In descending order, by date published.
Electric fencing provides a successful boundary by shocking an animal when there is contact between the animal and the fence wire. For electric fencing to work properly, current or electricity from the fence must travel through the animal, into the ground, and back to the energizer. The grounding on the energizer works as an "antenna" to collect the current and complete the circuit, which allows the animal to feel the shock. Frustration with electric fencing occurs when animals do not receive a proper shock when they first come in contact with the fence.
Off grid solar systems are often considered on farms and small acreages in locations where power is difficult or expensive to run. These locations typically do not have huge power requirements; the land owners just wish to have lights in a barn, a fence charger, or to run a small motor or power tool. Off grid solar systems provide an opportunity to have power without the expense of an electric service. Before purchasing an off grid solar system, it is important to have an idea of what electrical items the system will be used to operate, and to understand the components that make up the solar panel system (batteries, fuses, controllers, and inverters).
Horse facilities should be planned and laid out to meet the needs and goals of the operation. Horse owners need to consider how horses, humans, vehicles, equipment, and water will flow through the operation. This publication is designed to help horse owners design or redesign their facilities.
The objective of this publication is to provide practical tips for installing electrified offsets that can effectively control livestock and extend the life of new and existing fencing.
A University of Kentucky research collaboration analyzed footing samples for metal concentrations as part of a larger study on indoor arenas. By determining what metals are present within the indoor arena footing, we can begin to develop an idea of the metals which could potentially become airborne particulates as horses are worked in the arenas. To date, metals havenít been as widely considered when considering respirable particulate matter (PM) that can impact horses and humans in the arena environment.
This publication provides an overview of riding arena characteristics, and in particular, footing. Many different factors must be considered when planning to build an arena or determining how to care for an existing arena. This basic guide explains how arenas are structured, describes the components that generally make up arena surfaces, and discusses various considerations that all arenas need.
Maintenance is a key aspect to extend an arena's lifespan, and it is extremely important for the horses and riders who use the surface. Arena maintenance is essential for the casual recreational rider up to the high-performance athlete. The surface the horse encounters during work has a profound impact on the horse's biomechanics, which can affect the horse's soundness over time. Having a well-maintained surface increases your horse's performance capabilities and enhances training.
This guide gives a basic overview of drags, their component parts, and other arena maintenance equipment. Selecting the proper equipment and maintenance protocol is essential for keeping a usable and well-maintained arena. Because there is variation in the terminology used between manufacturers, this compilation of basic terms, descriptions, and pictures will improve the arena manager's understanding of common terms.
Beef cattle production is directly affected by soils, but active soil management is limited. Most producers' soil management decisions are limited to submitting a soil sample, getting the analysis back, and then applying the tons of fertilizer or lime recommended at the bottom of the sheet. Meanwhile, producers request assistance to reduce or eliminate mud, weeds, gully erosion, and compaction (if they have identified compacted ground). Occasionally, producers don't have enough forage or hay to get cattle through drought or winter because of low forage production. These issues may have little to do with soil fertility but instead be directly related to soil properties.
Hoop barns are a cost-effective alternative to pole barns. For example, a farmer might choose a hoop barn when deciding to expand hay sales, or for providing cover for costly equipment. Hoop barns have the additional benefit of being a construction project that can be done by the farmer (and a group of friends), which can provide an additional cost savings. This publication goes through the steps involved by following the construction of two hoop barns built by a local farmer. In this case, hoop barns were built to increase the farm's hay storage capacity.
Understanding soil mechanics and management in winter-feeding areas could improve beef cattle production, with less effort on the producer and cattle. This publication is intended to guide evaluating soil strength for winter-feeding areas, the pollution potential of winter-feeding areas, and to provide solutions for correcting structural deficiencies and reducing mud on both the ground and on the cattle.
During summer months, horse owners hang fans around their barn and stalls in an effort to increase air movement to reduce temperature and flies in stall areas. These fans typically are 20-inch 3-speed box fans or 20-inch high velocity mounted fans. Both fans are easy to find at any home improvement or big box store and are ready to use with little to no assembly. But are these commonly used fans really serving these intended purposes?
Farmers who raise goats for meat or milk need guidance in the interrelated tasks of choosing a barn design and managing temperatures for their herd. Barn orientation, ventilation design, and stocking density are all important considerations which impact goats socially and physiologically, potentially impacting production. While other species are relatively well studied in these areas, research on goats is somewhat limited. The goal of this publication is to provide recommendations drawn from research in goats and sufficiently similar species.
Heat stress is prevalent in most livestock species, but especially in dairy animals where large quantities of energy are necessary to sustain milk production. Both dairy goats in lactation and meat goats, which are being fed for growth, are susceptible to heat stress. Knowing the physiological signs to observe (like panting or excessive drinking) can make heat stress more apparent.
Cattle-handling facilities should be designed to match the management goals of the operation. The safety of workers and cattle should be the highest priority when designing or reworking a handling facility. A well-designed facility will make working cattle faster, safer, less labor intensive, and less frustrating.
Many horse owners involved in the industry look for an indoor arena in which to work horses regardless of weather. These facilities might be at home or at a community location for many riders to access. The following highlights some common characteristics and requirements of indoor arenas. While these act as minimums, many disciplines and activities may require additional investment in facilities, such as larger dimensions, more lighting, special footing, etc.
Wind is variable in time and space. This is especially true across the state of Kentucky, considering the geographical variety from the Eastern Kentucky mountains to the flatter grain production region in Western Kentucky. In particular, there is a region of potentially variable wind around Cincinnati, near the Ohio River. In trying to account for this variability, monthly wind maps across the state of Kentucky have been developed using the past 30 years of recorded wind data. These data can be used to assist in site evaluations for barns and planning farmstead layouts. Knowing wind speed and direction will help optimize the natural ventilation taking place within agricultural buildings.