Online Publication Catalog


Most recently published titles:

In descending order, by date published.

 


ASC-261

Going Green: Ten Fundamentals of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Beef Systems

2/13/2024 (new)
Authors: David Harmon, Jeff Lehmkuhler

Global warming has become a key focus of all agricultural sectors during the late 2010s and early 2020s. Discussion on identifying and increasing adoption of sustainable practices, shifting from gasoline to electric automotive engines, and producing alternative sources of energy continually permeate the airwaves. These various proposals are accompanied with new terminology and concepts that may not be fully defined for the audience. As a livestock producer, it is important to know and understand how new legislation for limiting greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector could be directed toward the farm gate.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 343 kb
Pages: 3



FCS3-549

Diabetes and the Health Care Team

2/1/2024 (minor revision)
Authors: Ingrid Adams, Anna Cason

Diabetes is a disease that affects many parts of the body, such as the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, heart, legs, and feet. As a result, a team approach to taking care of the disease can be helpful. When a team of individuals works together problems are identified earlier, and it is easier to reduce or prevent diabetes complications.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 265 kb
Pages: 4



ID-36

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2024-25

1/29/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Misbah Munir, Rachel Rudolph, Shawn Wright

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. Would-be growers unwilling to make serious investments of time (and money) should not attempt to expand beyond a space at the farmers' market. It is important for vegetable growers to have a market outlet for their product before they choose to start production.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 6.18 mb
Pages: 180



RB-352

Seed Inspection Report, 2023

1/29/2024 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

The Division of Regulatory Services is part of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is charged with administering the Kentucky Seed Law and Regulations. The Kentucky Seed Law is a "truth-in-labeling" law requiring basic labeling of seed components and quality factors to inform producers and consumers about the attributes of seed lots offered for sale in Kentucky. The seed program at Regulatory Services is comprised of the seed regulatory program and the seed service testing program.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 3.09 mb
Pages: 26



4LA-01PB

Exploring Kentucky 4-H

1/25/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Jann Burks

Way to go! You have begun an exciting new adventure. It is called Exploring 4-H. You are a member of the largest club for young people in the world. The symbol for 4-H is a four-leaf clover. It means good luck. The color of the clover is bright green. There is a letter H on each of the four leaves of the clover. They stand for head, heart, hands, and health. The national motto for 4-H is "To Make the Best Better."

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Introductory, General, Miscellaneous: Exploring 4-H (4LA series)
Size: 2.09 mb
Pages: 17



AGR-204

Soils and Fertility: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 4

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Brad Lee, Edwin Ritchey

Soil is a mixture of weathered rock fragments (minerals) and organic matter at the earth's surface. It is biologically active - a home to countless microorganisms, invertebrates, and plant roots.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.53 mb
Pages: 18



AGR-205

Weed Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 8

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

Every garden has weeds, and every gardener wonders what to do about them. Gardening involves lots of small decisions that can have a cumulative effect on those weed problems.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.47 mb
Pages: 10



AGR-206

Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Kenneth Clayton, Gregg Munshaw, A.J. Powell

Turfgrass is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 2.21 mb
Pages: 16



ENT-68

Insects: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Jonathan Larson

Insects are the most biodiverse group of animals on earth. Amazingly, there are about one million total species of insects known currently, with the possibility of tens of millions more left to discover.

Departments: Entomology
Series: Entomology (ENT series)
Size: 8.98 mb
Pages: 16



ENT-69

Integrated Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 10

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Jonathan Larson

Pests can be insects, weeds, vertebrates, and diseases. Any organism that causes harm to crops, livestock, or humans can be considered problematic and therefore must be managed.

Departments: Entomology
Series: Entomology (ENT series)
Size: 2.23 mb
Pages: 8



ENT-70

Pesticides and Pesticide Safety: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 11

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Lee Townsend

Pest is not a biological term for an organism's environmental role as are the words plant, herbivore, predator, and scavenger. It is a term for an organism that is either causing damage or is somewhere where it's not wanted.

Departments: Entomology
Series: Entomology (ENT series)
Size: 1.23 mb
Pages: 8



FOR-121

Vertebrate Pest Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 9

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Tom Barnes, Matthew Springer

Most people enjoy watching wildlife around the home, whether it is birds at a feeder, butterflies on flowers, or the occasional deer or turkey wandering through the yard. In some instances, wildlife come into contact with humans and are in the wrong place at the wrong time. For the gardening enthusiast, this encounter can create conflict.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 1.11 mb
Pages: 8



HO-100

Organic Gardening: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 21

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Krista Jacobsen

Organic farming and gardening have grown in popularity in recent years as consumers and producers have sought alternatives to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in favor of biologically based management.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 8



HO-101

Care of Woody Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 17

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham

To prune or not to prune? This is a question that often faces gardeners. Most feel they ought to prune but are not sure why or how.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 2.73 mb
Pages: 14



HO-102

Annual and Perennial Flowers: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 18

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Rick Durham

Can you imagine a world without flowers? Their textures, colors, scents, and forms inspire gardeners, artists, and writers. The desire to grow flowers often motivates novices to take up gardening and moves experienced gardeners to become flower specialists. Annuals, biennials, and herbaceous perennials offer variety and interest to all styles of gardens.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 10



HO-103

Indoor Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 19

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Rick Durham

Cultivating plants inside the home is both a popular hobby and an interior decorating technique. More than 75 percent of all American families use living plants as part of their home decor or cultural expression.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 1.66 mb
Pages: 10



HO-104

Growing Tree Fruits: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 22

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: John Strang

Growing tree fruits or nuts can provide a great deal of satisfaction, but it takes a commitment to care for your trees year-round.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 1.91 mb
Pages: 10



HO-105

Landscape Design: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 14

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham

Landscape designs differ depending on how the landscape will be used. Although the principles are the same, a homeowner who wants an aesthetically pleasing, low-maintenance landscape will create a design very different than that of an avid gardener whose main purpose in life is to spend time in the garden.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 2.46 mb
Pages: 16



HO-107

Selecting and Planting Woody Plants: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 16

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain

Woody ornamental plants are key components of a well-designed landscape. Landscape plantings divide and define areas, add aesthetic and psychological benefits, and increase a property's environmental and economic value.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 2.09 mb
Pages: 14



HO-96

Basic Botany: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 1

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham

Plants are essential to life on earth. Either directly or indirectly, they are the primary food source for humans and other animals. Additionally, they provide fuel, replenish the earth's oxygen supply, prevent soil erosion, slow down wind movement, cool the atmosphere, provide wildlife habitat, supply medicinal compounds, and beautify our surroundings.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 4.27 mb
Pages: 22



HO-97

Plant Identification: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 2

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham

Learning about new plants is an exciting venture. Sometimes you are looking for a plant to fill a certain spot in your garden. At other times, you want to complete a particular color scheme, or your attention is caught by a magnificent tree, shrub, or perennial in a public or private garden.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 351 kb
Pages: 4



HO-98

Plant Propagation: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 3

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham

Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen (male) with the egg (female) to produce a seed. The seed is made up of three parts: the outer seed coat, which protects the seed; the endosperm, which is a food reserve; and the embryo, which is the young plant itself.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 1.38 mb
Pages: 12



ID-192

Composting: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 13

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee

Gardeners have long made and used compost to improve garden soil.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 908 kb
Pages: 6



ID-194

Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Jessica Bessin, Rick Durham, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, Lee Townsend, Stacy White, Erica Wood

For those with a green thumb, growing plants may seem easy. However, when plant problems arise, determining the cause of these issues can be difficult. Developing the skills necessary to determine the cause of a plant problem takes experience and time.

Departments: Bell County, Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Franklin County, Hopkins County, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 15.53 mb
Pages: 24



ID-201

Your Yard and Water Quality: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 12

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee

We generally view gardening as a wholesome activity that enhances our environment. But pesticides, fertilizers, and erosion from gardens and landscapes can contaminate lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Since the quality of our water resources affects our quality of life, we must learn how gardening practices can contribute to water contamination and how to reduce the threat to water quality.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 749 kb
Pages: 6



PPA-46

Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 5

1/16/2024 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger, Robbie Smith

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death.

Departments: Christian County, County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Size: 21.85 mb
Pages: 20



ID-172s

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas en Kentucky

12/22/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Rachel Rudolph, Shawn Wright

Este manual es el resultado de los esfuerzos del equipo de MIP en vegetales de la Universidad de Kentucky. Financiamiento para esta publicacion fue proporcionado por la Proteccion de Cultivos y Manejo de Plagas (CPPM), el Programa de Implementacion de Extension (EIP), propuesta No. 2021-70006-35440 de el Instituto Nacional de Alimentos y Agricultura de la USDA. La version en espanol de esta publicacion fue posible gracias a fondos de la USDA Smith-Lever.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 49.44 mb
Pages: 48



ID-184S

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Problemas Comunes del Maiz Dulce (Elote) en Kentucky

12/22/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold

Este manual es el resultado de los esfuerzos del equipo MIP para Vegetales de la Universidad de Kentucky. El financiamiento para esta publicacion en ingles fue proporcionado por el Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas y el Servicio Cooperativo de Extension de la Universidad de Kentucky. La version en espanol de esta publicacion fue posible gracias a fondos de la USDA Smith-Lever.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 13.81 mb
Pages: 16



ID-216S

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Coles en Kentucky

12/22/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold

Este manual es el resultado de los esfuerzos del equipo MIP para Vegetales de la Universidad de Kentucky. El financiamiento para esta publicacion fue proporcionado por el Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas y por el Servicio Cooperativo de Extension de la Universidad de Kentucky. La version en espanol de esta publicacion fue posible gracias a fondos de la USDA Smith-Lever.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 12.21 mb
Pages: 16



ID-227S

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Legumbres Horticolas en Kentucky

12/22/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Shubin Saha, Shawn Wright

Este manual es el resultado de los esfuerzos del equipo MIP para Vegetales de la Universidad de Kentucky. El financiamiento para esta publicacion en ingles fue proporcionado por el Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas. La version en espanol de esta publicacion fue posible gracias a fondos de la USDA Smith-Lever.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 33.61 mb
Pages: 32



ID-235S

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Problemas Comunes en Cultivos de Vegetales en Tunel e Invernaderos en Kentucky

12/22/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Obrycki, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, Shawn Wright

Este manual es el resultado de los esfuerzos del equipo de MIP en vegetales de la Universidad de Kentucky. Financiamiento para esta publicacion fue proporcionado por el programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas de la Universidad de Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 23.23 mb
Pages: 28



PR-845

2023 Annual Grass Report Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/21/2023 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental pasture, silage, or hay crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2008-2021 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, forage sorghum, millets, teff, crabgrass, and cereal crops.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.48 mb
Pages: 36



AEN-173

Shelterbelts for Livestock

12/19/2023 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Livestock must maintain a normal body temperature to optimize their production potential. Providing shade and protection from wind are two ways producers can aid in managing the impact of temperature-related stress on their livestock.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 4.66 mb
Pages: 7



PR-837

2023 Alfalfa Report

12/18/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 748 kb
Pages: 12



PR-838

2023 Orchardgrass Report

12/18/2023 (new)
Authors: Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 464 kb
Pages: 8



PR-839

2023 Tall Fescue, Bromegrass, and Meadow Fescue Report

12/18/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 726 kb
Pages: 16



PR-842

2023 Alfalfa, Red Clover, and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/18/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? To answer this question, we have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 480 kb
Pages: 12



PR-843

2023 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/18/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass and festulolium can also be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 621 kb
Pages: 16



PR-844

2023 Cool-Season Grass Horse-Grazing Tolerance Report

12/18/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to evaluate varieties of these grasses for persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 419 kb
Pages: 8



FCS3-626

Vitamins, Minerals, and Athletic Performance

12/15/2023 (minor revision)
Authors: Kyle Flack, Harry Hays, Jack Moreland

There are many sources of vitamins and minerals in our diet from both animal and plant sources. Certain vitamins and minerals are especially important for athletic performance. These include B-vitamins, iron, zinc, selenium, and electrolytes - sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. We are going to focus on the vitamins and minerals present in fruits and vegetables and their impact on athletic performance.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 607 kb
Pages: 2



PR-836

2023 Red and White Clover and Annual Lespedeza Report

12/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. It is a dominant forage legume in Kentucky because it is relatively easy to establish and has high forage quality, yield, and animal acceptance.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 472 kb
Pages: 8



PR-846

2023 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play a positive environmental role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are more than 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 32



PR-840

2023 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

12/7/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage - after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 419 kb
Pages: 8



PR-841

2023 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

12/7/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 760 kb
Pages: 16



PR-834

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2023

12/6/2023 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Dalton Mertz, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 244 kb
Pages: 4



PR-832

2023 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report

12/5/2023 (new)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Maya Horvath, Rachel Rudolph, Ginny Travis, Dwight Wolfe

This report is a bit different from previous reports in that it represents two years' worth of work. It is also smaller than the reports of previous years. In 2021, a tornado destroyed much of our research center in Princeton, KY, and in 2022, a flood destroyed much of our research center in Quicksand, KY. Although both locations are rebuilding as quickly as they can, research trials have been hindered. We hope to have more trials and more reports in the future. Research was conducted by University of Kentucky faculty, staff, and students from the Department of Horticulture, as well as faculty and staff of Kentucky State University.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 5.16 mb
Pages: 16



ASC-258

Minerals Matter for Beef Cattle

11/20/2023 (new)
Authors: Michelle Arnold, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Minerals are an essential nutrient for beef cattle. If minerals are not consumed in the diet, deficiencies can occur. At the same time, overconsumption of certain minerals can result in toxicity. Providing the proper balance of each mineral without overconsumption is necessary for optimal performance, as minerals are essential for supporting growth, reproduction, lactation, and health.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 5



NEP-233

Growing Your Own: Composting

11/16/2023 (new)
Authors: Daniel Bowen, Rick Durham, Erika Olsen, Rachel Rudolph

Composting is the controlled breakdown of materials such as leaves, grass clippings, and food scraps, also called organic matter. During composting, tiny microorganisms feed on these leftovers. Once the microorganisms are done eating, compost will be all that remains.

Departments: Extension Office, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 3.33 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-6

Weed Control Recommendations for Kentucky Grain Crops, 2024

11/15/2023 (minor revision)
Authors: J.D. Green, Travis Legleiter

The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application. Smaller files are available here.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 6.85 mb
Pages: 144



PR-835

2023 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/15/2023 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Dalton Mertz, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 685 kb
Pages: 8



FCS4-411

Healthy Homes: Indoor Air Quality Managing Asthma Triggers in the Home

11/9/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Linda Adler

Asthma, a serious lung disease, is a leading cause of long-term illness in children. In Kentucky, 10.6% of children 11 years old and younger, 13.6% of middle school students, 11.8% of high school students and 18.6% of adults have asthma. While asthma can affect anyone at any age, it is more common among black people. In Kentucky, 13.9% of black people have asthma compared to 8.2% of white people. Additionally, black people are twice as likely to die from asthma-related illness as white people.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Housing and Home Furnishings (FCS4 series)
Size: 7.03 mb
Pages: 8



AGR-275

Tall Fescue Novel Endophyte Varieties and Establishment for Livestock and Horse Farms

11/2/2023 (new)
Authors: Krista Lea, Stephanie Smith, Ray Smith

"Endophyte" refers to a fungus that lives within the fescue plant, meaning it cannot be seen with the naked eye. The endophyte found in tall fescue is beneficial to the plant: It gives tall fescue insect resistance, enhanced grazing tolerance, and greater persistence in stressful environments. The major disadvantage of some of the endophytes of tall fescue is that they produce toxic alkaloids that have detrimental effects on many types of livestock.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 889 kb
Pages: 2



ID-276

Proper Grounding as Part of an Electric Fencing System

11/1/2023 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Chris Teutsch

Electric fencing provides a successful boundary by shocking an animal when there is contact between the animal and the fence wire. For electric fencing to work properly, current or electricity from the fence must travel through the animal, into the ground, and back to the energizer. The grounding on the energizer works as an "antenna" to collect the current and complete the circuit, which allows the animal to feel the shock. Frustration with electric fencing occurs when animals do not receive a proper shock when they first come in contact with the fence.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.48 mb
Pages: 3



FOR-173

Identifying and Addressing River Otter Damage Issues in Kentucky

10/31/2023 (new)
Authors: Jonathan Matthews, Matthew Springer, Gabriela Wolf-Gonzalez

River otters (Lontra canadensis) were once abundant throughout North America, but unregulated harvest, water pollution, and overall habitat degradation decimated river otter populations across the contiguous United States. By the early 1900s, river otters were scarce in Kentucky; however, due to restoration programs implemented by Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources (KDFWR), this species has rebounded in the state. River otters can now be found throughout Kentucky.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 7



FOR-174

Fall Webworms

10/31/2023 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Jonathan Larson

Fall webworms are native tent caterpillars that can be found throughout the United States and southern Canada. This species is distinguished by its "tent" constructed at the ends of tree branches, allowing caterpillars to feed gregariously on enclosed foliage. While these insects can cause heavy defoliation, especially during periodic outbreaks, fall webworms by themselves do not cause mortality in healthy trees and are typically not a serious concern meriting management. However, other tent-forming caterpillars may be confused with fall webworm (such as the eastern tent caterpillar) and learning to distinguish these species can be useful for understanding potential impacts.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 3.26 mb
Pages: 4



FOR-175

Woodland Invasive Plant Management Series: Bush Honeysuckle

10/31/2023 (new)
Authors: John Cox, Ellen Crocker, Jacob Muller, Jeff Stringer, Billy Thomas

Several species of Asian bush honeysuckle in the genus Lonicera are invasive in North America. The most common invasive bush honeysuckle species in Kentucky is the Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) but other invasive honeysuckle species include L. morrowii, L. tatarica, L. x bella. These species, originally native to China, Korea and parts of Japan, were introduced to the U.S. as far back as the late 1800s and were promoted for conservation and wildlife uses in the 1960s and 1970s. Unfortunately, bush honeysuckles are still popular ornamental plants despite easily escaping into natural areas. The negative impact of dense stands of these species and the ease in which they can escape cultivation is a major concern across the region.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 4.07 mb
Pages: 6



PR-833

2023 Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Trials

10/31/2023 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Cam Kenimer, Dalton Mertz, Phillip Shine

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Trials are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. Annual evaluation of soybean varieties provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 996 kb
Pages: 16



ASC-259

Reproduction in Female Yaks

10/26/2023 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Mary McCarty, Katherine VanValin

The yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique domestic animal. These animals were developed in the extreme environment of the Himalayas, where food resources can be extremely limiting. The yak provides food (meat and milk), fiber (hair), and are beasts of burden (used for pack, transportation, plowing, etc.) for the local populations. The number of yaks in the world is limited, creating a need to understand and control reproduction in the yak to improve genetic diversity.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 3



ASC-260

Controlling Reproduction in Female Yaks

10/26/2023 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Mary McCarty, Katherine VanValin

The yak (bos grunniens) is a member of the bovine family and plays a vital role in the life of the people of the Himalayan region (China, Mongolia, India, Nepal, etc). The Himalayas is an especially harsh region with long, cold winters and sparse vegetation for most of the year. As with all bovine, nutrient availability, both quality and quantity of available foodstuffs, and current status of body reserves or degree of fat stored in the body dictate the ability of the cow to conceive during a breeding season. Even though conception rate (probability of conception at a single estrus event), is high (70+%), pregnancy rate (probability of conception at the end of a breeding season) is typically only 40%-60% in their natural environments because a high proportion of female yaks fail to have an estrus during the breeding window. Understanding the major factor reducing pregnancy rate is important to creating and implementing management protocols to improve the reproductive ability of female yaks.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 2.21 mb
Pages: 4



ID-91

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops in Kentucky

10/20/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Rachel Rudolph, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed, to reduce their negative impact on the crop, but they are rarely eliminated entirely.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 40.75 mb
Pages: 36



HENV-712

BMP Maintenance and Operation: Filter Strip

10/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Benjamin Currens, Andrea Drayer, Rick Durham, Brad Lee

Filter strips are planted and maintained strips of vegetation designed to provide pretreatment of stormwater runoff before it flows into adjacent best management practices (BMPs). Gently sloped, the dense vegetation within the strip reduces the speed of stormwater. This allows for the capture of sediment as stormwater from impervious surfaces passes through the filter strip.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 7.32 mb
Pages: 4



HENV-713

BMP Maintenance and Operation: Retention Basin

10/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Benjamin Currens, Andrea Drayer, Rick Durham, Brad Lee

Retention basins, or wet ponds, retain a deep, permanent pool of water that can collect stormwater and release it slowly to maintain a desired water level, after which the excess stormwater is released slowly via an outlet (drawdown orifice). Retention basins should always have a baseline level of water present and may be vegetated. Retention basins provide a higher level of pollutant retention (up to 80 percent) and a lower chance of sediment resuspension than detention basins (dry ponds).

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 6.80 mb
Pages: 5



HENV-714

BMP Maintenance and Operation: Grass Swale

10/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Benjamin Currens, Andrea Drayer, Rick Durham, Brad Lee

Grass swales, or dry swales, are designed to transport stormwater, promote infiltration, and capture sediment during a storm event. Grass swales are turfgrass-planted channels constructed with wide bottoms to encourage infiltration of stormwater into the underlying soil. Vegetation in the channel functions to reduce the speed of stormwater and trap sediment as water is conveyed through the channel. When functioning properly, these swales hold water no longer than six hours after a storm and should remain dry until the next storm event.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 5.57 mb
Pages: 4



HENV-715

BMP Maintenance and Operation: Detention Basin

10/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Benjamin Currens, Andrea Drayer, Rick Durham, Brad Lee

Detention basins, or dry ponds, are designed to collect water during a storm event and hold it for a certain amount of time, usually 48 hours. This short impoundment of stormwater allows pollutants carried in the stormwater to settle to the bottom of the basin before collected stormwater is released through a slow-release outlet. When functioning properly, these basins should remain dry after the release of water until the next storm event.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 8.23 mb
Pages: 4



ID-275

Practical Corn Silage Harvest and Storage Guide for Cattle Producers

9/27/2023 (new)
Authors: Donna Amaral-Phillips, Chad Lee, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Nick Roy

Corn silage is often referred to as the "king of forages" and for good reason. With adequate and timely rainfall and normal environmental temperatures during the growing season, corn silage can yield 20 to 25 (or more) tons as fed per acre. Even in years with limited soil moisture, this crop can provide needed forage when harvested and stored properly although whole plant yield and/or grain content is often reduced.

Departments: Adair County, Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 5.41 mb
Pages: 16



ID-273

Match-a-Yak: a Tool to Minimize Inbreeding in North American Yaks

9/25/2023 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Darrh Bullock, Ted Kalbfleisch, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Mary McCarty

The domesticated yak (Bos grunniens) arrived in North America in the late 1890s. A few animals were imported into Canada and North American zoos and became the foundation of the North American genetic pool. Research was conducted in Alaska hybridizing them with Highland cattle in the early 1900s. A handful of yaks were imported into the United States in the early 1900s and again later in the 1980s. However, the genetic diversity of the North American yak is limited, necessitating a need to manage breeding programs to reduce inbreeding.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 3.64 mb
Pages: 4



PR-829

2021 Soybean Yield and Quality Contest

9/7/2023 (new)
Authors: Matt Adams, Clint Hardy, Katie Hughes, Carrie Knott, Brett Mitchell, Troy Muse, Dana O'Nan, Conner Raymond, Paul Andrew Rideout, Darrell Simpson

In Kentucky, farmers grow soybeans in two common soybean production systems: full season and double crop. Farmers plant full season soybeans in the spring and harvest them that fall, so they have harvested one crop in one calendar year. Farmers plant double crop soybeans after wheat harvest in June. These soybeans are harvested later that fall, making them the second crop harvested in the same calendar year. Both systems are important to the overall production of soybean in Kentucky. Therefore, in 1980, an annual soybean yield contest was initiated in Kentucky to document the agronomic practices utilized by producers.

Departments: County Extension, Daviess County, Hardin County, Henderson County, Muhlenberg County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 12



PR-830

2022 Soybean Yield and Quality Contest

9/7/2023 (new)
Authors: Danny Adams, Matt Adams, Jessica Buchman, Daniel Carpenter, Clint Hardy, Katie Hughes, Carrie Knott, Lance Lockhart, Cole Mattingly, Brett Mitchell, Michael Mullican, Troy Muse, Conner Raymond, Glen Roberts, Vicki Shadrick, Darrell Simpson, Gary Stockton

In Kentucky, farmers grow soybeans in two common soybean production systems: full season and double crop. Farmers plant full season soybeans in the spring and harvest them that fall, so they have harvested one crop in one calendar year. Farmers plant double crop soybeans after wheat harvest in June. These soybeans are harvested later that fall, making them the second crop harvested in the same calendar year. Both systems are important to the overall production of soybean in Kentucky. Therefore, in 1980, an annual soybean yield contest was initiated in Kentucky to document the agronomic practices utilized by producers.

Departments: County Extension, Daviess County, Hardin County, Larue County, Muhlenberg County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Wayne County
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 16



4DG-1LO

Introduction to agriCULTURE

8/31/2023 (new)
Authors: Rachel Guidugli, Isaac Hilpp, Ashley Osborne, Misty Wilmoth

According to the U.S. Department of Education International Strategy Report (2012- 2016), in order for youth to succeed in the 21st century workplace, they must develop knowledge and understanding of other countries, cultures, languages, and perspectives. The overall mission of 4-H is to provide opportunities for youth and adults to work together to create sustainable community change. This is accomplished within three primary

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Natural Science: Wildlife and Fisheries (4DG series)
Size: 19.84 mb
Pages: 54



ID-1

The Kentucky Extension Master Gardener Program

8/24/2023 (new)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Tom Barnes, Jessica Bessin, Kenneth Clayton, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, J.D. Green, Kelly Jackson, Krista Jacobsen, Jonathan Larson, Brad Lee, Kimberly Leonberger, Adam Leonberger, Gregg Munshaw, A.J. Powell, Edwin Ritchey, Rachel Rudolph, Robbie Smith, Matthew Springer, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Stacy White, Mark Williams, Erica Wood, Shawn Wright

Plants are essential to life on earth. Either directly or indirectly, they are the primary food source for humans and other animals. Additionally, they provide fuel, replenish the earth's oxygen supply, prevent soil erosion, slow down wind movement, cool the atmosphere, provide wildlife habitat, supply medicinal compounds, and beautify our surroundings.

Departments: Bell County, Christian County, County Extension, Entomology, Extension Office, Forestry and Natural Resources, Franklin County, Hopkins County, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 63.04 mb
Pages: 336



ID-172

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky

8/14/2023 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Rachel Rudolph, Shawn Wright

Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 49.27 mb
Pages: 48



ASC-256

Comparison of Production Levels Among U.S. Beef Breeds

8/8/2023 (new)
Authors: Darrh Bullock

Genetic trends for beef breeds, for many traits, are on the move. The genetic trend for growth in most breeds is strongly positive. Maternal weaning weight (milk) on the other hand is breed dependent, with some breeds showing strong selection for increased milk and others slightly reducing their genetic potential for milking ability. For that reason, it is important to monitor relative differences between breeds for various production traits to assist beef producers in their breed selection decisions.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 592 kb
Pages: 3



FCS1-411

Be a Table Etiquette Superstar!

8/2/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Sandra Bastin, Debbie Clouthier

Your resume may get you the interview, but your personal skills will get you the job. One set of personal skills is table manners or etiquette. Etiquette is simply a set of rules to add enjoyment to any meal or social occasion. Table manners play a vital role in making a favorable impression on those around you.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Cultural and Miscellaneous (FCS1 series)
Size: 3.72 mb
Pages: 4



PR-831

2023 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Trial

7/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Cam Kenimer, Dalton Mertz, Gene Olson, Phillip Shine, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance trial is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale, and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties continually are being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 577 kb
Pages: 12



NEP-231

Growing Your Own: Potatoes

7/6/2023 (new)
Authors: Daniel Bowen, Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Potatoes grow well in the spring or fall. They are not roots but tubers, which are a type of stem. Potatoes are a good source of vitamins B and C, potassium, and complex carbohydrates.

Departments: Extension Office, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.59 mb
Pages: 5



NEP-232

Growing Your Own: Sweet Potatoes

7/6/2023 (new)
Authors: Daniel Bowen, Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Add sweet potatoes to your garden this year if you have enough space. Despite what their name suggests, sweet potatoes (sometimes written as the single-word "sweetpotatoes") are not related to white potatoes. They like to grow in warm weather. They are healthy and a good source of vitamin A and vitamin C.

Departments: Extension Office, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 4.17 mb
Pages: 4



FOR-172

Vole Issues and Management around Homes, Orchards, and Row Crops

6/26/2023 (new)
Authors: Andrew Ibach, Jena Nierman, Matthew Springer

Voles are a small rodent found in the family Cricetidae. Voles are most commonly known for burrowing systems they create. In Kentucky, there are four different species of voles: The Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus), Prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), Woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum), and the Southern Red-Backed vole (Myodes gapperi). Though each species is unique, they share common characteristics.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 7.50 mb
Pages: 5



IP-15

Simple Parliamentary Procedure Guidelines for Better Business Meetings

6/9/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Kim Henken

Have you attended a disorganized meeting? A meeting with no flow or focus? A meeting where no votes were taken and attendees did not feel like they made decisions? Chances are people left feeling like their time was not valued. Utilizing parliamentary procedure can help an organization, board, or governing body to have a productive, orderly meeting. A presiding officer can lead a more effective meeting when all members of the group have basic knowledge of parliamentary procedure.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: Interprogram (IP series)
Size: 230 kb
Pages: 12



FOR-171

Best Practices for Mushroom Foraging in Kentucky

5/19/2023 (new)
Authors: Megan Buland, Ellen Crocker, Brandon George

Kentucky is a great place to forage wild mushrooms. Its extensive forests are home to many different edible fungi including morels, chanterelles, lions' mane, chicken of the woods, oyster mushrooms, and more. While mushroom hunting is a great hobby, it is not without risks. Many mushrooms can cause illness if consumed and some are deadly poisonous, resulting in lasting illness or even death. Even those broadly considered edible should be approached cautiously as improper storage and cooking, drug interactions, and allergies can all result in adverse reactions.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Kenton County
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 3.07 mb
Pages: 3



ASC-255

A Guide to Body Condition Scoring Yaks

5/1/2023 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Mary McCarty

Having issues with cows breeding back and raising a calf every year? Are your heifers taking longer to reach puberty than you think they should? Are some calves born weak and not able to stand quickly? Reproduction is closely associated with body-fat stores and muscling. Fat cells produce a hormone, leptin, that plays a role in the hormonal cascade regulating reproduction. Learning how to assess body reserves or condition as a management tool can help improve your reproductive efficiency and farm profitability.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Menifee County
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 7.38 mb
Pages: 6



RB-350

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2022

4/27/2023 (new)
Authors: Glen Harrison

Kentucky's commercial feed law (KRS 250.491-250.631) dates from 1906 and was last revised in 1996. This feed law provides protection for the state's livestock, poultry, and pet owners by regulating all feed materials offered for sale or for mixing into a feed. Products falling under regulation include all types of pet foods, livestock minerals, complete animal and poultry feeds, protein or mineral blocks, supplements, feed ingredients, specialty materials such as drug premixes, vitamin and mineral supplements, liquid feeds, pet supplements, pet treats, and other specialized pet foods. The law does provide for exemptions for whole and unprocessed grain, raw meat, hay, straw, stover, silage, cobs, husks, and hulls when not processed.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 36



FCS3-642

Savor the Flavor: Using Kitchen Tools and Appliances

4/25/2023 (new)
Authors: Janet Mullins, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Annhall Norris

When adding flavor to a meal, what is the first thing you think of? Is it herbs and spices? Or the cooking method, such as sauteing or braising? There are several kitchen appliances and food preparation tools that can also take the flavor of your meal to the next level. Are these tools and appliances organized in your kitchen in a way that makes them easy to use? This publication will focus on seven different tools and cooking techniques that add flavor to meals.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 1.79 mb
Pages: 5



4BA-08MJ

4-H Agricultural Land Judging and Homesite Evaluation in Kentucky

4/17/2023 (minor revision)
Authors: Bob Pearce, Edwin Ritchey

Land judging is a way of appraising the physical nature and capability of soils. Certain soil properties, such as slope, depth, and color, that can be seen, felt, or measured, are reliable indicators of soil characteristics that impact crop growth and productivity. Land judging does not replace soil testing. Laboratory tests that determine the chemical and physical nature of soil help us predict plant response to lime and fertilizer, estimate the amount of a waste product that can be safely applied to the soil, and determine the limitations for uses such as homesites and roads.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: 4-H Plant Science and Crops: Plant and Soil Science (4BA series)
Size: 7.92 mb
Pages: 26



AGR-273

Soil Acidity: What It Is, How It Is Measured, Why It Is Important

4/13/2023 (new)
Authors: John Grove, Edwin Ritchey

Soil chemical health is strongly related to soil acidity. This acidity consists of acidic cations, hydrogen (H+), aluminum (Al3+), and in some soils, manganese (Mn2+). The acid cations are neutralized by basic anions, carbonate (CO32-), hydroxyl (OH-), and oxide (O2-) provided by materials such as agricultural, hydrated/slaked, and quick/burnt limes, respectively. Lime application rates are based on the amount of acidity measured in your soil sample.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 553 kb
Pages: 2



FCS8-128

Understanding Obesity

4/7/2023 (new)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Obesity affects both adults and youths in the United States. More than one in three adults and one in five youths have obesity. Experts define being overweight or having obesity as increased body fat that may play a role in health risk.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 1.95 mb
Pages: 4



FCS8-129

Naloxone

4/6/2023 (new)
Authors: Alex Elswick

Overdose deaths surpassed car accidents in 2016 as the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In 2021, the U.S. experienced more than 100,000 overdoses. That is twice the capacity of most major college football stadiums, and every single overdose is preventable. While research shows that there are many ways to reduce overdoses and overdose deaths, the most effective is access to naloxone.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 326 kb
Pages: 2



FCS8-130

Talking to Kids about Drugs

4/6/2023 (new)
Authors: Alex Elswick

The "drug talk" may be one of the most uncomfortable yet important conversations a caregiver will have with a child. The conversation is important because of the long-term implications for the child's health, development, and future, but it is uncomfortable because most caregivers have not received meaningful guidance on how to have this dialogue. Fortunately, new research has shed light on how to talk to kids about drugs.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 903 kb
Pages: 3



ID-274

Economic Efficiency in Organic Dairy Operations

4/3/2023 (new)
Authors: John Allison, Kenny Burdine, Ray Smith

Organic dairy operations have historically commanded a higher milk price than conventional dairy operations (Organic all milk price 2021 average: $31.55 per hundredweight (USDA AMS, 2021), Conventional all milk price 2021 average: $20.25 per hundredweight (USDA ERS, 2021)). However, the economics of decision-making and management still play a pivotal role in farm profitability.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 170 kb
Pages: 4



FCS8-127

Does Body Weight Matter?

3/29/2023 (new)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Our society has trained us to think our body weight directly reflects our health. However, body weight is complex and something about which researchers still are learning. This publication will explain the basics of body weight, body fat, and the relationship between weight and health. Practical strategies are also included to help you focus on overall health rather than weight alone.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 2.77 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-270

Restoring a Flood-damaged Lawn

3/14/2023 (new)
Authors: Kenneth Clayton, Paul Andrew Rideout, Jason Vaughn, Beth Wilson

Flooding across Kentucky has been an increasing problem in recent years and has caused significant damage to many properties, including home lawns. The deterioration or death of turfgrass is often caused by grass being smothered with silt and sand deposits left from the flood or grass being submerged under water for prolonged periods. Lack of oxygen to the plant can cause death when submerged, and the rate of death is often worse with higher water temperatures. Repairing these areas is important for reducing chances of erosion as well as allowing a return to the regular use of the lawn.

Departments: Extension Field Programs, Henderson County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Pulaski County
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.19 mb
Pages: 2



AGR-1

Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations, 2020-2021

3/13/2023 (revised)
Authors: Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey

Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 608 kb
Pages: 29



AGR-106

Determining the Quality of Aglime: Using Relative Neutralizing Values

3/13/2023 (revised)
Authors: Lloyd Murdock, Monroe Rasnake, Greg Schwab, Bill Thom

Most Kentucky soils need to have lime applied in order to keep the pH in the optimum range for growing crops. Lime applications should always be based on a good soil test that takes into account the existing pH and the buffering capacity of the soil. However, even when all this is done and lime is applied as recommended, the desired change in soil pH may not occur. The problem may be due to the use of low quality lime.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 228 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-16

Taking Soil Test Samples

3/13/2023 (revised)
Authors: Lloyd Murdock, Greg Schwab, Frank Sikora, Bill Thom

The most important part of making fertilizer recommendations is collecting a good, representative soil sample. Soil test results and fertilizer recommendations are based solely on the few ounces of soil submitted to the laboratory for analysis. These few ounces can represent several million pounds of soil in the field. If this sample does not reflect actual soil conditions, the results can be misleading and lead to costly over- or under-fertilization. It is necessary to make sure that the soil sample sent to the laboratory accurately represents the area sampled.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Regulatory Services
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 353 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-265

Soil Sampling and Nutrient Management in Small Ruminant Pastures

3/13/2023 (revised)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Josh McGrath, Edwin Ritchey, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Pastures for sheep and goats are fertilized to ensure a reliable supply of energy, protein, and other nutrients for a long season of grazing. Management of plant nutrients maintains a balance of improved grasses and legumes and improves forage species competitiveness with many pasture weeds. The most important part of obtaining fertilizer recommendations is collecting a representative soil sample to send to the lab.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.89 mb
Pages: 5



ID-123

Livestock Waste Sampling and Testing

3/13/2023 (revised)
Authors: Doug Overhults, Monroe Rasnake

It is estimated that about 25 million tons of animal manure are currently produced on Kentucky farms each year. Most of this is deposited by grazing animals on pastures where the nutrients are recycled. However, an increasing percentage is accumulated in feed lots, barns, poultry houses, lagoons, and other facilities until it can be spread on the land.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 260 kb
Pages: 4



ID-163

Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality

3/13/2023 (revised)
Authors: David Ditsch, Josh McGrath, Lloyd Murdock, Edwin Ritchey, Frank Sikora

Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Regulatory Services
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 473 kb
Pages: 6



ID-199

Prechilling Switchgrass Seed on Farm to Break Dormancy

3/13/2023 (revised)
Authors: Holly Boyd, Cindy Finneseth, Tom Keene, Laura Schwer, Ray Smith

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial bunch-type grass native to the North American Tallgrass Prairie. It has been investigated as a renewable energy crop due to its high productivity across a wide geographic range including various environmental conditions and soil types. Switchgrass has also been used for erosion control, summer grazing in pasture and hay systems for cattle, native prairie restoration, wildlife habitat, fiber production, and as an ornamental grass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Regulatory Services
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 424 kb
Pages: 4



RB-349

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples July 2021 - June 2022

3/10/2023 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,263 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2021 through June 30, 2022 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 43,900 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 997,000 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 1810 nitrogen, 1,396 phosphorus, 1,542 potassium, and 1518 secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 4.44 mb
Pages: 258



AGR-271

Frost Seeding Clover: A Recipe for Success

3/2/2023 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Legumes are an essential part of a strong and healthy grassland ecosystems. They form a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria in which the bacteria fix nitrogen from the air into a plant-available form and share it with the legume. Clover also increases forage quality and quantity and helps to manage tall fescue toxicosis. In the past, the positive impact of clover on tall fescue toxicosis has always been thought to simply be a dilution effect, but new research from the USDA's Forage Animal Production Unit in Lexington shows that compounds found in red clover can reverse vasoconstriction that is caused by the ergot alkaloids in toxic tall fescue. The primary compound found in red clover is a vasodilator called "Biochanin A."

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 3.01 mb
Pages: 3



FCS3-623

Hydration and Athletic Performance

2/20/2023 (minor revision)
Authors: Kyle Flack, Harry Hays, Jack Moreland

The best performance enhancer for athletes that doesn't cost money is water. However, many athletes overlook the importance of this essential nutrient.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 349 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-272

Preemergence Herbicides for Kentucky Lawns

2/16/2023 (new)
Authors: Kenneth Clayton, Jason Vaughn, Beth Wilson

Herbicides are used to control unwanted plants in many different locations. Postemergence herbicides are sprayed on actively growing weeds. In turfgrass, several herbicides are used to control weeds before they germinate and begin to grow. These are called "preemergence herbicides" and are commonly sold as "weed preventers." They control germinating weed seeds and subsequent growth. Therefore, to be effective, preemergence herbicides must be present in the upper soil surface before weed seeds germinate.

Departments: Extension Field Programs, Plant and Soil Sciences, Pulaski County
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 849 kb
Pages: 2



FOR-45

Managing Tree Squirrel Problems in Kentucky

2/2/2023 (revised)
Authors: Tom Barnes, Matthew Springer

Kentucky has three species of tree squirrels: eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis), northern fox (Sciurus niger), and southern flying (Glaucomys volans). Gray and fox squirrels are game species, whereas flying squirrels are a non-game species. Because flying squirrels seldom cause problems for homeowners, they are not discussed in this publication.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 2.99 mb
Pages: 3



RB-348

Seed Inspection Report, 2022

1/30/2023 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station's annual Seed Inspection Report provides results of the examination, analysis and tests of seed distributed and sampled in our state. It is intended to be useful to individuals interested in the evaluation of the quality of seeds distributed in Kentucky. The report represents the commitment of the staff at Regulatory Services to provide consumer protection and service related to Kentucky's seed industry.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 1.28 mb
Pages: 24



ID-160

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2023-2024

1/17/2023 (major revision)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Ric Bessin, Lowell Bush, Ann Fisher, J.D. Green, Bill Pearce, Edwin Ritchey, Wayne Sanderson, Will Snell

The 2022 season will be remembered as a year of extremes in weather patterns. Early in the field season, 2022 brought extreme drought and heat during transplanting in May and June followed by excessive rainfall in July in some areas. These conditions led to growers making significant replanting decisions as transplant shock was very widespread. There was a return of extremely dry conditions in August that extended through nearly the entire curing season. It was the driest field conditions that most burley and dark tobacco growers have experienced since 2012, and the driest curing season that many growers could recall. 2022 further emphasized the importance of access to irrigation to sustain the tobacco crop through extended dry periods in the field, as well as tight barns that allow management of air-flow to moderate the effects of dry curing seasons.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 5.74 mb
Pages: 92



ASC-251

Traveling with Your Horse: Caring for Your Horse Away from Home

1/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Fernanda Camargo

Any time spent with horses is enjoyable, but there is something particularly fun about taking your steady steed on an off-farm adventure. Traveling with your horse, whether to a show, trail ride or other experience, is a great way to show off your horseback riding skills, to test what you and your horse have learned in training, and certainly to socialize with other horse-loving friends.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 2.53 mb
Pages: 3



ASC-252

Traveling with Your Horse: Trailer and Truck Packing

1/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Fernanda Camargo

Horse people love to go places with their horses. It is exciting and fun, and overall, it can be a great bonding experience - especially if you remembered to pack everything you need.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 1.89 mb
Pages: 3



ASC-253

Traveling with Your Horse: First-Aid Kits

1/12/2023 (new)
Authors: Fernanda Camargo

While some people may say that horses will get into trouble at every chance they get, it is more likely that horses will react to any situation based on their fight-or-flight responses. Instead of quietly lying down and waiting for help like other herbivores might, they panic more easily and may get themselves in deeper trouble. Of course, there are horses that are accident-prone, and no matter how clean and free of debris their environment is (including pastures, stalls, and barns), they still manage to injure themselves.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 2.70 mb
Pages: 3



RB-347

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2021

1/9/2023 (new)
Authors: Glen Harrison

Kentucky's commercial feed law (KRS 250.491-250.631) dates from 1906 and was last revised in 1996. This feed law provides protection for the state's livestock, poultry, and pet owners by regulating all feed materials offered for sale or for mixing into a feed. Products falling under regulation include all types of pet foods, livestock minerals, complete animal and poultry feeds, protein or mineral blocks, supplements, feed ingredients, specialty materials such as drug premixes, vitamin and mineral supplements, liquid feeds, pet supplements, pet treats, and other specialized pet foods. The law does provide for exemptions for whole and unprocessed grain, raw meat, hay, straw, stover, silage, cobs, husks, and hulls when not processed

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 1.71 mb
Pages: 36



AGR-268

Evaluating Cool-season Perennial Grass Pastures using the UK Horse Pasture Health Score Card

12/19/2022 (new)
Authors: Krista Lea, Ray Smith

Providing quality forage is essential to horse health, and pasture can provide a significant portion of the horse's forage needs. Objective evaluation of a pasture's condition can help determine appropriate pasture management practices. The UK Horse Pasture Health Score Card can be used to evaluate horse pastures and determine what improvements should be made.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 4.95 mb
Pages: 7



PR-823

2022 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/19/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass and festulolium can also be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 542 kb
Pages: 12



PR-825

2022 Annual Grass Report Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/19/2022 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental pasture, silage, or hay crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2008-2021 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, forage sorghum, millets, teff, crabgrass, and cereal crops.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.33 mb
Pages: 32



PR-826

2022 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/19/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play a positive environmental role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are more than 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.46 mb
Pages: 28



PR-822

2022 Alfalfa, Red Clover and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/15/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It forms the basis of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Recent emphasis on its use as a grazing crop and the release of grazing-tolerant varieties have raised the following question: Do varieties differ in tolerance to grazing? To answer this question, we have chosen to use the standard tolerance test recommended by the North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. This test uses continuous heavy grazing to sort out differences in grazing tolerance in a relatively short period of time.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 457 kb
Pages: 8



PR-824

2022 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/14/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to evaluate varieties of these grasses for persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 364 kb
Pages: 8



AGR-235

Baleage: Frequently Asked Questions

12/13/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Brandon Sears, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Baled silage, or "baleage," is an excellent method for forage harvest, storage, and feed efficiency. This publication focuses on common questions about baleage. Together with AGR-173: Baling Forage Crops for Silage, this information will help producers better understand the production and use of baleage as livestock feed.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 8.79 mb
Pages: 8



ID-139

A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky

12/13/2022 (major revision)
Authors: Carl Bradley, J.D. Green, John Grove, Greg Halich, Erin Haramoto, Cam Kenimer, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Hanna Poffenbarger, Dan Quinn, Edwin Ritchey, Montse Salmeron, Jordan Shockley, Tim Stombaugh, Raul Villanueva, Ole Wendroth, Kiersten Wise

Corn is a summer annual crop that is grown widely across Kentucky, the United States, and around the world. In the United States, field corn is grown on about 85 million acres (34 million hectares) while sweet corn is grown on about 600,000 acres (240,000 hectares) and popcorn is grown on about 200,000 acres (81,000 hectares). Most of the field corn across the United States is yellow dent corn. In Kentucky, both yellow dent corn and white dent corn are grown. Corn acres in Kentucky peaked at 3.85 million in 1917 and have been around 1.2 to 1.5 million acres since the 1970s (USDA-NASS, 2020). Most corn in Kentucky today is grown in minimum tillage or no-tillage conditions. Most corn acres are rotated with soybean or wheat and double-crop soybeans.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 62.42 mb
Pages: 108



PR-820

2022 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

12/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage - after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 393 kb
Pages: 6



PR-821

2022 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

12/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 714 kb
Pages: 14



AGR-269

Barn Management for Curing Connecticut Broadleaf Cigar Wrapper Tobacco

12/6/2022 (new)
Authors: Andy Bailey

Connecticut Broadleaf tobacco is used primarily for cigar wrapper and binder and was traditionally grown in Connecticut and Massachusetts but has also been grown in Pennsylvania. In recent years, these areas have not been able to supply leaf buyers with enough wrapper leaf to meet the increasing demand for natural leaf cigar wrapper. Therefore, growers in Tennessee and Kentucky have been producing Connecticut Broadleaf to market as cigar wrapper tobacco.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 877 kb
Pages: 3



PR-818

2022 Orchardgrass Report

12/6/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 8



PR-819

2022 Tall Fescue, Bromegrass and Meadow Fescue Report

12/6/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a productive, well-adapted, persistent, soil-conserving, cool-season grass grown on approximately 5.5 million acres in Kentucky. This grass, used for both hay and pasture, is the forage base of most of Kentucky's livestock enterprises, particularly beef cattle.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 690 kb
Pages: 12



AEN-170

When to Replace Sprayer Nozzle Tips

12/5/2022 (new)
Authors: Tim Stombaugh

Nozzle tips are critical sprayer components for achieving accurate and uniform application of chemicals. Furthermore, nozzle tips are not cheap, especially when considering how many are required on a sprayer. As with any component on a machine, they will not last forever. So when should nozzle tips be replaced? It would be nice if there were a maximum number of sprayed acres or a fixed period of time after which the nozzle tips should be changed for new ones. Unfortunately, there are too many complicating factors to give such a simple answer. This document explains the causes of nozzle tip wear and some simple ways to tell when they should be replaced.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 4



PR-816

2022 Red and White Clover Report

12/5/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2.5 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. It is a dominant forage legume in Kentucky because it is relatively easy to establish and has high forage quality, yield, and animal acceptance.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 481 kb
Pages: 6



PR-817

2022 Alfalfa Report

12/5/2022 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties. Tables 13 and 14 (Roundup Ready varieties) show a summary of all alfalfa varieties tested in Kentucky during the past 18 years. The UK Forage Extension website (https://forages.ca.uky.edu) contains electronic versions of all forage variety testing reports from Kentucky and surrounding states as well as a large number of other forage publications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 218 kb
Pages: 10



ASC-250

Reemergence of Bedbugs as Poultry Pests

12/2/2022 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

It is estimated that one of every five Americans has had a bedbug infestation at home or knows someone who has. However, today bedbug infestations are not limited to just homes. Cage-free poultry houses have been found to have problems with bedbugs, and the incidence continues to rise. This makes bedbugs another important external parasite for which poultry producers need to be wary.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-171

General Considerations and Requirements for Drone Spraying

11/29/2022 (new)
Authors: Gabriel Abdulai, Joshua Jackson, Karla Ladino

The purchase of an unmanned aerial system (UAS) sprayer, also known as a drone sprayer, must be evaluated carefully. For farmers and sprayer service providers who are thinking about purchasing drone sprayers for their operations, this publication will summarize the potential uses, background information, certificates and licenses required, equipment needed, utilities used, software implemented, insurance needed, maintenance and repairs executed, cost metric utilized, time allocated, and application effectiveness considerations.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.02 mb
Pages: 9



AEN-172

Decision Aid to Determine the Cost of Using a Drone Sprayer in Production Agriculture

11/29/2022 (new)
Authors: Gabriel Abdulai, Joshua Jackson, Karla Ladino, Tim Stombaugh

Similar to other agricultural equipment purchases, cost and potential for return on investment for drone sprayers must be carefully evaluated. General Considerations and Requirements for Drone Spraying (AEN-171) summarized what aspects should be evaluated prior to the purchase of a drone sprayer, or unmanned aerial systems (UAS) sprayer. These aspects include cost considerations, potential uses, certificates and licenses, equipment, utilities, software, insurance, maintenance and repairs, and time allocation.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 7



PR-828

2022 Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Trials

11/21/2022 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Cam Kenimer, Dalton Mertz, Phillip Shine

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Trials are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. Annual evaluation of soybean varieties provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 949 kb
Pages: 16



PR-814

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2022

11/17/2022 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Dalton Mertz, Phillip Shine, Kelsey Woodrum

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 219 kb
Pages: 4



FCS8-126

Medications for Opioid Use Disorder

11/9/2022 (new)
Authors: Alex Elswick, Amanda Falin-Bennett, Michelle Lofwall

The opioid epidemic has ravaged communities across the United States. In two decades, the United States has experienced around 900,000 overdose deaths. In many ways, the so-called opioid epidemic may be better understood as an overdose epidemic.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences, various
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 431 kb
Pages: 4



HO-127

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) Production Manual of the Organic Farming Unit at the University of Kentucky

11/3/2022 (new)
Authors: Krista Jacobsen, Rachel Rudolph, Mark Williams

The University of Kentucky Community Supported Agriculture program (UK-CSA), located at the Organic Farming Unit (OFU) of the UK Horticulture Research Farm, has been developing since its inception in 2007. The UK-CSA exists for education, extension, and research, in keeping with the land-grant mission of the university. The farm is one of the only land-grant university teaching farms that is also a commercially productive farm.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Size: 36.08 mb
Pages: 296



PR-815

2022 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/2/2022 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Dalton Mertz, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 707 kb
Pages: 20



ASC-232

Raising Replacement Pullets for Small-Scale Egg Production

10/27/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Poultry producers who raise their own replacement pullets have better control over the growth, condition, and development of the flock. The quality of the pullet flock will have a direct effect on the subsequent level of egg production. The two most important quality factors for a replacement flock are proper body weight and uniformity. Pullet weight at 6 weeks of age has been shown to influence subsequent egg production. Once the pullets start to lay, it is too late to solve problems from poor nutrition or management during the pullet rearing period.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 2.48 mb
Pages: 9



FCS8-125

Addiction 101

10/27/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Alex Elswick

Addiction to drugs or alcohol is one of the most complex, baffling, and heartbreaking conditions in the world. Most people know at least one significant person in their lives who has been affected. In fact, about one in eight people will be addicted to drugs or alcohol at some point. And while this statistic shows how common addiction really is, many of us lack a clear understanding of addiction.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Health and Wellness (FCS8 series)
Size: 887 kb
Pages: 3



ID-217

Forage-Related Disorders in Cattle: Nitrate Poisoning

10/24/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Michelle Arnold, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Megan Romano, Ray Smith

Nitrates are natural constituents of all plants. Under normal conditions, plants take up nitrate through their roots and transport it to the leaves for use in photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis decreases under adverse environmental conditions (e.g., drought; leaf damage due to disease, hail, frost, insects, or herbicides; cool and cloudy weather; and other plant stressors). When photosynthesis is reduced, nitrate transportation to the leaves slows also. Potentially toxic nitrate concentrations can remain in the lower stalks and stems.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences, UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 804 kb
Pages: 5



AEN-169

Cattle Winter-Feeding Area Evaluation

9/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser

Winter feeding of cattle is necessary in Kentucky, since forages are dormant from late fall to spring. To prevent damage to multiple pastures by the creation of mud from livestock and tractor traffic, producers traditionally select a small area to "sacrifice" for this task. However, poorly chosen sites for winter feeding can lead to the accumulation of mud and loss of productivity of livestock. This publication should be used as a tool to evaluate the suitability of winter-feeding sites and to provide solutions for correcting deficiencies.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 2.99 mb
Pages: 5



FCS3-638

Pathways to Wellness Where People Live, Work, and Play

9/12/2022 (new)
Authors: Angela Baldauff, Sarah Congleton, Karli Giles, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Courtney Luecking, Leslie Workman

Health organizations and providers recognize that health is more than the absence of illness or disease. Yet, there is no universal definition for health. One holistic way of thinking about health includes eight dimensions of wellness.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences (EFNEP)
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 539 kb
Pages: 3



FCS3-639

Pathways to Wellness with Family and Friends

9/12/2022 (new)
Authors: Angela Baldauff, Sarah Congleton, Karli Giles, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Courtney Luecking, Leslie Workman

What influences health? People often think about the environment or lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, and sleep. What people may think about less is the effect family, friends, and social networks have on health. Relationships affect physical, mental, and social well-being. In fact, people with strong social connections live longer, healthier lives than those who have few or poor-quality relationships.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences (EFNEP)
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 919 kb
Pages: 4



FCS3-640

Pathways to Wellness in the World Around Us

9/12/2022 (new)
Authors: Angela Baldauff, Sarah Congleton, Karli Giles, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Courtney Luecking, Leslie Workman

Historically, when talking about health, the focus has been on a single chronic disease, lifestyle factor such as nutrition or physical activity, and/or one's personal responsibility for health. However, many other factors influence health. Research shows that individual choices determine a person's health but so do the individual's surroundings.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences (EFNEP)
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 945 kb
Pages: 5



FCS3-641

Pathways to Wellness through Promoting a Culture of Health

9/12/2022 (new)
Authors: Angela Baldauff, Sarah Congleton, Karli Giles, Natalie Jones, Amy Kostelic, Courtney Luecking, Leslie Workman

Communities are powerful influencers of health. Community can describe people living in a specific place - like a neighborhood, zip code, county, or state. It can also describe a group of people who have shared attitudes, interests, or goals. Examples include connections through schools and religious institutions and social identities like gender, race, or political affiliation. These places and groups shape the ways in which people think and communicate about health.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences (EFNEP)
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 781 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-267

Ordering/Casing Burley and Dark Tobacco - Post-Curing Management Practices

9/8/2022 (new)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Bob Pearce

Market preparation of burley and dark tobacco involves removing cured tobacco from the curing facilities (takedown), removing the stalks from the stick (bulking), removing cured leaves from tobacco stalks (stripping) and packaging for the market (baling). These processes can only be performed when cured leaves are sufficiently pliable to avoid breakage.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 3



FCS3-580

Home Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products

8/30/2022 (minor revision)
Authors:

Home canning tomatoes and tomato products can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning.

Departments:
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 418 kb
Pages: 15



FCS5-479

Transferring Cherished Possessions: Where Do I Start?

8/15/2022 (new)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Look around your home. You may have a table passed down to you from a grandparent or a well-worn baseball glove from an uncle. You may own sentimental jewelry, a treasured collection of keepsakes, or an antique that has been in your family for years. Have you ever wondered how you came to inherit these items? Were they given to you directly by a loved one, or did you receive them when the estate was settled after that person's death? Cherished possessions can provide a sense of comfort while grieving the passing of loved ones and can represent a continuation of their legacy for those who inherit the items.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 492 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-480

Transferring Cherished Possessions: What is Fair?

8/15/2022 (new)
Authors: Nichole Huff

As any parent, grandparent, or caregiver has experienced, the exclamation "But that's not fair!" has likely been voiced in your family on occasion. Similar sentiments also can be expressed when an estate is settled. This may happen if the will isn't clear or if it leaves the court or executor in charge of determining fairness. To avoid this, you will want to distribute your belongings in a way that minimizes potential conflict among your heirs.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 710 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-481

Transferring Cherished Possessions: Who Gets What?

8/15/2022 (new)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Estate planning can be a complicated process, especially when considering how to transfer personal property to people who will want and care for it after your death. The task of sorting through a lifetime of belongings can be overwhelming. It's natural to feel a range of emotions or to procrastinate on the task to protect yourself from feelings that may surface. You also may be worried about treating all heirs fairly and not hurting anyone's feelings as you make difficult decisions. Being mindful of family dynamics while estate planning requires you to delicately balance financial, emotional, and psychological considerations.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 524 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-482

Transferring Cherished Possessions: How Can We Communicate Without Conflict?

8/15/2022 (new)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Discussing estate planning details with loved ones can be challenging. Depending on the family dynamics at play, these conversations may be emotional or even stressful if you're managing conflict or strained relationships. Developing a clear plan to distribute your belongings, as well as learning communication strategies to use while estate planning, can ease the process for everyone involved.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 721 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-50

Lawn Establishment in Kentucky

7/29/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 3.04 mb
Pages: 6



AEN-168

Taking the Indoors Out: Creating Outdoor Learning Environments

7/25/2022 (new)
Authors: Carmen Agouridis

Outdoor learning environments or classrooms are spaces where students can learn about the natural and human-created world while in an outdoor or natural setting. In these spaces, instructors can use engaging, interdisciplinary, hands-on curriculum to lead students through lessons and to encourage exploration. While often used for science and agricultural studies, outdoor classrooms are also useful for teaching mathematics, social studies, language arts, music, art, and practical living.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 5.73 mb
Pages: 12



ASC-248

Vitamin Supplementation for Beef Cattle

7/18/2022 (new)
Authors: Les Anderson, Darrh Bullock, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Beef cattle have defined requirements for vitamins. In some instances, vitamin supplementation may be necessary to avoid deficiencies. Vitamins are classified into two categories: water-soluble and fat-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins include the B vitamins, such as riboflavin, thiamin, and niacin, as well as vitamin C. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. Supplementation for beef cattle generally focuses on vitamins A and E. This is because the rumen microbes synthesize the water-soluble vitamins and vitamin K in sufficient quantities to avoid deficiencies. Vitamin D requirements can often be met by exposure to the sun and would therefore only be of concern for cattle in confinement housing.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 795 kb
Pages: 2



ASC-249

Reading the Fine Print: Understanding Mineral Tags

7/18/2022 (new)
Authors: Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Among the variety of supplementation options currently available for beef cattle operations, a mineral can be one of the most challenging to select. Mineral tags contain important information regarding the contents of a mineral supplement and are regulated by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). Understanding the information on a mineral tag will aid in the comparison of multiple products and help to ensure the selected mineral product will meet the needs of specific animals.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 217 kb
Pages: 4



PR-813

2022 Kentucky Small Grain Variety Performance Trial

7/12/2022 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Phillip Shine, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance trial is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale, and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties continually are being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their localities and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 24



FCS3-106

Vegetable Preparation for the Family

7/6/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Sandra Bastin

Your mother told you to eat your vegetables. Research confirms that she was right, as usual. Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day rather than two servings lowers your risk of death by 13%. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans also suggests choosing foods rich in nutrients first.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 6.91 mb
Pages: 6



FCS3-562

MyPlate the Kentucky Way: Tools for Building a Healthy Plate

7/6/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Sandra Bastin

Do you eat just about anything you want without thinking about how it affects your health? Would you like to know how to make better food choices so you can manage your weight? Do you need information on how to manage any chronic diseases, such as heart disease or high blood pressure?

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 3.96 mb
Pages: 6



HENV-711

Homeowners Guide to Rainwater Harvesting: Rain Barrels and Beyond

6/30/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Stormwater runoff is one of the many water quality and quantity challenges in urban settings. Urbanization increases the proportion of impervious surfaces (surfaces that prevent rainfall from soaking into the ground, such as roofs and driveways) in a landscape. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces increase the volume of stormwater runoff to storm sewers and local waterways. As stormwater flows across impervious surfaces, it can transport pollutants to nearby streams and rivers.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 2.31 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-266

Chemical Topping of Burley Tobacco

6/17/2022 (new)
Authors: Andy Bailey, Bob Pearce

Pastures for sheep and goats are fertilized to ensure a reliable supply of energy, protein, and other nutrients for a long season of grazing. Management of plant nutrients maintains a balance of improved grasses and legumes and improves forage species competitiveness with many pasture weeds. The most important part of obtaining fertilizer recommendations is collecting a representative soil sample to send to the lab.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 3



NEP-230

Cook Wild Kentucky: Fishing in Kentucky

5/25/2022 (new)
Authors: Elizabeth Coots, Jann Knappage, Annhall Norris, Gregg Rentfrow, Matthew Springer, Jackie Walters, Martha Yount

Kentucky offers some of the best fishing chances around. Among our rolling hills, you will find over 62,000 miles of fishable streams and 40 public lakes. Fishing is fun for all ages, and prime fishing spots can be found yearround across the state. Anglers take to the water each year for fun or food. Kentucky is home to bass, catfish, trout, sunfish, and more.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources, Woodford County
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 3.03 mb
Pages: 8



FCS3-633

Macronutrients: Why We Need a Balanced Diet

5/16/2022 (new)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

Macronutrients are the main parts of food that give our bodies energy, and they are needed in large amounts in our diets. When we eat, our bodies can break macronutrients down into a useable form of energy for our cells.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 897 kb
Pages: 4



FCS3-634

Savor the Flavor: Exploring Cooking Methods

5/16/2022 (new)
Authors: Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Annhall Norris, Janet Tietyen-Mullins

Making food that provides exciting and delicious flavors can seem like a difficult task. Many people believe it is necessary to have more ingredients to make a better or tastier meal. Some may even feel they can only get these types of meals by eating out. That is not true!

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 589 kb
Pages: 4



FCS3-635

How to Get Out of a Mealtime Rut

5/16/2022 (new)
Authors: Jean Najor, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

When you or a family member find out what is on the menu for dinner, is the typical response ďAgain?Ē If you dread the thought of cleaning another dish or you just canít think of the last time you were excited by your own cooking, you may be in a cooking rut. Even the most avid cooks have cooking ruts from time to time. Fear not, because these ideas will spark your cooking creativity and make mealtimes more appealing!

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 4



4AJ-09PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Culinary Demonstration Contest: The Egg Chef Challenge

4/26/2022 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Participants in the Kentucky Egg-Preparation Demonstration are required to prepare a dish containing eggs while demonstrating proper food safety and cooking skills.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 838 kb
Pages: 6



FCS3-636

Savoring the Eating Experience: The Art of Eating Mindfully

4/26/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Courtney Luecking

Have you ever found yourself eating a bag of popcorn while watching a movie only to realize you have eaten all of it before you made it past the previews? This is an example of mindless eating, or eating without even realizing it.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 1.18 mb
Pages: 4



FCS3-637

Tips for Managing Stress Eating

4/26/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Emily DeWitt, Courtney Luecking

Eating is one of the many ways we cope with negative emotions. Stress eating is just that-- "eating in response to acute or chronic stress or in response to negative emotional states" such as sadness or anger. Stress can cause some people to eat more and others to eat less. Some will reach for salty foods, and others will reach for sweets. No matter how stress affects your eating patterns, you are not alone.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 4



HENV-707

Residential Stormwater Site Assessment

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Urban areas can impact both the quality and quantity of water in local waterways. Homeowners can help protect water resources by utilizing stormwater management practices on their property. These practices, sometimes called green infrastructure or Low-Impact Development (LID) practices, aim to manage stormwater where it is generated instead of sending it into a storm sewer system. To select the best practices for residential settings it is important to make a site assessment.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 4



HENV-708

Alternative Pavement Options for Residential Stormwater Management

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Amanda A. Gumbert, Joe Luck, Lee Moser, Jonathan Villines

Urban areas are characterized by impervious surfaces such as roads, driveways, sidewalks, and building roofs. Stormwater occurs when precipitation runs off these impervious surfaces. Stormwater can present both water quality and water quantity issues in urban watersheds. Water quality of local waterways is threatened when stormwater carries pollutants to streams and rivers; increased water quantity in these local waterways can damage streambanks, cause flooding, and create more water quality problems.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.86 mb
Pages: 5



HENV-709

Sanitary Sewer Overflows: Risks and Homeowner Responsibilities

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

A sewer system is an underground network of pipes that carries sewage and wastewater from homes and businesses to a treatment plant. There are two types of sewer systems. Modern sanitary sewer systems are designed to be a separate network of pipes and infrastructure from those that manage stormwater; these are known as separate sanitary sewers. Some municipalities still have combined sewers that manage both sanitary sewage and stormwater in the same pipes; these are known as combined sewers.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 533 kb
Pages: 3



HENV-709S

Desbordamientos de Alcantarillado Sanitario: Riesgos y Responsabilidades de los Propietarios

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Un sistema de alcantarillado es una red subterranea de tuberias que transporta aguas residuales (sucias) desde hogares y negocios hasta una planta de tratamiento.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 488 kb
Pages: 3



HENV-710

Sanitary Sewer Overflows: Lexington, KY Remedial Measures and Helpful Tips

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

A sewer system is an underground network of pipes that carries sewage and wastewater from homes and businesses to a treatment plant. There are two types of sewer systems. Modern sanitary sewer systems are designed to be a separate network of pipes and infrastructure from those that manage stormwater; these are known as separate sanitary sewers. Some municipalities still have combined sewers that manage both sanitary sewage and stormwater in the same pipes; these are known as combined sewers.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.46 mb
Pages: 4



HENV-710S

Desbordamientos de Alcantarillado Sanitario: Lexington, Kentucky Medidas Correctivas y Consejos Utiles

4/22/2022 (new)
Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Lee Moser

Un sistema de alcantarillado es una red subterranea de tuberias que transporta aguas residuales (sucias) desde hogares y negocios hasta una planta de tratamiento. Hay dos tipos de sistemas de alcantarillado.

Departments: Ag Programs, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Home and Environment (HENV series)
Size: 1.22 mb
Pages: 4



ID-2

Guide to Plants of Kentucky Potentially Poisonous to Livestock

4/22/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Michelle Arnold, J.D. Green, Megan Romano

Poisonous plants are responsible for considerable losses to farmers and stockmen in Kentucky. Many cases of plant poisoning are never diagnosed or even suspected. There are nearly 100 different species of plants growing in Kentucky that under certain conditions may be poisonous to livestock, although only one third of these are likely to cause serious trouble. The primary purpose of this publication is to enable individuals to recognize, at sight, some plants which are known to be dangerously poisonous, and to have knowledge of those additional plants, which, under certain conditions, may cause trouble.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, UK Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 22.50 mb
Pages: 60



FCS5-475

Understanding Cryptocurrency

4/11/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Nichole Huff, Kelly May

Cryptocurrency--such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ether, or others--is a form of digital payment consumers can use to buy goods and services. It exists without tangible corresponding bills or coins, and it is not issued or backed by government agencies. At its core, cryptocurrency is essentially digital computer software. People or entities can transfer it online without the need for a bank or financial institution. The currency is stored within a digital wallet that consumers can maintain either online or offline using a hard drive or paper printout.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-476

The Costs of Distracted and Reckless Driving

4/11/2022 (minor revision)
Authors: Nichole Huff

In a world that constantly demands our attention, it is all too easy to become distracted while driving. From smart phones to smartwatches, interacting with something in our car, listening to a navigation system, or letting our minds wander behind the wheel, the temptations we often face when driving are endless. While these actions may feel harmless in the moment, they have the potential to be costly, both physically and financially.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 1.13 mb
Pages: 5



FCS5-420

Estate Planning Part 1: Getting Started

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Many people fail to make plans to transfer their property and possessions at the time of their death. Some people think such plans are only for the rich. Other people think that they can plan for the transfer later and then never take time to do it. Some people think they do not need estate planning and that everything will be all right for their families when they die.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 480 kb
Pages: 4



FCS5-422

Estate Planning Part 2: Your Records and Personal Information

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Before you see an estate planning professional, do your homework. It will save you time and money if you prepare your legal documents ahead of time, and when your estate is settled. Take time now to put your estate planning information together in three-ring notebooks or folders. Clearly label everything, and let your family or executor know where to find the information at the time of your death. Keeping this information together will also make it easier for you to review it on a regular basis.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 12



FCS5-423

Estate Planning Part 3: Selecting Your Team

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Attorneys who specialize in estate planning are the most likely legal professionals to be up-to-date on state and federal laws related to wills, trusts, and taxes. Choose one with estate planning experience to help assure that your plans are carried out correctly. If you are considering establishing a trust, choose an attorney who also has experience in writing trusts.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-424

Estate Planning Part 4: Financial Planners

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

The term financial planner is appearing with increasing frequency in advertisements (including unsolicited mail and social media) and news articles. The alphabet soup of financial planning credentials may lead you to believe that someone is a financial planner when in fact he or she is not. Some people who call themselves financial planners are nothing more than salespeople for stocks, tax shelters, insurance, and other investments and have no special training in financial planning. It is important to do your research before hiring someone to advise you financially, or to allocate or invest your financial assets.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 590 kb
Pages: 2



FCS5-425

Estate Planning Part 5: Wills and Probate in Kentucky

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

Unless you have made other provisions, such as a trust, your will is the way to make certain that your property is transferred or disposed of according to your wishes. Your will is also the document that allows you to designate who will be responsible for seeing that your wishes are carried out. This person is known as the executor of your estate. If you fail to make a will or some other legal document for the transfer of your property, Kentucky law will determine how your assets are transferred.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 4



FCS5-426

Estate Planning Part 6: Trusts

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

A trust is a legal entity that a person creates. It can be a flexible and useful tool in estate planning and can be designed in a variety of ways. A trust provides financial benefits for people and/or organizations designated in the trust document. The document also provides the details and instructions for the trust. The trust document should be written by a professional who has experience in writing trusts and who is familiar with current trust laws. The tax consequences of trusts should also be considered; trusts do not save money for your estate in all situations.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 580 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-427

Estate Planning Part 7: Federal and State Estate Taxes

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

When a person dies, the value of his or her estate is subject to federal estate taxes. Estate taxes must be paid before the executor can transfer ownership of the property to the heirs. A professional accountant or attorney who specializes in estate planning can help you calculate your potential estate tax.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-428

Estate Planning Part 10: A Glossary of Terms

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

A glossary of estate planning terms.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 3



FCS5-436

Estate Planning Part 9: How to Settle an Estate

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Nichole Huff

There are only three basic steps to settling an estate. But working on each step requires time and patience. Settling an estate is done in these three steps: 1. File a petition to probate the will and appoint the executor or fiduciary. 2. File an inventory of the estate. 3. Submit a final accounting of the estate's affairs.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 570 kb
Pages: 4



FCS5-465

Estate Planning Part 8: Planning Your Digital Estate

4/7/2022 (revised)
Authors: Alex Elswick, Nichole Huff

With so much vital information stored online, the nature of estate planning has changed. Although you may still have many important documents in paper format, it is likely that much of your financial documents are digitized. It may seem obvious that important digital information such as online bank accounts should be addressed in estate planning, but other kinds of digital assets such as social media accounts, text messages, or even pictures stored in the cloud may have sentimental value for your loved ones. Email accounts and online retail accounts may house critical personal information that you may wish securely kept. Unfortunately, planning for these kinds of assets is typically neglected by individuals and their advisors. In order to ensure the safety and security of this kind of digital information, you will want to create a digital estate plan.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Family Resource Management (FCS5 series)
Size: 560 kb
Pages: 4



RB-345

Seed Inspection Report, 2021

3/30/2022 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station's annual Seed Inspection Report provides results of the examination, analysis and tests of seed distributed and sampled in our state. It is intended to be useful to individuals interested in the evaluation of the quality of seeds distributed in Kentucky. The report represents the commitment of the staff at Regulatory Services to provide consumer protection and service related to Kentucky's seed industry.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 1.71 mb
Pages: 36



AEN-167

Backyard Chickens as Garden Fertilizer Generators

3/11/2022 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Having backyard chickens can be a fun, educational, and rewarding experience. There are many reasons why people keep backyard chickens, with availability of fresh, colored eggs, food security, and enjoying the birds as pets among them. However, for some, the goal is to obtain the rich manure that chickens produce to fertilize their garden. There is no better farmyard manure for the garden, as far as the nitrogen content, than poultry manure.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 2.16 mb
Pages: 6



AEN-166

Off Grid Solar Systems: Understanding Components and Variables for Small Systems

3/9/2022 (new)
Authors: Matt Adams, Daniel Carpenter, Morgan Hayes

Off grid solar systems are often considered on farms and small acreages in locations where power is difficult or expensive to run. These locations typically do not have huge power requirements; the land owners just wish to have lights in a barn, a fence charger, or to run a small motor or power tool. Off grid solar systems provide an opportunity to have power without the expense of an electric service. Before purchasing an off grid solar system, it is important to have an idea of what electrical items the system will be used to operate, and to understand the components that make up the solar panel system (batteries, fuses, controllers, and inverters).

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Hardin County, Larue County
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.88 mb
Pages: 4



FCS3-632

Making the Most of Meals While Traveling

3/3/2022 (new)
Authors: Nichole Huff, Sally Mineer, Heather Norman-Burgdolf

For many, planning your next travel adventure can be just as enjoyable as the trip itself. It is fun to daydream about where you will stay, how you will get there, and what you will do when you arrive--but what about the food you plan to eat during your travels? Research suggests meals and other food items can make up 25% of your travel budget. We look for deals and steals where we stay; however, we can also be strategic in planning, preparing, and purchasing food on vacation to ensure we still have exciting, nutritious, and cost-conscious meals. Food, like lodging and transportation, is a nonnegotiable vacation expense because you must get to your destination, have a place to sleep each night, and have food to eat each day. Saving money on meals leaves extra cash available for making memories or perhaps, extending the length of your vacation.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences, Family Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 1.43 mb
Pages: 5



4AH-12PO

Cantaloupe Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The cantaloupe exhibit allows you to display the cantaloupe that you have grown in your garden. Each cantaloupe exhibited is judged on the melon's condition and quality.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 440 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-13PO

Eggplant Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The eggplant exhibit allows you to display the eggplant that you have grown in your garden. The exhibit is judged on each eggplant's condition and quality, and required number of specimen.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 380 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-14PO

Summer Squash Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The summer squash exhibit allows you to display the summer squash that you have grown in your garden. The exhibit is judged on each squash's condition and quality, and required number of specimen.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 390 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-15PO

Sweet Corn Exhibit

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Jessica Sayre

The sweet corn exhibit allows you to display the sweet corn that you have grown in your garden. Sweet corn comes in many different varieties and usually fits into three different color categories. Yellow, white, or bi-colored (a mixture of yellow and white kernels). The sweet corn exhibit is judged on three criteria including quality, uniformity, and required number of specimen.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Harrison County
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 1



4AH-16PA

Exhibiting and Judging Vegetables

1/13/2022 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

What makes certain vegetables "better" or of higher quality than others? Do you know which vegetables to choose for exhibition? Do you know how to prepare vegetables for exhibition? This factsheet will help you as you prepare to exhibit or judge vegetables. Vegetables will be evaluated on different criteria including condition, quality, uniformity, trueness-to-type, and size. Whether you are going to exhibit or judge vegetables, you will need to learn the characteristics of all of these criteria.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 560 kb
Pages: 9



RB-346

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples July 2020 - June 2021

1/12/2022 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,484 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2020 through June 30, 2021 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 51,145 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,163,000 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,045 nitrogen, 1,530 phosphorus, 1,649 potassium, and 1355 secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples. Table 1 shows the manufacturers whose product the field inspection staff sampled, along with the number of samples taken and the percentage of those samples that passed. Table 2 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials. Table 3 contains the results of secondary and minor element and certain other analyses. Table 4 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer material by grade. Table 5 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of June 30, 2021.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 4.60 mb
Pages: 272



PR-809

2021 Annual Grass Report: Warm Season and Cool Season (Cereals)

12/21/2021 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2008-2021 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, teff, and cereal crops. Cool season annual grasses (specifically cereal crops) are also used as forages crops for hay, baleage or grazing. The cereal crops used in this report are wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and triticale (Triticum secale).

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.90 mb
Pages: 36



PR-810

2021 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials

12/21/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past twenty years.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.37 mb
Pages: 28



AEN-165

Improving Cow Paths

12/17/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The energy expended by a large animal traveling on a slope can be tremendous. To compensate, grazing animals create trails, which run parallel to a slope. These trails allow animals to graze the upper slope, while standing on flat ground, which provides energy and grazing efficiencies.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.30 mb
Pages: 2



PR-798

2021 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Win Dunwell, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Krista Jacobsen, Rachel Rudolph, John Strang, Raul Villanueva, Shawn Wright

The 2021 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results from 12 different projects. The majority of projects were conducted on research farms, but a few were conducted on commercial farms with the assistance of grower-cooperators. We are truly grateful to the growers who invest their time, energy, and land in supporting research. Their contributions help other growers, and that is of immeasurable value. Research was conducted by University of Kentucky faculty and staff from the horticulture, plant pathology, and entomology departments, as well as faculty and staff of Kentucky State University.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 5.80 mb
Pages: 44



ID-196

UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2022

12/9/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Bob Coleman

The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 7.00 mb
Pages: 32



PR-807

2021 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report

12/7/2021 (new)
Authors: Joao Costa, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass and festulolium can also be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the growing season. Overgrazing is not a recommended practice, but is done in these studies to determine how different varieties perform under conditions that are worse than occur during the life of a typical pasture. Varieties are primarily rated for percent survival but data on seedling vigor and grazing preference are also presented.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 12



PR-808

2021 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report

12/7/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Laurie Lawrence, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Cool-season forages such as Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to evaluate varieties of these grasses for persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the growing season. The main focus will be on stand survival but data on seedling vigor and grazing preference are also included

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 8



PR-805

2021 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report

12/3/2021 (new)
Authors: Joao Costa, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season. A summary of all alfalfa varieties tested in Kentucky during the last 20 years and information about distributors, fall dormancy ratings, and disease resistance is included at the end of this report.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 200 kb
Pages: 4



PR-802

2021 Tall Fescue, Bromegrass, and Meadow Fescue Report

12/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Selecting a good variety of tall fescue and bromegrass is an important first step in establishing a productive stand of grass. Proper management, beginning with seedbed preparation and continuing throughout the life of the stand, is necessary for even the highest-yielding variety to produce to its genetic potential.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 14



PR-806

2021 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report

12/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Joao Costa, Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived perennial legume that is used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a low-growing, perennial pasture legume with white flowers. It differs from red clover in that the stems (stolons) grow along the surface of the soil and can form adventitious roots that may lead to the development of new plants.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-12

Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Shade Trees

11/30/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial leaf scorch has devastated many landscape and shade trees in Kentucky's urban forests in recent years. Especially hard hit have been the mature pin oaks lining many urban streets. First diagnosed in the U.S. in the early 1980s, this epidemic shows no signs of abating.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: 249 kb
Pages: 6



PR-803

2021 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report

11/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Timothy (Phleum pratense) is the fourth most widely sown cool-season perennial grass used in Kentucky for forage--after tall fescue, orchardgrass, and Kentucky bluegrass. It is a late-maturing bunchgrass that is primarily harvested as hay, particularly for horses. It also can be used for grazing or wildlife habitat. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a high-quality, highly palatable, long-lived pasture plant with limited use for hay. It tolerates close, frequent grazing better than most grasses. It has low yields and low summer production and becomes dormant and brown during hot, dry summers. Kentucky bluegrass is slow to establish.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 550 kb
Pages: 6



PR-812

2021 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test

11/28/2021 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location. The hybrids submitted for testing are those most likely to be available for sale in 2022.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 23



PR-800

2021 Red and White Clover Report

11/23/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high-quality, short-lived, perennial legume used in mixed or pure stands for pasture, hay, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitat. This species is adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Stands of improved varieties generally are productive for 2-1/2 to 3 years, with the highest yields occurring in the year following establishment. Red clover is used primarily as a renovation legume for grass pastures and hay fields. It is a dominant forage legume in Kentucky because it is relatively easy to establish and has high forage quality, yield, and animal acceptance.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 770 kb
Pages: 6



PR-804

2021 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report

11/23/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are high quality, productive, cool-season grasses used in Kentucky. Both have exceptionally high seedling vigor and are highly palatable to livestock. In Kentucky, winter survival can be an issue for many annual ryegrass varieties, so before planting, review winter survival results in this publication.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 14



4FD-01LO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Leaders Guide

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

The goal of the Creating Fashion/Expressing Self program is to provide young people in high school the opportunity to explore fashion and textile programs in a non-sewing context. Fashion should be a celebration of the uniqueness of each young person. Creating Fashion/Expressing Self is a celebration of the things that make us unique and a tool that helps us express those qualities.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 4.90 mb
Pages: 117



4FD-02PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Exploring Self

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self will help you learn to customize your wardrobe--to choose clothing you like and enjoy wearing. There are several ways of doing this. By the time you work through the project, you will know what they are and you will be able to select clothing you really enjoy wearing.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 4.10 mb
Pages: 20



4FD-03PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Closet Couture

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Creating a wardrobe that reflects who you are as a person can be very intimidating. It is important to remember however that you donít need to buy all new things to make this happen. Often times you can coordinate and match items in your own closet to get the job done.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 16



4FD-04PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Curating You

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Shopping for clothing is motivated by a lot of things--much of which can be summed up in two words: need or want. Your need to purchase a new item or replace a current one may be the factor that causes you to shop. On the other hand, your favorite pastime may be shopping. Regardless of what gets you to the marketplace, you need to know the three W's of wise shopping: when to shop, where to shop, and what to shop for.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 4.70 mb
Pages: 20



4FD-05PO

Creating Fashion/Expressing Self: Empowering Fashion

11/22/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Fashion should help empower you to present your most confident and truest self to the world. Fashion is a tool to build a wardrobe that someone could examine and know it is yours. Using the knowledge you have of wardrobe planning, shopping, and clothing coordination, we can now explore how those skills can interact with the world to express you, your community, and your support for others.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Leadership Skills Development (4FD series)
Size: 5.50 mb
Pages: 25



4AH-10PO

Windowsill Garden Project

11/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Dick LeMaster, Ashley Osborne

This guide is for volunteer leaders or county Extension personnel, and includes four lessons designed for youth in 3rd-5th grades. Each lesson focuses on an aspect of seeds, plants, and/or gardening. Three additional experiments are included in the Digging Deeper section that youth can do independently or in a group or classroom setting. At the end of the guide, additional resources and an appendix are available. The National 4-H Gardening Series, which includes 4 levels for grades 3rd-12th and a Helper's Guide, is recommended if additional background information is needed. The National 4-H Gardening Series includes projects and activities for youth that have an interest in continuing to learn more about plant science and gardening after completing their windowsill garden.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs, Fayette County, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Swine (4AH series)
Size: 580 kb
Pages: 24



PR-811

2021 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests

11/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Dalton Mertz, Claire Venard

The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties commercially available in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars in the 2021 tests were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, state and federal institutions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 28



PR-801

2021 Orchardgrass Report

11/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Orchardgrass (Dactylus glomerata) is a high-quality, productive, cool-season grass that is well-adapted to Kentucky conditions. This grass is used for pasture, hay, green chop, and silage, but it requires better management than tall fescue for greater yields, higher quality, and longer stand life. It produces an open, bunch-type sod, making it compatible with alfalfa or red clover as a pasture and hay crop or as habitat for wildlife. This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 6



PR-799

2021 Alfalfa Report

11/10/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.16 mb
Pages: 10



PPFS-GEN-19

Botrytis Blight

11/8/2021 (new)
Authors: Michael Boice, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Caldwell County, Oldham County, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: mb
Pages: 5



4LE-08OO

Why Extension Abroad Matters at Home

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Rachel Guidugli

In order for U.S. universities and colleges to remain competitive and innovative forces for the greater good in a rapidly changing world, Cooperative Extension Systems (CES) must continue to globalize to serve new and more diverse audiences, provide enriching opportunities that produce global citizens, and strengthen long-term institutional capacity.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 225 kb
Pages: 3



4LE-09LO

Chinese Dumplings

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Rachel Noble

Dumplings are a type of food that is prepared and enjoyed all over the world. Dumplings can be a stuffing wrapped in a thin dough or pieces of dough cooked in boiling water. Dumplings can be boiled, fried, steamed and prepared in many different ways. Just like bread, dumplings probably arose independently in several cuisines. And in all likelihood, they were invented as a way to stretch a small amount of meat to feed more people.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 325 kb
Pages: 5



4LE-10LO

Argentina: Empanadas

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Breazeale, Rachel Guidugli

Empanadas are hand-held pies stuffed with a variety of delicious fillings that are extremely common in Latin America. Rich and poor alike serve them for impromptu dinners, stick them in lunch boxes, and enjoy them at public gatherings. Home cooks teach their children to make empanadas using special family recipes, but they also buy them from a multitude of shops, where you can often find a dizzying array of filling options (both sweet and savory). Sometimes they are fried and sometimes they are baked.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Community and Leadership Development
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 630 kb
Pages: 9



AEN-164

Reprogramming a Tobacco Barn to Hay Storage and Self-Feeding: An Eden Shale Case Study

11/4/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Many farms contain buildings that were productive long ago but contribute little to the farming operation today. A good example is a tobacco barn on a farm that no longer grows the crop. However, the application of land use planning concepts allows these barns to be repurposed or reprogrammed to significantly contribute to the farming operation. Once repurposed, these old barns can reduce labor, waste, time, and money while improving efficiency and profits.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 4



PR-797

Kentucky Corn Silage Hybrid Performance Report, 2021

10/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Cam Kenimer, Chad Lee, Nick Roy, Phillip Shine

The objective of the Silage Corn Hybrid Performance Test is to provide unbiased forage yield and quality data for corn hybrids commonly grown for silage in Kentucky.

Departments: Adair County, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 255 kb
Pages: 3



FCS3-631

2020-2025 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans

10/14/2021 (new)
Authors: Courtney Luecking, Janet Tietyen-Mullins, Lucy Valdez, Jackie Walters

Each five years, law requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to review the latest science and update advice on what Americans should eat and drink. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are designed to provide current dietary advice to promote health, help reduce risk of chronic disease, and meet nutritional needs across the lifespan. The guidelines also serve as a foundation for federal food, nutrition, and health policies and programs like the National School Lunch Program and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), to reduce hunger and increase food security through access to healthy, affordable food.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: FCS: Food and Nutrition (FCS3 series)
Size: 2.28 mb
Pages: 7



FOR-160

Monitoring for and Controlling Wild Pig Populations in Kentucky

10/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Elizabeth Evers, Matthew Springer

Wild pigs are widely considered to be the most destructive invasive species in the United States. They cause large amounts of agricultural damage, compete with native wildlife for resources, alter wildlife habitat, and threaten biological diversity.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources
Series: Forestry and Natural Resources (FOR series)
Size: 2.63 mb
Pages: 5



ID-271

Equine Layout and Facility Planning Checklist

10/13/2021 (new)
Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes

Horse facilities should be planned and laid out to meet the needs and goals of the operation. Horse owners need to consider how horses, humans, vehicles, equipment, and water will flow through the operation. This publication is designed to help horse owners design or redesign their facilities.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 625 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-12

Crazy Top of Corn

10/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Kiersten Wise

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-28

Root Knot Nematode in Vegetable Cropping Systems

10/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Victoria Bajek, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Rachel Rudolph

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: mb
Pages: 7



AEN-161

Planning and Designing Suburban-Urban Poultry Housing in Kentucky

9/29/2021 (new)
Authors: James Ash, Steve Higgins

Interest in suburban-urban poultry keeping continues to increase. The main reasons for keeping poultry are for eggs and meat, and to address food sustainability or security issues. Poultry are also enjoyed as pets, for ornamental purposes, and providing enjoyment. Poultry can contribute to pest control and provide nutrient-rich manure for gardening. However, there are also challenges to keeping poultry in a suburban-urban setting.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 24.70 mb
Pages: 7



AEN-163

Creating a Hub with Dry Lots for Small Ruminants

9/16/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A typical small ruminant operation needs to graze, feed and water animals daily. In addition, other activities such as milking, winter feeding, kidding or lambing, managing sick stock and handling for herd health need to be accomplished routinely or seasonally. An excellent way to promote efficiency is to create a centralized area or hub for all livestock related activities.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 2.75 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-AG-H-1

Septoria Leaf Spot of Field Hemp

9/16/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Mostafa Rahnama

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Hemp: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-H series)
Size: mb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-8

Bacterial Canker and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruit

9/9/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kevin Lyons, Chris Smigell

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

Departments: Horticulture, Monroe County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Size: 207 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-27

Cucurbit Downy Mildew in Kentucky

9/7/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Rachel Rudolph

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-17

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

9/2/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 636 kb
Pages: 3



4AJ-08PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Past Production Hens: Giving Oral Reasons

9/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Oral reasons are a very important part of a poultry judging contest. This is the opportunity participants have to defend their placings of an egg production class. In addition, oral reasons are an important tool in the development of organization and communication skills, which in turn will build self-confidence.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 8



4HA-10PA

Annual Container Garden

9/1/2021 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The Annual Container Garden Contest is a perfect opportunity to showcase a container garden that you have created and cared for. Remember that this contest is specific to annual, non-vegetable plants. Annuals are plants that survive for only one growing season. Kentucky's cold winter temperatures kill outdoor annuals. Annual plants are grown for their unique foliage or colorful flowers.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Energy: General (4HA series)
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 3



4HA-11PA

Vegetable Container Garden

9/1/2021 (new)
Authors: Ashley Osborne

The Vegetable Container Garden Contest is a perfect opportunity to showcase a container garden that you have created and cared for. Remember that this contest is specific to vegetable plants.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Ag Programs
Series: 4-H Energy: General (4HA series)
Size: 695 kb
Pages: 3



4FC-01LA

Code Name: Home Alone

8/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

The Code Name: Home Alone Curriculum was developed by the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service to address the issue of youth being alone without an adult present. The curriculum focuses on youth and guardians learning about issues related to youth self-care, safety and overall well-being when they are home alone and/or with siblings without adult supervision. It stresses family communication through individual, group/classroom, adult and youth activities, and Family Newsletters. It is designed to be used in the classroom, and in 4-H groups, youth groups, family groups, and as self-passed lessons with a video guide.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: Community Service and Action (4FC series)
Size: 13.70 mb
Pages: 180



4FF-03PA

Home Environment Project Unit 3: Where I Live

8/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

In this project you will learn some guidelines for using the design elements. You'll learn how rhythm, balance, scale and proportion, emphasis and unity work together to make every project more attractive. You will have the opportunity to apply what you have learned while working on various projects and activities in and around your home. Some activities you can do by yourself. Other things you may want to do with other members of your family, your project leader or other club members.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 4.15 mb
Pages: 28



4FF-04PA

Home Environment Project Unit 4: In My Home

8/30/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Unit IV: In My Home offers more opportunities for you to work with design and find out more about yourself, your home, and your community. You can explore what you like about your home and why it's a special place to be. You'll learn how to make things for your home. You can also learn more about your family--where your ancestors lived, how they lived, and what that means to you. And you'll be able to do things with other 4-H members and friends.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 5.10 mb
Pages: 28



4AJ-05PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Grading Table Eggs

8/29/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Chicken egg production is a major agricultural industry in the United States. In a commercial egg production operation, eggs are evaluated for quality before being packed by weight (size). Egg quality is independent of egg weight and eggshell color. All shell colors are graded with the same standards.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 4.74 mb
Pages: 13



4FF-01PA

Home Environment Project Unit 1: Exploring Your Home

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Home Environment Unit I: Exploring Your Home introduces 4-H'ers to activities to help them become interested in their homes and learn how to make them more attractive. They can do some of the activities by themselves. Other things should be done with a guardian or a club leader giving guidance.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 24



4FF-02PA

Home Environment Project Unit 2: Living with Others

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Home Environment II: Living With Others builds on the skills and concepts 4-H'ers learned in Unit I, Exploring Your Home. If some of your members have not completed that unit, they should review the material in order to learn some of the basic concepts of design.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: 4-H Citizenship, Community Involvement: International Study (4FF series)
Size: 1.17 mb
Pages: 28



4LE-01LO

Mexico: Dia de los Muertos Paper Crafts

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Day of the Dead (or Dia de los Muertos) is an important part of Mexican culture. A two-day celebration of life and death, Day of the Dead is not a version of how we typically think of Halloween--it is a cultural tradition to honor lost family members. Death is perceived as a natural phase of life in Mexico, and those who have passed on are remembered in spirit and memory. It is believed that during Dia de los Muertos, the spirits of the dead return to earth temporarily.

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 13



4LE-02LO

Asian Cultures: Lanterns

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Lanterns are found in several cultures and symbolize different things. Each year Taiwan hosts a world-renowned Lantern Festival. The Lantern Festival is celebrated annually on the 15th day of the first lunar month to mark the grand finale of the Chinese New Year celebrations. It is also the very first full moon day of the New Year, symbolizing the coming of the spring.

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 529 kb
Pages: 6



4LE-03LO

Japanese Culture: One Thousand Paper Cranes

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Origami has a rich and complex history that spans culture, class and geography, composed of the Japanese words oru (to fold) and kami (paper) (PBS, 2017). Paper was first invented in China around 105 AD and was brought to Japan by monks in the sixth century. Handmade paper was a luxury item only available to a few, and paper folding in ancient Japan was strictly for ceremonial purposes, often religious in nature (PBS, 2017). Traditional origami is characterized by open-access folding patterns and sequences passed down orally or anonymously from generation to generation. Modern origami often features models created by designers (PBS, 2017).

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 4.00 mb
Pages: 6



4LE-04LO

Scandinavian Culture: Woven Heart Ornaments and Gnomes

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors: Isaac Hilpp

Folklore is sometimes referred to as folk culture and can be defined as the study of customs, traditions, and folk tales of a group of people. Swedish scholars have defined folklore in two ways: 1) folklivsforskning or the "study of folk life," including traditional materials and practices, and 2) folkminnesforsknin, referring to folk knowledge passed down from generation to generation, through stories, songs, and plays, to teach traditions, beliefs, and customs (Kongas, 1963).

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 1.28 mb
Pages: 11



4LE-05LO

Brazil: The Carnival Celebration

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

According to Britannica (2019) Brazil is the largest and furthest East country on the South American Continent. Brazil shares a border with every South American county except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world by size with 3,287,956 square miles of land and is the only country that the equator and the tropic of Capricorn run through it. Brazil is home to more than just the rainforest but also includes deserts and a variety of oceanic microclimates.

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 4



4LE-06LO

Peru: Llamas and Panpipes "Siku"

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

People living in the Andes Mountains have been using llamas as pack animals (animals used to move supplies and equipment) for hundreds of years. "Siku" is one name used for panpipes or pan flutes played in Peru! Sizes of panpipes can vary in Andes regions. Many are small yet others are as large as 4 feet long. In this craft, you will be creating a version of a siku (panpipe) that incorporates the same technique!

Departments: 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 585 kb
Pages: 6



4LE-07LO

Costa Rican Rainforest Binoculars and Terrarium

8/29/2021 (new)
Authors:

Costa Rica is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. It is not an island but is on the isthmus that connects North America and South America. Geographically it's a part of North America but has cultural roots in Latin America.

Departments: 4-H Horse Program, 4-H Programs
Series: International Program (4LE series)
Size: 311 kb
Pages: 4



4AJ-07PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Evaluating Past Production Hens

8/19/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

In a 4-H poultry judging contest participants are required to rank a group of four hens from the most to least productive. The criteria used in judging the hens are based on pigmentation, abdominal capacity, abdominal fat condition and molt.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 3.30 mb
Pages: 8



4AJ-11PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Market Poultry: Ready-to-Cook Poultry Parts Identification

8/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

The market poultry division now includes one class of ready-to-cook broiler carcasses to grade, one class of ready-to-cook roaster carcasses to grade, one class of parts identification, one class of parts grading, and one class of further processed boneless poultry products. Each class is worth 100 points, for a total of 500 possible points for the division. This factsheet specifically looks at the 24 possible parts that will be selected from for use in the contest. This is an increase from the 17 possible parts in previous years.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 10.00 mb
Pages: 10



ID-269

Using Electric Offsets as Part of Fencing Systems

8/18/2021 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Chris Teutsch

The objective of this publication is to provide practical tips for installing electrified offsets that can effectively control livestock and extend the life of new and existing fencing.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.90 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-26

Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot: Disease Management for Residential Growers

8/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Heather Graham

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant Pathology, Wolfe County
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



4AJ-04PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest (An Overview of the Project): Overview

8/2/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Judging contests are a tool used in the development of the life skills of 4-H members. Participation in judging and other competitive events helps 4-H'ers learn to make and defend decisions and to speak in public. Poultry judging also provides an excellent opportunity for 4-H'ers to learn about live chickens and the basis of grade and quality of eggs and poultry products.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 1.92 mb
Pages: 8



4AJ-12PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Market Poultry: Grading to Ready to Cook Parts

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

The market poultry division now includes one class of ready-to-cook broiler carcasses to grade, one class of ready-to-cook roaster carcasses to grade, one class of parts identification, one class of parts grading, and one class of further processed boneless poultry products. Each class is worth 100 points, for a total of 500 possible points for the division. This factsheet looks at the new class of grading ready-to-cook parts.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 11.30 mb
Pages: 9



ASC-246

Properly Maintaining a Backyard Poultry Facility

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

It is important that you properly maintain the poultry facility so that you do not attract rodents, flies, or create an odor problem. These are the three main reasons that non-poultry enthusiasts give for not wanting backyard flocks in their communities and neighborhood.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 1.47 mb
Pages: 4



ASC-247

Broodiness in Chickens

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Broodiness is the term used to describe a hen that is preparing to naturally incubate eggs and raise newly hatched chicks. When broodiness occurs in a hen certain behavioral changes may be evident. These changes include increasing the time spent in the nest, being overly protective of the eggs and nest, changes in the consumption of feed and water, and the stopping of egg production.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 375 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-H-11

Common Problems of Annuals and Perennials: An Index

8/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Entomology, Fayette County, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Size: mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-30

Common Problems of Common Trees: An Index

7/19/2021 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Entomology, Fayette County, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-31

Common Problems of Common Shrubs: An Index

7/19/2021 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jonathan Larson, Kimberly Leonberger

Departments: Entomology, Fayette County, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: mb
Pages: 3



4AJ-06PA

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Grading Ready-to-Cook Poultry Carcasses

7/14/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

In 2021, major revisions were made to the market poultry division of the 4-H poultry judging contest. The market poultry division now includes one class each of ready-to-cook broiler carcasses to grade, ready-to-cook roaster carcasses to grade, parts identification, parts grading, and further processed boneless poultry products.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 6.48 mb
Pages: 12



4AJ-10PO

Kentucky 4-H Poultry Judging Contest: Market Poultry: Evaluating Further Processed Poultry Products

7/14/2021 (new)
Authors: Jacquie Jacob, Tony Pescatore

Boneless further processed poultry meat products are common in retail markets as precooked, poultry meat patties, tenders, nuggets, or other boneless products. This factsheet will cover the evaluation of further processed poultry products.

Departments: 4-H Programs, Animal and Food Sciences
Series: 4-H Animals and Poultry: Poultry and Poultry Products (4AJ series)
Size: 8.13 mb
Pages: 7



PR-796

2021 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test

7/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Bill Bruening, John Connelly, Gene Olson, Phillip Shine, Sandy Swanson, Dave Van Sanford

The objective of the Kentucky small grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, barley, triticale, and cereal rye that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties continually are being de-veloped by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 1.64 mb
Pages: 20



ID-270

Human-Horse-Environment Interface: Metals in Indoor Horse Arenas

6/21/2021 (new)
Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Erin Haynes, Staci McGill, Kimberly Tumlin

A University of Kentucky research collaboration analyzed footing samples for metal concentrations as part of a larger study on indoor arenas. By determining what metals are present within the indoor arena footing, we can begin to develop an idea of the metals which could potentially become airborne particulates as horses are worked in the arenas. To date, metals havenít been as widely considered when considering respirable particulate matter (PM) that can impact horses and humans in the arena environment.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, UK Epidemiology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



AEN-160

Decision Aid for Estimating the Cost of Using a Drone in Production Agriculture

6/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Gabriel Abdulai, Joshua Jackson, Karla Ladino

Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), commonly known as drones, play an increasingly important role in production agriculture. UAS are already widely used in agriculture for monitoring livestock, inspecting fence lines, and evaluating crops and pastures (e.g., yield, quality, nutrients, water stress, pest pressure, disease impact). The cost of using a UAS will depend on a variety of factors, including platform-based capabilities, maintenance, and insurance. As with any investment, the economic benefit derived from using a UAS should be determined prior to purchase.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 9



AGR-172

Weed Management in Grass Pastures, Hayfields, and Other Farmstead Sites, 2021

5/19/2021 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

Weeds can reduce the quantity and the stand life of desirable forage plants in pastures and hayfields. These unwanted plants are often more aggressive than existing or desired forage species and compete for light, water, and nutrients. Weeds can also diminish the quality and palatability of the forage available for livestock grazing, and certain weed species are potentially poisonous to grazing animals. Therefore, it may be desirable to initiate weed management strategies that reduce the impact of weeds on forage production.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 660 kb
Pages: 16



AR-130

KAES Annual Report, 2017

5/18/2021 (new)
Authors:

Experiment station research spans both basic and applied sciences. The ability of Kentucky producers to be competitive in domestic and world markets requires an expanded base of knowledge in emerging areas of research applicable to agriculture, food, and natural resources. This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2017.

Departments:
Series: Experiment Station Annual Report (AR series)
Size: 5.20 mb
Pages: 68



PPFS-GH-8

Managing Tobamoviruses in Greenhouse Production

5/13/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Tobamoviruses, including tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the new tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), can be persistent in greenhouses and other protected cropping environments. Herbaceous ornamentals, vegetables, and tobacco can be affected by tobamoviruses. Once introduced into a site, these viruses can spread rapidly, reducing plant quality and yields. Prevention and careful sanitation are important to maintaining a virus-free production environment for current and future crops.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Size: 980 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-18

Edema

5/10/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, John Hartman

Edema is a non-parasitic disorder which, under the right environmental conditions, can affect a wide variety of herbaceous plants. We most frequently observe this problem on indoor plants, such as dracaena, geranium and schefflera. Edema tends to be more of a problem in greenhouses, but it may also occur on plants grown in homes and offices. Field and garden grown crops, such as cabbage, may also be affected.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Size: 770 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-4

Greenhouse Sanitation

5/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kenny Seebold

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Size: 640 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-263

Growing Wheat for Forage

4/14/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tim Phillips, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Wheat is a multipurpose crop that can be used for cover crops, stored forage or grazing. As much as 25% of Kentucky's wheat acreage is not harvested as grain but used for cover crop or forage production. Wheat has excellent winter hardiness and can be sown later in the fall than barley. Wheat is a good choice for planting following corn or soybean harvest to capture residual nitrogen, build soil organic matter and prevent erosion. Wheat provides high quality, early spring growth, but has limited fall growth compared to grazing types of cereal rye.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-11

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits

4/13/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 3



ID-232

Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide, 2021-22

4/8/2021 (reprinted)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, John Strang, Shawn Wright

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 180



AGR-232

Crabgrass

4/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Tom Keene, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Crabgrass possesses significant potential for supplying high quality summer forage although it is considered a weed by many. A primary advantage of crabgrass is that it is well adapted to Kentucky and occurs naturally in most summer pastures, especially those that have been overgrazed. It is also highly palatable and a prolific re-seeder. Planting an improved variety of crabgrass is recommended because the production of naturally-occurring ecotypes varies greatly. Crabgrass is best utilized by grazing.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 428 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-48

Bermudagrass: A Summer Forage in Kentucky

4/6/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Bermudagrass can be used successfully as part of a livestock forage program to supplement summer production of cool-season grasses. It is high-yielding, sod-forming, warm-season perennial grass that is most productive on well-drained, fertile soils. Bermudagrass is widely grown in the southern United States for pasture and hay.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 2.05 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-86

Growing Lespedeza in Kentucky for Cattle, Sheep and Goats

4/6/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

Annual and perennial lespedezas are grown in Kentucky for pasture, hay, and soil stabilization. Lespedezas are warm season legumes that complement cool-season grasses in both pasture and hay situations. They are more tolerant of less fertile, more acid soils, but have lower yield potential than other forage legumes such as red clover and alfalfa.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.85 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-264

Improving Kentucky Small Ruminant Pastures

4/2/2021 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Krista Lea, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch

For many small ruminants, quality pasture can provide almost all nutrients needed for maintenance or light work for much of the year. Pasture reduces the cost of keeping livestock while minimizing impacts on the environment. Below are some guidelines for improving pastures.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 1.14 mb
Pages: 2



ASC-169

Beef Sire Selection Manual, 2021

4/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Darrh Bullock

In principle, genetic improvement is a straight-forward exercise that results from using above-average selection candidates as the parents of the next generation. In practice, the devil is in the details. Both bull breeders and bull buyers need to consider their breeding objectives, defining the list of traits that need to be modified to advance the towards their goal.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 7.30 mb
Pages: 56



RB-344

Commercial Feeds in Kentucky, 2020

3/31/2021 (new)
Authors: Glen Harrison

Kentucky's commercial feed law provides protection for the state's livestock, poultry, and pet owners by regulating all feed materials offered for sale or for mixing into a feed. Products falling under regulation include all types of pet foods, livestock minerals, complete animal and poultry feeds, protein or mineral blocks, supplements, feed ingredients, specialty materials such as drug premixes, vitamin and mineral supplements, liquid feeds, pet supplements, pet treats, and other specialized pet foods. The law does provide for exemptions for whole and unprocessed grain, raw meat, hay, straw, stover, silage, cobs, husks, and hulls when not processed. Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 36



PPFS-OR-W-11

Juniper Twig Blights

3/29/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Carrie Spry

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-3

Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals

3/25/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



ASC-245

Feeding Soybeans to Beef Cattle

3/24/2021 (new)
Authors: Jeff Lehmkuhler, Katherine VanValin

Various factors such as delayed planting, early frost, drought or suppressed market prices may lead one to consider feeding soybeans to cattle. Soybeans can be fed to beef cattle as an energy and protein source. Depending upon the stage of development, soybeans will have varying degrees of feed value and a feed test for nutrient content is recommended.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences
Series: Animal Science (ASC series)
Size: 308 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-207

Broadleaf Weeds of Kentucky Pastures, 2021

3/23/2021 (major revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

A guide to the identification and control of broadleaf weeds in Kentucky pastures.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Size: 3.90 mb
Pages: 2



ID-108

The Kentucky Beef Book, 2021

3/23/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Les Anderson, Michelle Arnold, Darrh Bullock, Kenny Burdine, Roy Burris, Ben Crites, Jimmy Henning, Steve Higgins, Steve Isaacs, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Lee Moser, Gregg Rentfrow, Kylie Schmidt, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch, Lee Townsend, Katherine VanValin, Paul Vijayakumar

Kentucky is ideally suited for cattle production. The main feed for cattle is a renewable resource Kentucky has in abundance--forages. The majority of the state's terrain favors cattle production over row crops. Kentucky farms cover 14 million acres, with approximately half of that occupied by forage grasses and legumes. Our natural resources and climate permit the growth of most cool-season and warm-season species. Water is readily available in all areas of the state, and we have a relatively long growing season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.50 mb
Pages: 164



NEP-229

Cook Wild Kentucky: Introduction to Wild Game in Kentucky

3/23/2021 (new)
Authors: Elizabeth Coots, Jann Knappage, Annhall Norris, Gregg Rentfrow, Matthew Springer, Jackie Walters, Martha Yount

In Kentucky, many people enjoy being outdoors to hunt, fish, and trap. Kentucky is home to a wide range of wildlife with nearly 1,000 kinds of animals. We have the most elk this side of the Mississippi River. You can also find black bear, white-tailed deer, turkey, waterfowl, and bobwhite quail in our state.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences, Forestry and Natural Resources, Woodford County
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 1.45 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-5

Strawberry Anthracnose Fruit and Crown Rot

3/22/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Size: 293 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-14

Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases

3/20/2021 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



RB-343

Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples July 2019 - June 2020

3/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve McMurry

This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,460 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 48,500 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,123,000 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,050 nitrogen, 1,649 phosphorus, 1,661 potassium, 1224 secondary and minor element, and certain other analyses on these samples. Table 1 shows the manufacturers whose product the field inspection staff sampled, along with the number of samples taken and the percentage of those samples that passed. Table 2 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials. Table 3 contains the results of secondary and minor element and certain other analyses. Table 4 shows the detailed N, P2O5, and K2O analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials by grade. Table 5 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of June 30, 2020.

Departments: Regulatory Services
Series: Regulatory Bulletin (RB series)
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 266



PPFS-AG-C-11

Drone Fungicide Applications in Corn

3/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Pat Hardesty, Nick Roy, Kiersten Wise

Foliar fungicide applications occur commonly in corn to manage foliar diseases such as gray leaf spot. University of Kentucky research indicates that the most effective application timing for both foliar disease control and yield benefits is at tasseling/early silking (VT/R1). Because of the height of corn at this growth stage, these applications are typically applied aerially, with fixed wing or helicopter aircraft. However, many Kentucky fields are small, surrounded by trees or other obstacles to aircraft, meaning that fungicide application is not an option in these areas.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 3



NEP-227

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Beets

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Beets, planted in the spring, grow well in Kentucky. They are easy to grow and quick to mature. Both the roots and the leaves are edible.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-228

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Radishes

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Radishes are easy and fast to grow and only take up a little space. Radish roots are low in calories and high in vitamins C, K, and B6. Because they require little time and space, radishes are great vegetables for children to grow. This publication will discuss only spring radishes.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-2

Seedling Diseases of Corn

3/8/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Size: 160 kb
Pages: 2



ID-230

Blackpatch of Forage Legumes: Cause of Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Animals

3/5/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Michelle Arnold, Shane Bogle, Bob Coleman, Ray Smith, Kiersten Wise

Blackpatch is an important fungal disease of forage legumes in Kentucky. A metabolite produced by the fungus can result in slaframine toxicosis or "slobbers" in many animals. The fungal disease was first reported in Kentucky in 1933 on red clover. Most Extension literature associates blackpatch and slaframine with red clover, which is very susceptible to the disease. However, many forage legumes including alfalfa can be infected by the causal fungus.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Caldwell County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-50

Drone Fungicide Applications in Corn

3/5/2021 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Pat Hardesty, Nick Roy, Kiersten Wise

Drone technology has improved in recent years and has also become more accessible. In Kentucky, commercial drone fungicide application is now an option in several areas. Drones specifically designed to apply products can potentially be used to apply fungicide in fields that are not accessible to other aircraft. This publication describes experiments to determine if drone fungicide applications can reduce foliar diseases in corn and discusses factors to consider when using drone technology to apply fungicides.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Size: 300 kb
Pages: 2



ID-128

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2021

3/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Rachel Rudolph, Mark Williams, Shawn Wright

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.80 mb
Pages: 56