong time. For the gardening enthusiast, this encounter can create conflict.

web only | 10 pages | 4,896 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 750 kb



AGR-1
Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations, 2018-2019
1/22/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nutrient management, soil and land

Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.

web only | 24 pages | 11,300 words | 164 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



AGR-205
Weed Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 20
1/22/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, weeds

Every garden has weeds, and every gardener wonders what to do about them. Gardening involves lots of small decisions that can have a cumulative effect on those weed problems. This chapter will explore the origin of weeds, their adaptation and impact, and the techniques you can use to manage weeds in your landscape.

web only | 14 pages | 6,440 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 965 kb



ASC-234
Use of Biosecurity and Natural Remedies for the Prvention of Poultry Disease in "Natural" and "Organic" Flocks
1/22/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

It is easier to prevent disease than it is to treat an outbreak. A biosecurity plan is essential to an effective health management plan. "Bio" refers to life and "Security" is protection. A biosecurity program for a poultry farm is a series of common-sense activities designed to keep disease (bacterial, viral, parasitic) out of the poultry flock.

web only | 6 pages | 3,526 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 157 kb



ASC-235
My Mare's in Heat: Predicting and Recognizing Signs of Estrus
1/22/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Amy Lawyer
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses, reproduction and genetics

You have heard the term frequently that a mare is in heat, but what does it mean exactly? Heat is the laymanís term for showing signs of estrus. Whether you are planning to breed your mare or not her body will continue to prepare to be pregnant.

web only | 2 pages | 1,125 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 85 kb



ASC-229
Marketing Regulations Affecting Small-scale Egg Producers in Kentucky
1/12/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: business and records, livestock, poultry

It is important that you comply with all the laws and regulations with regards to the marketing of eggs. Eggs are capable of carrying bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis. As a result, eggs are considered a hazardous food and their sale is regulated. With regard to small-scale producers, if you sell more than 60 dozen eggs in any one week, you will require an egg handler's license. You will also need an egg handler's license if you sell to someone who sells eggs to someone else. This would include grocery stores, restaurants, or wholesalers. The same will hold true if you sell to a bakery, confectionary or ice-cream manufacturer.

web only | 4 pages | 1,756 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 267 kb



ASC-231
Breed Selection for a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise
1/12/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, poultry

Once you have decided you are going to go into egg production, you need to determine what breed of chicken will best suit your needs. A variety of different commercial breeds are available for use in small-scale commercial egg production operations. Most lay a brown-shelled egg, which is typically preferred by the people purchasing eggs produced in alterative production systems. Most of these commercial chickens are hybrids selected specifically for these systems.

web only | 5 pages | 1,023 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,280 kb



FCS3-596
Body Balance: The Connection between Pollution and Nutrition
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Lisa Gaetke
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Pollution increases compounds called free radicals in the body. Too many free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can increase the risk for cancer and other chronic diseases because cells are damaged more easily and do not repair themselves as well. Pollution in the environment cannot always be avoided. However, eating for good health may help reduce the effects of pollution in the body. Choosing more nutritious foods, such as those high in phytonutrients, may reduce oxidative stress and protect the body from the negative health effects of pollution.

web only | 2 pages | 734 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 214 kb



FCS3-597
Body Balance: Cut Down on Environmental Pollutants in Your Food
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Lisa Gaetke
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Environmental pollutants in food are concerning. Foods like fish may be contaminated with mercury and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Fruits and rice may contain arsenic. High-fat meat and dairy products may also contain chemicals from pollution that aren't healthy for your body. Read on to learn how to choose foods with less pollutants, which can help keep the body healthier and lessen the risk of chronic diseases.

web only | 5 pages | 1,634 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,820 kb



FCS3-598
Body Balance: Make Your Plate a Rainbow
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Lisa Gaetke
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

A phytonutrient comes from plant-based foods. Think of a phytonutrient like a vitamin or mineral in that it can benefit health. Research shows they are good, but scientists have not determined them to be essential like vitamins or minerals, or determined how much needs to be consumed each day. In the future, there may be recommended levels of phytonutrients to consume, just like vitamins and minerals today. There are thousands of phytonutrients. They naturally occur in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and other plant foods. Like vitamins and minerals, there are diverse types of phytonutrients, and they have various positive health effects. Certain foods are higher in some types of phytonutrients than others, just like how vitamin C is high in oranges, and milk is high in calcium. Therefore, consuming a variety of plant foods means you will eat a variety of phytonutrients!

web only | 3 pages | 631 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,180 kb



FCS3-599
Body Balance: Healthy Ways to Flavor Your Food
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Lisa Gaetke
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Using herbs and spices is a healthy way to add flavor to food and they may protect against the harmful effects of environmental pollution. We are exposed to pollution every day in our air, water, soil, and even our food. This exposure to pollution may have negative effects on health. Herbs and spices help protect the body by decreasing cell damage caused by the pollution that we are exposed to everyday. Reducing cell damage helps protect against the development or progression of various chronic diseases. Some herbs and spices are also anti-bacterial and anti-microbial, which helps keep the immune system strong to protect against diseases and pollution. Even though research shows that herbs and spices are beneficial to health, scientists have not determined exactly how much of each herb and spice should be consumed each day. In the future, there may be official recommendations, like for vitamins. Incorporating a variety of herbs and spices into meals is flavorful and may have health benefits.

web only | 3 pages | 987 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,120 kb



FCS3-600
Body Balance: Fundamentals of Fermented Foods
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Lisa Gaetke
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Fermented foods are foods that have been aged in a way that allows good bacteria to develop in them. Consuming these good bacteria can benefit health. Common fermented foods are yogurt, soy sauce, sauerkraut, and some types of pickles. Although these foods may seem like an odd assortment, they are all fermented and contain good bacteria.

web only | 4 pages | 1,360 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 847 kb



FCS3-601
Body Balance: Picking out Produce: All About Organic and Conventional Food
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Lisa Gaetke
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

When shopping at the grocery store, there are many choices to make about which foods to purchase. Currently, one of the most popular food trends is eating organic produce. Organic produce is marked with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Organic label and is usually separated from the rest. There are some differences between how organic foods and regular or conventionally foods are grown. Pesticides are found in almost all foods.

web only | 3 pages | 918 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,240 kb



FCS3-602
Body Balance: Safe Storage for Food and Drink
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Lisa Gaetke
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

How food and drink is stored plays a big part in how long it stays fresh. Some types of packaging can keep food fresher longer. There are many types of packaging and beverage containers, and some are safer than others, which may have negative health effects. People are exposed to pollution every day, in ways that cannot always be avoided. Even storage containers may contain potentially harmful chemicals. For example, heating plastic that is not microwave safe can cause chemical residue to come in contact with food. Certain plastics may have negative effects on health. Read on to find out more about the safest ways to store food and drinks.

web only | 3 pages | 884 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 883 kb



FCS3-603
Body Balance: Nutritious Nuts and Seeds
12/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Hannah Bellamy, Dawn Brewer, Megan Finnie, Lisa Gaetke, Carolyn Hofe, Beth Willett
 Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Eating plant foods, such as nuts and seeds, makes a diet more nutritious and may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases. It is especially helpful if you encounter pollutants in the environment. Plant foods, including nuts and seeds contain nutritious compounds called phytonutrients. Unlike vitamins and minerals, there is no Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for phytonutrients.

web only | 4 pages | 1,318 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 4,580 kb



PR-737
2017 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)
12/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.

400 printed copies | 20 pages | 7,500 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 2,125 kb



PR-738
2017 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
12/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, research, variety trials

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.

1,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 7,180 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 2,850 kb



PR-735
2017 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
12/18/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

500 printed copies | 12 pages | 4,149 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



CCD-MP-11
MarketReady Producer Training Program
12/15/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Miranda Hileman
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The MarketReady Producer Training Program instructs producers in the key business functions that small farmers and ranchers must manage as they seek to develop supplier relationships with restaurants, grocers, wholesalers, and foodservice buyers, including schools. While significant opportunity exists to build on the demand for local products in local markets, many farmers are hesitant or unprepared to meet the transactional requirements expected by these buyers to manage their own food safety, insurance, product quality, and traceability risks. MarketReady addresses these issues. After training, producers will be prepared for business transactions when selling a variety of products including dairy, fruits, meats and vegetables.

web only | 3 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



LA-10
Walkability and Connectivity: Planning for Enhancing Walkability and Connectivity
12/13/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Built environment patterns are essential for supporting the pedestrian experience in communities for health, wellness and safety. Since the mid-20th century, the intertwined relationship between sprawling development patterns and auto dependence has left many communities with built environments that discourage people from walking in the community. With shifting focus on people rather than cars, attention and interest in planning and design has brought about the need to bring back walkable communities for various goals and objectives including pursuing healthy lifestyles, engaging in more physical activities and investing in attractive pedestrian focused environments. Many communities have turned their efforts toward reintroducing and strengthening their pedestrian paths/networks and increasing connectivity in the community. Supportive built environment patterns can have other impacts on people's everyday lives and lifestyles such as providing for a safe and attractive environment for outdoor activities. Furthermore, sound and well-connected walkable environments can also directly influence a community's economic health, place identity, and sense of community.

web only | 8 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 4,230 kb



LA-11
Placemaking: Strengthening Your Public Spaces
12/13/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Strong public spaces provide lasting impressions and shared community experiences. Public spaces refers to locations that are accessible to the public. This can include parks, streets, playgrounds or fair grounds. In addition to publicly owned spaces, public spaces can also include privately owned spaces with areas open to the public such as plazas or memorials. Although the size and scope of public spaces may differ, the goals and functions should be suitable and appropriate for the size and location, whether small or large, rural or urban. Successful public spaces connect with other parts of a community and are accessible and open to the public, residents and visitors alike.

web only | 3 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,250 kb



LA-12
Placemaking: Planning and Designing Meaningful Public Spaces
12/13/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Public spaces are areas that are open to the public to access and use. Spaces that are used most frequently tend to be valued highly in the community. When these public spaces have personal meanings associated with them that transform them into memorable public places. Therefore, public places are not only locations in our society, but tend to have an additional special identity linked to the public spaces. Great public places in communities should strive to be destinations for both locals and visitors.

web only | 6 pages | - | 15 downloads | PDF: 3,390 kb



PR-736
2017 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
12/13/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

500 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,029 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 725 kb



ID-36
Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2018-19
12/11/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Emily Pfeufer, John Strang, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.

3,000 printed copies | 140 pages | 109,401 words | 93 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



PR-733
2017 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
12/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

350 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,924 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 413 kb



PR-734
2017 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
12/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

400 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,182 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 450 kb



PR-740
2017 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
12/7/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Brandon Roberts, Claire Venard
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2017 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions. Forty soybean tests were planted in 2017 in Kentucky, at the eight test locations.

2,500 printed copies | 31 pages | 10,300 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 3,480 kb



PR-732
2017 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
12/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties. Tables 14, 15, and 16 show summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 17 years. The UK Forage Extension website at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage contains electronic versions of all forage variety test-ing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

400 printed copies | 16 pages | 1,898 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,350 kb



CLD2-13
Aligning Leadership Programs with Community Development
12/5/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Daniel Kahl
 Departments: Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

Aligning the content and activities of a leadership program with the intended outcomes for the participants, stakeholders, and broader community is important for several reasons. This publication will help community leaders who oversee a community-based leadership development program to align their leadership development with community development. For community leaders thinking of starting a leadership program, this publication will be a valuable resource for providing focus and identifying desired program content.

web only | 4 pages | 1,461 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 195 kb



PR-739
2017 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/5/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, Bob Geneve, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Emily Pfeufer, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Dwight Wolfe
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. The 2017 Fruit and Vegetable Crops re-search report includes results for 16 projects.

900 printed copies | 46 pages | 23,687 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 7,210 kb



PPFS-FR-S-3
Blackberry Rosette (Double Blossom)
12/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Michele Stanton, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Kenton County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags:

Rosette disease, caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi, is a serious and destructive disease of blackberries in most parts of Kentucky. In some locations, growers have been forced out of growing blackberries because of rosette disease.

web only | 3 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 637 kb



PR-729
2017 Orchardgrass Report
12/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties. Table 11 shows a summary of all orchardgrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years. The UK For-age Extension website, at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage, contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and from a large number of other forage publications.

600 printed copies | 8 pages | 1,260 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 833 kb



PR-730
2017 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
12/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties. Tables 15 and 16 show a summary of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 17 years. The UK Forage Extension Web site at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

600 printed copies | 12 pages | 1,844 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,396 kb



PR-731
2017 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
12/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky. Tables 10 and 11 show summaries of all timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website, at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage, contains forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

400 printed copies | 6 pages | 1,230 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 542 kb



FCS5-466
Don't Become a Victim of Educational Fraud and Student Debt
11/29/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Flashman
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
 Tags:

Education is a stepping stone to greater opportunity in life. The more education and career training you have, the more you are likely to earn in your career. But education beyond high school is becoming increasingly expensive for students and families, and those who need it must find ways to pay. Each year, many students take out student loans in order to continue their education and prepare for good careers. They may, however, end up with overwhelming debt. This brings great financial strain, possibly for decades to come.

web only | 4 pages | 2,225 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 458 kb



FCS5-467
Selecting a Major and Career for a Sound Financial Future
11/29/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Flashman
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
 Tags:

Many students enter college not knowing what they want to study or what their career interests are. It is common for college freshmen and sophomores to have undeclared majors. Many students change their majors throughout their college career, and for a variety of reasons. It is not surprising that they might decide on a different career than they had in mind originally. Selecting your major is something to be passionate about. You also have to have the aptitude. When making your final decision, consider the economic value of your major. How much can you earn? Will you be able to live where you want? Will your education and internship opportunities lead where you want?

web only | 5 pages | 1,925 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 528 kb



PR-727
2017 Alfalfa Report
11/29/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties. Tables 14 and 15 (Roundup Ready varieties) shows a summary of all alfalfa varieties tested in Kentucky during the past 16 years. The UK Forage Extension website, at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage, contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states as well as a large number of other forage publications.

400 printed copies | 12 pages | 1,822 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,530 kb



PR-726
Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2017
11/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ricky Arnett, Matthew Campbell, Chad Lee, Linda McClanahan, Nick Roy, Will Stallard
 Departments: Adair County, Green County, Lincoln County, Mason County, Mercer County, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 2,625 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 341 kb



PR-728
2017 Red and White Clover Report
11/27/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

This report provides current yield and persistence data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. Tables 13 and 14 show a summary of all clover varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. The UK Forage Extension website at www.uky.edu/Ag/Forage contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states and a large number of other forage publications.

600 printed copies | 6 pages | 1,739 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 757 kb



AEN-134
Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation
11/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock, nutrition and health

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area.

web only | 13 pages | 3,535 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 2,430 kb



CCD-BG-10
2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Large-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags:

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet.

web only | 1 pages | - | 19 downloads | Excel: 1,600 kb



CCD-BG-11
2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Small-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags:

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet. Most of the worksheets assume all production is sold at the same price, but there is also a blank line for a second quantity/cost for users to add if desired, such as already done in sweet potatoes.

web only | - | - | 19 downloads | Excel: 1,200 kb



LA-8
Streetscapes: Planning and Designing Vibrant Streets
11/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Streetscapes can provide and support community visions for social interaction and achieve common goals such as safety, economic health, or social destinations. Streetscapes also contribute to lasting impressions of communities and places. The streetscape development process requires community members to work together with local governments and other state and federal agencies that are responsible for creating and managing public right-of-ways, the property located edge to edge on either side of a street. The planning process provides opportunities for collaboration among organizations, meaningful interaction and strengthens community capacity.

web only | 6 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 3,590 kb



LA-9
Walkability and Connectivity: Enhancing the Pedestrian Travel Environment for Healthier Communities
11/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Our built environment patterns can be more supportive of pedestrian experiences rather than that of vehicle travel. Since the mid-20th century, housing developments have sprawled beyond city limits with convenient and connected infrastructure such as road networks. However, such built environment patterns have influenced personal lifestyles. Partly, this results from the lack of appropriate environmental settings for safe and engaging outdoor activities within close distances to and connections to where we live and work. Attention and interest in planning and design of our built environment has brought about the need to return to walkable communities for a variety of goals and objectives, including investing in attractive pedestrian focused environments, engaging in more physical activities and pursuing healthy lifestyles. In addition to the physical health of communities, walkability characteristics of communities also have indirect influences on a community's economic performance, sense of community and place identity.

web only | 3 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



HO-119
Reducing Heat Stress to Container-Grown Plants
11/14/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Production of plants in containers offer many advantages over field production. Shorter production cycles, larger numbers of plants per acre, and the ability to continuously market and ship plants are among those advantages. However, there are some disadvantages including more intense cultural practices, a relatively short window of optimum marketability due to container size restrictions, and rapid daily temperature fluctuations within the container substrate (growing medium). This publication will provide information about plant response to high root-zone temperatures, identify critical temperatures, describe the factors that influence temperature fluctuations, and suggest cultural practices to reduce heat stress in container-grown plants.

web only | 6 pages | 3,953 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,240 kb



IP-73
Living Along a Kentucky Stream
11/8/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors:
 Departments:
 Series: Interprogram (IP series)
 Tags:

Guidelines for maintaining a healthy stream and understanding stream stewardship.

1,000 printed copies | 12 pages | 2,565 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 6,831 kb



AEN-135
Rainwater Harvesting for Livestock Production Systems
11/7/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Abundant, clean drinking water is an essential nutrient for livestock. The obvious water source that is recommended by veterinarians is city water. However, city water has its drawbacks. City water distribution systems are often expensive to install and have a recurring usage charge. In some instances, city water is unavailable, may have inadequate pressure, or producers consider it too expensive to operate, forcing them to use streams and ponds to water livestock. Collecting rainwater from a catchment area, is a low cost, high quality alternative water source that can supplement traditional water distribution systems and improve the environmental quality of farming operations. Rainwater harvesting involves the collection of rainfall from rooftops or land based catchments systems for storage and distribution as needed. Capturing rainfall has the added benefit of improving water quality by reducing soil erosion and runoff. Strategically installed rainwater harvesting systems can be used to direct stormwater around sensitive areas of the farm where animal waste is present, thus reducing the potential for nutrient and pathogen delivery to nearby waterways. Rainwater harvesting and stormwater management techniques can also reduce the volume of water that must be managed in liquid manure management systems by diverting clean water away from manure pits and lagoons.

web only | 5 pages | 2,801 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 807 kb



AGR-6
Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2018
11/6/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green, Travis Legleiter
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, small grains, soybeans, weeds

The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.

3,300 printed copies | 140 pages | - | 83 downloads | PDF: 2,254 kb



CCD-PFS-1
Produce Food Safety: Packing and Storing
11/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-PFS series)
 Tags:

: If you intend to sell your produce, you'll need to package it. Some growers immediately assume that they'll need a large, complicated packing shed with state-of-the art technology. Typically this is not the case, and for some situations you might not need a packing facility at all. Before we go into some of the best practices for managing a packing shed, you should first consider whether you need one at all. Many of the practices discussed in this publication will depend on the requirements of your buyer. The first step before making upgrades to your food safety infrastructure is to talk to your buyer--ask them how they expect products packaged, box sizes, and whether they expect the product to be washed. Do they currently expect a third-party Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) audit? Do they anticipate requiring one in the near future? As long as you are meeting all regulatory requirements and taking common sense steps to keep your produce safe, there is no need to exceed the expectations of your buyer. In the case of Farmers Markets and CSAs, the expectations for washing can be highly variable.

web only | 7 pages | 1,176 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb



PR-725
2017 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
11/2/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Brandon Roberts
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

2,400 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,248 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 2,924 kb



PPFS-FR-S-17
Cane Diseases of Brambles
11/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

web only | 5 pages | 800 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 299 kb



CCD-CP-118
Snap Beans
10/24/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The snap bean or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. Prior to the development of the stringless bean in the 1890s, snap beans were referred to as "string beans" because of the fiber or "string" running along the pod seam. While stringless beans are more common today, many consumers still prefer the flavor of the stringed types.

web only | 3 pages | 1,176 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 668 kb



CCD-FS-7
Risk Management in Specialty Crops: Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)
10/24/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

The Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) is a financial assistance program provided through the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). The program provides producers of crops not eligible for crop insurance with some level of risk management when natural disasters cause crop low yields, crop losses or prevent crop planting.

web only | 2 pages | 574 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



LA-7
Streetscapes: Visioning Vibrant Relationships
10/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

A streetscape is the sphere that includes the public right-of-way from the edge of properties on both sides of the street. The streetscape typically includes a mix of features including but not limited to the following: vehicular lanes, sidewalks, bike lanes, parking spaces, planting strips, storm water management elements, signage, street lights, utility lines, amenities such as bus stops, and facades of built structures. The nature of a successful streetscape design is to convey a safe, environmentally friendly, aesthetically appealing, inclusive, and context sensitive atmosphere to the area, neighborhood, or district. Additionally, established streetscapes enhance the functionality, accessibility, and vitality of the built environment.

web only | 3 pages | 1,205 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 720 kb



AEN-115
Appropriate All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock
10/16/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Stephanie Mehlhope, Lee Moser, Sarah Wightman
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, livestock

Many livestock producers would say that mud is a natural part of livestock production. But the creation of mud costs producers money and makes them less competitive. Livestock that walk through mud require more feed for energy but actually eat less because walking in mud requires more effort to get to feed and water. Therefore, mud decreases average daily gains. Mud accumulation on the coat increases the amount of energy needed to generate heat in the winter or to keep cool in the summer. Also, it can lower sale prices due to hanging tags. The creation of mud also increases animal stress and leads to a variety of health problems, including protozoan and bacterial infections. It is essential that livestock producers understand that mud hinders cost-efficient livestock production and efforts should be made to limit the creation of mud. This publication explains how mud is created and describes different types of hardened surfaces and pads that agricultural producers should use to reduce mud creation and ultimately increase production efficiency and protect natural resources.

web only | 8 pages | 3,441 words | 172 downloads | PDF: 2,730 kb



ID-149
2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates
10/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, John Strang, Tim Woods, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: business and records, farm crops, fruits and nuts

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions.

web only | 20 pages | 11,224 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 265 kb



PPFS-AG-C-5
Diplodia Ear Rot
10/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases

Diplodia ear rot can reduce yield and grain quality by damaging kernels, lowering grain test weight, and reducing grain fill. Incidence of affected ears in the field can vary from 1% or 2% to as high as 80%. Although mycotoxins have been associated with Diplodia ear rot in South America and South Africa, there have been no reports of livestock feeding issues due to mycotoxins linked to Diplodia ear rot in the United States.

web only | 3 pages | 514 words | - | PDF: 990 kb



PPFS-AG-C-6
Holcus Leaf Spot
10/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases

Holcus leaf spot, a bacterial disease, can be seen sporadically in Kentucky cornfields, and it is challenging to diagnose. This publication describes the disease symptoms, conditions that favor disease, and how to distinguish holcus spot from herbicide injury that can mimic this disease.

web only | 3 pages | 483 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 889 kb



CCD-CP-116
Romaine Lettuce
10/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 1,753 words | - | PDF: 692 kb



CCD-CP-117
Root Crops
10/4/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 1,728 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb



HO-118
A Beginners Guide to Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky: Plans and Preparations
10/2/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Ken Hunter, Bethany Pratt, John Strang
 Departments: County Extension, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables

Begin by thinking about vegetables you and your family like to eat. Then think about what you want to grow. Some vegetables will grow better in Kentucky than others because of the average daily temperatures and amount of rainfall. It is also important to learn about the needs of each vegetable variety you are thinking about planting in your garden. Does it grow better in sun or shade? How much water does it need? What type of soil does it grow best in? Is it a cool season crop or a warm season crop?

web only | 7 pages | 2,832 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPA-48
Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Wheat Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains

The North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA-184) has developed the following information about fungicide efficacy for the control of certain foliar diseases of wheat for use by the grain production industry in the United States. The efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in this table were determined by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations by the members of the committee.

web only | 2 pages | 649 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



PPA-49
Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Corn Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases

The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) developed ratings for how well fungicides control major corn diseases in the United States. The CDWG determined efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in the table by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations. Ratings are based on the product's level of disease control and does not necessarily reflect yield increases obtained from product application. A product's efficacy depends upon proper application timing, rate, and application method as determined by the product label and overall disease level in the field at the time of application.

web only | 2 pages | 690 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,120 kb



ID-247
Pastured Poultry
9/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: livestock, nutrition and health, poultry

There has been an increased interest in pasture-raising poultry for both meat and egg production in the last decade. Raising poultry on pasture was a common occurrence until the latter half of the 20th century. Fresh forage provided an important ration balancing factor during the years before poultry nutritionists fully understood the required essential vitamins and minerals for growth and optimum meat and egg production. With the development of balanced rations, poultry no longer require access to pasture and year-round production of meat and eggs is possible. However, there are still some benefits from the lush forage, invertebrates, and exercise that pasture provides. In addition, we continue to learn more and more about the positive influence that fresh grasses and legumes have on fatty acid profiles and general bird health. As a result, there is an increased interest in pasture-raised poultry for both meat and eggs.

web only | 7 pages | 4,900 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb



CCD-CP-120
Specialty Melons
9/20/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations.

web only | 3 pages | 1,431 words | - | PDF: 950 kb



ASC-206
Common External Parasites of Poultry
9/8/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available.

web only | 4 pages | 1,817 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 839 kb



ID-196
UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2018
9/6/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Shane Bogle, Fernanda Camargo, Nick Carter, Katheryn Cerny, Bob Coleman, Karen Douglas, Christopher Jeffcoat, Paula Jerrell, Glenn Mackie, Brian Newman, Jason Phillips, Don Sorrell, Daniel Wilson
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, County Extension, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses

The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.

2,900 printed copies | 32 pages | 5,598 words | 96 downloads | PDF: 10,700 kb



ID-244
Landscape Site Assessment
9/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

The most common reason trees and shrubs fail to perform as anticipated is that their cultural requirements differ from the site characteristics. People often plant things they know and love from a distant state, purchase because they are on sale, or find attractive but don't understand the environmental requirements. In some cases, a site can be easily modified to make it more suitable for a desired species. Most of the time, it is difficult or impossible to change the site characteristics enough for the plant to thrive. Appropriate watering is essential for establishment of recently transplanted trees and shrubs. This becomes even more important (and challenging) for plants poorly matched to their sites. Selecting plant species that will thrive under particular site conditions is an easier and less expensive option. The first step in doing this is to understand the site where you plan to plant.

web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 125 kb



CCD-CP-55
Stevia
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

web only | 4 pages | 1,145 words | - | PDF: 791 kb



CCD-CP-62
High Tunnel Tomatoes
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, vegetables

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

web only | 4 pages | 2,063 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



AEC-ES-2017-12
The Unique Qualities of the Southern Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Owen Townsend, Mark Tyler
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Ag Economics Extension Series (AEC-ES series)
 Tags:

Milk is a heavily regulated commodity, and therefore there are a large number of rules that pertain to its production and processing. These regulations are enforced within regional boundaries called federal milk marketing orders. Most milk marketing orders have similar regulations, but the Appalachian, Florida, and Southeast Orders are somewhat unique when it comes to diversion limits, transportation credits, and delivery day requirements. This publication will highlight these distinctive qualities of Southern milk marketing orders and how those qualities can influence production and processing in those orders.

web only | 10 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 551 kb



AEC-ES-2017-13
The History and Class Pricing of the Federal Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Owen Townsend, Mark Tyler
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Ag Economics Extension Series (AEC-ES series)
 Tags:

The regulation of milk is an important part of the development of the milk industry and an understanding of the history of milk regulation is critical to understanding the pros and cons of the current industry. Additionally, to understand milk pricing it is important to understand the history of the federal milk marketing orders. This publication will provide information on how milk became regulated and how the class pricing system works.

web only | 11 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 283 kb



ASC-228
Body Condition Scoring Ewes
8/25/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Debra Aaron, Don Ely
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: livestock, nutrition and health, sheep

Body condition scoring is a system of classifying breeding ewes on the basis of differences in body fat. While it is subjective, with practice it can be accurate enough to indicate the nutritional status of individual ewes as well as the entire flock. Thus, it allows the shepherd to identify, record, and adjust the feed intake of ewes determined to be thin, in average flesh, or fat. In the long run, this can save money for producers and/or prevent problems attributable to ewe condition.

50 printed copies | 5 pages | 1,567 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 2,200 kb



CCD-CP-130
Malabar Spinach
8/25/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade.

printed copies | 3 pages | 1,133 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-90
Cabbage
8/25/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures.

web only | 2 pages | 949 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 725 kb



CCD-CP-76
Woody Cuts
8/22/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty items

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

web only | 3 pages | 1,519 words | - | PDF: 909 kb



HO-116
Wine Distribution for Small Farm Wineries in Kentucky
8/22/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ryan Baumgardner, Seth DeBolt
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Small farm wineries in the state of Kentucky face a major issue when they look to expand, through wholesale distribution, into retail outlets. Like many states, Kentucky uses a "three-tier system" of distribution, where wineries must sell their product to a distributor, who then can legally sell the product to retailers. But because small- to medium-sized wineries rarely produce a volume that is attractive to major brand distributors, their products either don't make it to the retail shelves, or are placed suboptimally for their target market. Here, we look at ways to address this issue in order to help promote the wine industry from the wholesale point-of-view.

20 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,356 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 173 kb



CCD-CP-95
English and Edible Pod Peas
8/16/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas.

web only | 2 pages | 993 words | - | PDF: 647 kb



CCD-CP-93
Cucumber
8/15/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,120 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 729 kb



CCD-FS-6
Three-Year Average Prices and Quantities at Kentucky Produce Auctions: 2014-2016
8/15/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Martin Bechu, Alex Butler, Brett Wolff, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags: business and records, farm crops, vegetables

This report compares average volumes and prices for 18 crops from two major Kentucky produce auctions for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons.

web only | 22 pages | 1,705 words | - | PDF: 1,300 kb



CCD-CP-50
Catnip
8/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties.

web only | 3 pages | 999 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 451,725 kb



CCD-CP-1
American Persimmon
8/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow-growing, moderately sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which are high in tannins, have an undesirable astringent taste. Fully ripened fruit, which are golden orange to reddish and occasionally blue in color, are very sweet. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall.

web only | 3 pages | 1,235 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 676 kb



AEN-133
Tire Tanks for Watering Livestock
8/8/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Steve Higgins, Joshua Jackson, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, livestock

Kentucky's abundant forage and extensive stream system have helped the Commonwealth become the largest beef producing state east of the Mississippi River. While streams and ponds serve as a water source for many operations, livestock can quickly degrade soil and water quality by trampling streambanks and defecating and urinating in and around waterbodies. These actions increase sediment, pathogen, and nutrient loads to streams, rivers, and lakes which in turn can causes eutrophication. To help protect the health of Kentucky's soil and water, producers can implement best management practices (BMPs). These practices help reduce the sources of pollutants and/or the transport of pollutants to waterways. One such practice or BMP is limiting cattle access to streams and ponds. When producers exclude livestock access to stream and ponds and their associated riparian buffers, an alternative source of water is required. Automatic water fountains are one commonly used means of providing cattle with water from an alternate source. A water tank constructed using a heavy equipment tire may serve as a viable option for supplying livestock with an alternate source of water.

web only | 8 pages | 4,702 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 4,650 kb



FCS5-465
Planning Your Digital Estate
8/8/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Alex Elswick, Jennifer Hunter
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Family Sciences
 Series: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
 Tags:

With so much vital information stored online, the nature of estate planning has changed. Although you may still have many important documents in paper format, it is likely that much of your financial documents are digitized. It may seem obvious that important digital information such as online bank accounts should be addressed in estate planning, but other kinds of digital assets such as social media accounts, text messages, or even pictures stored in the cloud may have sentimental value for your loved ones. Email accounts and online retail accounts may house critical personal information that you may wish securely kept. Unfortunately, planning for these kinds of assets is typically neglected by individuals and their advisors. In order to ensure the safety and security of this kind of digital information, you will want to create a digital estate plan.

web only | 3 pages | 1,347 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 350 kb



PPFS-FR-S-26
Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
8/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

web only | 2 pages | 419 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 230 kb



PPFS-OR-W-26
Volutella Blight of Boxwood
8/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

web only | 4 pages | 226 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,568 kb



PPFS-OR-W-6
Flowering Dogwood Diseases
8/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sarah Stolz, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings.

web only | 6 pages | 586 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 500 kb



ID-246
Measuring the Ph of Different Food Products
7/21/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Akinbode Adedeji, Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

The scientific scale for measuring how acidic or basic a substance is when it is dissolved in water is called pH. The pH scale runs from 0 - 14. 0 means it is very acidic, 7 means it is neither acidic nor basic, but just right in the middle like plain water (neutral), and 14 means it is very basic. If you are producing a food product that depends on the acidic components or ingredients of the product to extend its shelf life and ensure the safety of the product, monitoring the pH of food products is very important. Food safety is the biggest reason for monitoring pH, but pH also influences the quality of food products.

web only | 2 pages | 1,743 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 365 kb



CCD-CP-100
Heirloom Vegetables
7/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping

web only | 4 pages | 1,769 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 652 kb



CCD-CP-71
Garden Mums
7/13/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

web only | 3 pages | 969 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



SR-111
Economic Analysis of the University of Kentucky Community Supported Agriculture Organic Vegetable Production System
7/12/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Dillon, Tiffany Thompson, Mark Williams, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture
 Series: Special Report (SR series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, research, vegetables

Farms marketing through a vegetable CSA are complex businesses facing many operational and economic challenges. To be economically viable, CSA farms must achieve the appropriate match of crops, equipment, and labor with farm size and number of CSA members. A diverse array of vegetable crops are typically grown with unique requirements for crop production, pest management, harvest, and post-harvest handling. An extensive suite of skills, tools, and equipment are required to produce these crops efficiently, and mechanization becomes critical as the number of acres in production increases.

200 printed copies | 28 pages | 8,907 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb



CCD-CP-60
High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs
7/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, vegetables

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries.

web only | 5 pages | 2,531 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 893 kb



PPFS-OR-W-25
Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine
7/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, trees

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 256 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,053 kb



CCD-CP-63
Hydroponic Lettuce
6/30/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: hydroponics, nursery and landscape, vegetables

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water.

web only | 4 pages | 1,872 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPA-47
Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
6/28/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: science and technology

In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.

web only | 16 pages | 9,014 words | 59 downloads | PDF: 5,892 kb



PR-724
2017 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
6/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Brandon Roberts, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

1,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 3,360 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 2,360 kb



CCD-FS-5
Vegetable Transplant Production
6/22/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise.

web only | 4 pages | 1,351 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



CCD-MP-23
Regional Food Hubs
6/19/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The term "regional food hub" has been devised by the USDA to refer to facilities that aid farmers in getting locally produced products to consumer markets.

web only | 3 pages | 1,492 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



ID-181
Manejo Integrado de Plagas
6/15/2017 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin
 Departments: Entomology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

La sociedad moderna demanda alimentos variados y de buena calidad, esto implica un reto para los agricultores de frutas, hortalizas y granos, ya que deben producir lo suficiente para obtener ganancias y al mismo tiempo, evitar la contaminacion del producto requerido por la poblacion. El Manejo Integrado de Plagas, es una herramienta importante en el manejo de los cultivos, ya que propone alternativas de control que no se limitan unicamente al uso de pesticidas, sino tambien, a tomar ventaja de los recursos existentes en el campo, tales como, organismos beneficos, plantas florales, biologia de la plaga, rotacion de cultivos, labores culturales apropiadas y otros mas que permiten manejar con perspectiva ambiental los problemas encontrados.

1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | 9,096 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 651 kb



CCD-SP-8
Propagation Nursery
6/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use.

web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb



AGR-228
Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone
5/31/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, turfgrass

Bermudagrass is an excellent choice for use on athletic fields throughout the transition zone (which includes Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and Missouri) because of its tolerance to close cutting heights, summer vigor, positive traction characteristics for athletes, resistance to divoting and ability to withstand and recover from significant traffic during active growth. The major limitation to successful bermudagrass persistence in transition zone locations is a general lack of cold tolerance and susceptibility to winterkill.

web only | 10 pages | 4,267 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 6,633 kb



CCD-MP-1
Community Supported Agriculture
5/25/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)is relatively new to the United States, beginning in Massachusetts in 1986 and growing to 60 CSA farms in the U.S. in 1990. The CSA structure grew significantly in popularity among both producers and consumers during the 2000s; by 2009, as many as 6,000 farms were operating a CSA. The 2015 USDA Local Food Marketing Practices Survey reported 7,398 farms nationally selling by CSA for a sales value of $226 million. There were nearly 60 CSAs listed for Kentucky, in 2016, in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture CSA directory. The CSA marketing channel continues to increase in popularity, moving to new demographics besides the original core affluent urban consumer.

web only | 8 pages | 4,511 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 3,300 kb



FCS3-595
Recommended Food Storage Times: Cold and Dry Refrigerated and Frozen Foods
5/16/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Annhall Norris
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Knowing how to store foods and maintain quality is important. Properly storing food results in optimum nutritional value, reduced waste from spoilage, decreased risk of foodborne illness, and fresher, better tasting food.

web only | 8 pages | 2,033 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 914 kb



CCD-FS-4
Weed Management
5/12/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags: weeds

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states.

web only | 3 pages | 1,209 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb



ID-245
Predator Management for Small-Scale Poultry Enterprises in Kentucky
5/4/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore, Matthew Springer
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

As urban expansion spreads, there is a loss of natural habitat for wildlife. Wildlife has come into closer contact with livestock operations, and some of these animals are predators of poultry.

web only | 8 pages | 3,090 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 2,401 kb



CCD-CP-103
Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge.

web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



PPFS-OR-H-1
Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals
5/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses, trees

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

web only | 19 pages | 669 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 3,137 kb



CCD-FS-3
Three-year Average Weekly Prices at Kentucky Farmers Markets: 2014-2016
4/27/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Martin Bechu, Alex Butler, Brett Wolff, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

This report compares average prices for 17 crops from Kentucky farmers markets across the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons. Farmers markets are inherently difficult to track and compare. For example, vendors at markets from across the state sell the same products in a wide variety of units. Do you want to buy your beets by the pound, quart, bunch, or bulb? What about broccoli? By the head, pound, ounce, pint or "bag"? Beyond units, farmers markets also offer immense varietal and crop diversity, sold by vendors with a wide range of experience, in a variety of market conditions. These conditions, crops and other variables also change by season. For the first time, recognizing the caveats of slight crop differences and unit harmonization, we have assembled 3-year average prices in hopes of drawing out some trends in our Kentucky Farmers Market prices.

web only | 10 pages | 626 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 422 kb



CCD-CP-127
Lavender
4/25/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,339 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 897 kb



RB-331
Seed Inspection Report, 2016
4/20/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve McMurry
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky.

350 printed copies | 42 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 750 kb



CCD-CP-11
Juneberries
4/19/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 700 kb



CCD-CP-128
Black Walnuts
4/19/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production.

web only | 4 pages | 2,000 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 672 kb



CCD-SP-5
Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season.

web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb



CCD-SP-6
Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap.

web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-CP-107
Onions
4/12/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions.

web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 881 kb



CCD-CP-85
Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization.

web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 688 kb



CCD-CP-86
Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli).

web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 975 kb



PPA-30
Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands
4/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ray Smith, Tina Tillery, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, plant diseases

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands.

web only | 2 pages | 1,222 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 253 kb



RB-332
Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2016
4/10/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Glen Harrison
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.

2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 2,195 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 2,061 kb



FOR-128
Hardwood Dry Kiln Operation: A Manual for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
4/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Green lumber is used mostly for local uses such as fence boards, barn siding and so forth. Lumber that will be glued or finished has to be dried, however, and that includes just about all the higher-value wood products used indoors such as flooring, furniture, wall paneling, cutting boards and so forth. Dry lumber can be used for more types of products and has greater marketability. Dry lumber is also worth more than green lumber.

web only | 114 pages | 31,161 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 11,025 kb



PPA-1
Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2017
4/4/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.

web only | 32 pages | 21,555 words | 114 downloads | PDF: 1,926 kb



CCD-FS-1
Irrigation Systems
4/3/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

Irrigation is used in Kentucky for both specialty and row crops. Irrigation systems reduce risks of low profitability from low yields and crop stress. Drip irrigation, essential for producing many specialty crops, is used throughout the state on farms of all sizes. Overhead irrigation systems are concentrated in western Kentucky, where farms of 1,000 or more acres account for most of the annual acreage changes in Kentucky's irrigated farmland. This fact sheet focuses on drip irrigation, which increased in use as more Kentucky farms began specialty crop production.

web only | 4 pages | 1,287 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb



FCS3-501
Drying Food at Home
3/30/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Debbie Clouthier, Annhall Norris
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Drying food at home has several advantages. It can help you save money, gain control over what's in your food, and preserve the bounty of summer gardens and orchards for your family's year-round enjoyment.

web only | 16 pages | 7,532 words | 66 downloads | PDF: 375 kb



AGR-130
Soybean Production in Kentucky
3/22/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Soybean seed quality is very important for crop establishment. In general, seed quality is an indicator of a seed's ability to produce a seedling in field conditions and includes both seed germination and seed vigor. Most producers are familiar with seed germination since they have seen it on a seed tag. Fewer are familiar with seed vigor.

web only | 6 pages | 4,076 words | 66 downloads | PDF: 1,395 kb



FCS3-594
Jerky Safety
3/14/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Safe handling and preparation methods must always be used when preparing any type of jerky.

web only | 1 pages | 584 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 1,508 kb



CCD-CP-124
Tomatillo
3/1/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 680 kb



CLD1-8
Understanding Generational Differences
2/23/2017 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Personal Leadership (CLD1 series)
 Tags:

Family members who have shared the same experiences and usually have similar values can view the same situations or recall specific events so differently. These differences in perspective are usually attributable to generational differences.

80 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,796 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 388 kb



RB-330
Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples, July 2015 - June 2016
2/13/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve McMurry
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,744 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2016 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 51,796 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,040,941 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,290 nitrogen, 1,870 phosphorus, 2,042 potassium, and 1153 secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples.

web only | 188 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 2,800 kb



AGR-227
Identifying Canola Growth Stages
2/6/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, oil crops

To effectively manage canola in Kentucky, the ability to identify key developmental growth stages is important. The most common canola growth stage system describes developmental stages. Several canola growth stages are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability.

web only | 8 pages | 788 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 7,332 kb



4LB-12LO
Volunteer Kentucky! Session 1: Overview
2/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs
 Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Leaders and Council (4LB series)
 Tags:

Session Goal: To introduce a framework for community volunteer and/or leadership organizations to follow when generating, educating, mobilizing and sustaining volunteers.

web only | 4 pages | 1,388 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 256 kb



4LB-13LO
Volunteer Kentucky! Session 2: Generate
2/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs
 Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Leaders and Council (4LB series)
 Tags:

Session Goal: To examine organizational processes leading to successful participant recruitment and the fulfillment of mutually satisfying community service goals.

web only | 10 pages | 3,516 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 348 kb



4LB-14LO
Volunteer Kentucky! Session 3: Educate
2/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs
 Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Leaders and Council (4LB series)
 Tags:

Session Goal: To develop the educational processes that ensure a successful participant experience and continued service to the organization.

web only | 8 pages | 2,680 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 347 kb



4LB-15LO
Volunteer Kentucky! Session 4: Mobilize
2/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs
 Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Leaders and Council (4LB series)
 Tags:

Session Goal: To mobilize attendees to accomplish organizational goals by engaging, motivating and supervising members, participants, volunteers and leaders.

web only | 6 pages | 2,168 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 278 kb



4LB-16LO
Volunteer Kentucky! Session 5: Sustain
2/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs
 Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Leaders and Council (4LB series)
 Tags:

Session Goal: To improve organizational viability by sustaining members, volunteers and leaders.

web only | 6 pages | 2,037 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 302 kb



4LB-17LO
Volunteer Kentucky! Session 6: Culminate
2/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs
 Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Leaders and Council (4LB series)
 Tags:

Session Goal: Participants will celebrate completion of the Volunteer Kentucky! Series; demonstrating competence as volunteer administrators by sharing culminating projects.

web only | 2 pages | 653 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 249 kb



ID-242
Central Kentucky Backyard Stream Guide
2/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Amanda A. Gumbert, Chris Sass
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Landscape Architecture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Many urban homeowners are not sure what to do about the stream in their backyard. Who owns it? How can I take care of it? What plants are good for my streambanks? These common questions lead to some confusing answers. This publication is designed to help the homeowner of a backyard stream appreciate this resource, protect personal property, and improve water quality and habitat.

1,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,530 words | 97 downloads | PDF: 15,699 kb



CCD-SP-7
Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production
1/31/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods.

web only | 5 pages | 2,325 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 918 kb



LA-4
Effective Navigation through Your Community: Wayfinding and Signage Systems for Communities
1/26/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Wayfinding is the ability to orient oneself based on repeated cues from the physical environment. Various physical features and structural elements can help people find their way around places, feel welcomed beyond the initial welcome sign at the entrance to a town or district, be informed, and feel helped when uneasy or lost. These uneasy experiences can change and become positive benefits for the community with effective wayfinding systems that complement the physical features in the built environment.

web only | 2 pages | 1,250 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 374 kb



LA-5
Wayfinding: Planning and Design with Communities
1/26/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Wayfinding is an ability to orient oneself based on repeated cues from the physical environment. Travel experiences for both residents and visitors can be strengthened through efficiently laid out information in our physical environments. Features that stand out in the environment can remind people of a particular meaning through experience and recognition.

web only | 4 pages | 1,912 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 2,674 kb



LA-6
Wayfinding: Planning and Design at Work
1/26/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

Communities can learn from one another's successes, challenges, and limitations for going about wayfinding projects. What worked for one community may not always work for another. However, it is also important to note that what did not work for one community may work for another community depending on the context, scale, scope, or support of a community. With this in mind, the following case studies can help identify types of signage, potential locations, and serve as an effective starting point to pursue your own community's wayfinding project, including potential funding sources.

web only | 4 pages | 1,698 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 2,501 kb



FCS3-579
Home Canning Jams, Jellies and Other Soft Spreads
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Debbie Clouthier
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Home canning jams, jellies, and other soft spreads is fun and satisfying. Soft spreads all contain four main ingredients (fruit, sugar, pectin, and acid), and they differ only in their consistency. The formation of a gel depends on the right amount of each of the main ingredients. If you understand the science of gelling, all your soft spreads will be a success.

web only | 12 pages | 3,368 words | 226 downloads | PDF: 524 kb



FCS3-581
Home Canning Salsa
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Debbie Clouthier
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Salsas are usually mixtures of high acid foods, such as tomatoes and/or fruit, with low acid foods, such as onions and peppers. With the addition of lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar in the right proportion, salsa becomes a high acid food and can be safely processed in a boiling water canner. However, only research-based recipes should be used. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning.

web only | 11 pages | 2,887 words | 183 downloads | PDF: 508 kb



FCS3-582
Home Canning Pickles and Fermented Foods
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Debbie Clouthier
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

The home canning of pickles, relishes, and fermented foods allows you to enjoy the bounty of your summer garden or local farmers market year-round. It may also save you money and give you some control over what's in your food. To ensure safe, high-quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.

web only | 21 pages | 5,425 words | 174 downloads | PDF: 527 kb



FCS3-586
Home Canning Soups and Stews
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Debbie Clouthier
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recipes when canning. Safe, tested recipes for home-canned soups and stews are based on laboratory measurements of pH and heat penetration into the jars during processing, which are specific to the recipe being tested.

web only | 14 pages | 3,800 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 455 kb



FCS3-591
Safe Home Canning: Altitude Adjustments
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Sandra Bastin, Debbie Clouthier
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

For safe home canning, it's important to know your altitude (or elevation), since altitude affects processing times and pressures. If you live at an altitude greater than 1,000 feet, you may need to adjust processing times or pressures to ensure the safety of your home-canned foods.

web only | 2 pages | 690 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 336 kb



HO-115
Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Green Industry Professionals
1/23/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

This publication is meant to assist green industry professionals in marketing and customer education efforts as they explore marketing their products and services to improve green infrastructure. Consumers are placing increasing value on and acknowledging the critical role that landscape plants play in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home.

web only | 12 pages | 4,507 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 2,547 kb



AGR-225
Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017
1/19/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, turfgrass, weeds

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University.

web only | 96 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: kb



CCD-FS-2
What to Think About Before You Plant: Marketing Considerations for Kentucky Specialty Crop Growers
1/10/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

This publication poses questions that can benefit farmers who are considering planting a new crop. Long-time commercial farmers and diversifying tobacco producers, as well as those newer to farming, will find the questions, considerations, and checklists contain helpful tools for considering their new produce enterprise.

web only | 11 pages | 3,918 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 8,700 kb



ID-243
Management of Wildlife and Domestic Animals on Your Farm: Good Agricultural Practices
1/10/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Springer, Matthew Springer, Paul Vijayakumar, Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) are necessary to ensure that fresh fruits and vegetables are harvested, handled, and packaged in a sanitary manner. Field crops are at a higher food safety risk than processed foods because of regular exposure to several sources of contamination, including soil, manure, human handling, domestic and wild animals, and water. While it is impossible to completely eliminate these risks, GAPs ensure that these risks are as small as possible when implemented correctly.

150 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,023 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 908 kb



PPFS-AG-C-4
Stewart's Wilt of Corn
1/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases

Historically, Stewart's wilt of corn has resulted in losses for corn producers. Although this disease still occurs occasionally, it has become less prevalent in recent years in Kentucky and surrounding states. Stewart's wilt has been known by other names, such as bacterial leaf blight, Stewart's leaf blight, and maize bacteriosis.

web only | 3 pages | 1,079 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,445 kb



AGR-226
Identification and Control of Henbit and Purple Deadnettle
12/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Mike Barrett, Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: weeds

Most of the winter annual broadleaf weeds are distinguishable from each other and thus fairly easy to key out or identify. However, there are two that show up each spring that often get people scratching their heads as to which is which---is it purple deadnettle? Or is it henbit? There are several similarities between these weeds---both are members of the mint family, both have square stems, both have sparsely hairy oval- to egg-shaped leaves, leaves of both are opposite, and both have small purple flowers that appear in the axils of the upper leaves during the spring.

web only | 4 pages | 812 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 5,381 kb



ID-240
What Is Your Tree Worth?
12/22/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate.

web only | 5 pages | 3,041 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 903 kb



ID-241
After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant
12/22/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

web only | 5 pages | 4,224 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 247 kb



FCS3-593
Weighing in on Sleep
12/20/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

A good night's sleep is as important as physical activity or healthy eating to maintain a healthy weight and optimum well-being. Sleep allows us to relax, restore, and revitalize our bodies and minds every night.

web only | 6 pages | 1,989 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 1,216 kb



ID-160
Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2017-2018
12/13/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Andy Bailey, Lowell Bush, J.D. Green, Ann Jack, Bob Miller, Bob Pearce, Mark Purschwitz, Will Snell, Larry Swetnam, Lee Townsend
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, tobacco

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco.

9,000 printed copies | 76 pages | 65,319 words | 176 downloads | PDF: 3,714 kb



PR-709
2016 Alfalfa Report
12/13/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highestyielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

400 printed copies | 12 pages | 3,694 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,745 kb



PR-710
2016 Red and White Clover Report
12/13/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.

600 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,998 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 1,018 kb



PR-721
2016 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/13/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Jessica Bessin, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Patty Lucas, Sean Lynch, Shubin Saha, Alexis Sheffield, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, John Walsh, Neil Wilson, Dwight Wolfe
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

1,000 printed copies | 40 pages | 20,554 words | 51 downloads | PDF: 2,804 kb



PR-720
2016 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
12/12/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: research, variety trials

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.

1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | 6,797 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 2,605 kb



PR-722
2016 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
12/9/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Joshua Duckworth, Claire Venard
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties sold in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2016 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions.

2,500 printed copies | 36 pages | 10,317 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 4,611 kb



AR-128
KAES Annual Report, 2015
12/6/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Bennett
 Departments: Administration (Research)
 Series: Experiment Station Annual Report (AR series)
 Tags:

This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2015. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry. In 2015, research activities of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station were conducted at Lexington, Princeton, Quicksand, and Owenton and in counties throughout the state. Efforts are constantly made to ensure that the research studies have application to the problems of all Kentucky farmers and other clientele groups.

40 printed copies | 72 pages | 54,711 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 4,124 kb



PR-719
2016 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)
12/6/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.

400 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,829 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 1,620 kb



CCD-CP-79
Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here.

web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 778 kb



CCD-CP-83
Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly.

web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 786 kb



PR-713
2016 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
12/5/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Management is similar to that for other cool-season grasses. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish. This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.

400 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,550 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 594 kb



PR-714
2016 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
12/5/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication. The severe winter of 2013-2014 showed those varieties that are not adapted to Kentucky. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass. Their use in Kentucky is still limited since they do not survive as long as tall fescue but some of the newer varieties are more adapted to Kentucky environmental conditions. This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties, as well as summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years.

400 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,670 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,814 kb



PR-711
2016 Orchardgrass Report
11/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is welladapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

600 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,383 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 754 kb



PR-712
2016 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
11/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Tall fescue is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. All bromegrasses have several advantages over tall fescue, including retaining quality as they mature and better growth during dry weather, but they are generally less well adapted in Kentucky. This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties, including summaries of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years.

600 printed copies | 10 pages | 3,890 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 1,134 kb



PR-723
Kentucky Silage Hybrid Performance Test, 2016
11/28/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: David Appelman, Chad Lee, Jerry Little, Nick Roy, Will Stallard
 Departments: Adair County, Boyle County, Bracken County, Lincoln County, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: research, variety trials

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 1,353 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 143 kb



CCD-CP-110
Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth.

web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 604 kb



CCD-CP-111
Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales.

web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 566 kb



AGR-199
Extending Grazing and Reducing Stored Feed Needs
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Garry Lacefield
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: livestock

For most livestock producers, extending the grazing season for their animals, or otherwise filling gaps in pasture forage availability to reduce stored feed needs, should be a high priority objective. This publication outlines strategies that can be used in some or many areas to extend grazing and reduce stored feed needs, thus increasing profit.

2,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 71 downloads | PDF: 1,512 kb



ID-143
Rotational Grazing
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Roy Burris, Bob Coleman, Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

A rotational grazing program can generally be defined as use of several pastures, one of which is grazed while the others are rested before being regrazed. Continuous grazing is the use of one pasture for the entire grazing season.

2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 106 downloads | PDF: 887 kb



PR-717
2016 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
11/18/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

500 printed copies | 12 pages | 4,070 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 1,242 kb



PR-718
2016 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
11/18/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, horses, research, variety trials

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

500 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,440 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 842 kb



ID-238
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings.

1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb



PR-715
2016 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
11/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

350 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,903 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 397 kb



PR-716
2016 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
11/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

400 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,148 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 440 kb



CCD-CP-20
Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 881 kb



CCD-CP-58
Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 503 kb



FOR-129
Black Vulture Damage Control
11/11/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Springer
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Vultures, as with all other wildlife, will take advantage of resources available to them, and unfortunately this behavior sometimes involves human dwellings or livestock operations. Fortunately, vultures respond well to relatively simple methods that discourage them from congregating or feeding in critical areas.

web only | 4 pages | 2,427 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 1,931 kb



CCD-CP-12
Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 799 kb



CCD-MP-19
Marketing Crops to Schools and Institutions: An Overview
10/31/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

Schools and institutions have long been identified as potential markets for local and regional food crops. These markets have both generated greater interest and purchases during the past 20 years due to consumer interest, food and health policy initiatives, and changes in school and institutional purchasing and procurement systems.

web only | 4 pages | 1,579 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 864 kb



FCS3-526
Build Your Strength
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

This publication gives information about exercise and strength training. Research suggests that adding moderate physical activity to your lifestyle may be the single most important thing you can do to feel better and decrease your risk of disease.

web only | 12 pages | 2,237 words | 63 downloads | PDF: 2,262 kb



FCS3-534
Design Your Plan
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Learning to manage your weight is a very personal journey. This factsheet explains how you can increase your chances of success.

web only | 4 pages | 721 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 594 kb



FCS3-535
Why We Eat What We Eat
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Many people eat for reasons other than hunger, which is a primary reason American waistlines are growing larger. To successfully manage our weight we must develop a healthy relationship with food.

web only | 8 pages | 2,271 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 1,316 kb



FCS3-536
Bodies in Motion
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Americans are eating more calories and burning fewer calories.Adding more physical activity to your day will help you burn more calories and improve your health.

web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 946 kb



FCS3-537
Feeling Good About Food
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

How can we get more healthful attitudes about food and activity? This fact sheet reviews current research on eating behavior in the U.S.

web only | 8 pages | 2,063 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 1,833 kb



PR-708
2016 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
10/24/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ron Curd, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Brandon Roberts
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

2,300 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,158 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 2,898 kb



AEN-132
Modeling Best Management Practices
10/20/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, Richard Warner
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Understanding the effectiveness of BMPs based on their location in the watershed and in relation to different types of pollutants is an important part of protecting waterbodies. One way to do this is with the use of models.

web only | 3 pages | 1,386 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 652 kb



CLD2-12
A Conveners' Guide to Hosting a Public Forum
10/20/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Daniel Kahl
 Departments: Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

This guide is intended to provide support to Cooperative Extension professionals who intend to bring the public together for an issue discussion. It will provide a general overview to help the convener of a public meeting address basic details needed to design and host a meeting.

web only | 5 pages | 2,731 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 262 kb



AEC-100
Post-Harvest Management: The Economics of Grain Transportation
10/13/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jordan Shockley
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Agricultural Economics (AEC series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

While transporting grain to the market may be the last input cost in the production of grain, it is a critical decision a producer has to make, especially when margins are thin. Determining which market to sell your grain (if you have options) can be a complex decision, as the market that provides the highest price is not always the most profitable price.

web only | 5 pages | 2,727 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 458 kb



ASC-226
Help! My Horse Roars! What Is Laryngeal Hemiplegia?
10/10/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Fernanda Camargo
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Various ailments can affect the different parts of the larynx of horses. Diseases of the larynx can produce airway obstruction and sometimes dysphagia. Obstructive diseases, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, often produce an abnormal respiratory noise and, most important, they limit airflow, which leads to early fatigue and poor exercise performance.

web only | 4 pages | 2,122 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 402 kb



CCD-CP-52
Echinacea
10/10/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Bob Geneve, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long-lasting cut flowers.

web only | 5 pages | 2,206 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



ID-224
Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
10/6/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Greg Halich, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Lee Meyer, Gregg Rentfrow, Ray Smith
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process.

700 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 1,505 kb



ID-239
Equine Metabolic Syndrome: Is My Horse Just Fat, or Is He Sick?
10/4/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda Adams, Fernanda Camargo
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is an endocrine disorder that affects equids (horses, ponies, and donkeys) in three defining ways: they are obese and/or have localized fat deposits, they are in an insulin resistance (IR) state, now referred to as insulin dysregulation (ID), and they are predisposed to developing laminitis.

web only | 3 pages | 1,558 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,473 kb



PPFS-MISC-7
Genetically Engineered Crops: A Review of Concerns and Benefits
10/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Genetically engineered crops are plants that have had their genetic material (DNA) purposefully manipulated in the laboratory to produce a particular beneficial outcome. These types of crops are often called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. Commercial genetically engineered crops are designed to have limited and precise genetic changes that provide one or more benefits to humans or the environment.

web only | 5 pages | 1,238 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,260 kb



AGR-223
Identifying Soybean Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott, Chad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans

Accurate identification of soybean growth stages is important to maximize grain yield and profitability, because most management decisions are based upon the growth stage of soybean plants within the fields. Key features of soybean growth stages are highlighted within this guide.

web only | 8 pages | 1,382 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 4,815 kb



AGR-224
Identifying Wheat Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carrie Knott
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Identifying growth stages of any crop is important to enable timely crop management decisions that maximize yields and profitability. There are several wheat growth stages that are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability.

web only | 8 pages | 907 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 5,271 kb



ASC-227
Foodborne Illness: Risks and Prevention
9/27/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Melissa Newman, Gregg Rentfrow, Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

In recent memory, there has been a considerable increase in food recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. To ensure food safety, everyone involved in the food production chain needs to understand the different factors that could contaminate food and lead to foodborne illness.

web only | 4 pages | 1,597 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 142 kb



CCD-CP-99
Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves.

web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 593 kb



HO-113
Planting Bareroot Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

Many landscape plants can be installed as bareroot specimens. This method, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and container grown plants, one of the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting.

web only | 4 pages | 1,846 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 1,441 kb



HO-114
Planting Container-Grown Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

Many landscape plants are installed as container-grown (containerized) specimens. These, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and bareroot, are the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting.

web only | 4 pages | 1,791 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 1,553 kb



ID-237
Soil Percolation: A Key to Survival of Landscape Plants
9/14/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: soil and land

Eighty to 90 percent of disease and insect problems on landscape plants can be traced back to soil problems. Plants must be adapted to the site if they are to meet our expectations of growing, remain healthy, and attractive.

web only | 4 pages | 1,929 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 3,289 kb



CCD-CP-97
Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets.

web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 617 kb



CCD-CP-53
Ginseng
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 967 kb



CCD-CP-94
Edamame
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility.

web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 598 kb



PR-641
2011 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
8/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, John Obrycki, Dan Potter, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Richard Warner, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

web only | 32 pages | 14,698 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 7,642 kb



CCD-CP-81
Maple Syrup
8/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production.

web only | 5 pages | 1,405 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



AGR-222
Estimating Carrying Capacity of Cool Season Pastures in Kentucky Using Web Soil Survey
8/10/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Krista Lea, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: soil and land

While many factors influence how many animals a farm can carry, soil type has a major influence and should be considered when purchasing, leasing, planning, or managing livestock on pastures.

250 printed copies | 16 pages | 1,629 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 4,214 kb



CCD-CP-109
Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 575 kb



ID-236
Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
8/2/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kevin Laurent, Lee Moser
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production.

web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb



AGR-50
Lawn Establishment in Kentucky
7/27/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.

web only | 6 pages | 3,796 words | 76 downloads | PDF: 3,039 kb



AGR-221
Wildlife Benefits of Switchgrass Production in Kentucky
7/26/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Tom Keene, Krista Lea, Laura Schwer, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Switchgrass is a versatile grass that can be utilized for forage or biomass production. Establishing and maintaining switchgrass is also beneficial to many types of wildlife by providing suitable habitat and cover.

web only | 4 pages | 1,568 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 385 kb



AGR-55
Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky
7/22/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them.

web only | 1 pages | 583 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 119 kb



FCS5-464
Downsizing Your Home: A Guide for Older Adults
7/20/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jennifer Hunter, Kristyn Jackson
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Family Sciences
 Series: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
 Tags:

Downsizing to a smaller home has become a recent trend. Older adults in particular can benefit from such a move. Smaller homes typically require less maintenance and can result in significant savings for the homeowner because of lower utility bills, property taxes, and insurance. This publication will help you make decisions and plans for downsizing.

web only | 4 pages | 1,610 words | 67 downloads | PDF: 476 kb



CCD-CP-66
Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 594 kb



CCD-BG-6
2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,177 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 193 kb



CCD-BG-7
Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Steve Isaacs, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 5 pages | 1,094 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 119 kb



CCD-BG-8
Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 6 pages | 1,365 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 340 kb



CCD-BG-9
Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Budget worksheet.

web only | 6 pages | 1,318 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 336 kb



CCD-MP-10
Kentucky MarketMaker
7/11/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

Kentucky MarketMaker is a web-based marketing aid adapted for Kentucky markets. The primary purpose of this resource is to provide a link between agricultural producers and potential buyers of food products. In addition to a searchable database of markets and growers, MarketMaker also contains a wealth of demographic and business data which can be summarized in a map-based format.

web only | 2 pages | 802 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 963 kb



ID-235
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
7/8/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Emily Pfeufer, Shubin Saha, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

2,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,187 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 5,436 kb



CCD-CP-17
Plums
7/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 750 kb



PPFS-FR-T-19
Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
7/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

web only | 2 pages | 365 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 337 kb



PR-707
2016 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
7/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Blazan Mijatovic, Gene Olson, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

1,700 printed copies | 24 pages | 3,348 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 2,239 kb



CCD-CP-78
Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops.

web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 934 kb



CCD-CP-80
Hops
6/21/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor and aroma to beer.

web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 967 kb



IP-76
Hazardous Chemicals and Your Body
6/21/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Lisa Gaetke, Ashley Osborne
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Interprogram (IP series)
 Tags:

Environmental contaminants, such as persistent organic pollutants, may contribute to an increased risk for chronic disease if they occur for long enough or at high enough levels. Research has shown that some hazardous chemicals may even cause the body to be more vulnerable to such medical conditions as cancer, poor immune system response, altered nervous system function, and cardiovascular disease. The good news is that certain dietary strategies may provide a defense for combating the effects of these contaminants while improving your overall health.

web only | 6 pages | 2,286 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 310 kb



CCD-CP-18
Raspberries
6/9/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 713 kb



AEN-131
Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
6/6/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals.

web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | 92 downloads | PDF: 516 kb



CCD-CP-108
Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June.

web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 513 kb



PPFS-FR-S-24
Backyard Grape Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | 1,263 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 1,213 kb



PPFS-FR-S-25
Backyard Berry Disease and Disease Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | 1,260 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,037 kb



PPFS-FR-T-21
Backyard Apple Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | 1,311 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,013 kb



PPFS-FR-T-22
Backyard Stone Fruit Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | 1,234 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 890 kb



PPFS-OR-W-24
Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame.

web only | 5 pages | 1,627 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 2,118 kb



CLD2-5-4H
Using a SWOT Analysis: Taking a Look at Your Organization: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
5/16/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp, Christy Eastwood, Susan Turner
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development, County Extension
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

A SWOT analysis is a simple review process. When combined with a goal-setting activity, SWOT is a useful tool that will provide your organization with a roadmap to set and reach its goals successfully.

web only | 7 pages | 2,000 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 292 kb



RB-329
Seed Inspection Report, 2015
5/4/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve McMurry
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky.

350 printed copies | 36 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 700 kb



CCD-BG-1
Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky
5/2/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-BG series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management.

web only | 6 pages | 1,128 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 389 kb



CLD3-2
Delivering Your Marketing Message: Planning Productive Promotions
5/2/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jennifer Bridge, Ken Culp, Janet Johnson
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development, County Extension
 Series: Using Leadership Skills to Improve Quality of Life (CLD3 series)
 Tags:

Effective marketing messages build awareness and interest in an organization's programs, products, and services. Successful promotions begin with a plan to deliver the right message to the right people for greatest participation and impact.

web only | 4 pages | 2,006 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 217 kb



CCD-CP-84
Asparagus
5/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June.

web only | 4 pages | 1,387 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 542 kb



CLD3-3
Building a Marketing Toolkit
4/26/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jennifer Bridge, Ken Culp, Janet Johnson
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development, County Extension
 Series: Using Leadership Skills to Improve Quality of Life (CLD3 series)
 Tags:

To begin assembling your organization's marketing toolkit, ask the following question: What are the most basic and useful tools that could be implemented to market our organization, its programs and activities?

web only | 5 pages | 2,252 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 258 kb



4MO-09OO
Group Mentoring
4/25/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Jones
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
 Series: 4-H Leadership: Other (4MO series)
 Tags:

Mentoring serves an invaluable purpose, offering youth the resources they need for positive development. Meaningful relationships are the foundation for building strong connections and community ties, and caring adults can serve as allies to help foster youth development.

web only | 4 pages | 1,809 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 160 kb



4LC-02MO
4-H Club Officer's Training Manual, Senior Level
4/20/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs
 Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Officers (4LC series)
 Tags:

An overview of the duties, roles and responsibilities of 4-H Club Officers.

web only | 36 pages | 9,884 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 1,309 kb



CCD-CP-54
Goldenseal
4/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

web only | 4 pages | 1,799 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 582 kb



AGR-220
A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns
4/7/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags:

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.

web only | 2 pages | 1,018 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 600 kb



IP-78
Understanding Produce Safety Programs and Making a Food Safety Plan
4/4/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Melissa Newman, Pam Sigler, Paul Vijayakumar
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Program and Staff Development
 Series: Interprogram (IP series)
 Tags:

Safety of fresh vegetables and fruits is very important because these products are often consumed raw or are minimally processed. For the safety of consumers, farmers who produce our food must know the best practices available to produce, process, handle, and store fresh produce.

web only | 3 pages | 1,757 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 189 kb



PPFS-FR-S-20
Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides
4/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers.

web only | 3 pages | 599 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 427 kb



PPFS-FR-S-21
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

web only | 1 pages | 197 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 280 kb



PPFS-FR-S-22
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

web only | 1 pages | 152 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 236 kb



PPFS-FR-S-23
Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

web only | 1 pages | 323 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 351 kb



PPFS-FR-T-11
Fungicides for Tree Fruits
4/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-92, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 894 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 124 kb



PPFS-FR-T-18
Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Beth Wilson
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

web only | 4 pages | 1,284 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 626 kb



PPFS-FR-T-20
Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

web only | 2 pages | 472 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 672 kb



PPFS-GEN-13
Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.

web only | 3 pages | 2,173 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 388 kb



PPFS-GEN-7
Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides
4/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices.

web only | 5 pages | 1,312 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 491 kb



PPFS-GEN-8
Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

web only | 2 pages | 554 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 431 kb



PPFS-GH-3
Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 737 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



PPFS-OR-W-14
Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 734 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



LA-1
Beyond a Path 1: Trails as Resource Connections in Your Community
3/28/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

The development of a trail system can help a community improve recreational, travel and health assets and generate revenue. Trail systems or greenways can indirectly have positive effects on adjacent property values and potentially boost economic activities within close proximity. Well developed trails support conservation efforts for wildlife habitat or agricultural land use while also connecting points of interest. Therefore, trails can provide many direct and indirect environmental, social, and economic benefits for communities to strengthen the health of their environment and longer term sustainability.

web only | 2 pages | 1,076 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 200 kb



LA-2
Beyond a Path 2: Trail Planning
3/28/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

There are two general ways to begin a trail project in a community. The first method is for the community (client) to hire design or planning professionals such as landscape architects, urban planners or engineers to lead a trail project on behalf of the community. The second way involves a grass roots approach where a community gets the project started and develops the conceptual ideas on their own and then later brings in professionals during the design phase. Regardless of the approach for the initial phase, professionals need to be involved to eventually construct the trail(s) but how much of the process and outcome they influence is ultimately up to the community. For the purpose of this document, we will focus on the second method to help projects get started in the community by the community. Collaboration, coordination and partnerships are essential for the success of a project due to the linearity of trails and complexity of trail systems. The specific outcomes of a trail, its benefits, and costs for the community depend on the specific location, region and potential of the community group as covered in the Beyond a Path 1 publication.

web only | 7 pages | 2,094 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 6,600 kb



LA-3
Trailblazers: Two Case Studies for Community Trails
3/28/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jayoung Koo
 Departments: Landscape Architecture
 Series: Landscape Architecture (LA series)
 Tags:

The following two communities have successfully planned, designed, and implemented trails and greenways in different time lines, contexts and processes. Both projects share a range of trail project features, lessons learned and processes that can be adapted to be suitable for other locations, contexts, communities and cultures whether old or new, urban or rural, or large or small. These communities identified and utilized their natural resources to address potential issues prior to a disruptive event such as a flood or protected natural resources that were up against development pressure. Trail systems and greenway projects can be used to proactively propose alternative solutions that balance human needs with ecosystem processes which benefit both the communities and the larger region.

web only | 4 pages | 1,863 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



RB-328
Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2015
3/15/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Glen Harrison
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.

2,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,644 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 2,125 kb



FOR-122
How to Select and Buck Logs for Railroad Ties
3/4/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

As of 2014, railroads were purchasing in the neighborhood of 25 million wooden ties each year, so the railroad tie industry can be a reliable market for loggers and sawmillers. Prices for green ties are viewed as good compared to lower-grade lumber, though actual market prices depend on immediate demand, competing lumber prices, distance from the seller to the treating plant, and tie quality and species. If you're a logger reading this article, you'll learn to make better decisions about how to select trees and logs for crossties and switch ties, and you'll be able to buck them so that they're worth more money overall.

web only | 9 pages | 4,194 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb



ID-211
Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
3/4/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Steve Higgins, Kylie Schmidt
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.

web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | 148 downloads | PDF: 3,600 kb



CLD3-7
Facilitating Community Forums
3/3/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Jennifer Bridge
 Departments: Community and Leadership Development, County Extension
 Series: Using Leadership Skills to Improve Quality of Life (CLD3 series)
 Tags:

Planning and conducting an effective community forum requires several key elements. Scheduling a meeting place and choosing a location and time should be carefully considered. Choosing the right people to lead the forum is also important.

web only | 2 pages | 1,091 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 156 kb



PPA-46
Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6
3/2/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger, Robbie Smith, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.

web only | 24 pages | 5,749 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 5,000 kb



CLD3-5
Creating a Successful Coalition
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenna Knight
 Departments: Community and Leadership Development, County Extension
 Series: Using Leadership Skills to Improve Quality of Life (CLD3 series)
 Tags:

Coalition can be defined as a group of people or groups who have joined together for a common purpose. How to start a coalition is not a mystery. First you identify your need, and then you find individuals or organizations that are interested in helping to find a solution for that need.

web only | 2 pages | 914 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 167 kb



PPFS-FR-S-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 885 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 398 kb



PPFS-FR-S-18
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 5 pages | 1,450 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 407 kb



PPFS-FR-T-14
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 1,047 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 401 kb



PPFS-FR-T-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 576 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 385 kb



PPFS-FR-T-23
Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

web only | 1 pages | 181 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 458 kb



PPFS-FR-T-6
Cherry Leaf Spot
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

web only | 1 pages | 311 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 500 kb



PPFS-GEN-15
Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

web only | 6 pages | 1,109 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 3,377 kb



PPFS-GH-1
Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Philip Konopka, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread.

web only | 6 pages | 2,233 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,494 kb



PPFS-OR-T-13
Managing Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well.

web only | 4 pages | 1,638 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 816 kb



CLD3-6
Community Power: Bringing the Right People to the Table
2/26/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Kristina Ricketts
 Departments: Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Using Leadership Skills to Improve Quality of Life (CLD3 series)
 Tags:

Empowerment--the ability to enable or share power--can be encouraged within the community context. In this publication we will share with you a traditional definition of community power, how to outline a community's power structure, and a process on how to bring the right "power players" to the table.

web only | 3 pages | 1,158 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 185 kb



AEN-130
Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
2/25/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser, Kylie Schmidt
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm.

web only | 7 pages | 3,539 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



PPFS-AG-T-8
Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2016
2/24/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.

web only | 6 pages | 1,980 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 295 kb



ID-125
A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, J.D. Green, John Grove, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Doug Johnson, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Lloyd Murdock, Doug Overhults, Greg Schwab, Lee Townsend, Dick Trimble, Dave Van Sanford
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months.

1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb



AEN-127
Hydrologic Modeling
2/9/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Richard Warner
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Increased levels of urbanization result in reductions in the amount of rainfall that infiltrates and evapotranspires and increases the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. These changes can result in flooding, streambank erosion, and water quality degradation. Hydrologic models are useful in understanding watersheds and how changes in a watershed can affect hydrology. Hydrologic models can predict the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff under different scenarios.

web only | 5 pages | 2,704 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 844 kb



AEN-128
Sediment Fingerprinting
2/9/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Somsubhra Chattopadhyay
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Sediments in waterbodies cause a number of problems such as harming aquatic habitats, filling reservoirs, and worsening flooding. High amounts of sediment in the water inhibit the ability of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates to move, breathe, hunt and reproduce. Accumulated sediments in reservoirs reduces their useful life and increases costs associated with maintenance. Streams experiencing such sediment buildup carry less water during storm events.

web only | 4 pages | 1,721 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 1,506 kb



AEN-129
Measuring Discharge in Wadeable Streams
2/9/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Whitney Blackburn-Lynch, Tyler Sanderson
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Knowing the amount of water flowing in a stream can improve management practices such as those related to streambank erosion, pollutant loading and transport, and flood control. Streamflow or discharge is defined as the volume of water moving past a specific point in a stream for a fixed period of time.

web only | 4 pages | 1,273 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 2,288 kb



ID-234
Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
2/8/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Doug Johnson, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Edwin Ritchey
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.

web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb



AGR-207
Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky Pastures
2/4/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green, Bill Witt
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, weeds

A guide to the identification and control of broadleaf weeds in Kentucky pastures.

7,500 printed copies | 2 pages | 250 words | 147 downloads | PDF: 4,200 kb



CCD-CP-26
Chia
2/4/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers.

web only | 3 pages | 1,155 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 922 kb



PPFS-FR-T-3
Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

web only | 3 pages | 785 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,003 kb



PPFS-GEN-14
Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths.

web only | 5 pages | 1,611 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 1,283 kb



PPFS-OR-W-10
Black Spot of Rose
2/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Black spot is the most common and serious disease of roses in Kentucky. It is a problem in greenhouse production and outdoor plantings.

web only | 1 pages | 344 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 350 kb



PPFS-OR-W-23
Shade Tree Anthracnose
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Flynt, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens.

web only | 4 pages | 1,279 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 869 kb



ID-163
Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality
1/13/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Josh McGrath, Lloyd Murdock, Edwin Ritchey, Frank Sikora
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Regulatory Services
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrient management, soil and land

Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.

web only | 6 pages | 2,749 words | 75 downloads | PDF: 485 kb



PPFS-VG-21
Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden
1/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

web only | 2 pages | 981 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 874 kb



PPFS-VG-22
Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden
1/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

web only | 2 pages | 841 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 460 kb



PPFS-VG-23
Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden
1/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

web only | 2 pages | 822 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 788 kb



ID-233
Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses
12/22/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Shubin Saha
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations.

web only | 6 pages | - | 51 downloads | PDF: 465 kb



FCS3-544
Diabetes and Cholesterol
12/21/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

People with diabetes should pay attention to their cholesterol levels because high levels of blood cholesterol can lead to heart disease. People with diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease. When they do, they are two to four times more likely to die from heart disease.

10 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,254 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 143 kb



FCS3-546
Carbohydrate Counting
12/21/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Carbohydrate (carb) counting is a way of keeping track of the amount of carbohydrates you get from the foods you eat. Carbohydrate counting can help you manage your blood glucose level

10 printed copies | 8 pages | 1,998 words | 85 downloads | PDF: 677 kb



FCS3-551
Monitoring Blood Glucose
12/21/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Keeping your blood glucose level within the target range set by you and your doctor reduces the risk of diabetes complications. It is important to check your blood glucose regularly so you can see how certain foods, activities and medicine affect your blood glucose level.

10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,083 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 163 kb



FOR-123
Introduction to Wood Structure and Characteristics
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Knowing how to identify unknown pieces of wood using a hand lens is the only skill you will need for most situations---and that's the purpose behind most of this manual. A section at the end about how to identify wood using a microscope is available should you want to develop your wood identification expertise.

web only | 4 pages | 2,540 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



FOR-124
First Steps in Identifying Wood
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Wood samples need to be identified for all sorts of reasons, and they come in all shapes, sizes and conditions. I've received samples that were sound, samples that were waterlogged, samples that were rotted or otherwise degraded, painted samples, furniture samples, even samples containing wood preservatives. Most of the samples I receive have a North American origin, but I also receive pieces from art museums and antique dealers that can originate from just about anywhere. This sometimes means that identifying the sample by a common name alone doesn't provide enough information.

web only | 8 pages | 4,482 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,980 kb



FOR-125
Distinguishing Softwoods from Hardwoods
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Softwood and hardwood trees are made up of different types of cells. With just a little magnification, it's easy to see that softwood growth rings look different from hardwood growth rings. Additionally, growth rings don't look the same for all of the trees, and the growth ring appearance is one of the things we will look at to identify wood.

web only | 4 pages | 1,722 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



FOR-126
Grain Patterns and Growth Rings
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Frequently you need to be able to observe wood cells from a particular perspective, and you will need to know where to look for different features on your sample. It's also very helpful to develop a kind of "visual vocabulary" that will let you match a term with a corresponding mental image, and the information in this chapter will start you on your way.

web only | 3 pages | 1,527 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



FOR-127
The First Separation of Softwood Species
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Terry Conners
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Forestry (FOR series)
 Tags:

Just making the separation between softwoods and hardwoods doesn't help much in identifying wood species; that would be sort of like identifying children by their hair color. Let's look at the next level of wood features that you need to be able to recognize.

web only | 6 pages | 2,711 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 4,200 kb



PR-706
2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Emily Pfeufer, Shubin Saha, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables

The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.

1,000 printed copies | 44 pages | 27,911 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 1,542 kb



FCS3-542
Diabetes and Hemoglobin A1C
12/18/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Diabetes is often called a "silent disease" because it can cause serious complications without symptoms. A person with diabetes may feel healthy and still have too high a level of blood glucose. It is important to know how well you are managing your blood glucose level.

10 printed copies | 2 pages | 820 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 132 kb



FCS3-543
Diabetes and High Blood Pressure
12/18/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Two out of three adults living with diabetes also have high blood pressure. High blood pressure has no symptoms. It may be difficult to tell if your blood pressure is high. A person may have high blood pressure for years and not know it

10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,408 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 190 kb



FCS3-549
Diabetes and the Healthcare Team
12/18/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Diabetes is a disease that affects many parts of the body, such as the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, heart, legs and feet. As a result, a team approach to taking care of the disease can be very helpful. When a team of individuals works together problems are identified earlier, and it is easier to reduce or prevent diabetes complications.

10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,811 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 197 kb



FCS3-539
Understanding Diabetes
12/17/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Diabetes is a disease that affects 387 million people in the world, and this number is expected to double in the next 20 years. Approximately 46.3 percent of this population is undiagnosed. A diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, but to remain in good health you must learn all you can about the disease and how to manage it.

10 printed copies | 2 pages | 865 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 131 kb



FCS3-541
Physical Activities and Diabetes
12/17/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Nutrition and Food Science
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Physical activity plays an important part in the life of a person with diabetes. Being physically active helps you control your blood glucose and blood pressure. Taking part in physical activity provides protection against heart disease and stroke.

10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,422 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 177 kb



HO-108
Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry
12/16/2015 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green-industry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2013 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,841 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 152 kb



HO-89
Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries
12/16/2015 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Dewayne Ingram
 Departments: Horticulture
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and regional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners.

web only | 10 pages | 3,937 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 399 kb



PR-704
2015 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)
12/15/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.

300 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,260 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



PR-705
2015 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
12/15/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: research, variety trials

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.

1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | 6,110 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 2,500 kb



PR-700
2015 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
12/14/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.

400 printed copies | 6 pages | 1,982 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 525 kb



PR-701
2015 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
12/14/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.

400 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,238 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 530 kb



PR-702
2015 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
12/14/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Joey Clark, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.

400 printed copies | 12 pages | 3,982 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



FCS5-463
Investigating Your Health Insurance Options
12/10/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Jennifer Hunter, Kristyn Jackson, Nicole Peritore
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, HES Family Sciences
 Series: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
 Tags:

Identifying healthcare wants and needs for you and your family is an important first step to finding a healthcare plan that will provide adequate healthcare coverage at a sufficient price. This publication will help you determine a health care plan that will best suit your needs.

web only | 6 pages | 2,509 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 1,418 kb



PR-698
2015 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
12/10/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Management is similar to that for other cool-season grasses. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish. This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.

400 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,593 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 700 kb



PR-703
2015 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
12/10/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, horses, research, variety trials

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.

500 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,430 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 875 kb



PR-697
2015 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
12/8/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Tall fescue is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. All bromegrasses have several advantages over tall fescue, including retaining quality as they mature and better growth during dry weather, but they are generally less well adapted in Kentucky. This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties, including summaries of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years.

600 printed copies | 10 pages | 3,847 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,240 kb



PR-699
2015 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
12/8/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication. The severe winter of 2013-2014 showed those varieties that are not adapted to Kentucky. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass. Their use in Kentucky is still limited since they do not survive as long as tall fescue but some of the newer varieties are more adapted to Kentucky environmental conditions. This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties, as well as summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years.

400 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,501 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,880 kb



PPFS-FR-T-1
Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

web only | 3 pages | 667 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 887 kb



PPFS-FR-T-4
Black Knot
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

web only | 2 pages | 617 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 784 kb



PPFS-VG-19
Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

web only | 2 pages | 854 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 995 kb



PPFS-VG-20
Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

web only | 2 pages | 781 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 896 kb



PR-693
2015 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Joshua Duckworth, Claire Venard
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, research, soybeans, variety trials

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation.

2,125 printed copies | 44 pages | 10,715 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 1,928 kb



PR-694
2015 Alfalfa Report
11/23/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highestyielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

400 printed copies | 10 pages | 3,151 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



PR-695
2015 Red and White Clover Report
11/23/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.

500 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,805 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 875 kb



PR-696
2015 Orchardgrass Report
11/23/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: David Ditsch, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, research, variety trials

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is welladapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

600 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,380 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 850 kb



PPFS-FR-T-8
Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits
11/1/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

web only | 2 pages | 559 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 207 kb



PPFS-OR-W-4
"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals
11/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee, Tracey Parriman, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium.

web only | 4 pages | 1,199 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,362 kb



PR-692
2015 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
10/30/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ron Curd, Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, research, variety trials

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

2,200 printed copies | 28 pages | 1,411 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 3,300 kb



PR-691
2015 Kentucky Silage Hybrid Performance Test
10/29/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: David Appelman, Rickey Arnett, Dan Grigson, Chad Lee, Jerry Little, Nick Roy
 Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: research, variety trials

Hybrids were evaluated for silage performance on cooperating farms. Representatives from seed companies submitted hybrids of their choosing. University of Kentucky personnel or third-party contractors planted the hybrid seeds. Farmers applied the soil fertility and pest management. University of Kentucky personnel harvested, weighed, chopped, and packaged corn for quality analysis. University personnel conducted the statistical analyses and final reporting of hybrid performance.

web only | 4 pages | 1,282 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 271 kb



SR-110
Etymology of the Scientific Names of Some Endoparasites of Horses
10/29/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Lyons
 Departments: Veterinary Science
 Series: Special Report (SR series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

The use of only common names for parasites can be confusing because of lack of uniformity. Fortunately a huge contribution for science was made by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus who is considered the father of taxonomy. English translation of the scientific names here are mainly from "dictionary" sources. A few are from the original descriptions. More than one possible meaning is listed for some of the scientific names.

25 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,500 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 114 kb



4AF-06PO
Understanding and Teaching Sportsmanship to Today's Youth
10/12/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Amy Lawyer
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Horses and Ponies (4AF series)
 Tags:

Sportsmanship is fair play, respect for opponents, and gracious behavior in winning and losing. Sportsmanship takes ethics into a competitive realm. We can remain ethical yet fail to be a good sport; however it is impossible to exhibit good sportsmanship without also being ethical.

web only | 2 pages | 1,011 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 117 kb



CCD-CP-32
Industrial Hemp: Legal Issues
9/24/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Industrial hemp was widely grown in the United States from the Colonial Period until the mid-1800s. During that time, Kentucky established itself as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. After the Civil War, hemp production declined in Kentucky, as well as in other areas of the country. Production temporarily resumed as part of the war effort during World War II. However, once the war was over, acreages dwindled until U.S. production ended in 1958. However, the last couple of decades have brought a renewed interest in commercial hemp as an alternative or supplementary crop. As the pro-hemp movement has spread, a number of states, including Kentucky, have passed laws favoring its production, generally in connection with scientific, economic, and environmental research studies.

web only | 3 pages | 1,072 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 803 kb



CCD-CP-33
Industrial Hemp Production
9/23/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs.

web only | 6 pages | 2,682 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



RB-327
Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples, July 2014 - June 2015
9/23/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve McMurry
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,631 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2014 through June 30, 2015 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 53,682 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 914,068 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,194 nitrogen,1,756 phosphorus, 1,912 potassium, 101 chloride (max), and 1066 secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples. The results of N, P2O5, K2O, and maximum chloride analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials and certain statistical analyses are in Table 1. Table 2 contains the results of secondary and minor element and certain other analyses and Table 3 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of June 30, 2015.

web only | 153 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 605 kb



ASC-225
Managing Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
9/22/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Jeffrey Bewley, Lauren Mayo, Amanda Stone, Nicky Tsai, Barbara Wadsworth
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
 Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
 Tags:

Precision dairy farming is the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators of individual animals to improve management strategies and farm performance.

web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,872 kb



PPFS-OR-W-1
Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi
9/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain, Traci Missun, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.

web only | 7 pages | 1,947 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 2,953 kb



RB-326
Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2014
8/19/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Glen Harrison
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.

2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 790 kb



CCD-CP-67
Christmas Trees
8/18/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, trees

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 492 kb



AGR-216
Turfgrasses of Kentucky
8/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, turfgrass

Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.

web only | 12 pages | 3,123 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 8,500 kb



PPFS-FR-T-5
Apple Rust Diseases
8/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

web only | 5 pages | 1,395 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 813 kb



AR-127
KAES Annual Report, 2014
7/28/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Bennett
 Departments: Administration (Research)
 Series: Experiment Station Annual Report (AR series)
 Tags:

This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2014. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry. In 2014, research activities of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station were conducted at Lexington, Princeton, Quicksand, and Owenton and in counties throughout the state. Efforts are constantly made to ensure that the research studies have application to the problems of all Kentucky farmers and other clientele groups.

75 printed copies | 64 pages | 47,368 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 3,749 kb



CLD3-4
Why Form a Coalition?
7/28/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenna Knight
 Departments: Community and Leadership Development, County Extension
 Series: Using Leadership Skills to Improve Quality of Life (CLD3 series)
 Tags:

A coalition is two or more organizations that work together to reach a common goal. Usually the goals of a coalition include one of the following: changing or creating public policy, changing or influencing individual behavior or building a healthier community.

web only | 2 pages | 539 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 166 kb



ID-229
All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
7/28/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kevin Laurent, Kylie Schmidt, Donald Stamper
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities.

web only | 6 pages | 2,612 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 2,980 kb



SR-109
Strongyles in Horses
7/24/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Gene Lyons, Sharon Tolliver
 Departments: Veterinary Science
 Series: Special Report (SR series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Parasites live in a host from which they obtain food and protection. They may harm but usually do not benefit the host. The word "parasite" is derived from the Latin and Greek languages meaning, in general, "one who eats at the table of another." It is said that a "good" parasite does not overtly harm or kill its host. It is theoretically possible that a more benign parasite (e.g. Gasterophilus spp.) is much "older in eons of time" and it and its host have adjusted better to each other than a conceivably "newer" parasite (e.g. Strongylus spp.) which may be more harmful to its host.

40 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,655 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



CLD2-11-4H
Financial Oversight for a Nonprofit Organization: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
7/20/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

Successful organizations follow regulations and guidelines pertaining to sound financial management practices. The members, leaders and volunteers of an organization should understand the need for accurate and timely reporting and have both internal and external rules of management in place.

web only | 6 pages | 2,214 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 283 kb



CLD2-7-4H
Educating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Empower Your Group by Developing Leadership: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
7/20/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

Educating, empowering and equipping 4-H members, volunteers and leaders adds stability, quality and effectiveness to the organization and its provided programs.

web only | 7 pages | 2,844 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 273 kb



CLD2-8-4H
Mobilizing Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Calling the Group to Action: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
7/20/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

To effectively serve the needs of people in a community, members, volunteers and leaders of 4-H must be mobilized to action. Mobilizing is the key component of a volunteer program and is the step in which education, youth development, service and leadership all begin.

web only | 4 pages | 1,596 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 217 kb



CLD2-9-4H
Sustaining Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Strengthening an Organization by Building Traditions: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
7/20/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Culp
 Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

Sustaining members, volunteers and leaders and their continued efforts and service to the program is imperative to the continued health and well-being of 4-H or any community organization. Sustaining adds stability, credibility and continuity to organizations.

web only | 3 pages | 1,751 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 267 kb



VET-35
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Staggers (Tremorgenic Syndrome)
7/20/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold
 Departments: Veterinary Science
 Series: Veterinary Science (VET series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

"Staggers" is an all-inclusive term for a group of nervous system disorders caused by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins produced by various types of fungi on forages. These mycotoxins are collectively known as "tremorgens", and they may be found in several types of grasses at varying stages of maturity.

web only | 2 pages | 758 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 588 kb



FCS3-587
Food and Community: Sustainable Eating Module 1
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

The process of getting food to the right place and ready to eat is the work of many human hands. It uses natural resources such as sun, soil, air, and water. This publication describes trends in the U.S. food system that strengthen the social, economic, and environmental vitality of communities and the health of the people who live there.

web only | 5 pages | 2,123 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 1,867 kb



FCS3-588
Eating from the Earth: Sustainable Eating Module 2
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Food systems generally include growing, processing, distributing, retailing, preparing, eating, and the disposal of food waste. A 2010 USDA study of local food systems found that local markets account for a small but growing share of total U.S. agricultural sales. This publication examines local and regional food systems and how they impact the way we buy and consume food.

web only | 5 pages | 1,437 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 1,428 kb



FCS3-589
Sustainable Community Food Systems: Sustainable Eating Module 3
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

The term "sustainable eating" describes a way that food consumers can make choices that support their social, economic, or environmental values. Eating for good health, making sure everyone has access to nutritious foods, and eating to minimize the impact on our planet are some commonly held values associated with sustainable eating.

web only | 5 pages | 1,097 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 3,331 kb



FCS3-590
Seafood: Are You Reeling in the Benefits?
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ingrid Adams, Nellie Buchannan, Brenda Cockerham, Janet Tietyen-Mullins
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
 Series: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
 Tags:

Seafood is an important part of a balanced diet because it contains high-quality protein and good fats called omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients. However, many of us do not include enough seafood in our diets to get the full range of benefits. This publication explains the benefits of adding more seafood to your diet.

web only | 3 pages | 1,162 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 1,333 kb



ID-230
Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Cattle and Horses
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Ray Smith
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses, nutrition and health

Although black patch occurs only sporadically, the right temperature, moisture, and soil pH may combine and allow Rhizoctonia leguminicola to thrive. Be aware of the possible consequences of this fungus, especially profuse salivation or "Sobbers" in cattle and horses. Good forage management, will reduce the risk of problems when utilizing this forage.

web only | 2 pages | 948 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 256 kb



ID-231
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Acute or Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP)
7/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

In the Southeastern United States, acute interstitial pneumonia has been produced by ingestion of the leaves and seeds of perilla mint (Perilla frutescens). Perilla ketone is the toxin absorbed from the rumen into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs where it damages the lung tissue in cattle.

web only | 3 pages | 1,551 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 507 kb



ID-91s
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
7/15/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Cheryl Kaiser, Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).

2,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 8,426 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 1,743 kb



PR-690
2015 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
7/6/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, Anthony Clark, John Connelly, Ron Curd, Gene Olson, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, research, small grains, variety trials

The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

1,900 printed copies | 24 pages | 3,739 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 2,350 kb



PPFS-AG-T-5
Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management
7/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.

web only | 4 pages | 1,356 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 473 kb



CLD2-10
Evaluation: Everyone Has a Role
6/17/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ken Jones
 Departments: Community and Leadership Development
 Series: Developing Organizational Leadership (CLD2 series)
 Tags:

Although there are a number of definitions for "evaluation," in basic terms, it is simply the process of determining whether a program is producing desired results. To meet the requirements of reporting and accountability, businesses, organizations and agencies must understand how to best measure the success of a program.

web only | 3 pages | 1,244 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 186 kb



CCD-CP-92
Celery and Celeriac
6/8/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity.

web only | 3 pages | 1,139 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 635 kb



RB-325
Seed Inspection Report, 2010 - 2014
6/3/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve McMurry
 Departments: Regulatory Services
 Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
 Tags:

The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station's annual Seed Inspection Report provides results of the examination, analysis and tests of seeds distributed and sampled in our state. It is intended to be useful to individuals interested in evaluating the quality of seeds distributed in Kentucky. The report represents the commitment of the staff at Regulatory Services to provide consumer protection and service related to Kentucky's seed industry.

500 printed copies | 20 pages | 1,449 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



AGR-219
Practicing Good Stewardship When Applying Herbicides for Pasture Weed Control
5/14/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: weeds

Various methods and strategies can be used to combat weed problems in pasture fields. These include mechanical and cultural practices such as mowing or clipping fields, maintaining a good soil fertility program, grazing methods, and other management practices that promote the growth of desirable forage grasses which in turn compete against weeds. Herbicides can be the best alternative to effectively control several troublesome broadleaf weeds. However, it is important to understand the proper use of herbicides and practice good stewardship.

500 printed copies | 2 pages | 1,466 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 190 kb



ID-228
Aquatic Macroinvertebrates: Biological Indicators of Stream Health
5/12/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Blake Newton, Tyler Sanderson, Evan Wesley
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Streams are an important part of the landscape. Streams transport water, sediment and energy; provide habitat for aquatic life and support terrestrial life; provide a place for recreation; and in many cases serve as a water supply. The health of streams---or their ability to perform these important functions---is dependent on the conditions of the watersheds which they drain. Changes in land use within a watershed can affect a stream's health.

web only | 5 pages | 1,962 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 4,800 kb



CCD-MP-22
Produce Auctions
5/1/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst
 Departments: Agricultural Economics
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

A produce auction is a market outlet for locally produced wholesale products. Fresh produce, as well as a variety of other agricultural products, are offered for sale to the highest bidder. The auction charges the seller a commission, usually a percent of sales, to cover the auction's operating expenses.

web only | 5 pages | 1,843 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-FR-S-19
Blueberry Root Rot
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

web only | 3 pages | 993 words | 1 download | PDF: 702 kb



PPFS-OR-H-10
Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ray Tackett, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management.

web only | 7 pages | 461 words | - | PDF: 1,803 kb



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