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Steve Higgins



ID-188
Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure
7/30/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Jeff Lehmkuhler,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, li

Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience.

web only | 4 pages | 2,255 words | 157 downloads | PDF: 737 kb



AEN-134
Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation
7/29/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, li

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area.

web only | 13 pages | 3,500 words | 204 downloads | PDF: 2,550 kb



AEN-141
Maps for Farm Planning
6/18/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Planning and design are critical steps when modernizing a farm to meet the current and future operational needs. Farm renovations and redevelopment must always consider the cost/benefit of changes, while staying consistent with good agricultural practice guidelines that conserve labor and the resources of the farm. The process of developing a farm map will be used to guide producers on the concepts and considerations necessary to make decisions related to planning renovations and developing new infrastructure on the farm.

web only | 4 pages | 1,938 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,318 kb



AEN-138
Protecting Pastured Cattle using Windbreaks and Mounds
4/10/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Research shows that cattle benefit from summer shade and winter shelter. Pastured cattle seek shelter around structures, under trees, and in forested streamside zones. These areas are often heavily trafficked and become muddy, compacted loafing areas. Mud creates further stress on cattle and compounds the problems of temperature stress and feed inefficiencies. One option that could be used to lure cattle from these areas and provide winter shelter and summer shade is a constructed windbreak fence on a mound.

web only | 4 pages | 1,875 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 1,795 kb



AEN-137
Farm Gates: Design Considerations
2/18/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Farm gates are a necessity for controlling traffic and increasing security. There are many design considerations for optimizing a system of farm gates. Very few gates incorporate all the recommended design components that will be discussed in this publication. However, to move people, materials, equipment, and livestock through a gateway, the gateway should economize time, be navigable, and operate in an efficient manner. Time spent operating a poorly designed gateway is time wasted and a hindrance to production. This publication is a guide to aid producers in creating more functional designs for gateways.

web only | 6 pages | 2,558 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 2,500 kb



AEN-136
Fence Line Stiles, Escapes, and Refuges
1/23/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Michele McHugh,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures

Opening farm gates for trucks, tractors, equipment, and livestock is unavoidable. However, opening a large gate, or a set of gates, for a person on foot is extremely inefficient, especially if the entrance does not put the producer where they need to be. An inconveniently located gate can lead to additional steps and unnecessary movements. Opening gates may require dealing with clasps, chains, or ropes just to get the gate unfastened. The gate may then have to be lifted or dragged open and closed. The bottom-line is that entering a poorly installed and unmaintained gateway can make the experience of opening and closing gates a time consuming nuisance.

web only | 4 pages | 1,538 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 9,300 kb



AEN-135
Rainwater Harvesting for Livestock Production Systems
11/7/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Abundant, clean drinking water is an essential nutrient for livestock. The obvious water source that is recommended by veterinarians is city water. However, city water has its drawbacks. City water distribution systems are often expensive to install and have a recurring usage charge. In some instances, city water is unavailable, may have inadequate pressure, or producers consider it too expensive to operate, forcing them to use streams and ponds to water livestock. Collecting rainwater from a catchment area, is a low cost, high quality alternative water source that can supplement traditional water distribution systems and improve the environmental quality of farming operations. Rainwater harvesting involves the collection of rainfall from rooftops or land based catchments systems for storage and distribution as needed. Capturing rainfall has the added benefit of improving water quality by reducing soil erosion and runoff. Strategically installed rainwater harvesting systems can be used to direct stormwater around sensitive areas of the farm where animal waste is present, thus reducing the potential for nutrient and pathogen delivery to nearby waterways. Rainwater harvesting and stormwater management techniques can also reduce the volume of water that must be managed in liquid manure management systems by diverting clean water away from manure pits and lagoons.

web only | 5 pages | 2,801 words | 75 downloads | PDF: 807 kb



AEN-115
Appropriate All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock
10/16/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Stephanie Mehlhope,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, livestock

Many livestock producers would say that mud is a natural part of livestock production. But the creation of mud costs producers money and makes them less competitive. Livestock that walk through mud require more feed for energy but actually eat less because walking in mud requires more effort to get to feed and water. Therefore, mud decreases average daily gains. Mud accumulation on the coat increases the amount of energy needed to generate heat in the winter or to keep cool in the summer. Also, it can lower sale prices due to hanging tags. The creation of mud also increases animal stress and leads to a variety of health problems, including protozoan and bacterial infections. It is essential that livestock producers understand that mud hinders cost-efficient livestock production and efforts should be made to limit the creation of mud. This publication explains how mud is created and describes different types of hardened surfaces and pads that agricultural producers should use to reduce mud creation and ultimately increase production efficiency and protect natural resources.

web only | 8 pages | 3,441 words | 240 downloads | PDF: 2,730 kb



AEN-133
Tire Tanks for Watering Livestock
8/8/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, livestock

Kentucky's abundant forage and extensive stream system have helped the Commonwealth become the largest beef producing state east of the Mississippi River. While streams and ponds serve as a water source for many operations, livestock can quickly degrade soil and water quality by trampling streambanks and defecating and urinating in and around waterbodies. These actions increase sediment, pathogen, and nutrient loads to streams, rivers, and lakes which in turn can causes eutrophication. To help protect the health of Kentucky's soil and water, producers can implement best management practices (BMPs). These practices help reduce the sources of pollutants and/or the transport of pollutants to waterways. One such practice or BMP is limiting cattle access to streams and ponds. When producers exclude livestock access to stream and ponds and their associated riparian buffers, an alternative source of water is required. Automatic water fountains are one commonly used means of providing cattle with water from an alternate source. A water tank constructed using a heavy equipment tire may serve as a viable option for supplying livestock with an alternate source of water.

web only | 8 pages | 4,702 words | 131 downloads | PDF: 4,650 kb



ID-236
Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
8/2/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kevin Laurent,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production.

web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | 103 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb



AEN-131
Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
6/6/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals.

web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | 136 downloads | PDF: 516 kb



ID-211
Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
3/4/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.

web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | 172 downloads | PDF: 3,600 kb



AEN-130
Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
2/25/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser, Kyl
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm.

web only | 7 pages | 3,539 words | 59 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



ID-229
All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
7/28/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kevin Laurent,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities.

web only | 6 pages | 2,612 words | 95 downloads | PDF: 2,980 kb



AEN-125
Closing a Liquid Manure Storage Structure
8/11/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kylie Schmidt
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure(s) as part of their Kentucky No Discharge Operational Permit. To help offset the costs of closing the structure, producers may want to apply for cost share funds through the Division of Conservation. Before beginning to close a liquid manure structure, the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) must be provided with a closure plan. This publication outlines the preferred practices and steps for closing a liquid manure structure to meet the guidelines of the KDOW.

web only | 2 pages | 1,148 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 106 kb



AEN-123
Lowering Somatic Cell Counts with Best Management Practices
5/14/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kylie Schmidt,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

As health and food safety concerns grow, dairy producers are facing more stringent regulations. In 2010, the European Union (EU) set the somatic cell count (SCC) upper limit, an indicator of milk quality, for exported milk at 400,000 cells per milliliter. However, the current U.S. SCC limit is 750,000 cells per milliliter. As of January 2012, any U.S. milk used in export markets must meet the EU standards. It is projected that US milk processors will gradually adopt the EU upper limit, making it difficult for dairy producers to sell milk containing more than 400,000 somatic cells per milliliter. Dairy producers will have to find innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce the somatic cell count of their milk. This publication will discuss how agriculture best management practices can be used to lower SCC.

web only | 4 pages | 2,808 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 350 kb



AEN-121
Increasing Dry Cow and Bred Heifer Performance with Environmental Management
4/23/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Kylie Schmidt
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Producers must understand that dry cows and bred heifers are the next milking herd, so focusing on their management can maintain or actually increase future profitability. This publication focuses on environmental management strategies that improve dry cow and bred heifer performance.

web only | 3 pages | 1,606 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 454 kb



ID-167
On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Spencer Guinn, Amanda A. Gumbert,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

Animal mortalities are an expected part of animal production. Depending on the scale of the animal enterprise, animal mortalities can overwhelm the producer with a large number and mass of dead animals. This publication provides guidance to the producer for handling animal mortalities in accordance with Kentucky law.

web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | 73 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



ID-166
On-Farm Composting of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

On-farm composting can provide animal producers with a convenient method for disposing of animal mortalities and also provide a valuable soil amendment. In addition, the finished compost can be stockpiled and reused to help compost other mortalities.

web only | 6 pages | 2,973 words | 107 downloads | PDF: 2,800 kb



ID-200
Environmental Compliance for Dairy Operations
4/24/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda A. Gumbert, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Some farmers are reluctant to talk about the environment, but because farms are under increasing review by state and federal regulatory agencies, producers need to be familiar with environmental issues and regulations. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can help farmers continue to protect the environment and increase productivity.

web only | 6 pages | 4,179 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



ID-202
Feedlot Design and Environmental Management for Backgrounding and Stocker Operations
3/21/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Jeff Lehmkuhler,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Kentucky's cattle industry represents the largest beef cattle herd east of the Mississippi, ranking eighth in the nation for number of beef cows. This industry is extremely important to Kentucky's economy. This publication discusses site evaluation strategies, production area management techniques, and a variety of facility types for intensive cattle production that preserve natural resources and improve production.

125 printed copies | 12 pages | 6,071 words | 136 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb



AEN-113
Nutrient Management Concepts for Livestock Producers
3/27/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Sarah Wightman
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients (specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment.

web only | 5 pages | 2,133 words | 121 downloads | PDF: 345 kb



ID-189
Vegetative Filter Strips for Livestock Facilities
2/23/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Ray Smith, Sa
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

An enhanced vegetative strip is a best management practice that can be installed to protect surface waters from pollution produced by animal production facilities. Most people think of a vegetative strip as a grassed area or waterway, but when intentionally installed and properly managed, an EVS can be much more effective than a simple grassed filter strip. If properly managed, enhanced vegetative strips can be used to trap, treat, and absorb pollutants, which can be removed from the designated area by harvesting or grazing.

web only | 4 pages | 2,364 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 380 kb



AEN-109
Sinkhole Management for Agricultural Producers
10/18/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Sarah Wightman
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

A karst landscape develops when the limestone or dolostone bedrock underneath the soil dissolves and/or collapses due to weathering. A karst system can be recognized by surface features such as depressions, sinkholes, sinking streams, and caves. In karst systems, surface water and groundwater are interconnected: surface water runoff flows into sinkholes and sinking streams and recharges the groundwater; likewise, springs maintain stream flow in the dry season. Kentuckians living in karst areas need to be acutely aware that any pollutants that reach either surface water or any karst feature can pollute the entire groundwater system (also called an aquifer). In addition, the cave system that accompanies a karst aquifer can allow pollutants to contaminate miles of water resources in just a few hours.

web only | 4 pages | 1,825 words | 70 downloads | PDF: 487 kb



AEN-107
Paved Feeding Areas and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
7/28/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Sarah Wightman
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock. Livestock producers can make additional profits by adding a few pounds before marketing calves; however, adding those pounds requires keeping calves during the winter months, when pasture forages are dormant and supplemental feed is required. The areas used to winter calves need to be conducive to feeding and need to avoid negatively impacting the environment, especially water quality.

web only | 5 pages | 3,305 words | 89 downloads | PDF: 260 kb



AEN-103
Stormwater BMPs for Confined Livestock Facilities
7/28/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Sarah Wightman
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency states that agricultural sediment, pathogens, and nutrients account for more than 50 percent of water pollution in the United States. Animal confinement facilities, widely used for holding, feeding, and handling animals, are potential sources of that pollution. The pollution load of these facilities can be reduced by installing and maintaining best management practices. The BMPs may be implemented as part of permit compliance or may be used to ensure that a permit is not needed.

web only | 5 pages | 2,881 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 300 kb



AEN-105
Pasture Feeding, Streamside Grazing, and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
7/13/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock, but the pasturing and pasture feeding of livestock need to be managed. Allowing cattle to behave as they would naturally can lead to overgrazing, congregation in sensitive areas, buildup of mud, loss of vegetation, compaction of soils, and erosion.

web only | 5 pages | 3,420 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 284 kb



AEN-101
Stream Crossings for Cattle
7/13/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

This publication provides livestock producers with instructions on how to install a stream crossing that provides animal and vehicular access across streams. This best management practice (BMP) is intended for use with exclusion fencing that restricts cattle access to the stream. Implementation of a stream crossing with exclusion fencing will improve water quality, reducing nutrient, sediment, pathogen, and organic matter loads to streams.

web only | 7 pages | 3,383 words | 95 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



AEN-104
How to Close an Abandoned Well
7/7/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Sarah Wightman
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Abandoned wells are often the only structures remaining after an old house or barn has been removed. If left unmanaged in agricultural areas, these abandoned wells can pose a serious threat to livestock and human safety because of the large surface openings they often have.

web only | 3 pages | 1,419 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 400 kb



AEN-100
Building a Grade Stabilization Structure to Control Erosion
6/15/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Donald Stamper,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Gully erosion creates large eroded channels that become problematic for many farms. Gullies form in natural drainage swales when vegetation in the swale is lost through overgrazing or tillage practices. They cause valuable soil to erode, and they form large channels that drain runoff into streams. This runoff can carry sediment, nutrients, and pathogens that can degrade the water quality.

web only | 4 pages | 1,614 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 900 kb



AEN-98
Alternative Water Source: Developing Springs for Livestock
5/5/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Donald Stamper,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Water supply is a key component in livestock production. One option producers have when providing water is to develop an existing spring, which occurs when groundwater running along an impervious rock layer hits a fracture and discharges on the surface.

web only | 4 pages | 2,137 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 814 kb



ID-187
Woodland Winter Feeding of Cattle: Water Quality Best Management Practices
5/5/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Jeff Stringer,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Forestry and Natural Resources
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Cattle maintain their body temperature in winter by burning more calories, which requires them to consume more feed. Livestock producers use wooded areas to provide protection for cattle from wind and low temperatures. That protection enables the cattle to conserve energy and eat less. Using wooded areas for winter feeding makes practical sense, but producers need to consider several environmental issues when planning for it.

web only | 2 pages | 1,145 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 273 kb



AEN-99
Shade Options for Grazing Cattle
3/29/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags:

Shade is a must for pasture-based grazing systems. It curtails heat stress, which is detrimental to cattle and causes a decrease in milk production, feed intake, weight gains, and fertility.

web only | 8 pages | 2,376 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 866 kb



ID-171
Using Dry Lots to Conserve Pastures and Reduce Pollution Potential
2/16/2011 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Roberta Dwyer, Steve Higgins
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Veterinary Science
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

300 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 41 downloads | PDF: 860 kb



ID-175
Riparian Buffers: A Livestock Best Management Practice for Protecting Water Quality
9/22/2009 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Amanda A. Gumbert,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

In Kentucky, cattle on pastures are often watered by streams. Although this practice solves water requirements for cattle, providing livestock free access to streams and riparian areas can lead to a contaminated water supply and damaged ecosystems. A better solution is to implement riparian buffers with limited access points to streams or provide alternative water sources. This practice can protect water quality, increase herd production, and provide other landowner benefits. The purpose of this publication is to explain the role of riparian areas and how they can benefit the livestock producer, the herd, and the environment.

200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 83 downloads | PDF: 721 kb



ID-176
Using Soil Cement on Horse and Livestock Farms
8/3/2009 (new)

 UK Authors: Spencer Guinn, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses, soil and land

Most farmers in Kentucky can identify with a myriad of problems associated with mud forming around high traffic areas, including areas around horse and cattle waterers, feed bunks, round bale feeders, walk paths and gate entrances. Mud is usually a result of animals congregating in and around these areas, but increased traffic can enhance the problem. In many cases, finding solutions to mud problems on farms is not the issue--the issue is determining how to make solutions economical.

web only | 4 pages | - | 60 downloads | PDF: 329 kb



ID-174
Options for Controlling Canada Geese
1/15/2009 (new)

 UK Authors: Spencer Guinn, Amanda A. Gumbert,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

The average Canada goose produces more fecal waste than a dairy cow on a per-weight basis. In addition, gaggles of resident Canada geese have been associated with problems of over grazing. Having large amounts of fecal waste around a riparian area that has limited vegetation can lead to the runoff of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, which can contaminate ponds, lakes, and streams in Kentucky.

200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 140 kb



ID-170
Drinking Water Quality Guidelines for Cattle
3/26/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Amanda A. Gumbert,
 Departments: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineer
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrition and health

120 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 48 downloads | PDF: 300 kb



ID-168
Composting Horse Muck
10/10/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Coleman, Victoria Gallagher,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses

2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 66 downloads | PDF: 291 kb



ID-164
High Traffic Area Pads for Horses
7/15/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Coleman, Victoria Gallagher,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses

1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 60 downloads | PDF: 348 kb



ID-161
Pervious Concrete as a Flooring Material for Horse Handling Areas
3/13/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Coleman, Steve Higgins,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: horses

500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 243 kb



PA-1
Elements of PrecIsion Agriculture: Basics of Yield Monitor Installation and Operation
10/10/2002 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: J.P. Fulton, Steve Higgins, S
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Precision Agriculture (PA series)
 Tags:

500 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 234 kb



AEN-81
Grain Drill Calibration Procedures for Winter Wheat
1/30/2000 (new)

 UK Authors: Steve Higgins, Sam McNeill,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
 Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 254 kb