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Matthew Ernst


CCD-CP-80

Hops

5/3/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is a native herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor, aroma and bitterness to beer.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-MP-17

Grower Cooperatives (Co-ops)

4/25/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

ooperatives have historically been utilized to market wholesale quantities of produce in Kentucky. In the early 2000s, as many as four grower co-ops in Kentucky were actively marketing tomatoes, melons, sweet corn, cabbage, bell peppers, pumpkins and other crops to wholesale buyers. By 2006, however, produce marketing by grower co-ops had largely disappeared from Kentucky's produce industry, with only one co-op still operating as growers found other ways to market produce. The involvement of co-ops in marketing produce from Kentucky has since been limited. Cooperatives remain a potential form of business organization for specialty crop growers located in a similar geographic area. Producers interested in exploring the cooperative business structure can investigate resources available from the Kentucky Center for Agriculture and Rural Development (KCARD), which is recognized by USDA Rural Development as a cooperative development center.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.71 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-77

Bamboo

4/9/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Bamboo is the general name used for a number of perennial, woody-stemmed grasses. Native cane (Arundinaria gigantea), which is commonly referred to as river cane, grows naturally in Kentucky and throughout much of the Southeast. It is one of three bamboo species native to North America. There are more than a hundred introduced species that can be grown in the U.S., with growth habits ranging from low-growing groundcovers to full-sized trees that reach a height of over 30 feet at maturity. Bamboos are well known for their vigorous growth and variety of uses.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-56

Bedding Plants

3/26/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general, the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden or large containers (such as patio pots).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-137

Gourds

3/12/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Gourds, which are related to pumpkins and squash, are generally grown for their hard outer rind. The fruit is dried for fall decorations, handicrafts and functional items. The various types of gourds include hard-shell gourds (Lagenaria spp.; used for dippers, containers and birdhouses), soft-shell gourds (Cucurbita pepo; decorative and ornamental uses), and luffa gourds (their soft interior fiber is used like a sponge).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-2

Apples

2/5/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-16

Plasticulture Strawberries

1/16/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Shawn Wright

Fresh strawberries (Fragaria spp.) are a consumer favorite, and growers able to provide the earliest local strawberry crop often have the marketing edge. The annual plasticulture system can produce strawberries in Kentucky about one month sooner than the traditional matted row system. This can give an advantage to growers willing to invest time and resources into annual plasticulture strawberry production, which can either be used as a stand-alone enterprise or as part of a diversified operation. However, plasticulture production requires careful attention to details and involves more risk than matted row production due to earlier fruit ripening and a greater potential for frost losses.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 696 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-9

High Tunnel Blueberries

1/15/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-74

Turfgrass Sod Production

1/2/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sod production involves growing a solid stand of high quality turfgrass and then harvesting the grass along with roots and a thin layer of topsoil. Many sod producers also transport and install the sod. The primary markets for sod are landscapers and building contractors. Sod is used in parks, golf courses, athletic fields, schools, garden centers, home lawns, road construction sites, commercial properties, and cemeteries. The 2014 USDA Census of Horticultural Specialties reported slightly less than 1,000 acres of sod harvested in Kentucky. The value of sod sales in Kentucky was split almost evenly between wholesale and retail sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-136

Organic Cucurbits

12/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Cucurbits, vegetables in the family Cucurbitacae, include cucumber, pumpkin, squash, muskmelon and watermelon. Certified organic cucurbits are produced without using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, according to organic crop production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). For more information on the exact requirements to be organic certified in Kentucky, please visit the Kentucky Department of Agriculture website. Growers commercially producing cucurbits in Kentucky's climate must manage key insect pests such as cucumber beetle and squash bug as well as economically important diseases such as bacterial wilt, cucurbit yellow vine decline, powdery mildew, and downy mildew. This profile provides an overview of organic cucurbit production in Kentucky, including market demand potential, key production considerations, and baseline economics

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 2.09 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-114

Pumpkins

12/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The name "pumpkin" is commonly applied to any plant in the taxonomically diverse Cucurbita genus that produces the characteristic yellow to orange, round fruit. Pumpkin cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata and C. mixta.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-19

Strawberries

12/4/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

To many, nothing says summer like the first local ripe strawberries of the season. A versatile fruit, strawberries (Fragaria spp.) can be consumed fresh, frozen or in processed foods. Growers able to provide the earliest crop of these popular berries will often have the marketing edge

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-125

Watermelon

11/19/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Shubin Saha

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a warm-season crop in the Cucurbit family. Watermelons are grown across the state, including larger areas in Casey County, Lincoln County, Hart County, Allen County and Daviess County. Kentucky farms annually harvest more than 1,000 watermelon acres, the Commonwealth's second largest fresh market vegetable by area.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-15

Peaches

11/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-9

Marketing Organic Produce

10/26/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

This fact sheet summarizes concerns for Kentucky produce growers that are interested in beginning or expanding the marketing of organic produce. It is intended only as a starting point; further information will be found through various university and government resources and by consulting with experienced growers of organic produce.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-73

Ornamental Grasses

9/26/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-5

Elderberry

9/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-121

Summer Squash

9/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-24

Selected Internet Resources for Herb Marketing

9/9/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

This list of internet resources has been selected for the benefit of Kentucky commercial producers wanting to learn more about marketing herbs. The broad definition for herbs (herbaceous plants valued for their flavor, scent or medicinal properties) was used in gathering this information. These online resources are provided strictly for informative purposes only; the list does not constitute endorsement of herbal uses, products, businesses or cultural recommendations for herb production. Producers should always research herb production, uses and markets on their own before beginning production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 630 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-98

Field-grown Tomatoes

8/3/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 861 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-14

Pawpaw

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-3

Asian and European Pears

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-133

Heirloom Beans

7/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Heirloom beans are vintage varieties of the warm-season crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) that have been handed down from generation to generation. There is a long tradition of saving bean seed in Appalachia, and heirloom beans are sought by customers at Kentucky farmers markets. Heirloom bean varieties, often named after particular areas or families, appeal to buyers because of both taste characteristics and cultural heritage.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-135

Figs

7/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Figs are harvested for both fresh consumption and processing. There are three main types of cultivated Ficus carica: Common, San Pedro and Smyrna. Common figs produce fruit parenthocarpically, without any pollination. Smyrna figs require pollen transfer from male trees that produce small caprifigs for fruit growth. Pollen transfer is obtained by the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.), a species unable to survive the southern U.S. winter temperatures. San Pedro figs are intermediate between the two; a minor summer "breba" crop will set without fertilization but the later main crop requires pollination by the fig wasp. The common fig is the only type suggested for cultivation in the southern U.S.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-122

Sweet Corn

7/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-123

Sweet Potato

7/16/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The terms "sweet potato" and "yam" are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 810 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-134

Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky

6/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-4

Blackberries

6/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-57

Greenhouse Tomatoes

6/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, greenhouse, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-10

Jujube and Aronia

6/6/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 832 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-132

Heirloom Tomatoes

6/6/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most popular of heirloom vegetables, which are vintage varieties preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. Heirloom tomato purchases grew in popularity as consumers sought flavorful, historic varieties. Many heirloom tomato varieties have unique coloration and appearance, but poor shipping characteristics, giving heirloom tomatoes an advantage for local sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-87

Bell Peppers

5/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-88

Broccoli

5/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-104

Microgreens

5/8/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 819 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-102

Kohlrabi

5/7/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is a cool-season annual cole crop that is related to broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Kohlrabi originated in northern Europe in the 16th century. It forms a round globe just above the soil line with leaves emerging in a spiral from the stem. The edible portion is actually an enlarged stem, not root tissue. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw or cooked. In flavor, it is like a mild, sweet broccoli stem or turnip. Once the thick skin is peeled off, the crisp flesh can be eaten like a carrot often with a dip or in salads. It can be boiled, braised, used in soups and stews, made into home fries and even pies. In Kentucky, kohlrabi does well in the spring but is best as a fall crop.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-FS-2

What to Think About Before You Plant: Marketing Considerations for Kentucky Specialty Crop Growers

5/3/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

This publication poses questions that can benefit farmers who are considering planting a new crop. The publication is divided into the following six sections, with the majority of the content focused in the first two: 1) Market options by size and scale of production, 2) Conducting basic market research, 3) Certifications, 4) Insurance and risk management, 5) Management and labor needs, and 6) Resources needed beyond the field or garden.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags:
Size: 8.70 mb
Pages: 11



CCD-CP-113

Potatoes

4/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-101

Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers

4/13/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 823 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-70

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

4/9/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-106

Okra

3/20/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 762 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-91

Cauliflower

3/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 2



CCD-SP-9

Starting a Nursery Business

3/14/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 860 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-129

Pecans

3/7/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The pecan and Eastern black walnut are Kentucky's most significant nut crops. Commercial pecan plantings are located near Paducah and Henderson, and native pecan groves have long been harvested near the Mississippi River. Only northern pecan cultivars are recommended for cultivation in Kentucky, as the state's usual growing season is not long enough for southern pecan varieties to mature. The established popularity of pecans with consumers could offer potential for producers willing to carefully establish pecan plantings on appropriate sites.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nuts
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-96

Ethnic Vegetables: Asian

3/2/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-FS-8

Organic Regulations and Resources

2/28/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Two challenges for beginning organic crop production are meeting certified organic requirements and sourcing crop inputs that are approved for organic use. This fact sheet will summarize key considerations for meeting these challenges and list important sources of additional information for a producer interested in evaluating the feasibility of organic production on his or her farm.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-4

Roadside Farm Markets

2/23/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

A roadside farm market is sometimes distinguished from a roadside stand by location and hours. The term "roadside farm market" can refer to those markets located in permanent facilities at the farm or food manufacturing location; they are typically open most of the year. Roadside stand, by contrast, is a more general term referring to those markets that may be located off the farm and are seasonal in operation.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-20

Marketing Fresh Produce to Food Retailers (Grocery Stores)

2/1/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

The food retail industry saw a renaissance of interest in local and regional sourcing of fresh fruits and vegetables during the 2000s. This interest came within an industry characterized by heavy investment in fewer and larger centralized distribution centers. Although the distribution center model remains prominent within the food retail industry, some retailers have created flexibility within their distribution models to answer consumer demand for local produce. Large retailers are also finding transportation and distribution cost savings by sourcing fresh produce items from new or expanding producers. Smaller chains and local grocers remain potential markets for fresh produce growers expanding to wholesale volumes. Producers of value-added produce products may also find local groceries a possible market for their product.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-21

Marketing Fresh Produce to Restaurants

1/25/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

Sourcing and serving fresh produce from local farms remains a trend in the U.S. foodservice industry. The practice of sourcing locally grown fresh produce, first featured by niche and high-end restaurants, moved into mainstream foodservice distribution channels in the early 2000s. A focus on local food appears to be persisting into the 2020s. The National Restaurant Association's 2018 Culinary Forecast, based on surveys of nearly 700 chefs, identified hyper-local sourcing as the top restaurant concept trend, with local produce also among the Top 10 concept trends.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-131

Eggplant

1/22/2018 (reviewed)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-11

MarketReady Producer Training Program

12/15/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Miranda Hileman

The MarketReady Producer Training Program instructs producers in the key business functions that small farmers and ranchers must manage as they seek to develop supplier relationships with restaurants, grocers, wholesalers, and foodservice buyers, including schools. While significant opportunity exists to build on the demand for local products in local markets, many farmers are hesitant or unprepared to meet the transactional requirements expected by these buyers to manage their own food safety, insurance, product quality, and traceability risks. MarketReady addresses these issues. After training, producers will be prepared for business transactions when selling a variety of products including dairy, fruits, meats and vegetables.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-10

2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Large-scale)

11/20/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 1



CCD-BG-11

2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Small-scale)

11/20/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet. Most of the worksheets assume all production is sold at the same price, but there is also a blank line for a second quantity/cost for users to add if desired, such as already done in sweet potatoes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages:



CCD-CP-118

Snap Beans

10/24/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The snap bean or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. Prior to the development of the stringless bean in the 1890s, snap beans were referred to as "string beans" because of the fiber or "string" running along the pod seam. While stringless beans are more common today, many consumers still prefer the flavor of the stringed types.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 668 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-FS-7

Risk Management in Specialty Crops: Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)

10/24/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) is a financial assistance program provided through the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). The program provides producers of crops not eligible for crop insurance with some level of risk management when natural disasters cause crop low yields, crop losses or prevent crop planting.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags:
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 2



ID-149

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates

10/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, John Strang, Tim Woods, Shawn Wright

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: business and records, farm crops, fruits and nuts, production practices
Size: 265 kb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-116

Romaine Lettuce

10/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 692 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-117

Root Crops

10/4/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-120

Specialty Melons

9/20/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-55

Stevia

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 791 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-62

High Tunnel Tomatoes

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-130

Malabar Spinach

8/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-90

Cabbage

8/25/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 725 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-76

Woody Cuts

8/22/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 909 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-95

English and Edible Pod Peas

8/16/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-93

Cucumber

8/15/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-50

Catnip

8/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 451.73 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-1

American Persimmon

8/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow-growing, moderately sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which are high in tannins, have an undesirable astringent taste. Fully ripened fruit, which are golden orange to reddish and occasionally blue in color, are very sweet. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 676 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-FS-5

Vegetable Transplant Production

6/22/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-FS-4

Weed Management

5/12/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags: weeds
Size: 2.70 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-103

Leafy Greens

5/3/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-127

Lavender

4/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 897 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-11

Juneberries

4/19/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-128

Black Walnuts

4/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-SP-5

Container Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-SP-6

Field Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-107

Onions

4/12/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-85

Baby Corn

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 688 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-86

Baby Vegetables

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 975 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-FS-1

Irrigation Systems

4/3/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Irrigation is used in Kentucky for both specialty and row crops. Irrigation systems reduce risks of low profitability from low yields and crop stress. Drip irrigation, essential for producing many specialty crops, is used throughout the state on farms of all sizes. Overhead irrigation systems are concentrated in western Kentucky, where farms of 1,000 or more acres account for most of the annual acreage changes in Kentucky's irrigated farmland. This fact sheet focuses on drip irrigation, which increased in use as more Kentucky farms began specialty crop production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags:
Size: 2.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-124

Tomatillo

3/1/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-7

Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production

1/31/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Dewayne Ingram

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 918 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-79

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-83

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-110

Organic Sweet Corn

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 604 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-111

Organic Tomatoes

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 566 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-20

Sweet Cherries

11/14/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-58

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

11/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, production practices
Size: 503 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-12

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries

11/3/2016 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 799 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-MP-19

Marketing Crops to Schools and Institutions: An Overview

10/31/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Schools and institutions have long been identified as potential markets for local and regional food crops. These markets have both generated greater interest and purchases during the past 20 years due to consumer interest, food and health policy initiatives, and changes in school and institutional purchasing and procurement systems.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 864 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-52

Echinacea

10/10/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Bob Geneve, Cheryl Kaiser

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long-lasting cut flowers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-99

Garlic and Elephant Garlic

9/27/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 593 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-97

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic

9/13/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 617 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-53

Ginseng

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 967 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-94

Edamame

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 598 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-81

Maple Syrup

8/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-109

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens

8/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-66

Chinese Chestnuts

7/18/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 594 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-6

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 193 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-7

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Steve Isaacs, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 119 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-BG-8

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 340 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-BG-9

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 336 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-MP-10

Kentucky MarketMaker

7/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Kentucky MarketMaker is a web-based marketing aid adapted for Kentucky markets. The primary purpose of this resource is to provide a link between agricultural producers and potential buyers of food products. In addition to a searchable database of markets and growers, MarketMaker also contains a wealth of demographic and business data which can be summarized in a map-based format.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 963 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-17

Plums

7/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-78

Beekeeping and Honey Production

6/30/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 934 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-18

Raspberries

6/9/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 713 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-108

Organic Asparagus

6/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-1

Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky

5/2/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 389 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-84

Asparagus

5/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 542 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-54

Goldenseal

4/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 582 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-26

Chia

2/4/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 922 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-33

Industrial Hemp Production

9/23/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-67

Christmas Trees

8/18/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 492 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-92

Celery and Celeriac

6/8/2015 (new)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 635 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-22

Produce Auctions

5/1/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

A produce auction is a market outlet for locally produced wholesale products. Fresh produce, as well as a variety of other agricultural products, are offered for sale to the highest bidder. The auction charges the seller a commission, usually a percent of sales, to cover the auction's operating expenses.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-51

Culinary Herbs

4/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-126

Winter Squash

12/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 668 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-59

Hanging Baskets

11/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 631 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-5

Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns

11/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 332 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-MP-5

Roadside Stands

9/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Roadside stand is generic term for a type of marketing site in which a farm producer sells directly to consumers. A roadside stand is a seasonal, temporary or semi-temporary structure that may be located on or off the farm. A roadside stand may be distinguished from a roadside market in that the latter is usually a permanent structure that is often open year-round.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 774 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-89

Brussels Sprouts

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Miranda Combs, Matthew Ernst

Currently there is little production of brussels sprouts in Kentucky. Much of the commercial production for brussels sprouts produced in the United States is concentrated in California. The Census of Agriculture reported that two Kentucky farms harvested brussels sprouts in the 2012 growing season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-2

Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-3

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-BG-4

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-13

Organic Blueberries

8/20/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 633 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-105

Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)

7/21/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 612 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-82

Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms

7/3/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-3

Pick-Your-Own (U-Pick) Marketing

6/30/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Pick-Your-Own (PYO), also referred to as U-Pick, occurs when farmers "invite the public onto the farm to harvest their own food."1 Producers searching for new crops, combined with a growing Kentucky population, renewed interest in PYO during the past 20 years.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-7

Grapes

6/23/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 694 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-8

Marketing Asian Produce in Kentucky

6/19/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Burgeoning Asian populations and consumer interest in Asian cuisine helped stimulate increased interest in purchasing fresh Asian vegetables to prepare at home, a trend expected to continue. Caucasian consumers tend to prefer value-added and processed vegetables, but there are market niches for fresh Asian vegetables. Kentucky producers have received inquiries to source edamame (vegetable soybean) and daikon (Chinese radish) at wholesale quantities.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 758 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-27

Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy

5/5/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, nutrition and health
Size: 410 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-31

Grain Sorghum

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 496 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-64

Poinsettias

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 409 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-2

Marketing Via the Internet

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

The Internet can be utilized in a variety of marketing strategies. Producers may sell their products online through e-commerce, use a website to take orders for their goods, or simply advertise their operation through a "billboard" type website. Social media and blogs provide yet another way the Internet can be used for promoting a farm enterprise. The increase in access to Web-based services through handheld devices makes many customers more immediately accessible to products and services.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 442 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-72

Ornamental Corn

4/24/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 643 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-8

High Tunnel Brambles

4/7/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 619 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-61

High Tunnel Strawberries

4/4/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, fruits and nuts, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 528 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-6

Selling Farm Products at Farmers Markets

3/25/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Farmers markets are used by Kentucky growers of all farm sizes and scales. "Market gardeners" often tend less than an acre of land for selling strictly at the local farmers market. On the other hand, some of Kentucky's largest orchards use local farmers markets as a retail outlet during the fall to command a premium price for their crop.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 811 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-36

Millet

3/7/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 406 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-35

Kura Clover

3/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes
Size: 389 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-34

Kenaf

2/18/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 426 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-75

Willows for Cuttings

7/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-48

White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn

7/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 344 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-MP-18

Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program

7/1/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) is providing an incentive to local restaurants to purchase eligible Kentucky Proud products. The Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program reimburses participating restaurants and caterers with a percentage of the purchase cost of qualifying products.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 639 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-25

Cereal Straw Production

6/21/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 532 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-28

Corn for Grain and Silage

6/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 360 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-38

Popcorn and Blue Corn

6/4/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 532 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-23

Broomcorn

4/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 623 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-44

Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel

4/18/2013 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 434 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-45

Sweet Sorghum for Syrup

4/2/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 569 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-40

Specialty Field Corns

3/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 512 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-22

Barley

10/24/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 410 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-47

Wheat

10/24/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 434 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-65

Sprouts

10/23/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-69

Edible Flowers

9/5/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 396 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-119

Southernpean (Cowpea)

8/28/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 432 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-2

High Tunnel Overview

6/12/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 963 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-SP-12

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview

6/6/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 877 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-68

Corn Shocks

4/24/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 555 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-6

Gooseberries and Currants

2/27/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-42

Spelt

2/6/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta) is a subspecies of wheat that is primarily used as an alternative feed grain for livestock. It is generally grown for on-farm use, often as a substitute for oats. Most of the nation's feed-grade spelt is grown in Ohio. Spelt can also be used in many of the same processed foods as soft red winter wheat (for example, pasta, high fiber cereals, and crackers). Some people with allergies to wheat are not allergic to spelt, making spelt an excellent substitute for wheat in their diets. Spelt products are available through organic and health food stores.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 348 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-49

Woody Biomass for Energy

1/27/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Biomass, when used in reference to renewable energy, is any biological (plant or animal) matter that can be converted to electricity or fuel. Woody biomass refers to biomass material specifically from trees and shrubs. It is most often transformed to usable energy by direct combustion, either alone or co-fired with coal; however, efforts are underway to develop methods to cost effectively convert woody material to liquid fuels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 569 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-112

Peanuts

1/25/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 620 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-24

Canola

1/23/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically altered and improved version of rapeseed that was developed for its superior edible oil and high value meal. The term "canola" can only be applied to those varieties that produce less than 2 percent erucic acid. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil, making it a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. The portion of the seed left after the oil is extracted (canola meal) is of value as feed for livestock and poultry. Canola may also be used as an annual forage. In addition, canola is being considered as a source of biodiesel fuel.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 504 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-11

Agritourism

9/26/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Agritourism is any commercial enterprise that combines agriculture and tourism on a working farm, ranch, or other agribusiness operation. The Commonwealth of Kentucky defines agritourism as "The act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural, or agribusiness operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 553 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-SV-1

2011 Regional Wine Grape Marketing and Price Outlook

7/20/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

Wine grape producers in the Southeast benefited from a rapid increase in the number of wineries in the region during the 1990s and early 2000s. The steady winery growth indicates continued expansion and demand for winegrapes. This survey was conducted in early 2011 to better understand how business practices are developing among wineries in Kentucky and six contiguous states---Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Virginia, and Missouri.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Surveys: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SV series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 205 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-30

Grain Amaranth

7/19/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Amaranth is a versatile warm-season, broadleaf plant that can be grown as a grain, ornamental, leafy vegetable, or forage crop. In the U.S. it is grown almost exclusively for its grain, which is produced on large, brightly colored seed heads. Most grain amaranth grown in the States is Amaranthus hypochondriacus; however, A. cruentus is grown to a lesser extent. The seeds are high in lysine, fiber, and protein; low in saturated fats; and gluten-free. Amaranth can be ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal. Because many of amaranth's uses are similar to that of cereal grasses, amaranth is often referred to as a pseudo-cereal.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 442 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-12

Adding Value to Plant Production: A Summary of Kentucky Products

6/28/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

While a complete list of value-added crop products is impractical due to the number of these products marketed from Kentucky crops, producers considering new value-added enterprises may be helped by a summary of products with similar marketing characteristics. The major types of value-added products derived from Kentucky-grown crops listed here are grouped by marketing characteristics. This profile also includes brief summaries of several Kentucky value-added producer success stories.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-MP-13

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Introduction to Policies and Regulations for Kentucky Producers

6/28/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

This profile identifies the policies and regulations experienced by many value-added crop producers in Kentucky. This is a summary and is intended only to highlight key considerations for crop producers considering value-added products. Producers should always conduct their own investigation of relevant local, state, and federal requirements for their intended value-added production enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 705 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-MP-14

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Overview

6/28/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

"Value-added agriculture" is a broad term encompassing many practices that increase the value of farm products. Value-added agriculture has come to describe practices as varied as agritourism activities that provide consumers value from visiting a farm to large-scale processing endeavors that create mass-market retail food products from commodity crops.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 741 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-MP-15

Adding Value to Plant Production: Market Research for Value-added Products

6/28/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The University of Kentucky's Center for Crop Diversification has sponsored several market research projects evaluating the value consumers place on different crops and product characteristics. This fact sheet will report the results of that research.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 791 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-SP-3

Season Extension Tools and Techniques

6/22/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Season extension techniques can be as simple as selecting early maturing varieties; or they can be a more complex combination of multiple methods. Regardless, the objective is to extend the growing season by producing earlier crops in the spring and/or push production later into the fall and early winter.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 807 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-SP-1

Greenhouse Structures

5/25/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, greenhouse, production practices
Size: 807 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-37

Organic Corn for Feed or Food

2/14/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 467 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-115

Rhubarb

12/20/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 747 kb
Pages: 2



PR-533

2006 New Crop Opportunities Research Report

7/15/2006 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Doug Archbold, Sharon Bale, Steve Berberich, Morris Bitzer, Bill Bruening, Ron Curd, Carl Dillon, Win Dunwell, Dennis Egli, Matthew Ernst, Cindy Finneseth, Amy Fulcher, Bob Geneve, Larry Grabau, John Grove, John Hartman, Ken Haynes, Bob Houtz, June Johnston, Terry Jones, Carrie Knott, Eugene Lacefield, Chad Lee, Joe Masabni, Bob McNeil, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Bill Pearce, Todd Pfeiffer, Amy Poston, Dan Potter, Brent Rowell, Amanda Sears, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Dave Van Sanford, Mark Williams, Dwight Wolfe, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 72