University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

Recently completed new and revised publications

Building Your Preschooler's Financial Capabilities - Information for Parents
Feeling able to manage financial resources is a life goal for most of us. It is also a skill we would like to teach our young loved ones. This fact sheet offers suggestions for adults as they help young children develop their ability to manage money, also known as financial capability.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 624 kb

Financial Capability---Why it Matters - In-depth Information for Educators
Countless surveys and studies confirm that American youth and adults lack basic financial knowledge and skills. Several states now require the teaching of financial education in high school and even elementary school as one way to address the knowledge gap, though Kentucky is not one of them. But clearly the schools cannot do it alone. Parents can be the key to raising financially capable children.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 748 kb

Relatives Raising Children: Coping with Lifestyle Changes
The circumstances that make full time caregiving of children necessary usually are not ones grandparents or relatives would happily choose. Relatives step in as caregivers because they know their home is a more stable, loving environment for the child's well-being over the long term than placement in foster care. This publication describes some actions that you as a grandparent or relative who is parenting a child can take to manage the child and take care of yourself.
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Relatives Raising Children: Health and Safety Tips for Younger Children
Raising grandchildren can be challenging and rewarding. Keeping children healthy and safe can be simple, but it does take thought and preparation. This publication provides suggestions and guidelines that may help.
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Cyanide Poisoning in Ruminants
Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 255 kb

Home Canning Pickles and Fermented Foods
The home canning of pickles, relishes, and fermented foods allows you to enjoy the bounty of your summer garden or local farmers market year-round. It may also save you money and give you some control over what's in your food. To ensure safe, high-quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 527 kb

Media Advertising and Your Child
As parents, how can we help young children to know the difference between advertising and information? This fact sheet helps parents to answer that question.
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Media Advertising and its Influence on Children: Educators
How should educators assist parents and those taking the parenting role to guide young children in using money wisely when so much media advertising swirls all around them? Answering that question is the objective of this publication.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1845 kb

Collection and Preparation of Milk Samples for Microbiological Culturing
In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 873 kb

Home Canning Jams, Jellies and Other Soft Spreads
Home canning jams, jellies, and other soft spreads is fun and satisfying. Soft spreads all contain four main ingredients (fruit, sugar, pectin, and acid), and they differ only in their consistency. The formation of a gel depends on the right amount of each of the main ingredients. If you understand the science of gelling, all your soft spreads will be a success.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 524 kb

How to Make a Country Ham
Country hams can be found in grocery stores and specialty shops throughout Southeast and on the internet. Nonetheless, there are some do-it-yourselfers who want to start their own family traditions. Country hams are not difficult to make. The process requires a few easy-to-find ingredients and a secure storage area. Country hams are made in three steps: curing, salt equalization, and aging. These steps are outlined in the manual.
100 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6791 kb

Generating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Grow Your Group by Building Its Membership: ANR Facilitator's Guide
Successful organizations consist of members, volunteers and leaders who engage creative talents and interests to better serve the community. To effectively address community issues, the organization must assess its participant needs with specific roles and responsibilities necessary to take action.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 496 kb

A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System
Researchers at the University of Kentucky combined existing disease detection systems to produce a fresh cow examination system that may help producers detect diseases earlier by monitoring subtle changes every day during a cow's fresh period. Compiling daily information about each animal will enable producers to notice changes in health that may otherwise have been overlooked. These records may help producers detect illnesses early, thus reducing the long-term effects (reduced milk production or fertility) and costs (re-treatment, milk loss, or death) of a disease. Learning what diseases are common on a particular farm can focus producers' efforts towards preventive measures specific to their operation. Preventing disease, rather than treating, can save producers time and money and can improve overall cow well-being.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1900 kb

Kosher Foods
Jewish dietary laws maintain certain rules for preparing foods that are not common in modern food preparation. These laws originated from the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures. The following information is an overview of Jewish dietary laws.
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Forage-related Cattle Disorders: Ergotism
Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. It grows on rye, wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and various grasses. Rye and triticale are more susceptible than other grains because they require a longer period of pollination. Grasses potentially infected include tall fescue, bluegrass, brome, canarygrass, quackgrass, timothy, wild barley, and annual and perennial ryegrass. Shallow cultivation, no-till farming, and lack of crop rotation increase the likelihood of infection of crops. Environmental conditions of a cool, wet spring followed by hot early summer temperatures are ideal for the fungus to grow.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 400 kb

Technology to Improve Sprayer Accuracy
A number of new technologies have been introduced over the last several years aimed at improving the accuracy of spray application, but do they really work? The purpose of this document is to highlight the most common causes of application errors then discuss the array of new sprayer technologies that are becoming available, how they might affect application accuracy, and pitfalls involved in using them.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb

Calibrating Fertilizer Spreaders for the Home Lawn
How much fertilizer should you use on your lawn? Too much can result in turf burn, wasted product and money, and potential environmental concerns. Too little will result in a low-density lawn that will not be attractive or competitive against weed invasions. To insure that you apply the proper amount of fertilizer to your lawn, you must calibrate your fertilizer spreader. You should calibrate your spreader each time you use a new (different) fertilizer because not all fertilizers have the same particle size or density. The information on the fertilizer bag is a good starting point for the calibration process but remember that spreaders can differ significantly. Calibrating your spreader will take a little bit of work, but the series of fairly simple steps below will help you complete the task.
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People Learn with a Purpose: Understanding Learning Styles: ANR Facilitator's Guide
People learn for different purposes. Some common reasons are to gather information to make an informed decision, to learn toward a specific goal or just to increase knowledge. Understanding why and how you learn best is essential, especially if you are trying to teach others.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 413 kb

Soybean Variety Selection
Soybean variety selection is one of the most important and most difficult management decisions a producer must make each year. It takes careful identification of the problems and needs of the production system. When done properly it increases the chance the variety will reach its full yield potential while eliminating costs for unnecessary traits, resulting in highly profitable returns.
1000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 570 kb

Stereotypic Behavior in Horses: Weaving, Stall Walking, and Cribbing
Many stabled horses perform a variety of repetitive behaviors such as weaving, stall walking, cribbing, headshaking and pawing. These behaviors have been called many different names including stereotypic behavior, stereotypies, stereotypes, obsessive compulsive disorders, vices and habits. Although it may be difficult to know why exactly each horse performs these vices, there may be specific causal factors for these activities in the horse. These behaviors are not simply learned and not simply inherited, but may be a mixture of both. Studies show that some families of horses have a higher prevalence of certain vices, which suggests heritability and genetic components. However, the tendency to perform the behavior only becomes apparent when other risk factors are also in place.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 480 kb

Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses
Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 5953 kb

Seams and Seam Finishes
This publication is a guide to sewing various seams and seam finishes. The seam is the basic structural element of a garment or household textile item. Carefully selected and well-constructed seams and seam finishes are important steps in the construction process.
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Forage-related Disorders in Cattle: Nitrate Poisoning
Few plants normally contain high nitrate levels, since under normal growing conditions the nitrates are converted to protein as quickly as they are absorbed from the roots. However, under certain conditions plants can develop dangerously high nitrate levels which can cause nitrate intoxication. Death or abortion may result. Care must be taken to recognize possible toxic forages and manage them appropriately to avoid animal loss.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 314 kb

Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Many different kinds of technologies exist in the market today. The sheer number of various technologies and the information produced by them can be overwhelming and confusing. Information about these technologies exists but can often times be hard to find or difficult to understand. Unfamiliarity with technologies and how they work can become an obstacle to overcome, especially when comparing and contrasting technologies. This fact-sheet will list several of these technologies and how they accomplish their goals.
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Precision Dairy Farming Technologies List

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Restoring Streams
Stream restoration is the re-establishment of the structure (dimension, pattern, and profile) and function (transport of water, sediment, and nutrients; habitat provision) of a degraded stream as closely as possible to pre-disturbance conditions.
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Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.
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Home Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
Home canning tomatoes and tomato products can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 577 kb

Home Canning Salsa
Salsas are usually mixtures of high acid foods, such as tomatoes and/or fruit, with low acid foods, such as onions and peppers. With the addition of lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar in the right proportion, salsa becomes a high acid food and can be safely processed in a boiling water canner. However, only research-based recipes should be used. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 508 kb

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples, July 2012 - June 2013
This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 3,031 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 57,374 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 981,831 tons sold during this period.
250 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb

Expected Progeny Differences: Trait Definitions and Utilizing Percentile Tables
Expected progeny differences (EPDs) are useful tools in providing the best estimate of the genetic value of a particular animal as a parent. Differences in EPDs between parents of the same breed predict the performance differences of their future offspring if environmental factors are the same. EPD values should not be compared between breeds; for example, you should not compare an Angus bull's weaning weight EPD with a Simmental bull's weaning weight EPD. Most established breeds have EPDs for calving ease, growth, maternal, and carcass traits. When used properly, producers can make genetic improvements to their herd through parental selection. This publication is intended to help producers better understand EPDs and how one might use them in selection of replacement animals.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 370 kb

Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 264 kb

Seed Inspection Report, 2009 - 2013
The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station's annual Seed Inspection Report provides results of the examination, analysis and tests of seeds distributed and sampled in our state. It is intended to be useful to individuals interested in evaluating the quality of seeds distributed in Kentucky. The report represents the commitment of the staff at Regulatory Services to provide consumer protection and service related to Kentucky's seed industry.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1700 kb

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky
A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.
14200 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1800 kb

Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves
During gestation, the placenta of the cow effectively separates the blood of the fetus from that of the dam and prevents any transfer of protective immunity while in the uterus. Therefore, the calf is born completely dependent on the absorption of maternal antibodies from colostrum after birth. Colostrum is the milk produced from the mammary gland in the first 24 hours after birth. A calf's gastrointestinal tract is designed to temporarily allow the absorption of large molecules including antibodies from the small intestine, but only during the first 24 hours after birth. Although colostrum contains several different types of immunoglobulins, IgG accounts for roughly 85 percent of the total volume. IgG absorption is most efficient in the first four hours of life and declines rapidly after 12 hours of age. At 24 hours, the gut is completely closed and there is no further immunoglobulin absorption. These absorbed antibodies must be consumed in order to protect the calf from disease organisms until its own immune system becomes functional.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 280 kb

UK Ag Equine Programs 2014 Calendar
The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.
3400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 10000 kb

Participatory Evaluation: Engaging Stakeholders in the Process
In this age of accountability, organizations, agencies and individuals alike are held at higher standards to show their programs can make a difference. Hence, evaluation is a critical component of programming, whether it serves the development and implementation process or provides the results of a project funded by a grant.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 180 kb

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases
Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb

Fertilizer Management in Alfalfa
Alfalfa is a high quality, valuable forage crop that can be successfully produced on most well-drained soils in Kentucky for hay, silage, and grazing. Fertilizing alfalfa can be uniquely challenging because it is a high-yielding crop that removes a tremendous amount of soil nutrients when compared to other crops grown in Kentucky. A thorough understanding of alfalfa's growth habits, nutrient requirements, and soil nutrient supply mechanisms is necessary to effectively manage fertilizer inputs and maximize profitability while minimizing environmental impact.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 4 kb

2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.
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2012 Beef Research and Extension Report
The intent of this report is to provide highlights of our research and extension activities. We have a vested interest in the beef industry in the state and nation, and hope this report provides a window into our programs. We believe that after viewing this report, a greater appreciation will be garnered with respect to our involvement in the multiple fields of study related to beef production. The faculty, staff and student activities are advancing our understanding of basic science principles of livestock production as well as applied research that producers and the industry can benefit from immediately, as well as in the future. Extension educational programs, on-farm demonstrations, and other activities aid in transferring this knowledge to producers, allowing for increased awareness and adoption of management change.
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Groundwater Quality
Groundwater is an important water source for activities such as drinking, bathing, cooking, and crop irrigation. Keeping our groundwater sources clean is becoming more challenging with an ever growing population. In watersheds underlain with karst, such as many of those in Kentucky, the groundwater is more susceptible to contamination. This is because surface waters, such as runoff and in some cases streamflow, travel into the subsurface of karst by way of fractures, sinkholes, swallow holes, conduits and caves Such direct paths into the groundwater mean that pollutants reach the aquifer much more quickly with little to no filtration. Thus, while waters from springs and wells may look clean, they may actually contain unsafe levels of pollutants such as bacteria and nitrogen.
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Selecting Feeds for Horses
Feeds should be selected with the nutrient requirements of the horse in mind, recognizing that requirements vary with the life stage of the horse (growing, pregnant, lactating, working, idle). Feeds for horses should always be clean and free from toxins. Feeds should also promote gastrointestinal health. The large intestine (cecum and colon) of the digestive tract contains a diverse population of beneficial microbes that can easily be upset by poor feed selection. In nature horses will spend more than 50% of their time grazing; therefore, feed that promotes similar feeding behavior may be desirable. Once appropriate feeds have been selected, it is important that they are fed in the correct amounts using good feeding management strategies.
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Home Canning Basics
People choose to can foods at home for many reasons: to preserve the harvest from their gardens or local farmers markets for year-round enjoyment; to gain more control over what is in their food by limiting or avoiding salt, sugar or preservatives; to save money; to get better-tasting canned foods; to follow family traditions; or just for the sense of satisfaction that home canning provides.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 436 kb

2013 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue and orchardgrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and prairie brome can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1150 kb

2013 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 940 kb

2013 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 10 to 12 years.
1800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2360 kb

2013 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions.
2125 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3500 kb

2013 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of red and white clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 700 kb

2013 Summer Annual Grass Report
Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2009-2013 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, and teff.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1250 kb

2013 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.
450 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 680 kb

Avian Female Reproductive System
Anyone raising poultry for eggs, whether for eating or for incubation, should have an understanding of the reproductive system. This will help them understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
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Avian Skeletal System
All animals have a skeleton to allow them to stand up and to protect their internal organs and tissues. The avian skeletal system looks similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, but there are some important differences.
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Avian Digestive System
An understanding of the avian digestive system is essential to developing an effective and economical feeding program for your poultry flock. Knowledge of avian anatomy, and what the parts normally look like, will also help you to recognize when something is wrong and take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
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Avian Muscular System
If you raise poultry for meat, it is always a good idea to have an understanding of the muscular system of poultry so you can better understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1887 kb

2013 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 700 kb

2013 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties.
450 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1750 kb

2013 Red and White Clover Report
This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.
800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 960 kb

2013 Orchardgrass Report
This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.
800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb

2013 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties.
800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1600 kb

2013 Alfalfa Report
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1950 kb

Keeping Trash Out of Streams
Fresh water is an essential natural resource that is used every day for drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, and recreation. In Kentucky, the water used for these tasks mainly comes from streams and rivers, but it can also come from groundwater. Because our streams, rivers, and aquifers are so vital to our daily lives, it is important that we protect them from trash, debris, and other pollutants found in stormwater. What happens to the land around these water sources affects their condition and health.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1200 kb

Savvy Sellers and Bargain Hunters: Basic Guidelines to Yard Sales and Consignment Shops
This publication provides tips to be a successful seller or bargain hunter to help you maximize profits and savings.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 550 kb

2013 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.
2500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2600 kb

Understanding and Protecting Kentucky's Watersheds
Regardless of where you are, you are always in a watershed. A watershed is any area of land that drains water to a single water body such as a stream or lake.
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Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops
The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application.
3300 printed copies
HTML: 2 kb

Avian Male Reproductive System
The avian male reproductive system is all inside the bird, unlike the males of mammalian species which have their reproductive systems outside of the body. This is one of the really remarkable things about birds; the sperm remain viable at body temperature.
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Avian Respiratory System
Knowledge of avian anatomy and what the parts normally look like will help you to recognize when something is wrong and to take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 200 kb

Selecting Geese
Size, behavior and egg production vary according to breed, and the right breed of goose for your flock will depend on what you intend to use them for. This publication will help you decide on the right breed for you.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 663 kb

Selecting Turkeys
Raising wild turkeys is illegal in some states, including Kentucky. The prohibition includes domestic strains of wild birds. The law is meant to protect native populations of wild turkeys. Learn more about selecting the right breed of turkey in this publication.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 664 kb

Selecting Ducks
As with many domesticated species, ducks are selected for different purposes, primarily meat or egg production. They are also valued for their feathers and down. It is important to choose a breed of duck that best suits your particular needs.
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Common External Parasites of Poultry
Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available.
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Raising Guinea Fowl
Guinea fowl are rough, vigorous, hardy, and mostly disease-free game birds. They are increasing in popularity for a variety of reasons.
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Processing Chickens
When processing poultry, remember that you are producing a perishable food product that will eventually be consumed by people. The goal is to produce a safe, nutritious product.
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Review of Life Cycles of Some Parasitic Nematodes in Mammals
Most internal parasites of vertebrates require stages outside the host for development and transmission. Some life cycles are simple and straightforward. Others may have one or more intermediate or paritenic hosts. Knowledge of life cycles of parasites first of all is of great scientific interest. Secondly, life cycles are of great importance in controlling parasites. The object of this presentation is to review life cycles of some mammalian parasitic nematode species in research in association with the University of Kentucky.
100 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb

Sensor Technology for Variable Rate Nitrogen Applications on Wheat in Kentucky: Recommendations and Verification
Nitrogen (N) applications on wheat using sensor-based technology can improve both N use efficiency and yields.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 812 kb

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers
Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.
5100 printed copies
HTML: 3 kb

Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.
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Hungry for Change: Get More of Nutrients Lacking in the American Diet
Although the U.S. food supply is abundant, many people are experiencing nutritional shortfalls. More than half of all Americans suffer from chronic diseases because of poor food choices.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 685 kb

Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol: You Can Do It
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is found in all parts of the body. It is needed for the body to work well. All the cholesterol we need could be made in our bodies, but we also get cholesterol from the food we eat.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 698 kb

Make Healthy Food Choices: Reduce Saturated Fat in Your Diet
What do the fat on meat, the skin of poultry, and the fat you see when you open a container of beef stew have in common? They are all sources of saturated fat that are easy to see. But some sources of saturated fat, such as the fat in whole milk, high-fat cheeses, ice cream and ice cream products, can be more difficult to spot.
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4-H Demonstrations
A demonstration is a method used to communicate an idea by showing and telling. Visual aids are used to enhance the presentation.
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4-H Speeches
4-H members can learn how to prepare and present a speech on any topic they feel passionate about.
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Are you Getting Enough Vitamin D?
Vitamin D is often called the sunshine vitamin. This vitamin is unique in that sunlight on our skin enables our bodies to make vitamin D. Over the past decade there have been conflicting messages about vitamin D, its benefits, and how much is needed to be healthy.
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Fiber: Are you Bulking up the Benefits?
You may have heard you should eat more fiber, but do you know the reason? Fiber, in adequate amounts, decreases the risk for heart disease, controls blood sugar, improves digestive health, and helps with weight management.
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Get Strong Bones with Calcium!
Many Americans do not get the recommended amount of calcium. Adults should consume three cups of milk or milk products a day, but typically consume only three-fourths the recommended amount of calcium-rich foods each day.
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Staying Off the SoFAS: Ways to Limit Solid Fats and Added Sugars
All foods could make up part of a healthy diet. However, the typical American diet is too high in solid fats and added sugar. This leads to the consumption of 800 excess calories each day which could lead to a weight gain of six pounds in a month. Overweight and obesity increases a personís risk for chronic diseases.
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Steps Toward Hiring a Dependable Contractor
When building or repairing your home, the general contractor you hire can be either the biggest help or the biggest source of problems you will encounter. You can learn to protect your interests and avoid financial disaster by becoming an informed consumer.
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Managing Insects and Spiders in the Home
This guide is designed to help you tell the "bad" bugs from the harmless ones and to show you a few basic steps that you can take to detect the most common indoor pests and to prevent problems before they happen.
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Managing Stormwater Using Low Impact Development (LID) Techniques
As more land is covered by impervious surfaces, less rainfall infiltrates into the ground and instead becomes runoff. Too much runoff is problematic. Flooding increases, streambanks erode, and water quality is reduced. An increase of impervious area of as little 10 percent has been shown to negatively impact streams. The purpose of this publication is to explain low impact development strategies and how they can be used to improve stormwater management by reducing impacts on streams.
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2012 Commercial Feeds in Kentucky
Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.
2700 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2000 kb

Using the Futures Market to Predict Prices and Calculate Breakevens for Feeder Cattle
The purpose of this publication is to show beef cattle producers how the feeder cattle futures market can be used to predict sale prices for cattle sold at a later date, and how those prices could be used to estimate what can be paid for calves placed into stocker and backgrounding programs. By using the futures market as a way to forecast prices, and by carefully considering expenses, a target purchase price can be estimated for calves placed into these programs. While there are many unknowns that producers must manage such as prices, gains, health challenges, death loss, etc, this type of breakeven analysis is crucial for anyone placing calves in today's market environment.
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How Water Use Impacts Septic System Performance
The purpose of this publication is to discuss home water use patterns and suggest water conservation measures that could improve septic system performance and reduce the risks of hydraulic overload or other kinds of system failure.
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Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.
2500 printed copies
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An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky
Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.
3000 printed copies
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Poultry Judging: Grading Eggs
In a 4-H poultry judging contest, there are three categories involving the grading of table eggs (eggs for consumption rather than for incubation): external quality, interior quality by candling, and interior quality of broken-out eggs.
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2013 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.
2100 printed copies
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Significant Leadership Characteristics: ANR Facilitator's Guide
Everyone has the opportunity to be a leader at some time, so it is important that every person have a strong understanding of what leadership is, what effective leadership looks like and how it can vary between individuals.
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Understanding and Dealing with Conflict: ANR Facilitator's Guide
Successful conflict resolution relies on understanding how to utilize the correct conflict response for each circumstance and the removal of barriers to effectiveness.
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Understanding Generational Differences: ANR Facilitator's Guide
By gaining a better understanding of the values that have shaped each generation, we increase our opportunity for building strong family, work, and community relationships.
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The Influence of Personal Characteristics: Personality, Culture and Environment: ANR Facilitator's Guide
To grow as an effective leader you must understand yourself as well as the differences of personal characteristics in others.
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KAES Annual Report, 2012
Experiment station research spans both basic and applied sciences. The ability of Kentucky producers to be competitive in domestic and world markets requires an expanded base of knowledge in emerging areas of research applicable to agriculture, food, and natural resources. This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2012. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry.
60 printed copies
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Stormwater Wetlands
As our population has grown, so have our towns and cities, and this growth has led to an increase in stormwater runoff. Stormwater best management practices help mitigate the impact of stormwater runoff on water quality by reducing pollutant loads through physical, chemical and/or biological processes. One of the most effective BMPs at improving stormwater quality is the stormwater wetland.
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Planting Along Your Stream, Pond, or Lake
Kentucky has more than 90,000 miles of rivers and streams and thousands of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. You can improve your surroundings and the quality of your stream, pond, or lake by planting an area called a riparian buffer or buffer zone.
500 printed copies
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As stormwater moves across lawns and paved areas, it picks up bacteria, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals before traveling through the storm sewers to our water bodies. Because the stormwater is not cleaned or treated, it creates harmful conditions for the environment and for us.
500 printed copies
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What is a Watershed?
A watershed is an area of land that drains water to a single water body. Watersheds are as small as a few acres draining into a stream or as large as several states draining into the ocean. Smaller watersheds join together to make larger watersheds. Kentucky is divided into seven major watersheds, or basins. Knowing what watershed you live in is a first step toward protecting water quality.
500 printed copies
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What's Wrong with My Taxus?
Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.
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Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky
Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.
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Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens---2013
Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases.
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On-Farm Composting of Animal Mortalities
On-farm composting can provide animal producers with a convenient method for disposing of animal mortalities and also provide a valuable soil amendment. In addition, the finished compost can be stockpiled and reused to help compost other mortalities.
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On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities
Animal mortalities are an expected part of animal production. Depending on the scale of the animal enterprise, animal mortalities can overwhelm the producer with a large number and mass of dead animals. This publication provides guidance to the producer for handling animal mortalities in accordance with Kentucky law.
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Get Pumped Up for Potassium!
Studies show the risk of stroke was lower in men who consumed 4.3 grams of potassium a day compared with men who consumed 2.4 grams of potassium a day. Learning about potassium and foods that are good sources could go a long way to improving your health.
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The Health Benefits of Cruciferous Vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables are good sources of vitamins C, E, and K; folate; minerals; and fiber. They contain several forms of vitamin A called beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. They are also rich in antioxidants that protect the body from damage by compounds called free radicals.
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The Health Benefits of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables
Dark green leafy vegetables are an excellent source of fiber, folate, and carotenoids. These vegetables also contain vitamins C and K and the minerals iron and calcium.
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The Health Benefits of Tomatoes and Tomato Products
Tomatoes contain vitamins A, C, and K. Tomatoes are also a good source of niacin, chromium, and potassium. Vitamin C protects the body from free radicals which destroy the healthy cells in the body. Niacin helps to lower triglyceride, a fat present in our blood.
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The Health Benefits of Dark Yellow/Orange Vegetables
Dark yellow/orange vegetables are good sources of beta carotene, a carotenoid and antioxidant that protects against free-radical damage.
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Poultry Production Troubleshooting
When investigating a problem with a poultry flock, the questions in this publication can help you determine the cause and possible solution.
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Table Etiquette
A knowledge of table etiquette will help you feel comfortable at special occasions such as family celebrations, awards banquets and weddings, or when a potential employer invites you to lunch or dinner.
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Using DHIA Records for Somatic Cell Count Management
DHIA (Dairy Herd Improvement Association) records are an essential part of dairy herd management for many progressive dairy operations. However, for producers new to DHIA, interpreting the meaning of all this information can be a bit overwhelming. Even producers who have been DHIA members for many years may not fully understand all the value that DHIA records can provide for SCC management. What follows is a description and interpretation of SCC-related information available to dairy producers on DHIA test reports.
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2011 Kentucky Compost Bedded Pack Barn Project
Kentucky dairy producers are adopting compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) as dairy cattle housing at a rapid rate. When properly managed, as an alternative dairy housing system, CBPs may decrease somatic cell count (SCC), increase production, and reduce lameness. Because the system is relatively new, however, many questions remain regarding best management practices and key factors for success. University of Kentucky dairy scientists and agricultural engineers conducted a comprehensive observational study of Kentucky CBPs from October 2010 to March 2011. The goal of this research was to determine key management concepts that determine success or failure in the compost-bedded pack system.
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Mulching with Large Round Bales between Plastic-covered Beds
Large round bales lend themselves very well to the application of mulching rows of vegetables because the bales can be unrolled to peel off layers that are about the right thickness for mulch. An innovative implement that offsets the bale so that it can be unrolled between the rows while the tractor straddles the row can make the practice of mulching with round bales considerably more efficient.
250 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2400 kb

Modifying a Bale Unroller for Mulching between Plastic-covered Beds
Round bales of hay or straw can be used to mulch between rows of plastic film mulch used in vegetable production. This practice may be particularly useful for organic production where herbicide use is prohibited. To make the job of unrolling round bales between rows of plastic easier, a commercially available three-point hitch mounted bale unroller was modified by extending the toolbar and adding a second mast so that the bale is offset, allowing the tractor to straddle a row of plastic while unrolling the bale between the rows.
250 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3400 kb

Environmental Compliance for Dairy Operations
Some farmers are reluctant to talk about the environment, but because farms are under increasing review by state and federal regulatory agencies, producers need to be familiar with environmental issues and regulations. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can help farmers continue to protect the environment and increase productivity.
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