University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

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Terry Conners

A Start-Up Guide for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
8/31/2018 (new)

Step-by-step procedures so you can keep your dry kiln operation well-organized and running properly. | FOR-132
web only | 12 pages | 4,434 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,900 kb

A Checklist for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
8/31/2018 (new)

Drying air-dried hardwood lumber to the finished moisture content (MC) requires care and attention, but it's not difficult. This document describes the steps a kiln operator should follow to get the best lumber from his/her air-dried material. It will probably be most useful for operators of small kilns, but the principles are the same regardless of kiln size or type of kiln. | FOR-131
web only | 12 pages | 4,430 words | - | PDF: 2,400 kb

Hardwood Dry Kiln Operation: A Manual for Operators of Small Dry Kilns
4/6/2017 (new)

Green lumber is used mostly for local uses such as fence boards, barn siding and so forth. Lumber that will be glued or finished has to be dried, however, and that includes just about all the higher-value wood products used indoors such as flooring, furniture, wall paneling, cutting boards and so forth. Dry lumber can be used for more types of products and has greater marketability. Dry lumber is also worth more than green lumber. | FOR-128
web only | 114 pages | 31,161 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 11,025 kb

How to Select and Buck Logs for Railroad Ties
3/4/2016 (new)

As of 2014, railroads were purchasing in the neighborhood of 25 million wooden ties each year, so the railroad tie industry can be a reliable market for loggers and sawmillers. Prices for green ties are viewed as good compared to lower-grade lumber, though actual market prices depend on immediate demand, competing lumber prices, distance from the seller to the treating plant, and tie quality and species. If you're a logger reading this article, you'll learn to make better decisions about how to select trees and logs for crossties and switch ties, and you'll be able to buck them so that they're worth more money overall. | FOR-122
web only | 9 pages | 4,194 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb

The First Separation of Softwood Species
12/21/2015 (new)

Just making the separation between softwoods and hardwoods doesn't help much in identifying wood species; that would be sort of like identifying children by their hair color. Let's look at the next level of wood features that you need to be able to recognize. | FOR-127
web only | 6 pages | 2,711 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 4,200 kb

Grain Patterns and Growth Rings
12/21/2015 (new)

Frequently you need to be able to observe wood cells from a particular perspective, and you will need to know where to look for different features on your sample. It's also very helpful to develop a kind of "visual vocabulary" that will let you match a term with a corresponding mental image, and the information in this chapter will start you on your way. | FOR-126
web only | 3 pages | 1,527 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Distinguishing Softwoods from Hardwoods
12/21/2015 (new)

Softwood and hardwood trees are made up of different types of cells. With just a little magnification, it's easy to see that softwood growth rings look different from hardwood growth rings. Additionally, growth rings don't look the same for all of the trees, and the growth ring appearance is one of the things we will look at to identify wood. | FOR-125
web only | 4 pages | 1,722 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb

First Steps in Identifying Wood
12/21/2015 (new)

Wood samples need to be identified for all sorts of reasons, and they come in all shapes, sizes and conditions. I've received samples that were sound, samples that were waterlogged, samples that were rotted or otherwise degraded, painted samples, furniture samples, even samples containing wood preservatives. Most of the samples I receive have a North American origin, but I also receive pieces from art museums and antique dealers that can originate from just about anywhere. This sometimes means that identifying the sample by a common name alone doesn't provide enough information. | FOR-124
web only | 8 pages | 4,482 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,980 kb

Introduction to Wood Structure and Characteristics
12/21/2015 (new)

Knowing how to identify unknown pieces of wood using a hand lens is the only skill you will need for most situations---and that's the purpose behind most of this manual. A section at the end about how to identify wood using a microscope is available should you want to develop your wood identification expertise. | FOR-123
web only | 4 pages | 2,540 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Insect Identification Guide for Senior 4-H Forestry Competition Training
4/20/2009 (new)

This booklet was written to help Senior 4-H'ers preparing for the National 4-H Forestry competition held each year in Jackson's Mill, West Virginia. Flash cards and links to various external websites about individual insects' appearance and habitats are posted on the website for the national competition (, but no single document is available that summarizes the information that students need when they're beginning their studies. This booklet has been written to fill that gap. | 4DC-05PA
web only | - | - | 26 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

Kentucky Forestry Fact Sheet
12/14/2006 (minor revision)

| FOR-53
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 250 kb