University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

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Don Hershman

A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months. | ID-125
1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb

Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015
11/1/2014 (reviewed)

SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials. | PPFS-AG-S-24
web only | 4 pages | 875 words | 1 download | PDF: 546 kb

Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola
9/1/2014 (new)

Interest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola. | PPFS-AG-R-1
web only | 2 pages | 697 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 600 kb

Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis
1/1/2014 (minor revision)

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility. | PPFS-AG-S-9
web only | 3 pages | 1,169 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 679 kb

Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky. | PPFS-AG-S-19
web only | 6 pages | 2,197 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 856 kb

Downy Mildew of Soybean
9/1/2012 (minor revision)

Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust. | PPFS-AG-S-3
web only | 2 pages | 512 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 538 kb

Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean
7/1/2012 (minor revision)

Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRSR), caused by Phythophthora sojae, is infrequently encountered in Kentucky. However, where it does occur, the disease can be quite destructive. Soon after planting, P. sojae can cause damping-off of germinating seeds and/or young seedlings. Severe stand loss often necessitates replanting. Alternately, this pathogen can infect and kill established plants of susceptible soybean varieties any time during the season. Varieties that have some resistance to P. sojae may be stunted, but rarely die. PRSR is primarily a problem in poorly drained fields (due to high clay content, "hard pan," and/or soil compaction) or areas of fields that are prone to flooding. | PPFS-AG-S-4
web only | 3 pages | 446 words | 1 download | PDF: 355 kb

Brown Spot of Soybean
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

Brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines, is present in all soybean fields in Kentucky. In most years the disease causes little to no yield impact; however, up to 15% yield losses can occur in select environments. For example, brown sport tends to be worse where soybeans follow no-till soybeans, where early-maturing varieties are planted, and/or when fields are planted in late April. River bottom fields or fields subject to fog or morning shade are frequently impacted. | PPFS-AG-S-1
web only | 2 pages | 666 words | 1 download | PDF: 420 kb

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) in Kentucky
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a potentially devastating virus disease of wheat. In the United States, WSM is most prevalent in hard red wheat grown in the central Great Plains region. Soft red winter wheat produced in the mid-south and Midwest is infrequently impacted by WSM. Epidemics are rare in Kentucky with the only recorded ones occurring in 1989 and 2000. | PPFS-AG-SG-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,453 words | 1 download | PDF: 282 kb

Assessing Foliar Diseases of Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat: Principles and Practices
11/1/2011 (new)

This publication provides basic information on how to conduct disease assessments in on-farm trials. The focus is on foliar diseases, since root diseases are much more difficult to assess properly. The publication begins with fundamentals of proper design of field trials. | PPFS-MISC-6
web only | 5 pages | 1,693 words | 1 download | PDF: 719 kb

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
10/4/2011 (major revision)

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States (and Kentucky) and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially. | ID-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,256 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 368 kb

Foliar Fungicide Use in Corn and Soybeans
10/1/2011 (new)

Interest in the use of foliar fungicides for corn and soybean has expanded dramatically in the U.S. over the past few years, resulting in a major change in how these crops are being produced on many farms. Until recently, foliar fungicides for soybeans and corn were reserved for seed production fields to protect seed quality in very specific circumstances or for specialty crops. Applications for the purpose of protecting crop yield were rarely economical. However, the current trend in Kentucky, as well as many other corn/soybean producing states, is towards an increased use of foliar fungicides on these crops as a means of maximizing yields. | PPFS-GEN-12
web only | 9 pages | 3,829 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,093 kb

Black "Sooty" Head Mold of Wheat
9/1/2011 (minor revision)

Each year, just prior to and during wheat harvest, the Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratories at Princeton and Lexington receive many samples with questions about severe head molding. This condition is known as black head mold or sooty head mold. | PPFS-AG-SG-7
web only | 2 pages | 405 words | 1 download | PDF: 264 kb

Fungicide Use in Wheat
9/1/2011 (minor revision)

Disease management is a key component of high-yielding wheat production. In most years, it simply is not possible to produce high wheat yields without paying attention to disease control. Most diseases are best managed through the use of multiple tactics, both proactive (e.g., crop rotation, delayed and/or staggered planting plates, use of resistant varieties of varying maturities, proper fertility, and application of seed treatment and/or foliar fungicides) and reactive (e.g., application of foliar fungicides and timely harvest). Fungicides are just one tool in the disease management arsenal; however, growers often place too much emphasis on this one tool. | PPFS-AG-SG-5
web only | 8 pages | 3,557 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 459 kb

Seed Treatment Fungicides for Soybeans: Issues to Consider
4/1/2011 (minor revision)

Kentucky soybean producers frequently ask the question "Is it advisable to treat soybean seed with fungicides?" There is no pat answer to this question because of the many variables involved. Historically, soybean has not been treated to the same extent that corn and wheat have in the U.S. There are many good reasons for this, and some of them are discussed below. However, the trend is toward greater use of fungicide seed treatment on soybean, both in Kentucky and nationally. | PPFS-AG-S-12
web only | 3 pages | 974 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

The Importance of Scouting Wheat for Plant Diseases
4/1/2011 (new)

For a variety of reasons, few Kentucky wheat producers place much emphasis on scouting their wheat diseases. Time and labor constraints (for do-it-yourselfers), the cost of hiring a crop consultant, and indifference to the need for scouting rank among the top reasons why this is the case. However, scouting is essential for those interested in managing diseases using an integrated approach. | PPFS-AG-SG-12
web only | 2 pages | 519 words | - | PDF: 195 kb

Preplant Decisions Greatly Impact Disease Potential in Wheat
4/1/2011 (minor revision)

Kentucky wheat producers have a majority of their disease management program in place once the seed is in the ground. By that time, decisions have been made regarding the length of time since the last wheat crop, tillage method and seedbed preparation, variety selection, seed quality, seed treatment, planting date, seeding rate, seeding method, and fall fertility. Individually and collectively, these decisions play an important role in determining which diseases might develop, their severity, and their potential impact on crop yield, test weight, and grain quality. Because pre-plant and planting decisions are so important in the management of wheat diseases, you need to understand how they influence disease development. | PPFS-AG-SG-6
web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 1 download | PDF: 413 kb

Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV)
2/1/2011 (minor revision)

Wheat spindle streak mosaic (WSSM), also known as wheat yellow mosaic, is a common virus disease that affects only wheat. In most years, WSSM has little to no impact on crops grown in Kentucky. However, significant yield damage can occur in highly susceptible varieties when conditions favor infection and subsequent disease development. | PPFS-AG-SG-4
web only | 3 pages | 765 words | 1 download | PDF: 308 kb

Barley Yellow Dwarf
1/1/2011 (minor revision)

Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is a virus disease that can cause serious yield loss when stunted and discolored plants are widely distributed in a field. Severe losses due to BYD occur state-wide about every five years or so, but individual fields are impacted to varying degrees each year. There are many diseases that can reduce wheat yields, but in the case of BYD, most of the disease management decisions (such as field selection, tillage practices, variety, and planting date) are made by the time the seed is actually sown in the fall. | PPFS-AG-SG-3
web only | 5 pages | 1,959 words | 1 download | PDF: 602 kb

Soybean Loss Prediction Tool for Managing Soybean Rust
7/1/2010 (new)

Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a potentially devastating foliar disease of soybean. The disease was first detected in the Continental United States in the fall of 2004. Since that time, it has caused only sporadic yield losses in the U.S., primarily in the Gulf States. However, the potential still exists for devastating losses to occur in all soybean producing areas of the U.S. should the proper combination of weather conditions come together to support significant disease development by mid-summer. Currently, the only way to avert significant yield loss caused by SBR when disease risk is high is by applying foliar fungicides. | PPFS-AG-S-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,542 words | 1 download | PDF: 656 kb

Soybean Rust Fungicide Use Guidelines
6/1/2010 (minor revision)

Effective use of fungicides to control soybean rust is not very complicated. The whole idea is to wait to spray until the soybean rust risk is at least moderate, and make a fungicide application before significant infection has occurred. This means applying fungicides when plant pathologists in and around Kentucky are "sounding the alarm," but before symptoms are evident. Many soybean producers in the deep South have been using fungicides to control soybean rust since 2005 with considerable success. I believe we will have the same experience if it ever becomes necessary to apply fungicides for soybean rust in Kentucky. | PPFS-AG-S-23
web only | 2 pages | 407 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 473 kb

Wheat Bacterial Streak
5/1/2010 (new)

Occasionally, wheat leaves and spikes are invaded by the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. When leaf tissue is affected, the resulting disease is known as bacterial streak. When the bacterium invades the head, the disease is called black chaff. While this disease has primarily been a problem in the lower mid-South, it is often found in Kentucky in fields that have been impacted by strong winds with blowing soil or following a damaging freeze. | PPFS-AG-SG-2
web only | 3 pages | 789 words | 1 download | PDF: 247 kb

Take-All of Wheat
5/1/2010 (minor revision)

"Take-all" is the common name of a root, crown, and basal stem (foot) rot that primarily affects wheat, but can also affect barley, oats, rye, as well as other grass crops and weeds. The disease has been known to destroy entire stands of wheat, thus the name. Barley, oats, rye, and other grass crops, however, have not been seriously impacted in Kentucky. Take-all is most common where susceptible crops are grown continuously without adequate rotation, or in fields where weedy grass hosts were not controlled in non-host crops, and were subsequently sown to wheat. The disease is rarely a serious problem in Kentucky due to excellent weed control practices, as well as the widespread adoption of cropping systems where wheat is produced, at most, every other year. | PPFS-AG-SG-1
web only | 2 pages | 749 words | - | PDF: 248 kb

Soybean Diseases Control Series: Soybean Cyst Nematode
1/1/2010 (minor revision)

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) exists virtually everywhere soybean is grown in Kentucky. The pest is insidious in that significant yield damage often occurs without the appearance of visible disease symptoms. This is an extremely important point because it suggests that farmers are frequently unaware that SCN is active and doing damage in a field. | PPFS-AG-S-13
web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 1 download | PDF: 336 kb

Corn and Soybean Production Calendar
12/16/2009 (reprinted)

The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur. | ID-159
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 650 kb

Cercospora Leaf Blight in Kentucky
10/1/2009 (new)

In most years, Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is a minor disease problem in Kentucky soybeans. It is one of the more common "late-season" diseases, but usually comes in too little, too late to cause damage. However, in wet, late seasons like the one we experienced in 2009, significant yield and grain/seed quality losses can occur in fields that develop severe CLB before pod fill has completed. | PPFS-AG-S-20
web only | 3 pages | 729 words | 1 download | PDF: 296 kb

Comparing No-Till and Tilled Wheat in Kentucky
8/26/2009 (new)

Historically, wheat planting in Kentucky has involved tillage. With conventional tillage practices, most residues from the previous crop are cut and buried prior to seeding wheat. No-till wheat planting eliminates tillage and reduces soil erosion, particularly on sloping soils, as well as reducing labor, machinery, and energy costs. | ID-177
1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 233 kb

Value of Wheat Residue in Soybean Cyst Nematode Management
3/1/2009 (minor revision)

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is the most widespread and significant pest of soybean in Kentucky. SCN is managed primarily by rotating fields to non-host crops (such as corn) and using SCN-resistant varieties. However, for a variety of reasons, producers occasionally desire to plant a SCN-susceptible variety. | PPFS-AG-S-8
web only | 3 pages | 914 words | 1 download | PDF: 218 kb

Diseases of Concern in Continuous Corn
10/1/2008 (minor revision)

Although most corn in Kentucky is planted following a rotation to other crops, individual producers are often interested in planting corn following corn. In these situations, one of the main concerns voiced by producers is increased pressure from diseases, and rightfully so. Crop rotation is one of the most fundamental disease control practices available. Rotating to other crops deprives pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) of a food source and exposes them to "starvation." Furthermore, as infested crop residues decompose, pathogens are exposed to antagonism by native soil microbes. These mechanisms have the effect of naturally reducing the populations of many pathogens in the soil. | PPFS-AG-C-1
web only | 4 pages | 1,434 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 233 kb

Southern Blight of Soybeans
10/1/2008 (minor revision)

Southern blight is a minor disease of soybeans in the United States. Although the disease can occur in plants anytime from emergence through pod fill, it most commonly occurs in isolated plants in the latter stages of reproductive development. Occasionally, southern blight develops when plants are in the early to mid-vegetative stages. When this occurs, the disease may spread rapidly down rows, resulting in serious stand losses in patches. However, even in the worst case scenario, it would be extremely rare for southern blight to cause measurable yield losses in a commercial soybean field. | PPFS-AG-S-6
web only | 2 pages | 641 words | 1 download | PDF: 207 kb

Controlling Phytophthora Root Rot in Greenhouse Ornamentals
5/1/2005 (minor revision)

Phytophthora fungi can attack a number of potted herbaceous ornamentals produced in greenhouses. The potted flowering plants reported as hosts include: begonia, bougainvillea, ornamental pepper, vinca, poinsettia, Persian violet, fuchsia, common gardenia, African daisy, kalanchoe, Lantana, African violet, holiday cactus, gloxinia, and Jerusalem cherry. | PPFS-GH-5
web only | 2 pages | 613 words | 1 download | PDF: 615 kb

No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky
5/1/2000 (new)

| ID-136
5,000 printed copies | 11 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

1998 Agronomy Research Report
7/1/1998 (new)

| PR-402
1,500 printed copies | 56 pages | - | - | PDF: 403 kb

Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar
9/1/1997 (reprinted)

| ID-125A
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 117 kb

Factors to Consider in Bringing Idle Land Back to Production
4/1/1997 (new)

| ID-124
5,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 228 kb