University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

Recently completed new and revised publications

Recommended Food Storage Times Cold and Dry Refrigerated and Frozen Foods
5/16/2017 (new)

Knowing how to store foods and maintain quality is important. Properly storing food results in optimum nutritional value, reduced waste from spoilage, decreased risk of foodborne illness, and fresher, better tasting food. | FCS3-595
web only | 8 pages | 2,033 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 914 kb

Weed Management
5/12/2017 (new)

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states. | CCD-FS-4
web only | 3 pages | 1,209 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb

Predator Management for Small-Scale Poultry Enterprises in Kentucky
5/4/2017 (new)

As urban expansion spreads, there is a loss of natural habitat for wildlife. Wildlife has come into closer contact with livestock operations, and some of these animals are predators of poultry. | ID-245
web only | 8 pages | 3,090 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 2,401 kb

Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (revised)

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge. | CCD-CP-103
web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Three-year Average Weekly Prices at Kentucky Farmers Markets: 2014-2016
4/27/2017 (new)

This report compares average prices for 17 crops from Kentucky farmers markets across the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons. Farmers markets are inherently difficult to track and compare. For example, vendors at markets from across the state sell the same products in a wide variety of units. Do you want to buy your beets by the pound, quart, bunch, or bulb? What about broccoli? By the head, pound, ounce, pint or "bag"? Beyond units, farmers markets also offer immense varietal and crop diversity, sold by vendors with a wide range of experience, in a variety of market conditions. These conditions, crops and other variables also change by season. For the first time, recognizing the caveats of slight crop differences and unit harmonization, we have assembled 3-year average prices in hopes of drawing out some trends in our Kentucky Farmers Market prices. | CCD-FS-3
web only | 10 pages | 626 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 422 kb

4/25/2017 (new)

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-127
web only | 3 pages | 1,339 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 897 kb

Seed Inspection Report, 2016
4/20/2017 (new)

The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky. | RB-331
350 printed copies | 42 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 750 kb

4/19/2017 (revised)

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky | CCD-CP-11
web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 700 kb

Black Walnuts
4/19/2017 (new)

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production. | CCD-CP-128
web only | 4 pages | 2,000 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 672 kb

Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (revised)

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season. | CCD-SP-5
web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,700 kb

Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (revised)

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap. | CCD-SP-6
web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,100 kb

4/12/2017 (revised)

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions. | CCD-CP-107
web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 881 kb

Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (revised)

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization. | CCD-CP-85
web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 688 kb

Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (revised)

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli). | CCD-CP-86
web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 975 kb

Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands
4/10/2017 (revised)

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands. | PPA-30
web only | 2 pages | 1,222 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 253 kb

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2016
4/10/2017 (new)

Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food. | RB-332
2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 2,195 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 2,061 kb

Hardwood Dry Kiln Operation: A Manual for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
4/6/2017 (new)

Green lumber is used mostly for local uses such as fence boards, barn siding and so forth. Lumber that will be glued or finished has to be dried, however, and that includes just about all the higher-value wood products used indoors such as flooring, furniture, wall paneling, cutting boards and so forth. Dry lumber can be used for more types of products and has greater marketability. Dry lumber is also worth more than green lumber. | FOR-128
web only | 114 pages | 31,161 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 11,025 kb

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2017
4/4/2017 (revised)

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program. | PPA-1
web only | 32 pages | 21,555 words | 200 downloads | PDF: 1,926 kb

Irrigation Systems
4/3/2017 (new)

Irrigation is used in Kentucky for both specialty and row crops. Irrigation systems reduce risks of low profitability from low yields and crop stress. Drip irrigation, essential for producing many specialty crops, is used throughout the state on farms of all sizes. Overhead irrigation systems are concentrated in western Kentucky, where farms of 1,000 or more acres account for most of the annual acreage changes in Kentucky's irrigated farmland. This fact sheet focuses on drip irrigation, which increased in use as more Kentucky farms began specialty crop production. | CCD-FS-1
web only | 4 pages | 1,287 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb

Drying Food at Home
3/30/2017 (revised)

Drying food at home has several advantages. It can help you save money, gain control over what's in your food, and preserve the bounty of summer gardens and orchards for your family's year-round enjoyment. | FCS3-501
web only | 16 pages | 7,532 words | 104 downloads | PDF: 375 kb

Soybean Production in Kentucky
3/22/2017 (revised)

Soybean seed quality is very important for crop establishment. In general, seed quality is an indicator of a seed's ability to produce a seedling in field conditions and includes both seed germination and seed vigor. Most producers are familiar with seed germination since they have seen it on a seed tag. Fewer are familiar with seed vigor. | AGR-130
web only | 6 pages | 4,076 words | 96 downloads | PDF: 1,395 kb

Jerky Safety
3/14/2017 (new)

Safe handling and preparation methods must always be used when preparing any type of jerky. | FCS3-594
web only | 1 pages | 584 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 1,508 kb

Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
3/7/2017 (revised)

In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication. | PPA-47
web only | 16 pages | 9,014 words | 135 downloads | PDF: 5,892 kb

3/1/2017 (revised)

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky. | CCD-CP-124
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 1 download | PDF: 680 kb

Understanding Generational Differences
2/23/2017 (reprinted)

Family members who have shared the same experiences and usually have similar values can view the same situations or recall specific events so differently. These differences in perspective are usually attributable to generational differences. | CLD1-8
80 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,796 words | 88 downloads | PDF: 388 kb

Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples, July 2015 - June 2016
2/13/2017 (new)

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,744 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2016 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 51,796 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,040,941 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,290 nitrogen, 1,870 phosphorus, 2,042 potassium, and 1153 secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples. | RB-330
web only | 188 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 2,800 kb

Identifying Canola Growth Stages
2/6/2017 (new)

To effectively manage canola in Kentucky, the ability to identify key developmental growth stages is important. The most common canola growth stage system describes developmental stages. Several canola growth stages are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability. | AGR-227
web only | 8 pages | 788 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 7,332 kb

Volunteer Kentucky! Session 1: Overview
2/1/2017 (new)

Session Goal: To introduce a framework for community volunteer and/or leadership organizations to follow when generating, educating, mobilizing and sustaining volunteers. | 4LB-12LO
web only | 4 pages | 1,388 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 256 kb

Volunteer Kentucky! Session 2: Generate
2/1/2017 (new)

Session Goal: To examine organizational processes leading to successful participant recruitment and the fulfillment of mutually satisfying community service goals. | 4LB-13LO
web only | 10 pages | 3,516 words | 1 download | PDF: 348 kb

Volunteer Kentucky! Session 3: Educate
2/1/2017 (new)

Session Goal: To develop the educational processes that ensure a successful participant experience and continued service to the organization. | 4LB-14LO
web only | 8 pages | 2,680 words | 1 download | PDF: 347 kb

Volunteer Kentucky! Session 4: Mobilize
2/1/2017 (new)

Session Goal: To mobilize attendees to accomplish organizational goals by engaging, motivating and supervising members, participants, volunteers and leaders. | 4LB-15LO
web only | 6 pages | 2,168 words | 1 download | PDF: 278 kb

Volunteer Kentucky! Session 5: Sustain
2/1/2017 (new)

Session Goal: To improve organizational viability by sustaining members, volunteers and leaders. | 4LB-16LO
web only | 6 pages | 2,037 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 302 kb

Volunteer Kentucky! Session 6: Culminate
2/1/2017 (new)

Session Goal: Participants will celebrate completion of the Volunteer Kentucky! Series; demonstrating competence as volunteer administrators by sharing culminating projects. | 4LB-17LO
web only | 2 pages | 653 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 249 kb

Central Kentucky Backyard Stream Guide
2/1/2017 (new)

Many urban homeowners are not sure what to do about the stream in their backyard. Who owns it? How can I take care of it? What plants are good for my streambanks? These common questions lead to some confusing answers. This publication is designed to help the homeowner of a backyard stream appreciate this resource, protect personal property, and improve water quality and habitat. | ID-242
1,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,530 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 15,699 kb

Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production
1/31/2017 (revised)

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods. | CCD-SP-7
web only | 5 pages | 2,325 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 918 kb

Effective Navigation through Your Community: Wayfinding and Signage Systems for Communities
1/26/2017 (new)

Wayfinding is the ability to orient oneself based on repeated cues from the physical environment. Various physical features and structural elements can help people find their way around places, feel welcomed beyond the initial welcome sign at the entrance to a town or district, be informed, and feel helped when uneasy or lost. These uneasy experiences can change and become positive benefits for the community with effective wayfinding systems that complement the physical features in the built environment. | LA-4
web only | 2 pages | 1,250 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 374 kb

Wayfinding: Planning and Design with Communities
1/26/2017 (new)

Wayfinding is an ability to orient oneself based on repeated cues from the physical environment. Travel experiences for both residents and visitors can be strengthened through efficiently laid out information in our physical environments. Features that stand out in the environment can remind people of a particular meaning through experience and recognition. | LA-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,912 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,674 kb

Wayfinding: Planning and Design at Work
1/26/2017 (new)

Communities can learn from one another's successes, challenges, and limitations for going about wayfinding projects. What worked for one community may not always work for another. However, it is also important to note that what did not work for one community may work for another community depending on the context, scale, scope, or support of a community. With this in mind, the following case studies can help identify types of signage, potential locations, and serve as an effective starting point to pursue your own community's wayfinding project, including potential funding sources. | LA-6
web only | 4 pages | 1,698 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 2,501 kb

Home Canning Basics
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

People choose to can foods at home for many reasons: to preserve the harvest from their gardens or local farmers markets for year-round enjoyment; to gain more control over what is in their food by limiting or avoiding salt, sugar or preservatives; to save money; to get better-tasting canned foods; to follow family traditions; or just for the sense of satisfaction that home canning provides. | FCS3-578
web only | 6 pages | 2,913 words | 247 downloads | PDF: 436 kb

Home Canning Jams, Jellies and Other Soft Spreads
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

Home canning jams, jellies, and other soft spreads is fun and satisfying. Soft spreads all contain four main ingredients (fruit, sugar, pectin, and acid), and they differ only in their consistency. The formation of a gel depends on the right amount of each of the main ingredients. If you understand the science of gelling, all your soft spreads will be a success. | FCS3-579
web only | 12 pages | 3,368 words | 209 downloads | PDF: 524 kb

Home Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

Home canning tomatoes and tomato products can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning. | FCS3-580
web only | 14 pages | 4,029 words | 177 downloads | PDF: 577 kb

Home Canning Salsa
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

Salsas are usually mixtures of high acid foods, such as tomatoes and/or fruit, with low acid foods, such as onions and peppers. With the addition of lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar in the right proportion, salsa becomes a high acid food and can be safely processed in a boiling water canner. However, only research-based recipes should be used. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning. | FCS3-581
web only | 11 pages | 2,887 words | 164 downloads | PDF: 508 kb

Home Canning Pickles and Fermented Foods
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

The home canning of pickles, relishes, and fermented foods allows you to enjoy the bounty of your summer garden or local farmers market year-round. It may also save you money and give you some control over what's in your food. To ensure safe, high-quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning. | FCS3-582
web only | 21 pages | 5,425 words | 151 downloads | PDF: 527 kb

Home Canning Vegetables
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

Home canning vegetables from your garden or local farmers market can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning. | FCS3-583
web only | 13 pages | 3,926 words | 158 downloads | PDF: 444 kb

Home Canning Fruit
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

Home canning fruit from your garden, orchard, or local farmers market can help save you money and gain control over what's in your food, while preserving the taste of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning. | FCS3-584
web only | 12 pages | 3,675 words | 172 downloads | PDF: 542 kb

Home Canning Meat, Poultry and Seafood
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

Home canning your own meat, poultry, wild game or fish can help you save money, gain control over what's in your food, and save time in meal preparation. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning. | FCS3-585
web only | 9 pages | 3,232 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 412 kb

Home Canning Soups and Stews
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recipes when canning. Safe, tested recipes for home-canned soups and stews are based on laboratory measurements of pH and heat penetration into the jars during processing, which are specific to the recipe being tested. | FCS3-586
web only | 14 pages | 3,800 words | 106 downloads | PDF: 455 kb

Safe Home Canning: Altitude Adjustments
1/23/2017 (reviewed)

For safe home canning, it's important to know your altitude (or elevation), since altitude affects processing times and pressures. If you live at an altitude greater than 1,000 feet, you may need to adjust processing times or pressures to ensure the safety of your home-canned foods. | FCS3-591
web only | 2 pages | 690 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 336 kb

Ecosystem Services of Landscape Plants: A Guide for Green Industry Professionals
1/23/2017 (new)

This publication is meant to assist green industry professionals in marketing and customer education efforts as they explore marketing their products and services to improve green infrastructure. Consumers are placing increasing value on and acknowledging the critical role that landscape plants play in the urban environment, from reducing urban heat islands to improving the aesthetic experience (i.e. curb appeal) we derive from the landscape of an individual home. | HO-115
web only | 12 pages | 4,507 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 2,547 kb

Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017
1/19/2017 (new)

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University. | AGR-225
web only | 96 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: kb

What to Think About Before You Plant: Marketing Considerations for Kentucky Specialty Crop Growers
1/10/2017 (new)

This publication poses questions that can benefit farmers who are considering planting a new crop. Long-time commercial farmers and diversifying tobacco producers, as well as those newer to farming, will find the questions, considerations, and checklists contain helpful tools for considering their new produce enterprise. | CCD-FS-2
web only | 11 pages | 3,918 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 8,700 kb

Management of Wildlife and Domestic Animals on Your Farm: Good Agricultural Practices
1/10/2017 (new)

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) are necessary to ensure that fresh fruits and vegetables are harvested, handled, and packaged in a sanitary manner. Field crops are at a higher food safety risk than processed foods because of regular exposure to several sources of contamination, including soil, manure, human handling, domestic and wild animals, and water. While it is impossible to completely eliminate these risks, GAPs ensure that these risks are as small as possible when implemented correctly. | ID-243
150 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,023 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 908 kb

2016 Study of Current Conditions of Kentucky County Animal Shelters and Degree of Compliance with Kentucky Animal Shelter Laws
1/5/2017 (new)

Kentucky's county animal shelter conditions have not been studied for over 20 years. Major goals of this study were to assess current conditions in Kentucky's county shelters and determine the degree of compliance with Kentucky shelter laws. Additional information was gathered to determine the major problems and needs identified by shelter personnel and researchers. Data was used to determine if additional state funds or refinements and additions to current laws are warranted to ensure humane care of animals in Kentucky's county shelters. |
web only | 60 pages | 12,201 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 3,687 kb

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2016
1/5/2017 (reprinted)

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties. | ID-128
1 printed copies | 48 pages | 32,061 words | 419 downloads | PDF: 4,000 kb

Identification and Control of Henbit and Purple Deadnettle
12/30/2016 (new)

Most of the winter annual broadleaf weeds are distinguishable from each other and thus fairly easy to key out or identify. However, there are two that show up each spring that often get people scratching their heads as to which is which---is it purple deadnettle? Or is it henbit? There are several similarities between these weeds---both are members of the mint family, both have square stems, both have sparsely hairy oval- to egg-shaped leaves, leaves of both are opposite, and both have small purple flowers that appear in the axils of the upper leaves during the spring. | AGR-226
web only | 4 pages | 812 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 5,381 kb

What Is Your Tree Worth?
12/22/2016 (new)

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate. | ID-240
web only | 5 pages | 3,041 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 903 kb

After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant
12/22/2016 (new)

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future. | ID-241
web only | 5 pages | 4,224 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 247 kb

Weighing in on Sleep
12/20/2016 (new)

A good night's sleep is as important as physical activity or healthy eating to maintain a healthy weight and optimum well-being. Sleep allows us to relax, restore, and revitalize our bodies and minds every night. | FCS3-593
web only | 6 pages | 1,989 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 1,216 kb

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2017-2018
12/13/2016 (revised)

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco. | ID-160
9,000 printed copies | 76 pages | 65,319 words | 150 downloads | PDF: 3,714 kb

2016 Alfalfa Report
12/13/2016 (new)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highestyielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties. | PR-709
400 printed copies | 12 pages | 3,694 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,745 kb

2016 Red and White Clover Report
12/13/2016 (new)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties. | PR-710
600 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,998 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,018 kb

2016 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/13/2016 (new)

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. | PR-721
1,000 printed copies | 40 pages | 20,554 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 2,804 kb

2016 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
12/12/2016 (new)

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years. | PR-720
1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | 6,797 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 2,605 kb

2016 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
12/9/2016 (new)

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties sold in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2016 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions. | PR-722
2,500 printed copies | 36 pages | 10,317 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 4,611 kb

KAES Annual Report, 2015
12/6/2016 (new)

This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2014. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry. In 2015, research activities of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station were conducted at Lexington, Princeton, Quicksand, and Owenton and in counties throughout the state. Efforts are constantly made to ensure that the research studies have application to the problems of all Kentucky farmers and other clientele groups. | AR-128
40 printed copies | 72 pages | 54,711 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 4,124 kb

2016 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)
12/6/2016 (new)

The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth. | PR-719
400 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,829 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,620 kb

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (revised)

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here. | CCD-CP-79
web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 1 download | PDF: 778 kb

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (revised)

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly. | CCD-CP-83
web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 786 kb

2016 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
12/5/2016 (new)

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Management is similar to that for other cool-season grasses. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish. This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky. | PR-713
400 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,550 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 594 kb

2016 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
12/5/2016 (new)

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication. The severe winter of 2013-2014 showed those varieties that are not adapted to Kentucky. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass. Their use in Kentucky is still limited since they do not survive as long as tall fescue but some of the newer varieties are more adapted to Kentucky environmental conditions. This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties, as well as summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years. | PR-714
400 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,670 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,814 kb

Forage Identification and Use Guide
11/30/2016 (reprinted)

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. They provide most of the feed for beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and wildlife. In addition, forage crops play a critical role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. The purpose of this publication is to provide both agronomic and identification information on several forage grasses and legumes. | AGR-175
500 printed copies | 28 pages | 3,487 words | 52 downloads | HTML: 9,100 kb

Extending Grazing and Reducing Stored Feed Needs
11/30/2016 (reprinted)

For most livestock producers, extending the grazing season for their animals, or otherwise filling gaps in pasture forage availability to reduce stored feed needs, should be a high priority objective. This publication outlines strategies that can be used in some or many areas to extend grazing and reduce stored feed needs, thus increasing profit. | AGR-199
2,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,512 kb

Rotational Grazing
11/30/2016 (reprinted)

A rotational grazing program can generally be defined as use of several pastures, one of which is grazed while the others are rested before being regrazed. Continuous grazing is the use of one pasture for the entire grazing season. | ID-143
2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 91 downloads | PDF: 887 kb

2016 Orchardgrass Report
11/30/2016 (new)

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is welladapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties. | PR-711
600 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,383 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 754 kb

2016 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
11/30/2016 (new)

Tall fescue is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. All bromegrasses have several advantages over tall fescue, including retaining quality as they mature and better growth during dry weather, but they are generally less well adapted in Kentucky. This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties, including summaries of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years. | PR-712
600 printed copies | 10 pages | 3,890 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,134 kb

2016 Kentucky Silage Hybrid Performance Test
11/28/2016 (new)

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky. | PR-723
web only | 4 pages | 1,353 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 143 kb

Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (revised)

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth. | CCD-CP-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 1 download | PDF: 604 kb

Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (revised)

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales. | CCD-CP-111
web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 1 download | PDF: 566 kb

2016 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
11/18/2016 (new)

Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival. | PR-717
500 printed copies | 12 pages | 4,070 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 1,242 kb

2016 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
11/18/2016 (new)

Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival. | PR-718
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,440 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 842 kb

Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2017
11/17/2016 (revised)

The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here. | AGR-6
3,600 printed copies | 140 pages | - | 64 downloads | PDF: 2,254 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings. | ID-238
1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb

2016 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
11/17/2016 (new)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season. | PR-715
350 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,903 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 397 kb

2016 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
11/17/2016 (new)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure. | PR-716
400 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,148 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 440 kb

Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (revised)

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-20
web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 1 download | PDF: 881 kb

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (revised)

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus). | CCD-CP-58
web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | - | PDF: 503 kb

Black Vulture Damage Control
11/11/2016 (new)

Vultures, as with all other wildlife, will take advantage of resources available to them, and unfortunately this behavior sometimes involves human dwellings or livestock operations. Fortunately, vultures respond well to relatively simple methods that discourage them from congregating or feeding in critical areas. | FOR-129
web only | 4 pages | 2,427 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 1,931 kb

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production. | CCD-CP-12
web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 1 download | PDF: 799 kb

Marketing Crops to Schools and Institutions: An Overview
10/31/2016 (revised)

Schools and institutions have long been identified as potential markets for local and regional food crops. These markets have both generated greater interest and purchases during the past 20 years due to consumer interest, food and health policy initiatives, and changes in school and institutional purchasing and procurement systems. | CCD-MP-19
web only | 4 pages | 1,579 words | - | PDF: 864 kb

Build Your Strength
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

This publication gives information about exercise and strength training. Research suggests that adding moderate physical activity to your lifestyle may be the single most important thing you can do to feel better and decrease your risk of disease. | FCS3-526
web only | 12 pages | 2,237 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 2,262 kb

Design Your Plan
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

Learning to manage your weight is a very personal journey. This factsheet explains how you can increase your chances of success. | FCS3-534
web only | 4 pages | 721 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 594 kb

Why We Eat What We Eat
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

Many people eat for reasons other than hunger, which is a primary reason American waistlines are growing larger. To successfully manage our weight we must develop a healthy relationship with food. | FCS3-535
web only | 8 pages | 2,271 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,316 kb

Bodies in Motion
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

Americans are eating more calories and burning fewer calories.Adding more physical activity to your day will help you burn more calories and improve your health. | FCS3-536
web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 946 kb

Feeling Good About Food
10/28/2016 (reviewed)

How can we get more healthful attitudes about food and activity? This fact sheet reviews current research on eating behavior in the U.S. | FCS3-537
web only | 8 pages | 2,063 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 1,833 kb

2016 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
10/24/2016 (new)

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location. | PR-708
2,300 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,158 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 2,898 kb

Modeling Best Management Practices
10/20/2016 (new)

Understanding the effectiveness of BMPs based on their location in the watershed and in relation to different types of pollutants is an important part of protecting waterbodies. One way to do this is with the use of models. | AEN-132
web only | 3 pages | 1,386 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 652 kb

A Conveners' Guide to Hosting a Public Forum
10/20/2016 (new)

This guide is intended to provide support to Cooperative Extension professionals who intend to bring the public together for an issue discussion. It will provide a general overview to help the convener of a public meeting address basic details needed to design and host a meeting. | CLD2-12
web only | 5 pages | 2,731 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 262 kb

Post-Harvest Management: The Economics of Grain Transportation
10/13/2016 (new)

While transporting grain to the market may be the last input cost in the production of grain, it is a critical decision a producer has to make, especially when margins are thin. Determining which market to sell your grain (if you have options) can be a complex decision, as the market that provides the highest price is not always the most profitable price. | AEC-100
web only | 5 pages | 2,727 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 458 kb

Help! My Horse Roars! What Is Laryngeal Hemiplegia?
10/10/2016 (new)

Various ailments can affect the different parts of the larynx of horses. Diseases of the larynx can produce airway obstruction and sometimes dysphagia. Obstructive diseases, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, often produce an abnormal respiratory noise and, most important, they limit airflow, which leads to early fatigue and poor exercise performance. | ASC-226
web only | 4 pages | 2,122 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 402 kb

Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
10/10/2016 (reprinted)

Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process. | ID-224
700 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,505 kb

Equine Metabolic Syndrome: Is My Horse Just Fat, or Is He Sick?
10/4/2016 (new)

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is an endocrine disorder that affects equids (horses, ponies, and donkeys) in three defining ways: they are obese and/or have localized fat deposits, they are in an insulin resistance (IR) state, now referred to as insulin dysregulation (ID), and they are predisposed to developing laminitis. | ID-239
web only | 3 pages | 1,558 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,473 kb

Identifying Soybean Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

Accurate identification of soybean growth stages is important to maximize grain yield and profitability, because most management decisions are based upon the growth stage of soybean plants within the fields. Key features of soybean growth stages are highlighted within this guide. | AGR-223
web only | 8 pages | 1,382 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 4,815 kb

Identifying Wheat Growth Stages
9/30/2016 (new)

Identifying growth stages of any crop is important to enable timely crop management decisions that maximize yields and profitability. There are several wheat growth stages that are important for Kentucky producers to recognize for optimal crop management and to maximize grain yield and profitability. | AGR-224
web only | 8 pages | 907 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 5,271 kb

Understanding the Risks of Foodborne Illness and Ways to Reduce Them
9/27/2016 (new)

In recent memory, there has been a considerable increase in food recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. To ensure food safety, everyone involved in the food production chain needs to understand the different factors that could contaminate food and lead to foodborne illness. | ASC-227
web only | 4 pages | 1,597 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 142 kb

Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (revised)

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves. | CCD-CP-99
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | - | PDF: 593 kb

UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2017
9/16/2016 (revised)

The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information. | ID-196
3,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 5,598 words | 79 downloads | PDF: 10,700 kb

Planting Bareroot Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

Many landscape plants can be installed as bareroot specimens. This method, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and container grown plants, one of the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting. | HO-113
web only | 4 pages | 1,846 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 1,441 kb

Planting Container-Grown Trees and Shrubs in Your Landscape
9/14/2016 (new)

Many landscape plants are installed as container-grown (containerized) specimens. These, along with balled and burlapped (B&B) and bareroot, are the three major ways we transplant trees and shrubs from nurseries to our landscapes. The keys to quick establishment and decades of satisfaction are following proven techniques in installation and providing proper care after transplanting. | HO-114
web only | 4 pages | 1,791 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,553 kb

Soil Percolation: A Key to Survival of Landscape Plants
9/14/2016 (new)

Eighty to 90 percent of disease and insect problems on landscape plants can be traced back to soil problems. Plants must be adapted to the site if they are to meet our expectations of growing, remain healthy, and attractive. | ID-237
web only | 4 pages | 1,929 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 3,289 kb

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (revised)

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets. | CCD-CP-97
web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 1 download | PDF: 617 kb

9/1/2016 (revised)

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only. | CCD-CP-53
web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | - | PDF: 967 kb

9/1/2016 (revised)

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility. | CCD-CP-94
web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | - | PDF: 598 kb

2011 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
8/30/2016 (new)

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry. | PR-641
web only | 32 pages | 14,698 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 7,642 kb

Maple Syrup
8/17/2016 (new)

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production. | CCD-CP-81
web only | 5 pages | 1,405 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,300 kb

Estimating Carrying Capacity of Cool Season Pastures in Kentucky Using Web Soil Survey
8/10/2016 (new)

While many factors influence how many animals a farm can carry, soil type has a major influence and should be considered when purchasing, leasing, planning, or managing livestock on pastures. | AGR-222
250 printed copies | 16 pages | 1,629 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 4,214 kb

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (revised)

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-109
web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | - | PDF: 575 kb

Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
8/2/2016 (new)

Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production. | ID-236
web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb

Lawn Establishment in Kentucky
7/27/2016 (revised)

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established. | AGR-50
web only | 6 pages | 3,796 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 3,039 kb

Wildlife Benefits of Switchgrass Production in Kentucky
7/26/2016 (new)

Switchgrass is a versatile grass that can be utilized for forage or biomass production. Establishing and maintaining switchgrass is also beneficial to many types of wildlife by providing suitable habitat and cover. | AGR-221
web only | 4 pages | 1,568 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 385 kb

Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky
7/22/2016 (revised)

Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them. | AGR-55
web only | 1 pages | 583 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 119 kb

Downsizing Your Home - A Guide for Older Adults
7/20/2016 (new)

Downsizing to a smaller home has become a recent trend. Older adults in particular can benefit from such a move. Smaller homes typically require less maintenance and can result in significant savings for the homeowner because of lower utility bills, property taxes, and insurance. This publication will help you make decisions and plans for downsizing. | FCS5-464
web only | 4 pages | 1,610 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 476 kb

Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (revised)

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production. | CCD-CP-66
web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | - | PDF: 594 kb

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions
7/15/2016 (revised)

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky. | CCD-BG-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,177 words | - | PDF: 193 kb

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016
7/15/2016 (revised)

| CCD-BG-7
web only | 5 pages | 1,094 words | 1 download | PDF: 119 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties
7/15/2016 (revised)

| CCD-BG-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,365 words | - | PDF: 340 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera
7/15/2016 (revised)

| CCD-BG-9
web only | 6 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 336 kb

Kentucky MarketMaker
7/11/2016 (revised)

Kentucky MarketMaker is a web-based marketing aid adapted for Kentucky markets. The primary purpose of this resource is to provide a link between agricultural producers and potential buyers of food products. In addition to a searchable database of markets and growers, MarketMaker also contains a wealth of demographic and business data which can be summarized in a map-based format. | CCD-MP-10
web only | 2 pages | 802 words | 1 download | PDF: 963 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
7/8/2016 (new)

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance. | ID-235
2,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,187 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 5,436 kb

7/5/2016 (revised)

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried. | CCD-CP-17
web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | - | PDF: 750 kb

Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
7/1/2016 (revised)

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet. | PPFS-FR-T-19
web only | 2 pages | 365 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 337 kb

2016 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
7/1/2016 (new)

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements. | PR-707
1,700 printed copies | 24 pages | 3,348 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 2,239 kb

Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (revised)

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops. | CCD-CP-78
web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | - | PDF: 934 kb

6/21/2016 (revised)

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor and aroma to beer. | CCD-CP-80
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 967 kb

Hazardous Chemicals and Your Body
6/21/2016 (revised)

Environmental contaminants, such as persistent organic pollutants, may contribute to an increased risk for chronic disease if they occur for long enough or at high enough levels. Research has shown that some hazardous chemicals may even cause the body to be more vulnerable to such medical conditions as cancer, poor immune system response, altered nervous system function, and cardiovascular disease. The good news is that certain dietary strategies may provide a defense for combating the effects of these contaminants while improving your overall health. | IP-76
web only | 6 pages | 2,286 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 310 kb

6/9/2016 (revised)

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes. | CCD-CP-18
web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 1 download | PDF: 713 kb

Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
6/6/2016 (new)

The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals. | AEN-131
web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 516 kb

Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (revised)

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June. | CCD-CP-108
web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | - | PDF: 513 kb

Backyard Grape Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-S-24
web only | 4 pages | 1,263 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,213 kb

Backyard Berry Disease and Disease Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-S-25
web only | 4 pages | 1,260 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 1,037 kb

Backyard Apple Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-T-21
web only | 4 pages | 1,311 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 1,013 kb

Backyard Stone Fruit Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
6/1/2016 (new)

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule. | PPFS-FR-T-22
web only | 4 pages | 1,234 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 890 kb

Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky
6/1/2016 (new)

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame. | PPFS-OR-W-24
web only | 5 pages | 1,627 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,118 kb

. . . . .