Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Hypomagnesemic Tetany or "Grass Tetany"
Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or "grass tetany" is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany.
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Taking Advantage of a Strong Cattle Market
A combination of several factors has led to extremely strong prices across beef cattle markets during recent years. Established cow-calf operators are the primary beneficiaries of these unprecedented price levels as they represent the only industry within the beef sector that is not margin oriented. While the current market environment has greatly improved profitability at the cow-calf level, it also presents challenges as producers consider long term decisions about cattle inventory, investments in equipment and facilities, and managing the financial aspects of greater cash flow in the coming years. The purpose of this publication is to (1) outline the factors behind the current strength of the cattle market and describe how producers typically respond to strong markets and (2) to help frame the economics of several key long-term investment decisions that producers are likely considering.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 93 kb
The Margin Protection Program for Dairy in the 2014 Farm Bill
The Margin Protection Program for Dairy (MPP-Dairy) was authorized in the Food, Farm and Jobs Bill, aka "2014 Farm Bill." The new program was established in August 2014 and will run through December 31, 2018. The bill effectively repeals the Dairy Export Incentive Program and the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program while establishing the new MPP-Dairy program and a Dairy Product Donation Program (DPDP). Producers are permitted to participate in the new program, or the previously existing LGM-Dairy program, but not both at the same time. The purpose of this publication is three-fold, (1) provide an overview of how MPP-Dairy works, (2) provide some historical perspective on how a similar program might have worked had it been available over the last several years, and (3) help frame the participation decision that dairy producers will make in the coming years.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 107 kb
Comparison of Herbicide Systems for Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco: Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report (vol. 3, no. 1, 2014)
Dark tobacco growers commonly ask which herbicide system has the least potential for crop injury and/or yield reduction and provides the most effective control of the weed spectrum typically encountered in western Kentucky and northwestern Tennessee tobacco fields. Due to the high value of dark tobacco, many growers use reduced rates of herbicides due to crop injury concerns, and often observe reduced weed control as a result. The objective of these experiments was to evaluate dark tobacco response and weed control where full rates of all available residual herbicide systems were used.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 470 kb
Impact of Climate Change on Wheat Production in Kentucky: Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report (vol. 3, no. 3, 2014)
Soft red winter wheat is one of the major row crops in Kentucky, along with corn and soybean. Climate change and variability have the potential to significantly impact this important economic enterprise within our state. Perhaps no year in recent history has seen as dramatic a negative impact of weather on annual crop yields as 2012. Kentucky experienced above normal temperatures during late winter and early spring that advanced wheat growth beyond normal levels. The warm weather was followed by a late spring freeze that severely damaged wheat yields. Following the late freeze, above normal spring temperatures encouraged farmers to plant corn early and most of the crop had an excellent start to the season. However, spring was followed by some of the hottest and driest weather in 50 to 70 years, depending on the location in Kentucky, and corn yields were devastated. Conversely, 2013 was relatively wet and cooler for most of the wheat, corn and soybean growing season, resulting in excellent yields of all three crops.
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Limitations and Benefits to Cultivating Tobacco: Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report (vol. 3, no. 2, 2014)
Historically, between-row cultivation for weed control has been an integral part of tobacco production. In one season, a grower might perform five or more cultivations and several hand weeding operations for adequate weed control. Early herbicide chemistries would control some weeds, but not all, forcing the producer to cultivate and hand weed. The development of better herbicides improved the range of weeds controlled, sometimes to the point that cultivation for weed control was not warranted. Many producers are so accustomed to cultivating they have forgotten why cultivation was necessary. The decision to cultivate should largely be based on the presence of weeds, but there are exceptions.
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Is Creep Feeding Lambs a Profitable Undertaking?
Creep feeding is a technique of providing feed to nursing lambs to supplement the milk they consume. Creep-fed lambs grow faster than noncreep-feds and are more aggressive in nursing ewes. This aggression stimulates greater ewe milk production which, in turn, increases creep feed intake because these lambs will be bigger at a given age. Typically, the creep diet is a grain-protein supplement mixture and is made available in an area constructed so lambs can enter, but ewes cannot. Some situations when it may be economical to creep feed are described in this document.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 309 kb
Evaluating Land Resource Potentials in Kentucky
The most successful land use decisions are those where the intended use matches the capabilities of the land. Determining the capability of the land begins with a visual assessment of the landscape such as topography (percent slope) and surface drainage patterns followed by a closer examination of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this publication is to provide a basic understanding of the relationship between these landscape and soil properties to facilitate wise land use decisions.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 630 kb
Generating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Grow Your Group by Building Its Membership: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
Successful organizations consist of members, volunteers and leaders who engage creative talents and interests to serve the community more effectively. To effectively address community issues, the organization must assess its participant needs with specific roles and responsibilities necessary to take action.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 271 kb
Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Brassicas---Be Aware of the Animal Health Risks
Although infrequent, brassica crops can cause animal health disorders if grazing is managed improperly. Most brassica-related disorders in cattle tend to occur during the first two weeks of grazing while adjusting to the forage. The primary potential disorders are polioencephalomalcia or PEM, hemolytic anemia (mainly with kale), nitrate poisoning, and pulmonary emphysema. Other possible clinical disorders include bloat and rumen acidosis, and metabolic problems such as hypomagnesemia and hypothyroidism with goiter. Glucosinates present in brassicas are precursors of irritants that can cause colic and diarrhea. Large bulbs may lodge in the esophagus and lead to choking. Certain brassicas (specifically rape) can cause sunburn or "scald" on light-skinned animals, especially when grazed while the plants are immature. Other potential problems include oxalate poisoning and off-flavoring of meat and milk.
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Closing a Liquid Manure Storage Structure
Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure(s) as part of their Kentucky No Discharge Operational Permit. To help offset the costs of closing the structure, producers may want to apply for cost share funds through the Division of Conservation. Before beginning to close a liquid manure structure, the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) must be provided with a closure plan. This publication outlines the preferred practices and steps for closing a liquid manure structure to meet the guidelines of the KDOW.
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Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach
Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 9000 kb
Adults as Learners: Teaching Adults in Extension
As an adult educator, it is important for you to better understand your adult audiences and their educational needs to ensure that Extension remains the world's largest non-formal educational program. Although teaching adults in a non-formal arena does not yield a formal degree or certification, the training or other education avenues are vital to their lives and businesses.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 170 kb
Streambank erosion refers to the removal of soil and other material, such as rock and vegetation, from the streambank. Streambank erosion is a naturally occurring process, but the rate at which it occurs is often increased by anthropogenic or human activities such as urbanization and agriculture. Changes in land use can cause streambanks to erode at rates much faster than those seen in natural, undisturbed systems.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3112 kb
Fertilizing Your Lawn
Lawns require fertilizer to remain healthy. Proper fertilization practices will lead to a thick, dark green, uniform lawn that is competitive against weed and disease invasions. The nutrients contained in fertilizers are necessary to support many processes occurring within the plants. If any essential nutrient is limiting, the plants will not perform at their highest level.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 425 kb
Liming Kentucky Lawns
Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn.
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Visioning: Setting the Future for Your Organization: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
A vision statement outlines the desired future state of an organization; it offers a picture of what could be and encourages the organization to move toward that image. When a vision statement is developed, utilizing a process that engages an organization's members and leadership, it becomes a tool of empowerment. A vision statement reflects the core values of the organization.
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Understanding Soilless Media Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
Although choosing or formulating media with optimum physical properties (such as pore air space and water holding capacity) for a given production environment and crop plant is important, this publication focuses on the chemical properties of soilless media determined with a laboratory test as conducted through the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service at the Division of Regulatory Services Soil Testing Laboratories.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 252 kb
2014 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.
2000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2700 kb
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky
La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.
1500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 5600 kb
"Fescue toxicosis" is the general term used for the clinical diseases that can affect cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tall-fescue pastures containing ergot alkaloids are responsible for the toxic effects observed in livestock, including hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), gangrene of the extremities, decreased weight gain, and poor reproductive performance. Clinical signs vary depending on the cattle, the environmental conditions, and the level and duration of the exposure. Early clinical signs are often reversible after removal from contaminated pastures or hay.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 740 kb
Understanding Your Organization's Culture: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
A variety of features give an organization meaning and make it familiar and recognizable. One of these features is culture. Understanding culture in the general sense can lead to a working knowledge of organizational culture. This understanding could result in more effective members, volunteers and leaders, expanded community engagement and increased growth for your organization.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 361 kb
Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.
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How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6000 kb
2013 Commercial Feeds in Kentucky
Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.
2500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2350 kb
KAES Annual Report, 2013
Experiment station research spans both basic and applied sciences. The ability of Kentucky producers to be competitive in domestic and world markets requires an expanded base of knowledge in emerging areas of research applicable to agriculture, food, and natural resources. This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2013. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3000 kb
Home Canning Fruit
Home canning fruit from your garden, orchard, or local farmers market can help save you money and gain control over what's in your food, while preserving the taste of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 542 kb
Mobilizing Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Calling the Group to Action: ANR Facilitator's Guide
Mobilizing is an important component of volunteer and community development; organizational participants must be mobilized in order for anything to be accomplished.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 369 kb
Using a SWOT Analysis: Taking a Look at Your Organization: ANR Facilitator's Guide
A SWOT analysis is a deliberate planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization or project.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 542 kb
Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations
Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.
2000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1300 kb
Lowering Somatic Cell Counts with Best Management Practices
As health and food safety concerns grow, dairy producers are facing more stringent regulations. In 2010, the European Union (EU) set the somatic cell count (SCC) upper limit, an indicator of milk quality, for exported milk at 400,000 cells per milliliter. However, the current U.S. SCC limit is 750,000 cells per milliliter. As of January 2012, any U.S. milk used in export markets must meet the EU standards. It is projected that US milk processors will gradually adopt the EU upper limit, making it difficult for dairy producers to sell milk containing more than 400,000 somatic cells per milliliter. Dairy producers will have to find innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce the somatic cell count of their milk. This publication will discuss how agriculture best management practices can be used to lower SCC.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 350 kb
Home Canning Vegetables
Home canning vegetables from your garden or local farmers market can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 444 kb
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple
The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.
3000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2600 kb
Residential Rain Garden: Design, Construction, Maintenance
This publication covers the design, construction, and maintenance of residential ran gardens. Rain gardens are one of several stormwater management practices that homeowners can use to reduce their property's negative impact on water quality and flooding.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6000 kb
Evaluating Your Health Insurance Needs
Insurance provides financial security when the unexpected happens. Many people receive health insurance from their employers. People who are not working or are self-employed, retired, or who have too little or unaffordable coverage now have the opportunity to purchase health insurance through the Health Benefit Marketplace. Before purchasing health insurance, it may be helpful to spend some time considering what you need or want in a health insurance plan.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 546 kb
Soybean Nutrient Management in Kentucky
Soybean grows best on fertile soils. For decades, the University of Kentucky has conducted field studies to establish the relationship between soil nutrient supplies and soybean yield. Adequate soil fertility must be present so that yields are not limited.
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Increasing Dry Cow and Bred Heifer Performance with Environmental Management
Producers must understand that dry cows and bred heifers are the next milking herd, so focusing on their management can maintain or actually increase future profitability. This publication focuses on environmental management strategies that improve dry cow and bred heifer performance.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 454 kb
Building Your Preschooler's Financial Capabilities - Information for Parents
Feeling able to manage financial resources is a life goal for most of us. It is also a skill we would like to teach our young loved ones. This fact sheet offers suggestions for adults as they help young children develop their ability to manage money, also known as financial capability.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 624 kb
Financial Capability---Why it Matters - In-depth Information for Educators
Countless surveys and studies confirm that American youth and adults lack basic financial knowledge and skills. Several states now require the teaching of financial education in high school and even elementary school as one way to address the knowledge gap, though Kentucky is not one of them. But clearly the schools cannot do it alone. Parents can be the key to raising financially capable children.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 748 kb
Relatives Raising Children: Coping with Lifestyle Changes
The circumstances that make full time caregiving of children necessary usually are not ones grandparents or relatives would happily choose. Relatives step in as caregivers because they know their home is a more stable, loving environment for the child's well-being over the long term than placement in foster care. This publication describes some actions that you as a grandparent or relative who is parenting a child can take to manage the child and take care of yourself.
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Relatives Raising Children: Health and Safety Tips for Younger Children
Raising grandchildren can be challenging and rewarding. Keeping children healthy and safe can be simple, but it does take thought and preparation. This publication provides suggestions and guidelines that may help.
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Cyanide Poisoning in Ruminants
Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 255 kb
Home Canning Pickles and Fermented Foods
The home canning of pickles, relishes, and fermented foods allows you to enjoy the bounty of your summer garden or local farmers market year-round. It may also save you money and give you some control over what's in your food. To ensure safe, high-quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 527 kb
Media Advertising and Your Child
As parents, how can we help young children to know the difference between advertising and information? This fact sheet helps parents to answer that question.
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Media Advertising and its Influence on Children: Educators
How should educators assist parents and those taking the parenting role to guide young children in using money wisely when so much media advertising swirls all around them? Answering that question is the objective of this publication.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1845 kb
Collection and Preparation of Milk Samples for Microbiological Culturing
In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 873 kb
Home Canning Jams, Jellies and Other Soft Spreads
Home canning jams, jellies, and other soft spreads is fun and satisfying. Soft spreads all contain four main ingredients (fruit, sugar, pectin, and acid), and they differ only in their consistency. The formation of a gel depends on the right amount of each of the main ingredients. If you understand the science of gelling, all your soft spreads will be a success.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 524 kb
How to Make a Country Ham
Country hams can be found in grocery stores and specialty shops throughout Southeast and on the internet. Nonetheless, there are some do-it-yourselfers who want to start their own family traditions. Country hams are not difficult to make. The process requires a few easy-to-find ingredients and a secure storage area. Country hams are made in three steps: curing, salt equalization, and aging. These steps are outlined in the manual.
100 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6791 kb
Generating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Grow Your Group by Building Its Membership: ANR Facilitator's Guide
Successful organizations consist of members, volunteers and leaders who engage creative talents and interests to better serve the community. To effectively address community issues, the organization must assess its participant needs with specific roles and responsibilities necessary to take action.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 496 kb
A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System
Researchers at the University of Kentucky combined existing disease detection systems to produce a fresh cow examination system that may help producers detect diseases earlier by monitoring subtle changes every day during a cow's fresh period. Compiling daily information about each animal will enable producers to notice changes in health that may otherwise have been overlooked. These records may help producers detect illnesses early, thus reducing the long-term effects (reduced milk production or fertility) and costs (re-treatment, milk loss, or death) of a disease. Learning what diseases are common on a particular farm can focus producers' efforts towards preventive measures specific to their operation. Preventing disease, rather than treating, can save producers time and money and can improve overall cow well-being.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1900 kb
Jewish dietary laws maintain certain rules for preparing foods that are not common in modern food preparation. These laws originated from the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures. The following information is an overview of Jewish dietary laws.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Ergotism
Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. It grows on rye, wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and various grasses. Rye and triticale are more susceptible than other grains because they require a longer period of pollination. Grasses potentially infected include tall fescue, bluegrass, brome, canarygrass, quackgrass, timothy, wild barley, and annual and perennial ryegrass. Shallow cultivation, no-till farming, and lack of crop rotation increase the likelihood of infection of crops. Environmental conditions of a cool, wet spring followed by hot early summer temperatures are ideal for the fungus to grow.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 400 kb
Technology to Improve Sprayer Accuracy
A number of new technologies have been introduced over the last several years aimed at improving the accuracy of spray application, but do they really work? The purpose of this document is to highlight the most common causes of application errors then discuss the array of new sprayer technologies that are becoming available, how they might affect application accuracy, and pitfalls involved in using them.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1500 kb
Calibrating Fertilizer Spreaders for the Home Lawn
How much fertilizer should you use on your lawn? Too much can result in turf burn, wasted product and money, and potential environmental concerns. Too little will result in a low-density lawn that will not be attractive or competitive against weed invasions. To insure that you apply the proper amount of fertilizer to your lawn, you must calibrate your fertilizer spreader. You should calibrate your spreader each time you use a new (different) fertilizer because not all fertilizers have the same particle size or density. The information on the fertilizer bag is a good starting point for the calibration process but remember that spreaders can differ significantly. Calibrating your spreader will take a little bit of work, but the series of fairly simple steps below will help you complete the task.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2900 kb
People Learn with a Purpose: Understanding Learning Styles: ANR Facilitator's Guide
People learn for different purposes. Some common reasons are to gather information to make an informed decision, to learn toward a specific goal or just to increase knowledge. Understanding why and how you learn best is essential, especially if you are trying to teach others.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 413 kb
Soybean Variety Selection
Soybean variety selection is one of the most important and most difficult management decisions a producer must make each year. It takes careful identification of the problems and needs of the production system. When done properly it increases the chance the variety will reach its full yield potential while eliminating costs for unnecessary traits, resulting in highly profitable returns.
1000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 570 kb
Stereotypic Behavior in Horses: Weaving, Stall Walking, and Cribbing
Many stabled horses perform a variety of repetitive behaviors such as weaving, stall walking, cribbing, headshaking and pawing. These behaviors have been called many different names including stereotypic behavior, stereotypies, stereotypes, obsessive compulsive disorders, vices and habits. Although it may be difficult to know why exactly each horse performs these vices, there may be specific causal factors for these activities in the horse. These behaviors are not simply learned and not simply inherited, but may be a mixture of both. Studies show that some families of horses have a higher prevalence of certain vices, which suggests heritability and genetic components. However, the tendency to perform the behavior only becomes apparent when other risk factors are also in place.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 480 kb
Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses
Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 5953 kb
Seams and Seam Finishes
This publication is a guide to sewing various seams and seam finishes. The seam is the basic structural element of a garment or household textile item. Carefully selected and well-constructed seams and seam finishes are important steps in the construction process.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 23896 kb
Forage-Related Disorders in Cattle: Nitrate Poisoning
Few plants normally contain high nitrate levels, since under normal growing conditions the nitrates are converted to protein as quickly as they are absorbed from the roots. However, under certain conditions plants can develop dangerously high nitrate levels which can cause nitrate intoxication. Death or abortion may result. Care must be taken to recognize possible toxic forages and manage them appropriately to avoid animal loss.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 314 kb
Precision Dairy Farming Technologies
Many different kinds of technologies exist in the market today. The sheer number of various technologies and the information produced by them can be overwhelming and confusing. Information about these technologies exists but can often times be hard to find or difficult to understand. Unfamiliarity with technologies and how they work can become an obstacle to overcome, especially when comparing and contrasting technologies. This fact-sheet will list several of these technologies and how they accomplish their goals.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 22 kb
Precision Dairy Farming Technologies List
Excel: 227 kb
Stream restoration is the re-establishment of the structure (dimension, pattern, and profile) and function (transport of water, sediment, and nutrients; habitat provision) of a degraded stream as closely as possible to pre-disturbance conditions.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3632 kb
Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3600 kb
Home Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
Home canning tomatoes and tomato products can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 577 kb
Home Canning Salsa
Salsas are usually mixtures of high acid foods, such as tomatoes and/or fruit, with low acid foods, such as onions and peppers. With the addition of lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar in the right proportion, salsa becomes a high acid food and can be safely processed in a boiling water canner. However, only research-based recipes should be used. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 508 kb
Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples, July 2012 - June 2013
This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 3,031 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 57,374 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 981,831 tons sold during this period.
250 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb
Expected Progeny Differences: Trait Definitions and Utilizing Percentile Tables
Expected progeny differences (EPDs) are useful tools in providing the best estimate of the genetic value of a particular animal as a parent. Differences in EPDs between parents of the same breed predict the performance differences of their future offspring if environmental factors are the same. EPD values should not be compared between breeds; for example, you should not compare an Angus bull's weaning weight EPD with a Simmental bull's weaning weight EPD. Most established breeds have EPDs for calving ease, growth, maternal, and carcass traits. When used properly, producers can make genetic improvements to their herd through parental selection. This publication is intended to help producers better understand EPDs and how one might use them in selection of replacement animals.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 370 kb
Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 264 kb
Seed Inspection Report, 2009 - 2013
The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station's annual Seed Inspection Report provides results of the examination, analysis and tests of seeds distributed and sampled in our state. It is intended to be useful to individuals interested in evaluating the quality of seeds distributed in Kentucky. The report represents the commitment of the staff at Regulatory Services to provide consumer protection and service related to Kentucky's seed industry.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1700 kb
Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky
A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.
14200 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1800 kb
Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves
During gestation, the placenta of the cow effectively separates the blood of the fetus from that of the dam and prevents any transfer of protective immunity while in the uterus. Therefore, the calf is born completely dependent on the absorption of maternal antibodies from colostrum after birth. Colostrum is the milk produced from the mammary gland in the first 24 hours after birth. A calf's gastrointestinal tract is designed to temporarily allow the absorption of large molecules including antibodies from the small intestine, but only during the first 24 hours after birth. Although colostrum contains several different types of immunoglobulins, IgG accounts for roughly 85 percent of the total volume. IgG absorption is most efficient in the first four hours of life and declines rapidly after 12 hours of age. At 24 hours, the gut is completely closed and there is no further immunoglobulin absorption. These absorbed antibodies must be consumed in order to protect the calf from disease organisms until its own immune system becomes functional.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 280 kb
UK Ag Equine Programs 2014 Calendar
The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.
3400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 10000 kb
Participatory Evaluation: Engaging Stakeholders in the Process
In this age of accountability, organizations, agencies and individuals alike are held at higher standards to show their programs can make a difference. Hence, evaluation is a critical component of programming, whether it serves the development and implementation process or provides the results of a project funded by a grant.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 180 kb
Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases
Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb
Fertilizer Management in Alfalfa
Alfalfa is a high quality, valuable forage crop that can be successfully produced on most well-drained soils in Kentucky for hay, silage, and grazing. Fertilizing alfalfa can be uniquely challenging because it is a high-yielding crop that removes a tremendous amount of soil nutrients when compared to other crops grown in Kentucky. A thorough understanding of alfalfa's growth habits, nutrient requirements, and soil nutrient supply mechanisms is necessary to effectively manage fertilizer inputs and maximize profitability while minimizing environmental impact.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 4 kb
2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2491 kb
2012 Beef Research and Extension Report
The intent of this report is to provide highlights of our research and extension activities. We have a vested interest in the beef industry in the state and nation, and hope this report provides a window into our programs. We believe that after viewing this report, a greater appreciation will be garnered with respect to our involvement in the multiple fields of study related to beef production. The faculty, staff and student activities are advancing our understanding of basic science principles of livestock production as well as applied research that producers and the industry can benefit from immediately, as well as in the future. Extension educational programs, on-farm demonstrations, and other activities aid in transferring this knowledge to producers, allowing for increased awareness and adoption of management change.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 975 kb
Groundwater is an important water source for activities such as drinking, bathing, cooking, and crop irrigation. Keeping our groundwater sources clean is becoming more challenging with an ever growing population. In watersheds underlain with karst, such as many of those in Kentucky, the groundwater is more susceptible to contamination. This is because surface waters, such as runoff and in some cases streamflow, travel into the subsurface of karst by way of fractures, sinkholes, swallow holes, conduits and caves Such direct paths into the groundwater mean that pollutants reach the aquifer much more quickly with little to no filtration. Thus, while waters from springs and wells may look clean, they may actually contain unsafe levels of pollutants such as bacteria and nitrogen.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2000 kb
Selecting Feeds for Horses
Feeds should be selected with the nutrient requirements of the horse in mind, recognizing that requirements vary with the life stage of the horse (growing, pregnant, lactating, working, idle). Feeds for horses should always be clean and free from toxins. Feeds should also promote gastrointestinal health. The large intestine (cecum and colon) of the digestive tract contains a diverse population of beneficial microbes that can easily be upset by poor feed selection. In nature horses will spend more than 50% of their time grazing; therefore, feed that promotes similar feeding behavior may be desirable. Once appropriate feeds have been selected, it is important that they are fed in the correct amounts using good feeding management strategies.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1450 kb
Home Canning Basics
People choose to can foods at home for many reasons: to preserve the harvest from their gardens or local farmers markets for year-round enjoyment; to gain more control over what is in their food by limiting or avoiding salt, sugar or preservatives; to save money; to get better-tasting canned foods; to follow family traditions; or just for the sense of satisfaction that home canning provides.
1000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 436 kb
2013 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue and orchardgrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and prairie brome can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1150 kb
2013 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 940 kb
2013 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 10 to 12 years.
1800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2360 kb
2013 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased and objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions.
2125 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3500 kb
2013 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of red and white clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 700 kb
2013 Summer Annual Grass Report
Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2009-2013 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, and teff.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1250 kb
2013 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure during the grazing season.
450 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 680 kb
Avian Female Reproductive System
Anyone raising poultry for eggs, whether for eating or for incubation, should have an understanding of the reproductive system. This will help them understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 914 kb
Avian Skeletal System
All animals have a skeleton to allow them to stand up and to protect their internal organs and tissues. The avian skeletal system looks similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, but there are some important differences.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 310 kb
Avian Digestive System
An understanding of the avian digestive system is essential to developing an effective and economical feeding program for your poultry flock. Knowledge of avian anatomy, and what the parts normally look like, will also help you to recognize when something is wrong and take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2065 kb
Avian Muscular System
If you raise poultry for meat, it is always a good idea to have an understanding of the muscular system of poultry so you can better understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1887 kb
2013 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 700 kb
2013 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties.
450 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1750 kb
2013 Red and White Clover Report
This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.
800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 960 kb
2013 Orchardgrass Report
This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.
800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb
2013 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties.
800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1600 kb
2013 Alfalfa Report
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.
600 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1950 kb
Keeping Trash Out of Streams
Fresh water is an essential natural resource that is used every day for drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, and recreation. In Kentucky, the water used for these tasks mainly comes from streams and rivers, but it can also come from groundwater. Because our streams, rivers, and aquifers are so vital to our daily lives, it is important that we protect them from trash, debris, and other pollutants found in stormwater. What happens to the land around these water sources affects their condition and health.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1200 kb
Savvy Sellers and Bargain Hunters: Basic Guidelines to Yard Sales and Consignment Shops
This publication provides tips to be a successful seller or bargain hunter to help you maximize profits and savings.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 550 kb
2013 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.
2500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2600 kb
Understanding and Protecting Kentucky's Watersheds
Regardless of where you are, you are always in a watershed. A watershed is any area of land that drains water to a single water body such as a stream or lake.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2511 kb
Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops
The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application.
3300 printed copies
HTML: 2 kb
Avian Male Reproductive System
The avian male reproductive system is all inside the bird, unlike the males of mammalian species which have their reproductive systems outside of the body. This is one of the really remarkable things about birds; the sperm remain viable at body temperature.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 843 kb
Avian Respiratory System
Knowledge of avian anatomy and what the parts normally look like will help you to recognize when something is wrong and to take the necessary actions to correct the problem.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 200 kb
Size, behavior and egg production vary according to breed, and the right breed of goose for your flock will depend on what you intend to use them for. This publication will help you decide on the right breed for you.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 663 kb
Raising wild turkeys is illegal in some states, including Kentucky. The prohibition includes domestic strains of wild birds. The law is meant to protect native populations of wild turkeys. Learn more about selecting the right breed of turkey in this publication.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 664 kb
As with many domesticated species, ducks are selected for different purposes, primarily meat or egg production. They are also valued for their feathers and down. It is important to choose a breed of duck that best suits your particular needs.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 758 kb
Common External Parasites of Poultry
Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 839 kb
Raising Guinea Fowl
Guinea fowl are rough, vigorous, hardy, and mostly disease-free game birds. They are increasing in popularity for a variety of reasons.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 730 kb
When processing poultry, remember that you are producing a perishable food product that will eventually be consumed by people. The goal is to produce a safe, nutritious product.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3105 kb
Review of Life Cycles of Some Parasitic Nematodes in Mammals
Most internal parasites of vertebrates require stages outside the host for development and transmission. Some life cycles are simple and straightforward. Others may have one or more intermediate or paritenic hosts. Knowledge of life cycles of parasites first of all is of great scientific interest. Secondly, life cycles are of great importance in controlling parasites. The object of this presentation is to review life cycles of some mammalian parasitic nematode species in research in association with the University of Kentucky.
100 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb
Sensor Technology for Variable Rate Nitrogen Applications on Wheat in Kentucky: Recommendations and Verification
Nitrogen (N) applications on wheat using sensor-based technology can improve both N use efficiency and yields.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 812 kb
Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers
Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.
5100 printed copies
HTML: 3 kb
Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3130 kb
Hungry for Change: Get More of Nutrients Lacking in the American Diet
Although the U.S. food supply is abundant, many people are experiencing nutritional shortfalls. More than half of all Americans suffer from chronic diseases because of poor food choices.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 685 kb
Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol: You Can Do It
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is found in all parts of the body. It is needed for the body to work well. All the cholesterol we need could be made in our bodies, but we also get cholesterol from the food we eat.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 698 kb
Make Healthy Food Choices: Reduce Saturated Fat in Your Diet
What do the fat on meat, the skin of poultry, and the fat you see when you open a container of beef stew have in common? They are all sources of saturated fat that are easy to see. But some sources of saturated fat, such as the fat in whole milk, high-fat cheeses, ice cream and ice cream products, can be more difficult to spot.
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 507 kb
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