University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

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Matthew Ernst

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates
10/11/2017 (minor revision)

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions. | ID-149
web only | 20 pages | 11,224 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 265 kb

Romaine Lettuce
10/10/2017 (minor revision)

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-116
web only | 4 pages | 1,753 words | - | PDF: 692 kb

Root Crops
10/4/2017 (minor revision)

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-117
web only | 4 pages | 1,728 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb

Specialty Melons
9/20/2017 (minor revision)

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations. | CCD-CP-120
web only | 3 pages | 1,431 words | - | PDF: 950 kb

High Tunnel Tomatoes
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season." | CCD-CP-62
web only | 4 pages | 2,063 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

9/5/2017 (minor revision)

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf." | CCD-CP-55
web only | 4 pages | 1,145 words | - | PDF: 791 kb

Malabar Spinach
8/25/2017 (new)

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade. | CCD-CP-130
printed copies | 3 pages | 1,133 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

8/25/2017 (minor revision)

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures. | CCD-CP-90
web only | 2 pages | 949 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 725 kb

Woody Cuts
8/22/2017 (minor revision)

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material. | CCD-CP-76
web only | 3 pages | 1,519 words | - | PDF: 909 kb

English and Edible Pod Peas
8/16/2017 (minor revision)

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas. | CCD-CP-95
web only | 2 pages | 993 words | - | PDF: 647 kb

8/15/2017 (minor revision)

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption. | CCD-CP-93
web only | 3 pages | 1,120 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 729 kb

8/11/2017 (minor revision)

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties. | CCD-CP-50
web only | 3 pages | 999 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 451,725 kb

Heirloom Vegetables
7/17/2017 (minor revision)

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping | CCD-CP-100
web only | 4 pages | 1,769 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 652 kb

Garden Mums
7/13/2017 (minor revision)

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state. | CCD-CP-71
web only | 3 pages | 969 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs
7/11/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries. | CCD-CP-60
web only | 5 pages | 2,531 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 893 kb

Hydroponic Lettuce
6/30/2017 (minor revision)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water. | CCD-CP-63
web only | 4 pages | 1,872 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Vegetable Transplant Production
6/22/2017 (new)

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise. | CCD-FS-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,351 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Regional Food Hubs
6/19/2017 (minor revision)

The term "regional food hub" has been devised by the USDA to refer to facilities that aid farmers in getting locally produced products to consumer markets. | CCD-MP-23
web only | 3 pages | 1,492 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Propagation Nursery
6/5/2017 (minor revision)

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use. | CCD-SP-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb

Community Supported Agriculture
5/25/2017 (major revision)

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)is relatively new to the United States, beginning in Massachusetts in 1986 and growing to 60 CSA farms in the U.S. in 1990. The CSA structure grew significantly in popularity among both producers and consumers during the 2000s; by 2009, as many as 6,000 farms were operating a CSA. The 2015 USDA Local Food Marketing Practices Survey reported 7,398 farms nationally selling by CSA for a sales value of $226 million. There were nearly 60 CSAs listed for Kentucky, in 2016, in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture CSA directory. The CSA marketing channel continues to increase in popularity, moving to new demographics besides the original core affluent urban consumer. | CCD-MP-1
web only | 8 pages | 4,511 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 3,300 kb

Weed Management
5/12/2017 (new)

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states. | CCD-FS-4
web only | 3 pages | 1,209 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb

Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (minor revision)

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge. | CCD-CP-103
web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

4/25/2017 (new)

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-127
web only | 3 pages | 1,339 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 897 kb

Black Walnuts
4/19/2017 (new)

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production. | CCD-CP-128
web only | 4 pages | 2,000 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 672 kb

4/19/2017 (minor revision)

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky | CCD-CP-11
web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 700 kb

Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap. | CCD-SP-6
web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season. | CCD-SP-5
web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb

4/12/2017 (major revision)

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions. | CCD-CP-107
web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 881 kb

Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli). | CCD-CP-86
web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 975 kb

Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization. | CCD-CP-85
web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 688 kb

Irrigation Systems
4/3/2017 (new)

Irrigation is used in Kentucky for both specialty and row crops. Irrigation systems reduce risks of low profitability from low yields and crop stress. Drip irrigation, essential for producing many specialty crops, is used throughout the state on farms of all sizes. Overhead irrigation systems are concentrated in western Kentucky, where farms of 1,000 or more acres account for most of the annual acreage changes in Kentucky's irrigated farmland. This fact sheet focuses on drip irrigation, which increased in use as more Kentucky farms began specialty crop production. | CCD-FS-1
web only | 4 pages | 1,287 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb

3/1/2017 (minor revision)

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky. | CCD-CP-124
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 680 kb

Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production
1/31/2017 (minor revision)

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods. | CCD-SP-7
web only | 5 pages | 2,325 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 918 kb

What to Think About Before You Plant: Marketing Considerations for Kentucky Specialty Crop Growers
1/10/2017 (new)

This publication poses questions that can benefit farmers who are considering planting a new crop. Long-time commercial farmers and diversifying tobacco producers, as well as those newer to farming, will find the questions, considerations, and checklists contain helpful tools for considering their new produce enterprise. | CCD-FS-2
web only | 11 pages | 3,918 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 8,700 kb

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly. | CCD-CP-83
web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 786 kb

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here. | CCD-CP-79
web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 778 kb

Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales. | CCD-CP-111
web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 566 kb

Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth. | CCD-CP-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 604 kb

Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (minor revision)

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-20
web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 881 kb

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (minor revision)

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus). | CCD-CP-58
web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 503 kb

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production. | CCD-CP-12
web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 799 kb

Marketing Crops to Schools and Institutions: An Overview
10/31/2016 (minor revision)

Schools and institutions have long been identified as potential markets for local and regional food crops. These markets have both generated greater interest and purchases during the past 20 years due to consumer interest, food and health policy initiatives, and changes in school and institutional purchasing and procurement systems. | CCD-MP-19
web only | 4 pages | 1,579 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 864 kb

Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (minor revision)

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves. | CCD-CP-99
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 593 kb

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (minor revision)

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets. | CCD-CP-97
web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 617 kb

9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility. | CCD-CP-94
web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 598 kb

9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only. | CCD-CP-53
web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 967 kb

Maple Syrup
8/17/2016 (new)

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production. | CCD-CP-81
web only | 5 pages | 1,405 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (minor revision)

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-109
web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 575 kb

Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (minor revision)

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production. | CCD-CP-66
web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 594 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-9
web only | 6 pages | 1,318 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 336 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,365 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 340 kb

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-7
web only | 5 pages | 1,094 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 119 kb

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky. | CCD-BG-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,177 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 193 kb

Kentucky MarketMaker
7/11/2016 (minor revision)

Kentucky MarketMaker is a web-based marketing aid adapted for Kentucky markets. The primary purpose of this resource is to provide a link between agricultural producers and potential buyers of food products. In addition to a searchable database of markets and growers, MarketMaker also contains a wealth of demographic and business data which can be summarized in a map-based format. | CCD-MP-10
web only | 2 pages | 802 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 963 kb

7/5/2016 (minor revision)

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried. | CCD-CP-17
web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 750 kb

Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (minor revision)

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops. | CCD-CP-78
web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 934 kb

6/21/2016 (minor revision)

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor and aroma to beer. | CCD-CP-80
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 967 kb

6/9/2016 (minor revision)

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes. | CCD-CP-18
web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 713 kb

Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (minor revision)

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June. | CCD-CP-108
web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 513 kb

Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky
5/2/2016 (minor revision)

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management. | CCD-BG-1
web only | 6 pages | 1,128 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 389 kb

5/1/2016 (minor revision)

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June. | CCD-CP-84
web only | 4 pages | 1,387 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 542 kb

4/15/2016 (minor revision)

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species. | CCD-CP-54
web only | 4 pages | 1,799 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 582 kb

2/4/2016 (minor revision)

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers. | CCD-CP-26
web only | 3 pages | 1,155 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 922 kb

Industrial Hemp Production
9/23/2015 (minor revision)

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs. | CCD-CP-33
web only | 6 pages | 2,682 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Christmas Trees
8/18/2015 (minor revision)

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor. | CCD-CP-67
web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 1 download | PDF: 492 kb

Celery and Celeriac
6/8/2015 (new)

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity. | CCD-CP-92
web only | 3 pages | 1,139 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 635 kb

6/1/2015 (minor revision)

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long lasting cut flowers. Some species (E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida) are also prized commercially for their reported medicinal properties. | CCD-CP-52
web only | 5 pages | 2,285 words | - | PDF: 1,400 kb

Produce Auctions
5/1/2015 (minor revision)

A produce auction is a market outlet for locally produced wholesale products. Fresh produce, as well as a variety of other agricultural products, are offered for sale to the highest bidder. The auction charges the seller a commission, usually a percent of sales, to cover the auction's operating expenses. | CCD-MP-22
web only | 5 pages | 1,843 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Culinary Herbs
4/1/2015 (new)

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme. | CCD-CP-51
web only | 4 pages | 1,620 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb

12/17/2014 (minor revision)

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a warm-season crop in the Cucurbit family, Watermelons are grown in various areas across the state, including: Casey County, Lincoln County, Hart County, Allen County, and Daviess County. Watermelon is the second largest fresh market vegetable produced in the state, with 1,116 acres, and accounts for 16% of the total fresh market vegetable acreage (USDA, 2013). | CCD-CP-125
web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Winter Squash
12/10/2014 (minor revision)

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter. | CCD-CP-126
web only | 2 pages | 794 words | 1 download | PDF: 668 kb

Field-grown Cut Flowers
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

Cut flowers include not only fresh and dried flowers, but also any plant part used for floral or decorative purposes, such as seed heads, stalks, and woody cuts. Cut flowers are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets. | CCD-CP-70
web only | 4 pages | 1,521 words | - | PDF: 652 kb

Hanging Baskets
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production. | CCD-CP-59
web only | 4 pages | 1,460 words | - | PDF: 631 kb

Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns
11/10/2014 (minor revision)

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production. | CCD-BG-5
web only | 2 pages | 695 words | 1 download | PDF: 332 kb

Ethnic Vegetables: Asian
11/1/2014 (new)

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, etc). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops could be grown and marketed in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-96
web only | 5 pages | 1,884 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,200 kb

10/15/2014 (minor revision)

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather and drought. | CCD-CP-91
web only | 2 pages | 637 words | 1 download | PDF: 439 kb

Summer Squash
10/6/2014 (minor revision)

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining. | CCD-CP-121
web only | 3 pages | 1,080 words | 1 download | PDF: 542 kb

Bell Peppers
10/1/2014 (minor revision)

Peppers are grown in Kentucky primarily for fresh market sales. Fresh market options include roadside stands, local wholesalers and retailers, wholesale markets, farmers markets, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and cooperatives. There has been little in-state market potential for processed peppers due to the loss of local vegetable processing companies. California (51 percent) and Florida (26 percent) dominate bell pepper production, according to the USDA Economic Research Service. The other major producing states are Georgia, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina and Ohio. | CCD-CP-87
web only | 3 pages | 1,153 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 680 kb

Roadside Stands
9/26/2014 (minor revision)

Roadside stand is generic term for a type of marketing site in which a farm producer sells directly to consumers. A roadside stand is a seasonal, temporary or semi-temporary structure that may be located on or off the farm. A roadside stand may be distinguished from a roadside market in that the latter is usually a permanent structure that is often open year-round. | CCD-MP-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,547 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 774 kb

9/22/2014 (new)

Currently there is little production of kohlrabi in Kentucky, and it appears to have the most potential for fresh market sales. Winter storage varieties are proving to be good for late fall harvest. Direct marketers should work to create niche markets, like restaurant, community supported agriculture or farmers market sales, for freshly harvested kohlrabi. Providing recipes and use suggestions to customers unfamiliar with kohlrabi may help promote sales. | CCD-CP-102
web only | 3 pages | 996 words | - | PDF: 534 kb

Brussels Sprouts
9/1/2014 (new)

Currently there is little production of brussels sprouts in Kentucky. Much of the commercial production for brussels sprouts produced in the United States is concentrated in California. The Census of Agriculture reported that two Kentucky farms harvested brussels sprouts in the 2012 growing season. | CCD-CP-89
web only | 3 pages | 1,329 words | 1 download | PDF: 626 kb

9/1/2014 (minor revision)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. | CCD-CP-88
web only | 3 pages | 1,044 words | - | PDF: 609 kb

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-4
web only | 7 pages | 1,573 words | 1 download | PDF: 352 kb

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-3
web only | 2 pages | 1,573 words | - | PDF: 352 kb

Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years. | CCD-BG-2
web only | 4 pages | 1,164 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 561 kb

Asian and European Pears
8/26/2014 (minor revision)

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears. | CCD-CP-3
web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | - | PDF: 465 kb

Organic Blueberries
8/20/2014 (minor revision)

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-13
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 633 kb

8/19/2014 (minor revision)

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the Rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected. | CCD-CP-15
web only | 3 pages | 1,309 words | 1 download | PDF: 491 kb

Field-grown Tomatoes
8/13/2014 (minor revision)

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price. | CCD-CP-98
web only | 3 pages | 1,105 words | 1 download | PDF: 445 kb

7/31/2014 (minor revision)

The quality of Kentucky-grown strawberries can be far superior to berries that are shipped-in. There is a strong market for local berries, particularly near population centers. A large proportion of the strawberries grown in Kentucky are currently sold on a U-Pick basis. Other marketing options include roadside stands and local grocers. Farmers markets, produce auctions, community supported agriculture (CSA) shares, and restaurants are also outlets for strawberries. Some producers are using crop surpluses to produce jams and jellies for local sale. | CCD-CP-19
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 499 kb

Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)
7/21/2014 (minor revision)

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002. | CCD-CP-105
web only | 3 pages | 1,054 words | - | PDF: 612 kb

Sweet Corn
7/7/2014 (minor revision)

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white, and bicolor) and sugar content. | CCD-CP-122
web only | 3 pages | 966 words | - | PDF: 517 kb

Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms
7/3/2014 (minor revision)

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations. | CCD-CP-82
web only | 4 pages | 1,689 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 561 kb

Pick-Your-Own (U-Pick) Marketing
6/30/2014 (minor revision)

Pick-Your-Own (PYO), also referred to as U-Pick, occurs when farmers "invite the public onto the farm to harvest their own food."1 Producers searching for new crops, combined with a growing Kentucky population, renewed interest in PYO during the past 20 years. | CCD-MP-3
web only | 4 pages | 1,399 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,300 kb

Marketing Organic Produce
6/27/2014 (minor revision)

Growth in organic food consumption has been a major trend in the U.S. food industry during the last two decades. Sales of organic food rose from $3.6 billion in 1997 to $21.1 billion in 2007. Sales of organic food products were estimated at $28.4 billion in 2012 and approaching $35 billion in 2014. | CCD-MP-9
web only | 5 pages | 1,687 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

6/23/2014 (minor revision)

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented. | CCD-CP-7
web only | 4 pages | 1,653 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 694 kb

6/19/2014 (minor revision)

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. Most blackberry types produce canes that bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane fruiting blackberries produce canes that grow and fruit the first season (primocane) in late summer and fall and also produce fruit on these same canes (floricanes) the second season in July and early August before dying. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect, and trailing. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, however, grow and yield well in most parts of the state. Primocane fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky, however hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because temperatures above 85 F cause flowers to abort. With favorable growing conditions, a planting may produce for 12 or more years. | CCD-CP-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,415 words | 1 download | PDF: 724 kb

Marketing Asian Produce in Kentucky
6/19/2014 (minor revision)

Burgeoning Asian populations and consumer interest in Asian cuisine helped stimulate increased interest in purchasing fresh Asian vegetables to prepare at home, a trend expected to continue. Caucasian consumers tend to prefer value-added and processed vegetables, but there are market niches for fresh Asian vegetables. Kentucky producers have received inquiries to source edamame (vegetable soybean) and daikon (Chinese radish) at wholesale quantities. | CCD-MP-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,403 words | - | PDF: 758 kb

Bedding Plants
5/31/2014 (minor revision)

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs, and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden, or large containers (such as patio pots). | CCD-CP-56
web only | 3 pages | 1,203 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy
5/5/2014 (minor revision)

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed. | CCD-CP-27
web only | 3 pages | 773 words | - | PDF: 410 kb

5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts. | CCD-CP-64
web only | 3 pages | 1,262 words | - | PDF: 409 kb

Grain Sorghum
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose. | CCD-CP-31
web only | 3 pages | 901 words | - | PDF: 496 kb

Marketing Via the Internet
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

The Internet can be utilized in a variety of marketing strategies. Producers may sell their products online through e-commerce, use a website to take orders for their goods, or simply advertise their operation through a "billboard" type website. Social media and blogs provide yet another way the Internet can be used for promoting a farm enterprise. The increase in access to Web-based services through handheld devices makes many customers more immediately accessible to products and services. | CCD-MP-2
web only | 4 pages | 1,937 words | 1 download | PDF: 442 kb

Ornamental Corn
4/24/2014 (minor revision)

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes. | CCD-CP-72
web only | 3 pages | 984 words | - | PDF: 643 kb

Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers
4/15/2014 (minor revision)

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers, are considered "sweet". In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color. | CCD-CP-101
web only | 5 pages | 2,061 words | 1 download | PDF: 520 kb

4/10/2014 (minor revision)

Most pumpkins are used for ornamental purposes, with the greatest market demand during the Halloween season. Marketing options include: roadside stands, local retailers, wholesale markets, grower marketing associations, consumer supported agriculture (CSA), and U-Pick. Kentucky faces major competition in wholesale pumpkin production from surrounding states, especially Tennessee. Smaller-sized and unique pumpkin varieties, especially those with good eating characteristics, may appeal to many direct market customers. | CCD-CP-114
web only | 3 pages | 1,144 words | - | PDF: 503 kb

High Tunnel Brambles
4/7/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels. | CCD-CP-8
web only | 6 pages | 2,906 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 619 kb

High Tunnel Strawberries
4/4/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production. | CCD-CP-61
web only | 4 pages | 2,061 words | 1 download | PDF: 528 kb

Grower Cooperatives (Co-ops)
4/1/2014 (minor revision)

Cooperatives have historically been utilized to market wholesale quantities of produce in Kentucky. In the early 2000s, as many as five grower cooperatives in Kentucky were actively marketing tomatoes, melons, sweet corn, cabbage, bell peppers, pumpkins, and other crops to wholesale buyers. By 2006, however, produce marketing by grower co-ops had largely disappeared from Kentucky's produce industry as growers found other ways to ship produce. The involvement of co-ops in marketing produce from Kentucky has since been limited. | CCD-MP-17
web only | 4 pages | 1,467 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 385 kb

Highbush Blueberries
3/28/2014 (minor revision)

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil is properly adjusted. With proper care, blueberry plants may remain productive for 40 years or more | CCD-CP-9
web only | 4 pages | 1,386 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,000 kb

Selling Farm Products at Farmers Markets
3/25/2014 (minor revision)

Farmers markets are used by Kentucky growers of all farm sizes and scales. "Market gardeners" often tend less than an acre of land for selling strictly at the local farmers market. On the other hand, some of Kentucky's largest orchards use local farmers markets as a retail outlet during the fall to command a premium price for their crop. | CCD-MP-6
web only | 6 pages | 2,340 words | 1 download | PDF: 811 kb

Sweet Potato
3/20/2014 (minor revision)

The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. "U-Dig" sweet potato sales, similar to U-Pick, are also possible in some areas. Currently (2014) there are about 200 acres of commercial sweet potato production in the state. Sweet potato processing has grown nationally in recent years and is dominated by large processors; there are no significant processing markets available in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-123
web only | 3 pages | 1,158 words | 1 download | PDF: 443 kb

Plasticulture Strawberries
3/20/2014 (minor revision)

There is always a market for fresh, local strawberries (Fragaria spp.), and growers able to provide the earliest crop often have the marketing edge. For growers willing to make the investment in time and resources, the annual plasticulture system may allow the grower to have berries about one month sooner than growers using the traditional matted row system. Plasticulture production can either be used as a stand-alone enterprise or as part of a diversified operation. | CCD-CP-16
web only | 3 pages | 1,374 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 491 kb

3/15/2014 (minor revision)

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems. | CCD-CP-2
web only | 3 pages | 1,389 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 519 kb

3/7/2014 (minor revision)

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning. | CCD-CP-36
web only | 3 pages | 1,035 words | - | PDF: 406 kb

Kura Clover
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north. | CCD-CP-35
web only | 2 pages | 751 words | - | PDF: 389 kb

2/18/2014 (minor revision)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products | CCD-CP-34
web only | 2 pages | 909 words | - | PDF: 426 kb

Willows for Cuttings
7/18/2013 (minor revision)

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods. | CCD-CP-75
web only | 3 pages | 1,137 words | 1 download | PDF: 430 kb

Ornamental Grasses
7/17/2013 (minor revision)

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers, and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery. | CCD-CP-73
web only | 3 pages | 1,193 words | - | PDF: 477 kb

White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market. | CCD-CP-48
web only | 2 pages | 809 words | 1 download | PDF: 344 kb

Starting a Nursery Business
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success. | CCD-SP-9
web only | 5 pages | 2,329 words | 1 download | PDF: 614 kb

Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program
7/1/2013 (minor revision)

The Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) is providing an incentive to local restaurants to purchase eligible Kentucky Proud products. The Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program reimburses participating restaurants and caterers with a percentage of the purchase cost of qualifying products. | CCD-MP-18
web only | 4 pages | 1,215 words | 1 download | PDF: 639 kb

6/21/2013 (minor revision)

Okra is a very minor part of Kentucky's commercial vegetable production. Most commercial okra in Kentucky is grown for farmers markets or community supported agriculture (CSA) sales. Kentucky growers have shipped limited amounts of okra for commercial wholesale in the past. While wholesale okra prices can be very good, the quantity demanded at these prices is low and growers should have a wholesale market defined before planting large acreages. | CCD-CP-106
web only | 2 pages | 768 words | - | PDF: 513 kb

Cereal Straw Production
6/21/2013 (minor revision)

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production. | CCD-CP-25
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | - | PDF: 532 kb

Corn for Grain and Silage
6/15/2013 (minor revision)

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products | CCD-CP-28
web only | 3 pages | 1,003 words | - | PDF: 360 kb

Popcorn and Blue Corn
6/4/2013 (minor revision)

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels. | CCD-CP-38
web only | 2 pages | 894 words | 1 download | PDF: 532 kb

Vegetable and Melon Budgets
5/22/2013 (minor revision)

The "button" below contain links to each of the 18 vegetable/melon budgets. Click on the desired crop and the link will take you to the sheet for that particular budget. | CCD-BG-10
web only | 0 pages | 0 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 93 kb

Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel
4/18/2013 (new)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results. | CCD-CP-44
web only | 3 pages | 1,465 words | 1 download | PDF: 434 kb

4/18/2013 (minor revision)

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors. | CCD-CP-23
web only | 2 pages | 992 words | - | PDF: 623 kb

4/5/2013 (minor revision)

Edible young bamboo shoots are used in cooking, while mature canes (or culms) are harvested for timber uses that include fences, stakes, fishing poles, crafts, flooring, and furniture. Because they are capable of removing high levels of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, bamboos are being promoted for their environmental benefits. | CCD-CP-77
web only | 4 pages | 1,968 words | - | PDF: 442 kb

Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses. | CCD-CP-45
web only | 3 pages | 1,161 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb

Specialty Field Corns
3/18/2013 (minor revision)

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use. | CCD-CP-40
web only | 3 pages | 995 words | - | PDF: 512 kb

Jujube and Aronia
2/11/2013 (new)

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small-scale. | CCD-CP-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,796 words | 1 download | PDF: 610 kb

10/24/2012 (new)

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish. | CCD-CP-104
web only | 3 pages | 1,223 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 563 kb

10/24/2012 (new)

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals. | CCD-CP-47
web only | 3 pages | 1,225 words | - | PDF: 434 kb

10/24/2012 (new)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production. | CCD-CP-22
web only | 3 pages | 1,482 words | - | PDF: 410 kb

10/23/2012 (new)

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). | CCD-CP-65
web only | 4 pages | 1,887 words | - | PDF: 439 kb

Edible Flowers
9/5/2012 (minor revision)

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption. | CCD-CP-69
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 1 download | PDF: 396 kb

Southernpean (Cowpea)
8/28/2012 (minor revision)

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed. | CCD-CP-119
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 432 kb

7/16/2012 (minor revision)

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. | CCD-CP-14
web only | 3 pages | 1,094 words | 1 download | PDF: 444 kb

Marketing Fresh Produce to Food Retailers (Grocery Stores)
6/12/2012 (new)

Fresh produce retailing in the United States has seen changes and shifts in recent years that even many industry insiders would not have predicted at the end of the 1990s. At that time, the fresh produce distribution system seemed to be moving toward fewer and fewer large, centralized packaging and distribution centers. At the beginning of the 2010s, however, increased transportation costs and changing consumer preferences had grocers large and small considering the purchase of produce from growers nearer individual stores. Combined with the popularity of "local" produce among many American consumers, opportunities have risen for farm growers selling produce to local grocery stores. | CCD-MP-20
web only | 4 pages | 1,654 words | 1 download | PDF: 664 kb

High Tunnel Overview
6/12/2012 (new)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer. | CCD-SP-2
web only | 7 pages | 3,489 words | 1 download | PDF: 963 kb

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income. | CCD-SP-12
web only | 6 pages | 2,512 words | - | PDF: 877 kb

Corn Shocks
4/24/2012 (minor revision)

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower. | CCD-CP-68
web only | 2 pages | 767 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb

Roadside Farm Markets
4/24/2012 (new)

A roadside farm market is sometimes distinguished from a roadside stand by location and hours. The term "roadside farm market" can refer to those markets located in permanent facilities at the farm or food manufacturing location; they are typically open year-round. Roadside stands, by contrast, is a more general term referring to those markets which may be located off the farm and are seasonal in operation | CCD-MP-4
web only | 5 pages | 1,746 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Gooseberries and Currants
2/27/2012 (minor revision)

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces. | CCD-CP-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,282 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,000 kb

2/20/2012 (minor revision)

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit. | CCD-CP-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,096 words | 1 download | PDF: 490 kb

2/6/2012 (minor revision)

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta) is a subspecies of wheat that is primarily used as an alternative feed grain for livestock. It is generally grown for on-farm use, often as a substitute for oats. Most of the nation's feed-grade spelt is grown in Ohio. Spelt can also be used in many of the same processed foods as soft red winter wheat (for example, pasta, high fiber cereals, and crackers). Some people with allergies to wheat are not allergic to spelt, making spelt an excellent substitute for wheat in their diets. Spelt products are available through organic and health food stores. | CCD-CP-42
web only | 2 pages | 762 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 348 kb

Woody Biomass for Energy
1/27/2012 (new)

Biomass, when used in reference to renewable energy, is any biological (plant or animal) matter that can be converted to electricity or fuel. Woody biomass refers to biomass material specifically from trees and shrubs. It is most often transformed to usable energy by direct combustion, either alone or co-fired with coal; however, efforts are underway to develop methods to cost effectively convert woody material to liquid fuels. | CCD-CP-49
web only | 5 pages | 2,271 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb

1/25/2012 (new)

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull. | CCD-CP-112
web only | 4 pages | 1,726 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 620 kb

1/23/2012 (minor revision)

Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically altered and improved version of rapeseed that was developed for its superior edible oil and high value meal. The term "canola" can only be applied to those varieties that produce less than 2 percent erucic acid. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil, making it a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. The portion of the seed left after the oil is extracted (canola meal) is of value as feed for livestock and poultry. Canola may also be used as an annual forage. In addition, canola is being considered as a source of biodiesel fuel. | CCD-CP-24
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 504 kb

American Persimmon
9/27/2011 (minor revision)

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow growing, moderately-sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which is high in tannins, has a bitter astringent flavor. The golden orange to red fruit are very sweet when fully ripened and astringency is reduced. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall. | CCD-CP-1
web only | 3 pages | 1,090 words | - | PDF: 404 kb

9/26/2011 (minor revision)

Agritourism is any commercial enterprise that combines agriculture and tourism on a working farm, ranch, or other agribusiness operation. The Commonwealth of Kentucky defines agritourism as "The act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural, or agribusiness operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation." | CCD-SP-11
web only | 4 pages | 1,409 words | 1 download | PDF: 553 kb

2011 Regional Wine Grape Marketing and Price Outlook
7/20/2011 (new)

Wine grape producers in the Southeast benefited from a rapid increase in the number of wineries in the region during the 1990s and early 2000s. The steady winery growth indicates continued expansion and demand for winegrapes. This survey was conducted in early 2011 to better understand how business practices are developing among wineries in Kentucky and six contiguous states---Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Virginia, and Missouri. | CCD-SV-1
web only | 6 pages | 1,984 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 205 kb

Snap Beans
7/19/2011 (minor revision)

Farm fresh snap bean sales at farmers markets account for much of Kentucky's commercial acreage. Significant sales are also made to produce wholesalers and at produce auctions. Other fresh market options include U-pick, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, and roadside stands. Sales to locally owned retail markets are also an option. | CCD-CP-118
web only | 3 pages | 1,186 words | - | PDF: 438 kb

Grain Amaranth
7/19/2011 (new)

Amaranth is a versatile warm-season, broadleaf plant that can be grown as a grain, ornamental, leafy vegetable, or forage crop. In the U.S. it is grown almost exclusively for its grain, which is produced on large, brightly colored seed heads. Most grain amaranth grown in the States is Amaranthus hypochondriacus; however, A. cruentus is grown to a lesser extent. The seeds are high in lysine, fiber, and protein; low in saturated fats; and gluten-free. Amaranth can be ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal. Because many of amaranth's uses are similar to that of cereal grasses, amaranth is often referred to as a pseudo-cereal. | CCD-CP-30
web only | 3 pages | 1,239 words | 1 download | PDF: 442 kb

Turfgrass Sod Production
7/18/2011 (minor revision)

The demand for sod is highly dependent on new housing starts and industrial development. Because turfgrass is highly perishable once harvested, it cannot be shipped long distances, thus favoring local production. Most Kentucky-grown sod is marketed locally and little is either exported to or imported from neighboring states. While temporary sod shortages may occur, there is generally no consistent shortage of cultivated sod in Kentucky, indicating that current production is meeting demand. The market is extremely tight and new growers will have to produce a better quality turfgrass at a lower price in order to compete. | CCD-CP-74
web only | 3 pages | 928 words | 1 download | PDF: 475 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: Market Research for Value-added Products
6/28/2011 (new)

The University of Kentucky's Center for Crop Diversification has sponsored several market research projects evaluating the value consumers place on different crops and product characteristics. This fact sheet will report the results of that research. | CCD-MP-15
web only | 5 pages | 1,714 words | 1 download | PDF: 791 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Overview
6/28/2011 (new)

"Value-added agriculture" is a broad term encompassing many practices that increase the value of farm products. Value-added agriculture has come to describe practices as varied as agritourism activities that provide consumers value from visiting a farm to large-scale processing endeavors that create mass-market retail food products from commodity crops. | CCD-MP-14
web only | 4 pages | 1,340 words | - | PDF: 741 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Introduction to Policies and Regulations for Kentucky Producers
6/28/2011 (new)

This profile identifies the policies and regulations experienced by many value-added crop producers in Kentucky. This is a summary and is intended only to highlight key considerations for crop producers considering value-added products. Producers should always conduct their own investigation of relevant local, state, and federal requirements for their intended value-added production enterprise. | CCD-MP-13
web only | 5 pages | 1,785 words | 1 download | PDF: 705 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: A Summary of Kentucky Products
6/28/2011 (new)

While a complete list of value-added crop products is impractical due to the number of these products marketed from Kentucky crops, producers considering new value-added enterprises may be helped by a summary of products with similar marketing characteristics. The major types of value-added products derived from Kentucky-grown crops listed here are grouped by marketing characteristics. This profile also includes brief summaries of several Kentucky value-added producer success stories. | CCD-MP-12
web only | 7 pages | 2,706 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,400 kb

Season Extension Tools and Techniques
6/22/2011 (minor revision)

Season extension techniques can be as simple as selecting early maturing varieties; or they can be a more complex combination of multiple methods. Regardless, the objective is to extend the growing season by producing earlier crops in the spring and/or push production later into the fall and early winter. | CCD-SP-3
web only | 5 pages | 2,102 words | - | PDF: 807 kb

Greenhouse Structures
5/25/2011 (minor revision)

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job. | CCD-SP-1
web only | 5 pages | 1,764 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 807 kb

Greenhouse Tomatoes
5/4/2011 (minor revision)

Greenhouse tomato production has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production in order to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise. | CCD-CP-57
web only | 3 pages | 1,284 words | - | PDF: 575 kb

Marketing Fresh Produce to Restaurants
3/9/2011 (minor revision)

A key for marketing produce at any level is developing a good relationship with your customer. When selling to a local restaurant, it is critical that you get to know the person who will be buying and using your products. This is most often the restaurant's chef, but it might also be the business manager, kitchen manager, owner, or even a pastry chef. | CCD-MP-21
web only | 5 pages | 1,996 words | - | PDF: 795 kb

2/28/2011 (minor revision)

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems (also known as stolons), not roots. Potatoes are grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption and for sales to potato chip companies for chipping. | CCD-CP-113
web only | 3 pages | 1,434 words | - | PDF: 586 kb

Organic Corn for Feed or Food
2/14/2011 (new)

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production | CCD-CP-37
web only | 6 pages | 2,534 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

12/20/2010 (minor revision)

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid. | CCD-CP-115
web only | 2 pages | 820 words | 1 download | PDF: 747 kb

2006 New Crop Opportunities Research Report
7/15/2006 (new)

| PR-533
web only | 72 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,359 kb