University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

Recently completed new and revised publications

Estimating Carrying Capacity of Cool Season Pastures in Kentucky Using Web Soil Survey
While many factors influence how many animals a farm can carry, soil type has a major influence and should be considered when purchasing, leasing, planning, or managing livestock on pastures.
250 printed copies | 16 pages | 1,629 words | PDF: 4214 kb

Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production.
Web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | PDF: 3000 kb

Lawn Establishment in Kentucky
The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.
Web only | 6 pages | 3,796 words | PDF: 3039 kb

Wildlife Benefits of Switchgrass Production in Kentucky
Switchgrass is a versatile grass that can be utilized for forage or biomass production. Establishing and maintaining switchgrass is also beneficial to many types of wildlife by providing suitable habitat and cover.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,568 words | PDF: 385 kb

Downsizing Your Home - A Guide for Older Adults
Downsizing to a smaller home has become a recent trend. Older adults in particular can benefit from such a move. Smaller homes typically require less maintenance and can result in significant savings for the homeowner because of lower utility bills, property taxes, and insurance. This publication will help you make decisions and plans for downsizing.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,610 words | PDF: 476 kb

Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky
Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them.
Web only | 1 pages | 583 words | PDF: 119 kb

Home Canning Jams, Jellies and Other Soft Spreads
Home canning jams, jellies, and other soft spreads is fun and satisfying. Soft spreads all contain four main ingredients (fruit, sugar, pectin, and acid), and they differ only in their consistency. The formation of a gel depends on the right amount of each of the main ingredients. If you understand the science of gelling, all your soft spreads will be a success.
Web only | 12 pages | 3,368 words | PDF: 524 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.
2000 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,187 words | PDF: 5436 kb

2016 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.
1700 printed copies | 24 pages | 3,348 words | PDF: 2239 kb

Hazardous Chemicals and Your Body
Environmental contaminants, such as persistent organic pollutants, may contribute to an increased risk for chronic disease if they occur for long enough or at high enough levels. Research has shown that some hazardous chemicals may even cause the body to be more vulnerable to such medical conditions as cancer, poor immune system response, altered nervous system function, and cardiovascular disease. The good news is that certain dietary strategies may provide a defense for combating the effects of these contaminants while improving your overall health.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,286 words | PDF: 310 kb

Small Woods, Big Opportunities: Hazard and Danger Trees
Trees provide unique benefits such as natural beauty and wildlife habitat, and can enhance property values. However, trees with significant internal rot or damage could pose threats to life and property. With proper planting, maintenance, and pruning, a majority of the rot or damage could be minimized. This factsheet will help to identify hazardous trees and what actions to take to prevent future creation.
Web only | 2 pages | 944 words | PDF: 821 kb

Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | PDF: 516 kb

Backyard Grape Disease and Pest Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,263 words | PDF: 1213 kb

Backyard Berry Disease and Disease Management Using Cultural Practices (with Low Spray, No Spray and Organic Options)
Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,260 words | PDF: 1037 kb

Using a SWOT Analysis: Taking a Look at Your Organization: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
A SWOT analysis is a simple review process. When combined with a goal-setting activity, SWOT is a useful tool that will provide your organization with a roadmap to set and reach its goals successfully.
Web only | 7 pages | 2,000 words | PDF: 292 kb

Seed Inspection Report, 2015
The Division of Regulatory Services is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations, a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. Our regulatory program protects the seed industry and consumers through inspection, sampling and analysis of seed products in Kentucky.
350 printed copies | 36 pages | - | PDF: 700 kb

Delivering Your Marketing Message: Planning Productive Promotions
Effective marketing messages build awareness and interest in an organization's programs, products, and services. Successful promotions begin with a plan to deliver the right message to the right people for greatest participation and impact.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,006 words | PDF: 217 kb

Building a Marketing Toolkit
To begin assembling your organization's marketing toolkit, ask the following question: What are the most basic and useful tools that could be implemented to market our organization, its programs and activities?
Web only | 5 pages | 2,252 words | PDF: 258 kb

Group Mentoring
Mentoring serves an invaluable purpose, offering youth the resources they need for positive development. Meaningful relationships are the foundation for building strong connections and community ties, and caring adults can serve as allies to help foster youth development.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,809 words | PDF: 160 kb

4-H Club Officer's Training Manual, Senior Level
An overview of the duties, roles and responsibilities of 4-H Club Officers
Web only | 36 pages | 9,884 words | PDF: 1309 kb

A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns
Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,018 words | PDF: 600 kb

Understanding the Different Produce Safety Programs and Making a Food Safety Plan
Safety of fresh vegetables and fruits is very important because these products are often consumed raw or are minimally processed. For the safety of consumers, farmers who produce our food must know the best practices available to produce, process, handle, and store fresh produce.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,757 words | PDF: 189 kb

Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides
A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers.
Web only | 3 pages | 599 words | PDF: 427 kb

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry
A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).
Web only | 1 pages | 197 words | PDF: 280 kb

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble
A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).
Web only | 1 pages | 152 words | PDF: 236 kb

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide
A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).
Web only | 1 pages | 323 words | PDF: 351 kb

Home Canning Basics
People choose to can foods at home for many reasons: to preserve the harvest from their gardens or local farmers markets for year-round enjoyment; to gain more control over what is in their food by limiting or avoiding salt, sugar or preservatives; to save money; to get better-tasting canned foods; to follow family traditions; or just for the sense of satisfaction that home canning provides.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,913 words | PDF: 436 kb

Beyond a Path 1: Trails as Resource Connections in Your Community
The development of a trail system can help a community improve recreational, travel and health assets and generate revenue. Trail systems or greenways can indirectly have positive effects on adjacent property values and potentially boost economic activities within close proximity. Well developed trails support conservation efforts for wildlife habitat or agricultural land use while also connecting points of interest. Therefore, trails can provide many direct and indirect environmental, social, and economic benefits for communities to strengthen the health of their environment and longer term sustainability.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,076 words | PDF: 200 kb

Beyond a Path 2: Trail Planning
There are two general ways to begin a trail project in a community. The first method is for the community (client) to hire design or planning professionals such as landscape architects, urban planners or engineers to lead a trail project on behalf of the community. The second way involves a grass roots approach where a community gets the project started and develops the conceptual ideas on their own and then later brings in professionals during the design phase. Regardless of the approach for the initial phase, professionals need to be involved to eventually construct the trail(s) but how much of the process and outcome they influence is ultimately up to the community. For the purpose of this document, we will focus on the second method to help projects get started in the community by the community. Collaboration, coordination and partnerships are essential for the success of a project due to the linearity of trails and complexity of trail systems. The specific outcomes of a trail, its benefits, and costs for the community depend on the specific location, region and potential of the community group as covered in the Beyond a Path 1 publication.
Web only | 7 pages | 2,094 words | PDF: 6600 kb

Trailblazers: Two Case Studies for Community Trails
The following two communities have successfully planned, designed, and implemented trails and greenways in different time lines, contexts and processes. Both projects share a range of trail project features, lessons learned and processes that can be adapted to be suitable for other locations, contexts, communities and cultures whether old or new, urban or rural, or large or small. These communities identified and utilized their natural resources to address potential issues prior to a disruptive event such as a flood or protected natural resources that were up against development pressure. Trail systems and greenway projects can be used to proactively propose alternative solutions that balance human needs with ecosystem processes which benefit both the communities and the larger region.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,863 words | PDF: 1500 kb

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2015
Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.
2500 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,644 words | PDF: 2125 kb

How to Select and Buck Logs for Railroad Ties
As of 2014, railroads were purchasing in the neighborhood of 25 million wooden ties each year, so the railroad tie industry can be a reliable market for loggers and sawmillers. Prices for green ties are viewed as good compared to lower-grade lumber, though actual market prices depend on immediate demand, competing lumber prices, distance from the seller to the treating plant, and tie quality and species. If you're a logger reading this article, you'll learn to make better decisions about how to select trees and logs for crossties and switch ties, and you'll be able to buck them so that they're worth more money overall.
Web only | 9 pages | 4,194 words | PDF: 6000 kb

Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.
Web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | PDF: 3600 kb

Facilitating Community Forums
Planning and conducting an effective community forum requires several key elements. Scheduling a meeting place and choosing a location and time should be carefully considered. Choosing the right people to lead the forum is also important.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,091 words | PDF: 156 kb

Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.
Web only | 16 pages | 9,014 words | PDF: 6113 kb

Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6
Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.
Web only | 24 pages | 5,749 words | PDF: 5000 kb

Creating a Successful Coalition
Coalition can be defined as a group of people or groups who have joined together for a common purpose. How to start a coalition is not a mystery. First you identify your need, and then you find individuals or organizations that are interested in helping to find a solution for that need.
Web only | 2 pages | 914 words | PDF: 167 kb

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases
This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.
Web only | 3 pages | 885 words | PDF: 398 kb

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases
This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.
Web only | 5 pages | 1,450 words | PDF: 407 kb

Community Power: Bringing the Right People to the Table
Empowerment--the ability to enable or share power--can be encouraged within the community context. In this publication we will share with you a traditional definition of community power, how to outline a community's power structure, and a process on how to bring the right "power players" to the table.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,158 words | PDF: 185 kb

Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm.
Web only | 7 pages | 3,539 words | PDF: 2400 kb

Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2016
The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.
Web only | 6 pages | 1,980 words | PDF: 295 kb

Hydrologic Modeling
Increased levels of urbanization result in reductions in the amount of rainfall that infiltrates and evapotranspires and increases the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. These changes can result in flooding, streambank erosion, and water quality degradation. Hydrologic models are useful in understanding watersheds and how changes in a watershed can affect hydrology. Hydrologic models can predict the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff under different scenarios.
Web only | 5 pages | 2,704 words | PDF: 844 kb

Sediment Fingerprinting
Sediments in waterbodies cause a number of problems such as harming aquatic habitats, filling reservoirs, and worsening flooding. High amounts of sediment in the water inhibit the ability of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates to move, breathe, hunt and reproduce. Accumulated sediments in reservoirs reduces their useful life and increases costs associated with maintenance. Streams experiencing such sediment buildup carry less water during storm events.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,721 words | PDF: 1506 kb

Measuring Discharge in Wadeable Streams
Knowing the amount of water flowing in a stream can improve management practices such as those related to streambank erosion, pollutant loading and transport, and flood control. Streamflow or discharge is defined as the volume of water moving past a specific point in a stream for a fixed period of time.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,273 words | PDF: 2288 kb

Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.
Web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | PDF: 1800 kb

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky
A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.
9000 printed copies | 48 pages | 32,061 words | PDF: 4000 kb

Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality
Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,749 words | PDF: 485 kb

Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide
This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).
1030 printed copies | 172 pages | - | PDF: 1400 kb

Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses
Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations.
Web only | 6 pages | - | PDF: 465 kb

Diabetes and Cholesterol
People with diabetes should pay attention to their cholesterol levels because high levels of blood cholesterol can lead to heart disease. People with diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease. When they do, they are two to four times more likely to die from heart disease.
10 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,254 words | PDF: 143 kb

Carbohydrate Counting
Carbohydrate (carb) counting is a way of keeping track of the amount of carbohydrates you get from the foods you eat. Carbohydrate counting can help you manage your blood glucose level
10 printed copies | 8 pages | 1,998 words | PDF: 677 kb

Monitoring Blood Glucose
Keeping your blood glucose level within the target range set by you and your doctor reduces the risk of diabetes complications. It is important to check your blood glucose regularly so you can see how certain foods, activities and medicine affect your blood glucose level.
10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,083 words | PDF: 163 kb

Introduction to Wood Structure and Characteristics
Knowing how to identify unknown pieces of wood using a hand lens is the only skill you will need for most situations---and that's the purpose behind most of this manual. A section at the end about how to identify wood using a microscope is available should you want to develop your wood identification expertise.
Web only | 4 pages | 2,540 words | PDF: 1000 kb

First Steps in Identifying Wood
Wood samples need to be identified for all sorts of reasons, and they come in all shapes, sizes and conditions. I've received samples that were sound, samples that were waterlogged, samples that were rotted or otherwise degraded, painted samples, furniture samples, even samples containing wood preservatives. Most of the samples I receive have a North American origin, but I also receive pieces from art museums and antique dealers that can originate from just about anywhere. This sometimes means that identifying the sample by a common name alone doesn't provide enough information.
Web only | 8 pages | 4,482 words | PDF: 1980 kb

Distinguishing Softwoods from Hardwoods
Softwood and hardwood trees are made up of different types of cells. With just a little magnification, it's easy to see that softwood growth rings look different from hardwood growth rings. Additionally, growth rings don't look the same for all of the trees, and the growth ring appearance is one of the things we will look at to identify wood.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,722 words | PDF: 2400 kb

Grain Patterns and Growth Rings
Frequently you need to be able to observe wood cells from a particular perspective, and you will need to know where to look for different features on your sample. It's also very helpful to develop a kind of "visual vocabulary" that will let you match a term with a corresponding mental image, and the information in this chapter will start you on your way.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,527 words | PDF: 1500 kb

The First Separation of Softwood Species
Just making the separation between softwoods and hardwoods doesn't help much in identifying wood species; that would be sort of like identifying children by their hair color. Let's look at the next level of wood features that you need to be able to recognize.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,711 words | PDF: 4200 kb

2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.
1000 printed copies | 44 pages | 27,911 words | PDF: 1542 kb

Diabetes and Hemoglobin A1C
Diabetes is often called a "silent disease" because it can cause serious complications without symptoms. A person with diabetes may feel healthy and still have too high a level of blood glucose. It is important to know how well you are managing your blood glucose level.
10 printed copies | 2 pages | 820 words | PDF: 132 kb

Diabetes and Blood Pressure
Two out of three adults living with diabetes also have high blood pressure. High blood pressure has no symptoms. It may be difficult to tell if your blood pressure is high. A person may have high blood pressure for years and not know it
10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,408 words | PDF: 190 kb

Diabetes and the Healthcare Team
Diabetes is a disease that affects many parts of the body, such as the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, heart, legs and feet. As a result, a team approach to taking care of the disease can be very helpful. When a team of individuals works together problems are identified earlier, and it is easier to reduce or prevent diabetes complications.
10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,811 words | PDF: 197 kb

Understanding Diabetes
Diabetes is a disease that affects 387 million people in the world, and this number is expected to double in the next 20 years. Approximately 46.3 percent of this population is undiagnosed. A diagnosis of diabetes is not a death sentence, but to remain in good health you must learn all you can about the disease and how to manage it.
10 printed copies | 2 pages | 865 words | PDF: 131 kb

Physical Activities and Diabetes
Physical activity plays an important part in the life of a person with diabetes. Being physically active helps you control your blood glucose and blood pressure. Taking part in physical activity provides protection against heart disease and stroke.
10 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,422 words | PDF: 177 kb

Economic Impacts of the Kentucky Green Industry
The green industry, comprised of firms engaged in the production and use of landscape and floral crops and related supplies and equipment and the design, construction, and maintenance of landscapes, has a significant impact on Kentucky's economy. Green-industry enterprise owners, managers, and employees should be aware of their economic impacts, and policy makers and other state leaders need to know the importance of this industry as potential laws, regulations and resource allocations are considered. This publication is intended to provide a brief summary of the 2013 economic impacts of the green industry in Kentucky.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,841 words | PDF: 152 kb

Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries
The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and regional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners.
Web only | 10 pages | 3,937 words | PDF: 399 kb

2015 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)
The major factor in selecting a variety of summer annual grass is yield, both total and seasonal. Growth after first cutting is strongly dependent on available moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Summer annual grasses generally have different characteristics and uses. The major factors in selecting cool season cereal grass varieties are yield, winter survival and regrowth.
300 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,260 words | PDF: 1500 kb

2015 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 12 to 15 years.
1500 printed copies | 20 pages | 6,110 words | PDF: 2500 kb

2015 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? We have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.
400 printed copies | 6 pages | 1,982 words | PDF: 525 kb

2015 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants. This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.
400 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,238 words | PDF: 530 kb

2015 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and the brome grasses can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.
400 printed copies | 12 pages | 3,982 words | PDF: 1200 kb

Investigating Your Health Insurance Options
Identifying healthcare wants and needs for you and your family is an important first step to finding a healthcare plan that will provide adequate healthcare coverage at a sufficient price. This publication will help you determine a health care plan that will best suit your needs.
Web only | 6 pages | 2,509 words | PDF: 1418 kb

2015 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Management is similar to that for other cool-season grasses. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish. This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.
400 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,593 words | PDF: 700 kb

2015 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 3,430 words | PDF: 875 kb

2015 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
Tall fescue is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle. All bromegrasses have several advantages over tall fescue, including retaining quality as they mature and better growth during dry weather, but they are generally less well adapted in Kentucky. This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties, including summaries of all tall fescue and bromegrass varieties tested in Kentucky for the past 15 years.
600 printed copies | 10 pages | 3,847 words | PDF: 1240 kb

2015 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high-quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication. The severe winter of 2013-2014 showed those varieties that are not adapted to Kentucky. Festuloliums are hybrids between various fescues and ryegrasses with higher quality than tall fescue and improved stand survival over perennial ryegrass. Their use in Kentucky is still limited since they do not survive as long as tall fescue but some of the newer varieties are more adapted to Kentucky environmental conditions. This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties, as well as summaries of all annual and perennial ryegrass and festulolium varieties tested in Kentucky for the last 15 years.
400 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,501 words | PDF: 1880 kb

Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets
Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.
Web only | 3 pages | 667 words | PDF: 887 kb

2015 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation.
2125 printed copies | 44 pages | 10,715 words | PDF: 1928 kb

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers
Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.
3700 printed copies | 134 pages | 106,717 words | PDF: 1500 kb

2015 Alfalfa Report
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highestyielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.
400 printed copies | 10 pages | 3,151 words | PDF: 1500 kb

2015 Red and White Clover Report
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.
500 printed copies | 6 pages | 2,805 words | PDF: 875 kb

2015 Orchardgrass Report
Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is welladapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.
600 printed copies | 8 pages | 2,380 words | PDF: 850 kb

Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops, 2016
The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.
3650 printed copies | 136 pages | - | PDF: 3500 kb

UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2016
The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.
4000 printed copies | 32 pages | 4,449 words | PDF: 10700 kb

2015 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.
2200 printed copies | 28 pages | 1,411 words | PDF: 3300 kb

2015 Kentucky Silage Hybrid Performance Test
Hybrids were evaluated for silage performance on cooperating farms. Representatives from seed companies submitted hybrids of their choosing. University of Kentucky personnel or third-party contractors planted the hybrid seeds. Farmers applied the soil fertility and pest management. University of Kentucky personnel harvested, weighed, chopped, and packaged corn for quality analysis. University personnel conducted the statistical analyses and final reporting of hybrid performance.
Web only | 4 pages | 1,282 words | PDF: 271 kb

Etymology of the Scientific Names of Some Endoparasites of Horses
The use of only common names for parasites can be confusing because of lack of uniformity. Fortunately a huge contribution for science was made by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus who is considered the father of taxonomy. English translation of the scientific names here are mainly from "dictionary" sources. A few are from the original descriptions. More than one possible meaning is listed for some of the scientific names.
25 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,500 words | PDF: 114 kb

Understanding and Teaching Sportsmanship to Today's Youth
Sportsmanship is fair play, respect for opponents, and gracious behavior in winning and losing. Sportsmanship takes ethics into a competitive realm. We can remain ethical yet fail to be a good sport; however it is impossible to exhibit good sportsmanship without also being ethical.
Web only | 2 pages | 1,011 words | PDF: 117 kb

Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process.
2000 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | PDF: 1505 kb

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples, July 2014 - June 2015

Web only | 153 pages | - | PDF: 605 kb

Managing Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Precision dairy farming is the use of technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators of individual animals to improve management strategies and farm performance.
Web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | PDF: 1872 kb

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