University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

Recently completed new and revised publications

Developing and Implementing an Action Plan for Community Organizations: Giving New Direction to Established Organizations: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
The goal of this program is developing and implementing an action plan that will inspire and set in motion the actions needed to accomplish the 4-H organization's vision.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 331 kb

Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers
All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3800 kb

Home Canning Basics
People choose to can foods at home for many reasons: to preserve the harvest from their gardens or local farmers markets for year-round enjoyment; to gain more control over what is in their food by limiting or avoiding salt, sugar or preservatives; to save money; to get better-tasting canned foods; to follow family traditions; or just for the sense of satisfaction that home canning provides.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 436 kb

Home Canning Jams, Jellies and Other Soft Spreads
Home canning jams, jellies, and other soft spreads is fun and satisfying. Soft spreads all contain four main ingredients (fruit, sugar, pectin, and acid), and they differ only in their consistency. The formation of a gel depends on the right amount of each of the main ingredients. If you understand the science of gelling, all your soft spreads will be a success.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 524 kb

Home Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
Home canning tomatoes and tomato products can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 577 kb

Home Canning Salsa
Salsas are usually mixtures of high acid foods, such as tomatoes and/or fruit, with low acid foods, such as onions and peppers. With the addition of lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar in the right proportion, salsa becomes a high acid food and can be safely processed in a boiling water canner. However, only research-based recipes should be used. The recipes included in this publication are research-based for safe home canning
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 508 kb

Home Canning Pickles and Fermented Foods
The home canning of pickles, relishes, and fermented foods allows you to enjoy the bounty of your summer garden or local farmers market year-round. It may also save you money and give you some control over what's in your food. To ensure safe, high-quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 527 kb

Home Canning Vegetables
Home canning vegetables from your garden or local farmers market can help you save money and gain control over what's in your food while preserving the bounty of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 444 kb

Home Canning Fruit
Home canning fruit from your garden, orchard, or local farmers market can help save you money and gain control over what's in your food, while preserving the taste of summer for your family's year-round enjoyment. To ensure safe, high quality home-canned products, always follow research-based recommendations when canning.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 542 kb

Planning a Zero-Waste Event
The goal of a zero-waste event (e.g., meeting, business event, birthday party, field day, wedding, etc.) is to minimize the amount of waste produced. The key to hosting a zero-waste event is good advanced planning. This publication will guide you as you plan and carry out your event.
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An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky
Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.
1500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6400 kb

Grasshoppers Distribution: Lessons Learned and Lasting Legacy
Grasshoppers Distribution was a food hub in Louisville, Kentucky, that opened for business in 2007. The enterprise was launched by four producers who saw a need for agricultural diversification in a post-tobacco era and burgeoning opportunity in regional and sustainable food markets. This paper examines the story behind the evolution of the business and points to lessons that may be learned by others involved with similar efforts.
100 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1881 kb

Managing Holiday Expenses: How to Reduce Spending to Decrease Stress
This publication helps you plan for holiday expenses throughout the year and adopt new, lower-cost traditions to reduce the added stress and crunch on your wallet.
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Determining Soil Texture by Feel
Soil texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil. Texture influences almost every aspect of soil use, both in agricultural and engineering applications, and even how natural ecosystems function. Many scientists consider soil texture the most important soil property as it can influence soil/water relationships, gas exchange, and plant nutrition. Accurately determining soil texture in a lab requires time and money; therefore, it is often necessary to estimate soil texture in the field by feel, which can be very accurate if done correctly.
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Organic Corn Production in Kentucky
The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms.
2000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2600 kb

2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
The 2014 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in three counties in Kentucky, including: Mason, Shelby, and Spencer.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 950 kb

2015-2016 Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide
Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco.
11000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 7650 kb

Keeping and Using Flock Performance Records
Performance records serve as the cornerstone of any good livestock management program. Unfortunately, the task of collecting, maintaining and using performance records is the one area of livestock production in general that gets the least attention. This fact sheet provides ten reasons why all sheep producers need to keep performance records on their flocks. Then, some ways of maintaining and using those records are discussed.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 890 kb

An Introduction to Sheep
The information in this fact sheet was developed to provide a quick reference to the most frequently asked questions about sheep and sheep production.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1072 kb

Basic Sheep Genetics
Genetics is the science of heredity. It seeks to explain differences and similarities exhibited by related individuals. The application of genetics to livestock improvement is known as animal breeding. The objective of this fact sheet is to provide a refresher course on basic genetics and to show how knowledge of genetics can be used to improve sheep production.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 465 kb

Sheep Breeding: Heritability, EBVs, EPDs, and the NSIP
Genetic improvement in a flock depends on the producer's ability to select breeding sheep that are genetically superior for traits of economic importance. This is complicated by the fact that an animal's own performance is not always a true indicator of its genetic potential as a parent.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1082 kb

Inbreeding in Sheep
Inbreeding is broadly defined as the mating of individuals that are related. Strictly speaking, however, all animals within a breed are related. So, in a sense, every purebred sheep producer practices some degree of inbreeding. In most cases this relationship is very slight. Therefore, inbreeding is more practically defined as the mating of individuals more closely related than the average of the breed. This practice includes mating brother to sister, sire to daughter and son to dam.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 896 kb

Crossbreeding Considerations in Sheep
Crossbreeding is the mating of individuals from different breeds. To a certain extent, it is a simple concept, but embarking upon a crossbreeding program, in sheep or any other livestock species, involves long-term decisions. The primary benefits of a crossbreeding program are heterosis and breed complementarity.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 677 kb

2014 Kentucky Soybean Performance Tests
The Kentucky Soybean Variety Performance Tests are conducted to provide an unbiased, objective estimate of the relative performance of soybean varieties in Kentucky. This information may be used by growers and seed producers to aid in selecting varieties that will give the highest total production in a specific situation. Soybean cultivars were entered by soybean growers, commercial companies, and state and federal institutions. Thirty soybean tests were planted in 2014 in Kentucky at the six test locations shown below. Planting dates and other information are shown in Table 1. Data for the maturity groups IV Early, IV Late and V at the Caldwell County location are not provided to avoid penalizing any variety (plots were damaged by a storm soon after planting).
2125 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 4300 kb

2014 Summer Annual Grass Report
Summer annual grasses provide an important forage crop option for producers in Kentucky. These grasses are mainly used as emergency or supplemental hay and pasture crops, but little information is available on their yield potential. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the University of Kentucky 2011-2014 forage yield trials with sudangrass, sorghum/sudangrass, millets, and teff.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1150 kb

2014 Long-Term Summary of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials
Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties. This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based on a summary of forage yield and grazing tolerance trials conducted in Kentucky over the past 10 to 12 years.
1800 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2400 kb

Reading a Feed Tag
Feed stores carry a variety of feed types. How do you chose which to buy? You need to read the feed tag. A lot of information is on a feed tag that can help you make your selection and this publication breaks it down for you.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 181 kb

So You Want to Produce Your Own Eggs?
Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock. This publication will give you the information you need decide if producing your own eggs is right for you.
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Proper Handling and Transportation of Eggs for Sale at Kentucky Farmer's Markets
Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. This publication will give you the information and guidelines in the proper handling and transportation of eggs for sale.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1275 kb

2014 Cool-Season Grass Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue and orchardgrass are the primary pasture grasses in Kentucky. Other species such as perennial ryegrass, festulolium, and prairie brome can be used in pasture systems. Little is known about the effect of variety on the grazing tolerance of these cool-season grass species. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, and other species when they are subjected to continuous, heavy grazing pressure by cattle within the grazing season. The main focus will be on plant stand survival.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1200 kb

2014 Cool-Season Grass Horse Grazing Tolerance Report
Cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass are dominant pasture grasses for horses in Kentucky. Variety evaluations for yield have been carried out for many years, but little work has been done to establish the effect of variety on persistence when subjected to close, continuous grazing by horses. The purpose of this report is to summarize current research on the grazing tolerance of varieties of tall fescue, orchardgrass, and other species when subjected to continuous heavy grazing pressure by horses within the grazing season. The main focus will be on stand survival.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 810 kb

UK Ag Equine Programs 2014 Calendar
The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information.
4140 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6500 kb

2014 Alfalfa Grazing Tolerance Report
This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of alfalfa varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 550 kb

2014 Red and White Clover Grazing Tolerance Report
This report summarizes research on the grazing tolerance of red and white clover varieties when subjected to continuous grazing pressure.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 660 kb

2014 Alfalfa Report
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has historically been the highest-yielding, highest-quality forage legume grown in Kentucky. It is an important part of Kentucky's cash hay enterprise and is an important component in dairy, horse, beef, and sheep diets. Choosing a good variety is a key step in establishing a stand of alfalfa. The choice of variety can impact yield, thickness of stand, and persistence. This report provides yield data on alfalfa varieties included in current yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting alfalfa varieties.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1780 kb

2014 Red and White Clover Report
This report provides current yield data on red and white clover varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting clover varieties.
700 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1000 kb

2014 Orchardgrass Report
This report provides current yield data on orchardgrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting orchardgrass varieties.
700 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 855 kb

2014 Tall Fescue and Bromegrass Report
This report provides current yield data on tall fescue varieties and similar grass species in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting tall fescue varieties.
700 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1114 kb

2014 Timothy and Kentucky Bluegrass Report
This report provides maturity and yield data on timothy and Kentucky bluegrass varieties included in yield trials in Kentucky.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 676 kb

2014 Annual and Perennial Ryegrass and Festulolium Report
This report provides current yield data on annual and perennial ryegrass varieties in trials in Kentucky as well as guidelines for selecting varieties.
400 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1897 kb

Common Hazards in Karst Terrain
Karst refers to terrain largely drained by subsurface conduits and caves. Karst landscapes are characterized by surface features such as springs, sinkholes, shallow depressions, and rolling hills. Karst regions are also known for their subsurface or below-ground features such as conduits and caves. What makes a karst region unique is the way runoff drains from the land. In karst regions, some of the runoff flows into surface features such as sinkholes where it then travels underground. Some of this infiltrated water re-emerges at springs, and some continues moving underground.
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Irrigation Tips to Conserve Water and Grow a Healthy Lawn
The goal of water conservation in the landscape does not need to be as drastic as eliminating all irrigation, but we should choose plant material wisely and decide if and when irrigation is necessary. This publication is designed to promote a healthy lawn through watering while promoting water conservation through best management practices. One of the easiest things you can do to reduce the need for irrigation in your yard is to plant species that naturally need less water. When choosing plants, remember that just because a particular plant is drought tolerant does not mean that it is suitable for Kentucky's climate.
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Annual Report Analyses of Official Fertilizer Samples, July 2013 - June 2014
This bulletin presents the results of the analysis of 2,775 official samples of commercial fertilizer taken during the period of July 1, 2013 through June 30, 2014 by the field inspection staff. The samples represented approximately 51,928 tons of fertilizer out of the approximately 1,030,611 tons sold during this period. The Laboratory made 2,375 nitrogen,1,882 phosphorus, 2,043 potassium and 135 chloride (max), secondary and minor element and certain other analyses on these samples. The results of N, P2O5, K2O, and maximum chloride analyses of samples of mixed fertilizers and fertilizer materials and certain statistical analyses are in Table 1. Table 2 contains the results of secondary and minor element and certain other analyses and Table 3 is a listing of companies or licensees registered or licensed to sell fertilizer in Kentucky as of October 2014.
300 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 850 kb

Improving Turf Through Renovation
Often a poor lawn can be improved by using proper maintenance practices, including mowing, fertilizing, watering, and pest control. In some instances, however, portions of the lawn must be reseeded. Usually one of two methods is used to re-establish a lawn: conventional or renovation. The conventional method involves killing existing vegetation, tilling the soil, and replanting. The advantages of conventional tillage include more complete control of weeds and undesirable grass, a smoother soil surface, and the opportunity to improve the existing soil by adding organic matter and sand. Renovation involves replanting without completely tilling the soil and often without destroying all existing vegetation.
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Aerifying and Dethatching Lawns
Lawns in Kentucky will occasionally suffer due to compacted (hard) soils and excessive thatch layers. Although most lawns will not have problems with these issues, you may occasionally need to dethatch or aerify (core) to maintain a high quality lawn.
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Mineral and Protein Blocks and Tubs for Cattle
Nutritional supplement blocks and tubs are convenient for beef producers, require no investment in feeding troughs and require a limited area for storing. One of the most attractive features is that they lower the labor needed to supplement livestock. Many producers use these products to provide supplemental nutrients to cattle consuming low-quality forages or as a mechanism to promote a more consistent intake of minerals. These products are also attractive to producers who have off-farm employment as they eliminate the need for daily feeding. Yet, they often come at a greater cost per unit of nutrient than more conventional feedstuffs. Since there are differences in the blocks and tubs being marketed today, familiarity with how to compare products and determine their differences will enable producers to decide which product best fits their needs.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 159 kb

2014 Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky Hybrid Corn Performance Test is to provide relative performance estimates of hybrid seed corn sold in Kentucky. The test attempts to treat every hybrid similarly in an unbiased manner. Agronomic practices that meet or exceed university guidelines are implemented at each location.
2300 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3387 kb

Chemical Control of Weeds in Kentucky Grain Crops
The use of herbicides suggested in this publication is based on research at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and elsewhere. We have given what we believe to be the most effective herbicides, with the most suitable rates and times of application.
3650 printed copies
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Hosting a Horse Show
When planning a show, whether a world-class competition or a backyard fun show, the information in this publication will help you make your event a success.
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Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases
Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Hypomagnesemic Tetany or "Grass Tetany"
Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or "grass tetany" is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany.
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Taking Advantage of a Strong Cattle Market
A combination of several factors has led to extremely strong prices across beef cattle markets during recent years. Established cow-calf operators are the primary beneficiaries of these unprecedented price levels as they represent the only industry within the beef sector that is not margin oriented. While the current market environment has greatly improved profitability at the cow-calf level, it also presents challenges as producers consider long term decisions about cattle inventory, investments in equipment and facilities, and managing the financial aspects of greater cash flow in the coming years. The purpose of this publication is to (1) outline the factors behind the current strength of the cattle market and describe how producers typically respond to strong markets and (2) to help frame the economics of several key long-term investment decisions that producers are likely considering.
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The Margin Protection Program for Dairy in the 2014 Farm Bill
The Margin Protection Program for Dairy (MPP-Dairy) was authorized in the Food, Farm and Jobs Bill, aka "2014 Farm Bill." The new program was established in August 2014 and will run through December 31, 2018. The bill effectively repeals the Dairy Export Incentive Program and the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program while establishing the new MPP-Dairy program and a Dairy Product Donation Program (DPDP). Producers are permitted to participate in the new program, or the previously existing LGM-Dairy program, but not both at the same time. The purpose of this publication is three-fold, (1) provide an overview of how MPP-Dairy works, (2) provide some historical perspective on how a similar program might have worked had it been available over the last several years, and (3) help frame the participation decision that dairy producers will make in the coming years.
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Comparison of Herbicide Systems for Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco: Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report (vol. 3, no. 1, 2014)
Dark tobacco growers commonly ask which herbicide system has the least potential for crop injury and/or yield reduction and provides the most effective control of the weed spectrum typically encountered in western Kentucky and northwestern Tennessee tobacco fields. Due to the high value of dark tobacco, many growers use reduced rates of herbicides due to crop injury concerns, and often observe reduced weed control as a result. The objective of these experiments was to evaluate dark tobacco response and weed control where full rates of all available residual herbicide systems were used.
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Impact of Climate Change on Wheat Production in Kentucky: Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report (vol. 3, no. 3, 2014)
Soft red winter wheat is one of the major row crops in Kentucky, along with corn and soybean. Climate change and variability have the potential to significantly impact this important economic enterprise within our state. Perhaps no year in recent history has seen as dramatic a negative impact of weather on annual crop yields as 2012. Kentucky experienced above normal temperatures during late winter and early spring that advanced wheat growth beyond normal levels. The warm weather was followed by a late spring freeze that severely damaged wheat yields. Following the late freeze, above normal spring temperatures encouraged farmers to plant corn early and most of the crop had an excellent start to the season. However, spring was followed by some of the hottest and driest weather in 50 to 70 years, depending on the location in Kentucky, and corn yields were devastated. Conversely, 2013 was relatively wet and cooler for most of the wheat, corn and soybean growing season, resulting in excellent yields of all three crops.
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Limitations and Benefits to Cultivating Tobacco: Plant and Soil Sciences Research Report (vol. 3, no. 2, 2014)
Historically, between-row cultivation for weed control has been an integral part of tobacco production. In one season, a grower might perform five or more cultivations and several hand weeding operations for adequate weed control. Early herbicide chemistries would control some weeds, but not all, forcing the producer to cultivate and hand weed. The development of better herbicides improved the range of weeds controlled, sometimes to the point that cultivation for weed control was not warranted. Many producers are so accustomed to cultivating they have forgotten why cultivation was necessary. The decision to cultivate should largely be based on the presence of weeds, but there are exceptions.
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Is Creep Feeding Lambs a Profitable Undertaking?
Creep feeding is a technique of providing feed to nursing lambs to supplement the milk they consume. Creep-fed lambs grow faster than noncreep-feds and are more aggressive in nursing ewes. This aggression stimulates greater ewe milk production which, in turn, increases creep feed intake because these lambs will be bigger at a given age. Typically, the creep diet is a grain-protein supplement mixture and is made available in an area constructed so lambs can enter, but ewes cannot. Some situations when it may be economical to creep feed are described in this document.
300 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 309 kb

Evaluating Land Resource Potentials in Kentucky
The most successful land use decisions are those where the intended use matches the capabilities of the land. Determining the capability of the land begins with a visual assessment of the landscape such as topography (percent slope) and surface drainage patterns followed by a closer examination of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this publication is to provide a basic understanding of the relationship between these landscape and soil properties to facilitate wise land use decisions.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 630 kb

Generating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Grow Your Group by Building Its Membership: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
Successful organizations consist of members, volunteers and leaders who engage creative talents and interests to serve the community more effectively. To effectively address community issues, the organization must assess its participant needs with specific roles and responsibilities necessary to take action.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Brassicas---Be Aware of the Animal Health Risks
Although infrequent, brassica crops can cause animal health disorders if grazing is managed improperly. Most brassica-related disorders in cattle tend to occur during the first two weeks of grazing while adjusting to the forage. The primary potential disorders are polioencephalomalcia or PEM, hemolytic anemia (mainly with kale), nitrate poisoning, and pulmonary emphysema. Other possible clinical disorders include bloat and rumen acidosis, and metabolic problems such as hypomagnesemia and hypothyroidism with goiter. Glucosinates present in brassicas are precursors of irritants that can cause colic and diarrhea. Large bulbs may lodge in the esophagus and lead to choking. Certain brassicas (specifically rape) can cause sunburn or "scald" on light-skinned animals, especially when grazed while the plants are immature. Other potential problems include oxalate poisoning and off-flavoring of meat and milk.
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Closing a Liquid Manure Storage Structure
Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure(s) as part of their Kentucky No Discharge Operational Permit. To help offset the costs of closing the structure, producers may want to apply for cost share funds through the Division of Conservation. Before beginning to close a liquid manure structure, the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) must be provided with a closure plan. This publication outlines the preferred practices and steps for closing a liquid manure structure to meet the guidelines of the KDOW.
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Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach
Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.
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Adults as Learners: Teaching Adults in Extension
As an adult educator, it is important for you to better understand your adult audiences and their educational needs to ensure that Extension remains the world's largest non-formal educational program. Although teaching adults in a non-formal arena does not yield a formal degree or certification, the training or other education avenues are vital to their lives and businesses.
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Streambank Erosion
Streambank erosion refers to the removal of soil and other material, such as rock and vegetation, from the streambank. Streambank erosion is a naturally occurring process, but the rate at which it occurs is often increased by anthropogenic or human activities such as urbanization and agriculture. Changes in land use can cause streambanks to erode at rates much faster than those seen in natural, undisturbed systems.
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Fertilizing Your Lawn
Lawns require fertilizer to remain healthy. Proper fertilization practices will lead to a thick, dark green, uniform lawn that is competitive against weed and disease invasions. The nutrients contained in fertilizers are necessary to support many processes occurring within the plants. If any essential nutrient is limiting, the plants will not perform at their highest level.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 425 kb

Liming Kentucky Lawns
Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 909 kb

Visioning: Setting the Future for Your Organization: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
A vision statement outlines the desired future state of an organization; it offers a picture of what could be and encourages the organization to move toward that image. When a vision statement is developed, utilizing a process that engages an organization's members and leadership, it becomes a tool of empowerment. A vision statement reflects the core values of the organization.
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PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 203 kb

Understanding Soilless Media Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management
Although choosing or formulating media with optimum physical properties (such as pore air space and water holding capacity) for a given production environment and crop plant is important, this publication focuses on the chemical properties of soilless media determined with a laboratory test as conducted through the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service at the Division of Regulatory Services Soil Testing Laboratories.
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2014 Kentucky Small Grains Variety Performance Test
The objective of the Kentucky small-grain variety performance test is to evaluate varieties of wheat, oat, and barley that are commercially available or may soon be available to Kentucky farmers. New varieties are continually being developed by agricultural experiment stations and commercial firms. Annual evaluation of small-grain varieties and selections provides farmers, seed producers, and other agricultural workers with current information to help them select the varieties best adapted to their locality and individual requirements.
2000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2700 kb

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky
La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.
1500 printed copies
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Fescue Toxicosis
"Fescue toxicosis" is the general term used for the clinical diseases that can affect cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tall-fescue pastures containing ergot alkaloids are responsible for the toxic effects observed in livestock, including hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), gangrene of the extremities, decreased weight gain, and poor reproductive performance. Clinical signs vary depending on the cattle, the environmental conditions, and the level and duration of the exposure. Early clinical signs are often reversible after removal from contaminated pastures or hay.
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Understanding Your Organization's Culture: 4-H Facilitator's Guide
A variety of features give an organization meaning and make it familiar and recognizable. One of these features is culture. Understanding culture in the general sense can lead to a working knowledge of organizational culture. This understanding could result in more effective members, volunteers and leaders, expanded community engagement and increased growth for your organization.
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Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.
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How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.
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2013 Commercial Feeds in Kentucky
Information in this report is intended to inform the feed purchaser, provide a basis for fair and equitable competition, and assist in assuring the safety of animal and human food.
2500 printed copies
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KAES Annual Report, 2013
Experiment station research spans both basic and applied sciences. The ability of Kentucky producers to be competitive in domestic and world markets requires an expanded base of knowledge in emerging areas of research applicable to agriculture, food, and natural resources. This annual report lists experiment station research projects and publications completed during 2013. The research programs of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station have benefited Kentucky's agriculture over the past century, and the results of present and future research will continue to serve Kentucky's primary industry.
50 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 3000 kb

Mobilizing Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Calling the Group to Action: ANR Facilitator's Guide
Mobilizing is an important component of volunteer and community development; organizational participants must be mobilized in order for anything to be accomplished.
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Using a SWOT Analysis: Taking a Look at Your Organization: ANR Facilitator's Guide
A SWOT analysis is a deliberate planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization or project.
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Lime and Fertilizer Recommendations
Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.
2000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 1300 kb

Lowering Somatic Cell Counts with Best Management Practices
As health and food safety concerns grow, dairy producers are facing more stringent regulations. In 2010, the European Union (EU) set the somatic cell count (SCC) upper limit, an indicator of milk quality, for exported milk at 400,000 cells per milliliter. However, the current U.S. SCC limit is 750,000 cells per milliliter. As of January 2012, any U.S. milk used in export markets must meet the EU standards. It is projected that US milk processors will gradually adopt the EU upper limit, making it difficult for dairy producers to sell milk containing more than 400,000 somatic cells per milliliter. Dairy producers will have to find innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce the somatic cell count of their milk. This publication will discuss how agriculture best management practices can be used to lower SCC.
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An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.
3000 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 2600 kb

Residential Rain Garden: Design, Construction, Maintenance
This publication covers the design, construction, and maintenance of residential ran gardens. Rain gardens are one of several stormwater management practices that homeowners can use to reduce their property's negative impact on water quality and flooding.
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Evaluating Your Health Insurance Needs
Insurance provides financial security when the unexpected happens. Many people receive health insurance from their employers. People who are not working or are self-employed, retired, or who have too little or unaffordable coverage now have the opportunity to purchase health insurance through the Health Benefit Marketplace. Before purchasing health insurance, it may be helpful to spend some time considering what you need or want in a health insurance plan.
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Soybean Nutrient Management in Kentucky
Soybean grows best on fertile soils. For decades, the University of Kentucky has conducted field studies to establish the relationship between soil nutrient supplies and soybean yield. Adequate soil fertility must be present so that yields are not limited.
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Increasing Dry Cow and Bred Heifer Performance with Environmental Management
Producers must understand that dry cows and bred heifers are the next milking herd, so focusing on their management can maintain or actually increase future profitability. This publication focuses on environmental management strategies that improve dry cow and bred heifer performance.
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Building Your Preschooler's Financial Capabilities - Information for Parents
Feeling able to manage financial resources is a life goal for most of us. It is also a skill we would like to teach our young loved ones. This fact sheet offers suggestions for adults as they help young children develop their ability to manage money, also known as financial capability.
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Financial Capability---Why it Matters - In-depth Information for Educators
Countless surveys and studies confirm that American youth and adults lack basic financial knowledge and skills. Several states now require the teaching of financial education in high school and even elementary school as one way to address the knowledge gap, though Kentucky is not one of them. But clearly the schools cannot do it alone. Parents can be the key to raising financially capable children.
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Relatives Raising Children: Coping with Lifestyle Changes
The circumstances that make full time caregiving of children necessary usually are not ones grandparents or relatives would happily choose. Relatives step in as caregivers because they know their home is a more stable, loving environment for the child's well-being over the long term than placement in foster care. This publication describes some actions that you as a grandparent or relative who is parenting a child can take to manage the child and take care of yourself.
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Relatives Raising Children: Health and Safety Tips for Younger Children
Raising grandchildren can be challenging and rewarding. Keeping children healthy and safe can be simple, but it does take thought and preparation. This publication provides suggestions and guidelines that may help.
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Cyanide Poisoning in Ruminants
Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication.
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Media Advertising and Your Child
As parents, how can we help young children to know the difference between advertising and information? This fact sheet helps parents to answer that question.
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Media Advertising and its Influence on Children: Educators
How should educators assist parents and those taking the parenting role to guide young children in using money wisely when so much media advertising swirls all around them? Answering that question is the objective of this publication.
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Collection and Preparation of Milk Samples for Microbiological Culturing
In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions.
500 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 873 kb

How to Make a Country Ham
Country hams can be found in grocery stores and specialty shops throughout Southeast and on the internet. Nonetheless, there are some do-it-yourselfers who want to start their own family traditions. Country hams are not difficult to make. The process requires a few easy-to-find ingredients and a secure storage area. Country hams are made in three steps: curing, salt equalization, and aging. These steps are outlined in the manual.
100 printed copies
PDF/Adobe Acrobat: 6791 kb

Generating Members, Volunteers and Leaders in Community Organizations: Grow Your Group by Building Its Membership: ANR Facilitator's Guide
Successful organizations consist of members, volunteers and leaders who engage creative talents and interests to better serve the community. To effectively address community issues, the organization must assess its participant needs with specific roles and responsibilities necessary to take action.
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A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System
Researchers at the University of Kentucky combined existing disease detection systems to produce a fresh cow examination system that may help producers detect diseases earlier by monitoring subtle changes every day during a cow's fresh period. Compiling daily information about each animal will enable producers to notice changes in health that may otherwise have been overlooked. These records may help producers detect illnesses early, thus reducing the long-term effects (reduced milk production or fertility) and costs (re-treatment, milk loss, or death) of a disease. Learning what diseases are common on a particular farm can focus producers' efforts towards preventive measures specific to their operation. Preventing disease, rather than treating, can save producers time and money and can improve overall cow well-being.
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Kosher Foods
Jewish dietary laws maintain certain rules for preparing foods that are not common in modern food preparation. These laws originated from the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures. The following information is an overview of Jewish dietary laws.
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Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Ergotism
Ergotism and fescue toxicosis are clinically similar syndromes caused by consuming plants containing ergot alkaloids. The toxic effects and mechanisms of action are similar in both syndromes although the alkaloids are produced by different species of fungi. It grows on rye, wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and various grasses. Rye and triticale are more susceptible than other grains because they require a longer period of pollination. Grasses potentially infected include tall fescue, bluegrass, brome, canarygrass, quackgrass, timothy, wild barley, and annual and perennial ryegrass. Shallow cultivation, no-till farming, and lack of crop rotation increase the likelihood of infection of crops. Environmental conditions of a cool, wet spring followed by hot early summer temperatures are ideal for the fungus to grow.
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