University of Kentucky College of Agriculture
 

Online Publications

Filter by Author

Cheryl Kaiser



Romaine Lettuce
10/10/2017 (minor revision)

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-116
web only | 4 pages | 1,753 words | - | PDF: 692 kb


Root Crops
10/4/2017 (minor revision)

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-117
web only | 4 pages | 1,728 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb


Specialty Melons
9/20/2017 (minor revision)

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations. | CCD-CP-120
web only | 3 pages | 1,431 words | - | PDF: 950 kb


High Tunnel Tomatoes
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season." | CCD-CP-62
web only | 4 pages | 2,063 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb


Stevia
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf." | CCD-CP-55
web only | 4 pages | 1,145 words | - | PDF: 791 kb


Cabbage
8/25/2017 (minor revision)

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures. | CCD-CP-90
web only | 2 pages | 949 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 725 kb


Woody Cuts
8/22/2017 (minor revision)

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material. | CCD-CP-76
web only | 3 pages | 1,519 words | - | PDF: 909 kb


English and Edible Pod Peas
8/16/2017 (minor revision)

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas. | CCD-CP-95
web only | 2 pages | 993 words | - | PDF: 647 kb


Cucumber
8/15/2017 (minor revision)

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption. | CCD-CP-93
web only | 3 pages | 1,120 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 729 kb


Catnip
8/11/2017 (minor revision)

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties. | CCD-CP-50
web only | 3 pages | 999 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 451,725 kb


Heirloom Vegetables
7/17/2017 (minor revision)

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping | CCD-CP-100
web only | 4 pages | 1,769 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 652 kb


Garden Mums
7/13/2017 (minor revision)

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state. | CCD-CP-71
web only | 3 pages | 969 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb


High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs
7/11/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries. | CCD-CP-60
web only | 5 pages | 2,531 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 893 kb


Hydroponic Lettuce
6/30/2017 (minor revision)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water. | CCD-CP-63
web only | 4 pages | 1,872 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb


Propagation Nursery
6/5/2017 (minor revision)

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use. | CCD-SP-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb


Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (minor revision)

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge. | CCD-CP-103
web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb


Juneberries
4/19/2017 (minor revision)

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky | CCD-CP-11
web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 700 kb


Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap. | CCD-SP-6
web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb


Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season. | CCD-SP-5
web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb


Onions
4/12/2017 (major revision)

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions. | CCD-CP-107
web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 881 kb


Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli). | CCD-CP-86
web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 975 kb


Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization. | CCD-CP-85
web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 688 kb


Tomatillo
3/1/2017 (minor revision)

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky. | CCD-CP-124
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 680 kb


Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly. | CCD-CP-83
web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 786 kb


Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here. | CCD-CP-79
web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 778 kb


Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales. | CCD-CP-111
web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 566 kb


Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth. | CCD-CP-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 604 kb


An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings. | ID-238
1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb


Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (minor revision)

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-20
web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 881 kb


Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (minor revision)

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus). | CCD-CP-58
web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 503 kb


Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production. | CCD-CP-12
web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 799 kb


Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (minor revision)

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves. | CCD-CP-99
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 593 kb


Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (minor revision)

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets. | CCD-CP-97
web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 617 kb


Edamame
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility. | CCD-CP-94
web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 598 kb


Ginseng
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only. | CCD-CP-53
web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 967 kb


Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (minor revision)

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-109
web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 575 kb


Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (minor revision)

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production. | CCD-CP-66
web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 594 kb


An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
7/8/2016 (new)

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance. | ID-235
2,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,187 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 5,436 kb


Plums
7/5/2016 (minor revision)

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried. | CCD-CP-17
web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 750 kb


Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (minor revision)

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops. | CCD-CP-78
web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 934 kb


Hops
6/21/2016 (minor revision)

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor and aroma to beer. | CCD-CP-80
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 967 kb


Raspberries
6/9/2016 (minor revision)

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes. | CCD-CP-18
web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 713 kb


Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (minor revision)

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June. | CCD-CP-108
web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 513 kb


Asparagus
5/1/2016 (minor revision)

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June. | CCD-CP-84
web only | 4 pages | 1,387 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 542 kb


Goldenseal
4/15/2016 (minor revision)

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species. | CCD-CP-54
web only | 4 pages | 1,799 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 582 kb


Chia
2/4/2016 (minor revision)

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers. | CCD-CP-26
web only | 3 pages | 1,155 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 922 kb


Industrial Hemp: Legal Issues
9/24/2015 (minor revision)

Industrial hemp was widely grown in the United States from the Colonial Period until the mid-1800s. During that time, Kentucky established itself as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. After the Civil War, hemp production declined in Kentucky, as well as in other areas of the country. Production temporarily resumed as part of the war effort during World War II. However, once the war was over, acreages dwindled until U.S. production ended in 1958. However, the last couple of decades have brought a renewed interest in commercial hemp as an alternative or supplementary crop. As the pro-hemp movement has spread, a number of states, including Kentucky, have passed laws favoring its production, generally in connection with scientific, economic, and environmental research studies. | CCD-CP-32
web only | 3 pages | 1,072 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 803 kb


Industrial Hemp Production
9/23/2015 (minor revision)

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs. | CCD-CP-33
web only | 6 pages | 2,682 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb


Christmas Trees
8/18/2015 (minor revision)

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor. | CCD-CP-67
web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 1 download | PDF: 492 kb


Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
7/15/2015 (new)

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]). | ID-91s
2,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 8,426 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 1,743 kb


Echinacea
6/1/2015 (minor revision)

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long lasting cut flowers. Some species (E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida) are also prized commercially for their reported medicinal properties. | CCD-CP-52
web only | 5 pages | 2,285 words | - | PDF: 1,400 kb


Culinary Herbs
4/1/2015 (new)

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme. | CCD-CP-51
web only | 4 pages | 1,620 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb


Watermelon
12/17/2014 (minor revision)

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a warm-season crop in the Cucurbit family, Watermelons are grown in various areas across the state, including: Casey County, Lincoln County, Hart County, Allen County, and Daviess County. Watermelon is the second largest fresh market vegetable produced in the state, with 1,116 acres, and accounts for 16% of the total fresh market vegetable acreage (USDA, 2013). | CCD-CP-125
web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb


Winter Squash
12/10/2014 (minor revision)

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter. | CCD-CP-126
web only | 2 pages | 794 words | 1 download | PDF: 668 kb


Field-grown Cut Flowers
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

Cut flowers include not only fresh and dried flowers, but also any plant part used for floral or decorative purposes, such as seed heads, stalks, and woody cuts. Cut flowers are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets. | CCD-CP-70
web only | 4 pages | 1,521 words | - | PDF: 652 kb


Hanging Baskets
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production. | CCD-CP-59
web only | 4 pages | 1,460 words | - | PDF: 631 kb


Ethnic Vegetables: Asian
11/1/2014 (new)

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, etc). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops could be grown and marketed in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-96
web only | 5 pages | 1,884 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,200 kb


Cauliflower
10/15/2014 (minor revision)

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather and drought. | CCD-CP-91
web only | 2 pages | 637 words | 1 download | PDF: 439 kb


Summer Squash
10/6/2014 (minor revision)

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining. | CCD-CP-121
web only | 3 pages | 1,080 words | 1 download | PDF: 542 kb


Bell Peppers
10/1/2014 (minor revision)

Peppers are grown in Kentucky primarily for fresh market sales. Fresh market options include roadside stands, local wholesalers and retailers, wholesale markets, farmers markets, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and cooperatives. There has been little in-state market potential for processed peppers due to the loss of local vegetable processing companies. California (51 percent) and Florida (26 percent) dominate bell pepper production, according to the USDA Economic Research Service. The other major producing states are Georgia, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina and Ohio. | CCD-CP-87
web only | 3 pages | 1,153 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 680 kb


Broccoli
9/1/2014 (minor revision)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. | CCD-CP-88
web only | 3 pages | 1,044 words | - | PDF: 609 kb


Asian and European Pears
8/26/2014 (minor revision)

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears. | CCD-CP-3
web only | 3 pages | 1,183 words | - | PDF: 465 kb


Organic Blueberries
8/20/2014 (minor revision)

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-13
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 633 kb


Peaches
8/19/2014 (minor revision)

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the Rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected. | CCD-CP-15
web only | 3 pages | 1,309 words | 1 download | PDF: 491 kb


Field-grown Tomatoes
8/13/2014 (minor revision)

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price. | CCD-CP-98
web only | 3 pages | 1,105 words | 1 download | PDF: 445 kb


Strawberries
7/31/2014 (minor revision)

The quality of Kentucky-grown strawberries can be far superior to berries that are shipped-in. There is a strong market for local berries, particularly near population centers. A large proportion of the strawberries grown in Kentucky are currently sold on a U-Pick basis. Other marketing options include roadside stands and local grocers. Farmers markets, produce auctions, community supported agriculture (CSA) shares, and restaurants are also outlets for strawberries. Some producers are using crop surpluses to produce jams and jellies for local sale. | CCD-CP-19
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 499 kb


Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)
7/21/2014 (minor revision)

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002. | CCD-CP-105
web only | 3 pages | 1,054 words | - | PDF: 612 kb


Sweet Corn
7/7/2014 (minor revision)

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white, and bicolor) and sugar content. | CCD-CP-122
web only | 3 pages | 966 words | - | PDF: 517 kb


Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms
7/3/2014 (minor revision)

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations. | CCD-CP-82
web only | 4 pages | 1,689 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 561 kb


Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
7/1/2014 (major revision)

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material. | ID-50
web only | 11 pages | 4,025 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb


Grapes
6/23/2014 (minor revision)

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented. | CCD-CP-7
web only | 4 pages | 1,653 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 694 kb


Blackberries
6/19/2014 (minor revision)

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. Most blackberry types produce canes that bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane fruiting blackberries produce canes that grow and fruit the first season (primocane) in late summer and fall and also produce fruit on these same canes (floricanes) the second season in July and early August before dying. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect, and trailing. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, however, grow and yield well in most parts of the state. Primocane fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky, however hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because temperatures above 85 F cause flowers to abort. With favorable growing conditions, a planting may produce for 12 or more years. | CCD-CP-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,415 words | 1 download | PDF: 724 kb


Bedding Plants
5/31/2014 (minor revision)

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs, and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden, or large containers (such as patio pots). | CCD-CP-56
web only | 3 pages | 1,203 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb


Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
5/12/2014 (reprinted)

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world. | ID-210
1,500 printed copies | 58 pages | 28,039 words | 86 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb


An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
5/7/2014 (new)

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky. | ID-219
3,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 5,056 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb


Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy
5/5/2014 (minor revision)

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed. | CCD-CP-27
web only | 3 pages | 773 words | - | PDF: 410 kb


Poinsettias
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts. | CCD-CP-64
web only | 3 pages | 1,262 words | - | PDF: 409 kb


Grain Sorghum
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose. | CCD-CP-31
web only | 3 pages | 901 words | - | PDF: 496 kb


Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?
5/1/2014 (new)

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs. | PPFS-OR-W-19
web only | 10 pages | 706 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb


Ornamental Corn
4/24/2014 (minor revision)

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes. | CCD-CP-72
web only | 3 pages | 984 words | - | PDF: 643 kb


Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers
4/15/2014 (minor revision)

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers, are considered "sweet". In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color. | CCD-CP-101
web only | 5 pages | 2,061 words | 1 download | PDF: 520 kb


Organic Certification Process
4/14/2014 (minor revision)

Growers who plan to market their agricultural products as "organic" or "certified organic" must first be certified by a USDA accredited certifier. Certification, required by federal regulation, provides third party verification that the grower is complying with production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). Annual inspections and detailed record keeping are required for continuing certification. These strict regulations are meant to protect consumers by ensuring that all organic producers are adhering to the same set of uniform standards. | CCD-SP-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,334 words | - | PDF: 430 kb


Pumpkin
4/10/2014 (minor revision)

Most pumpkins are used for ornamental purposes, with the greatest market demand during the Halloween season. Marketing options include: roadside stands, local retailers, wholesale markets, grower marketing associations, consumer supported agriculture (CSA), and U-Pick. Kentucky faces major competition in wholesale pumpkin production from surrounding states, especially Tennessee. Smaller-sized and unique pumpkin varieties, especially those with good eating characteristics, may appeal to many direct market customers. | CCD-CP-114
web only | 3 pages | 1,144 words | - | PDF: 503 kb


High Tunnel Brambles
4/7/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels. | CCD-CP-8
web only | 6 pages | 2,906 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 619 kb


High Tunnel Strawberries
4/4/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production. | CCD-CP-61
web only | 4 pages | 2,061 words | 1 download | PDF: 528 kb


Highbush Blueberries
3/28/2014 (minor revision)

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil is properly adjusted. With proper care, blueberry plants may remain productive for 40 years or more | CCD-CP-9
web only | 4 pages | 1,386 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,000 kb


Sweet Potato
3/20/2014 (minor revision)

The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. "U-Dig" sweet potato sales, similar to U-Pick, are also possible in some areas. Currently (2014) there are about 200 acres of commercial sweet potato production in the state. Sweet potato processing has grown nationally in recent years and is dominated by large processors; there are no significant processing markets available in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-123
web only | 3 pages | 1,158 words | 1 download | PDF: 443 kb


Apples
3/15/2014 (minor revision)

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems. | CCD-CP-2
web only | 3 pages | 1,389 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 519 kb


Millet
3/7/2014 (minor revision)

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning. | CCD-CP-36
web only | 3 pages | 1,035 words | - | PDF: 406 kb


Sunflower for Seed
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

Sunflower is classified as either an oil type or a confection (non-oil) type, each with its own distinct market. Seeds from oil types are processed into vegetable oil or as meal in livestock feed. Most confection type seed is sold, with or without the hull, as snack foods. While either type can be packaged for birdseed, the confectionery type is grown in Kentucky for this purpose. Sunflowers are not recommended for oil crop production here. | CCD-CP-43
web only | 3 pages | 898 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 377 kb


Kura Clover
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north. | CCD-CP-35
web only | 2 pages | 751 words | - | PDF: 389 kb


Kenaf
2/18/2014 (minor revision)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products | CCD-CP-34
web only | 2 pages | 909 words | - | PDF: 426 kb


Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
10/16/2013 (major revision)

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible. | ID-84
web only | 4 pages | 1,862 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 3,130 kb


Selected Resources for Developing Value-added Products in Kentucky
7/27/2013 (minor revision)

The following list is intended to provide Kentucky growers with resources that will help them on their way to adding value to their raw farm products. Included are the names and contact information of pertinent agencies and departments at the University, State, and Federal levels. Links to government regulations and laws related to processing value-added food products are included, as well as links to other selected Internet resources, fact sheets, and guidebooks. | CCD-MP-16
web only | 7 pages | 2,114 words | - | PDF: 745 kb


Willows for Cuttings
7/18/2013 (minor revision)

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods. | CCD-CP-75
web only | 3 pages | 1,137 words | 1 download | PDF: 430 kb


Ornamental Grasses
7/17/2013 (minor revision)

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers, and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery. | CCD-CP-73
web only | 3 pages | 1,193 words | - | PDF: 477 kb


White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market. | CCD-CP-48
web only | 2 pages | 809 words | 1 download | PDF: 344 kb


Dry Beans
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are beans grown to maturity and harvested for the seeds within the pods. Also referred to as field beans, dry beans are primarily grown in the U.S. for human consumption. | CCD-CP-29
web only | 3 pages | 1,084 words | - | PDF: 438 kb


Starting a Nursery Business
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success. | CCD-SP-9
web only | 5 pages | 2,329 words | 1 download | PDF: 614 kb


Okra
6/21/2013 (minor revision)

Okra is a very minor part of Kentucky's commercial vegetable production. Most commercial okra in Kentucky is grown for farmers markets or community supported agriculture (CSA) sales. Kentucky growers have shipped limited amounts of okra for commercial wholesale in the past. While wholesale okra prices can be very good, the quantity demanded at these prices is low and growers should have a wholesale market defined before planting large acreages. | CCD-CP-106
web only | 2 pages | 768 words | - | PDF: 513 kb


Cereal Straw Production
6/21/2013 (minor revision)

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production. | CCD-CP-25
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | - | PDF: 532 kb


Corn for Grain and Silage
6/15/2013 (minor revision)

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products | CCD-CP-28
web only | 3 pages | 1,003 words | - | PDF: 360 kb


What's Wrong with My Taxus?
6/5/2013 (major revision)

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors. | ID-52
web only | 4 pages | 2,010 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb


Popcorn and Blue Corn
6/4/2013 (minor revision)

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels. | CCD-CP-38
web only | 2 pages | 894 words | 1 download | PDF: 532 kb


Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants
6/1/2013 (new)

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below. | PPFS-OR-W-17
web only | 4 pages | 1,587 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 681 kb


Red and White Clover
5/28/2013 (minor revision)

Red and white (ladino) clovers are high quality forage legumes with excellent feed value and animal palatability. Red clover (Trifolium pretense), a tall-growing and short-lived perennial, is used for hay, pasture, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitats. While white clover (Trifolium repens), a low-growing perennial, is best suited for grazing, it can also be used for soil improvement and reclaiming disturbed land. | CCD-CP-39
web only | 2 pages | 731 words | - | PDF: 512 kb


Switchgrass for Bioenergy
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial bunchgrass native to portions of Kentucky. Once a major component of the Midwestern prairies, switchgrass stands have dwindled as natural grasslands have given way to expanding farms and developments. | CCD-CP-46
web only | 4 pages | 1,779 words | 1 download | PDF: 557 kb


Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel
4/18/2013 (new)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results. | CCD-CP-44
web only | 3 pages | 1,465 words | 1 download | PDF: 434 kb


Broomcorn
4/18/2013 (minor revision)

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors. | CCD-CP-23
web only | 2 pages | 992 words | - | PDF: 623 kb


Selected Resources and References for Commercial Greenhouse Operators
4/18/2013 (minor revision)

Books can be obtained from the publisher (known links are provided), by ordering through a local bookstore, or by ordering through an industry trade magazine (books are generally advertised in each issue). Book sources can also be located by searching the Internet using the title as the keyword. | CCD-SP-4
web only | 3 pages | 862 words | - | PDF: 553 kb


Bamboo
4/5/2013 (minor revision)

Edible young bamboo shoots are used in cooking, while mature canes (or culms) are harvested for timber uses that include fences, stakes, fishing poles, crafts, flooring, and furniture. Because they are capable of removing high levels of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, bamboos are being promoted for their environmental benefits. | CCD-CP-77
web only | 4 pages | 1,968 words | - | PDF: 442 kb


Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses. | CCD-CP-45
web only | 3 pages | 1,161 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb


Alfalfa
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the highest yield potential and highest feeding values of all adapted perennial forage legumes. It is a versatile crop that may be used for pasture, hay, silage, green-chop, pellets, cubes, soil improvement, and soil conservation. | CCD-CP-21
web only | 3 pages | 998 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 426 kb


Specialty Soybeans
3/19/2013 (minor revision)

The first commercial use of soybean (Glycine max) was for its oil; however, this crop is now considered a valuable source of protein as well. Specialty or novel soybeans are used to produce various soyfoods of Asian origin, such as tofu, miso, soy sauce, natto, soymilk, and tempeh. Assorted health food snacks, energy foods, and cereals are also produced from specialty soybeans. Other uses include bean sprouts and soy nuts. | CCD-CP-41
web only | 4 pages | 1,605 words | 1 download | PDF: 922 kb


Specialty Field Corns
3/18/2013 (minor revision)

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use. | CCD-CP-40
web only | 3 pages | 995 words | - | PDF: 512 kb


Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants
3/1/2013 (new)

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease. | PPFS-OR-W-18
web only | 3 pages | 806 words | 1 download | PDF: 534 kb


Jujube and Aronia
2/11/2013 (new)

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small-scale. | CCD-CP-10
web only | 4 pages | 1,796 words | 1 download | PDF: 610 kb


Microgreens
10/24/2012 (new)

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish. | CCD-CP-104
web only | 3 pages | 1,223 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 563 kb


Wheat
10/24/2012 (new)

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals. | CCD-CP-47
web only | 3 pages | 1,225 words | - | PDF: 434 kb


Barley
10/24/2012 (new)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production. | CCD-CP-22
web only | 3 pages | 1,482 words | - | PDF: 410 kb


Sprouts
10/23/2012 (new)

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). | CCD-CP-65
web only | 4 pages | 1,887 words | - | PDF: 439 kb


Black Rot of Grape
10/1/2012 (new)

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses. | PPFS-FR-S-16
web only | 4 pages | 1,272 words | - | PDF: 555 kb


Edible Flowers
9/5/2012 (minor revision)

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption. | CCD-CP-69
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 1 download | PDF: 396 kb


Southernpean (Cowpea)
8/28/2012 (minor revision)

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed. | CCD-CP-119
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 432 kb


Fire Blight
8/1/2012 (minor revision)

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year. | PPFS-FR-T-12
web only | 4 pages | 1,556 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 650 kb


Pawpaw
7/16/2012 (minor revision)

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. | CCD-CP-14
web only | 3 pages | 1,094 words | 1 download | PDF: 444 kb


Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Legal Considerations
6/28/2012 (minor revision)

Wildcrafters who want to harvest materials outside their own property lines need to know there are laws which protect other privately owned property and public areas from unauthorized harvesting and trespassing. Poaching, the illegal taking of wild plants or animals, is a serious problem in Kentucky. Not only are there legal ramifications, but poaching is also responsible for the decline in selected native Kentucky plant species, such lady slipper orchids. Some plant species are protected by state and/or federal laws. Even plant material collected and sold from personally owned property is not without its legal restrictions. | CCD-SP-14
web only | 6 pages | 2,733 words | - | PDF: 713 kb


High Tunnel Overview
6/12/2012 (new)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer. | CCD-SP-2
web only | 7 pages | 3,489 words | 1 download | PDF: 963 kb


Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Environmental Issues
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

Whether collecting for personal use or for commercial sales, wildcrafting has the potential of adversely impacting our native plant populations. While the effects of collecting NTFPs are not always as obvious as, for example, harvesting timber in logging operations, some wildcrafting activities can cause subtle but lasting damage to the forest ecology. | CCD-SP-13
web only | 3 pages | 1,403 words | - | PDF: 815 kb


Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income. | CCD-SP-12
web only | 6 pages | 2,512 words | - | PDF: 877 kb


Rose Rosette Disease
5/1/2012 (new)

Rose rosette is a devastating disease that is a threat to virtually all cultivated roses (Rosa spp.) in Kentucky, regardless of cultivar. Even rose cultivars known for their exceptional disease resistance and hardiness are susceptible to rose rosette disease. Losses can occur in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and botanical garden plantings. | PPFS-OR-W-16
web only | 3 pages | 962 words | 1 download | PDF: 383 kb


Black Root Rot of Ornamentals
5/1/2012 (minor revision)

Black root rot can affect a wide range of ornamentals in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and greenhouses. In Kentucky, this disease is commonly observed on Japanese and blue hollies, inkberry, pansy, petunia, and vinca. In addition to ornamentals, numerous vegetable and agronomic crops are susceptible. | PPFS-OR-W-3
web only | 3 pages | 873 words | 1 download | PDF: 585 kb


Corn Shocks
4/24/2012 (minor revision)

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower. | CCD-CP-68
web only | 2 pages | 767 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb


Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky
3/22/2012 (major revision)

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides. | ID-88
web only | 16 pages | 7,345 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 3,700 kb


Gooseberries and Currants
2/27/2012 (minor revision)

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces. | CCD-CP-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,282 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,000 kb


Elderberry
2/20/2012 (minor revision)

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit. | CCD-CP-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,096 words | 1 download | PDF: 490 kb


Spelt
2/6/2012 (minor revision)

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta) is a subspecies of wheat that is primarily used as an alternative feed grain for livestock. It is generally grown for on-farm use, often as a substitute for oats. Most of the nation's feed-grade spelt is grown in Ohio. Spelt can also be used in many of the same processed foods as soft red winter wheat (for example, pasta, high fiber cereals, and crackers). Some people with allergies to wheat are not allergic to spelt, making spelt an excellent substitute for wheat in their diets. Spelt products are available through organic and health food stores. | CCD-CP-42
web only | 2 pages | 762 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 348 kb


Woody Biomass for Energy
1/27/2012 (new)

Biomass, when used in reference to renewable energy, is any biological (plant or animal) matter that can be converted to electricity or fuel. Woody biomass refers to biomass material specifically from trees and shrubs. It is most often transformed to usable energy by direct combustion, either alone or co-fired with coal; however, efforts are underway to develop methods to cost effectively convert woody material to liquid fuels. | CCD-CP-49
web only | 5 pages | 2,271 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb


Peanuts
1/25/2012 (new)

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull. | CCD-CP-112
web only | 4 pages | 1,726 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 620 kb


Canola
1/23/2012 (minor revision)

Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically altered and improved version of rapeseed that was developed for its superior edible oil and high value meal. The term "canola" can only be applied to those varieties that produce less than 2 percent erucic acid. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil, making it a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. The portion of the seed left after the oil is extracted (canola meal) is of value as feed for livestock and poultry. Canola may also be used as an annual forage. In addition, canola is being considered as a source of biodiesel fuel. | CCD-CP-24
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 504 kb


Foliar Fungicide Use in Corn and Soybeans
10/1/2011 (new)

Interest in the use of foliar fungicides for corn and soybean has expanded dramatically in the U.S. over the past few years, resulting in a major change in how these crops are being produced on many farms. Until recently, foliar fungicides for soybeans and corn were reserved for seed production fields to protect seed quality in very specific circumstances or for specialty crops. Applications for the purpose of protecting crop yield were rarely economical. However, the current trend in Kentucky, as well as many other corn/soybean producing states, is towards an increased use of foliar fungicides on these crops as a means of maximizing yields. | PPFS-GEN-12
web only | 9 pages | 3,829 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,093 kb


American Persimmon
9/27/2011 (minor revision)

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow growing, moderately-sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which is high in tannins, has a bitter astringent flavor. The golden orange to red fruit are very sweet when fully ripened and astringency is reduced. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall. | CCD-CP-1
web only | 3 pages | 1,090 words | - | PDF: 404 kb


Agritourism
9/26/2011 (minor revision)

Agritourism is any commercial enterprise that combines agriculture and tourism on a working farm, ranch, or other agribusiness operation. The Commonwealth of Kentucky defines agritourism as "The act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural, or agribusiness operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation." | CCD-SP-11
web only | 4 pages | 1,409 words | 1 download | PDF: 553 kb


Snap Beans
7/19/2011 (minor revision)

Farm fresh snap bean sales at farmers markets account for much of Kentucky's commercial acreage. Significant sales are also made to produce wholesalers and at produce auctions. Other fresh market options include U-pick, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, and roadside stands. Sales to locally owned retail markets are also an option. | CCD-CP-118
web only | 3 pages | 1,186 words | - | PDF: 438 kb


Grain Amaranth
7/19/2011 (new)

Amaranth is a versatile warm-season, broadleaf plant that can be grown as a grain, ornamental, leafy vegetable, or forage crop. In the U.S. it is grown almost exclusively for its grain, which is produced on large, brightly colored seed heads. Most grain amaranth grown in the States is Amaranthus hypochondriacus; however, A. cruentus is grown to a lesser extent. The seeds are high in lysine, fiber, and protein; low in saturated fats; and gluten-free. Amaranth can be ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal. Because many of amaranth's uses are similar to that of cereal grasses, amaranth is often referred to as a pseudo-cereal. | CCD-CP-30
web only | 3 pages | 1,239 words | 1 download | PDF: 442 kb


Turfgrass Sod Production
7/18/2011 (minor revision)

The demand for sod is highly dependent on new housing starts and industrial development. Because turfgrass is highly perishable once harvested, it cannot be shipped long distances, thus favoring local production. Most Kentucky-grown sod is marketed locally and little is either exported to or imported from neighboring states. While temporary sod shortages may occur, there is generally no consistent shortage of cultivated sod in Kentucky, indicating that current production is meeting demand. The market is extremely tight and new growers will have to produce a better quality turfgrass at a lower price in order to compete. | CCD-CP-74
web only | 3 pages | 928 words | 1 download | PDF: 475 kb


Season Extension Tools and Techniques
6/22/2011 (minor revision)

Season extension techniques can be as simple as selecting early maturing varieties; or they can be a more complex combination of multiple methods. Regardless, the objective is to extend the growing season by producing earlier crops in the spring and/or push production later into the fall and early winter. | CCD-SP-3
web only | 5 pages | 2,102 words | - | PDF: 807 kb


Greenhouse Structures
5/25/2011 (minor revision)

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job. | CCD-SP-1
web only | 5 pages | 1,764 words | 1 download | PDF: 807 kb


Greenhouse Tomatoes
5/4/2011 (minor revision)

Greenhouse tomato production has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production in order to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise. | CCD-CP-57
web only | 3 pages | 1,284 words | - | PDF: 575 kb


Potatoes
2/28/2011 (minor revision)

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems (also known as stolons), not roots. Potatoes are grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption and for sales to potato chip companies for chipping. | CCD-CP-113
web only | 3 pages | 1,434 words | - | PDF: 586 kb


Organic Corn for Feed or Food
2/14/2011 (new)

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production | CCD-CP-37
web only | 6 pages | 2,534 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 467 kb


Rhubarb
12/20/2010 (minor revision)

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid. | CCD-CP-115
web only | 2 pages | 820 words | 1 download | PDF: 747 kb


Poinsettia Diseases
5/1/2010 (minor revision)

Poinsettias grown through the fall months for Christmas sales are vulnerable to destructive diseases from the time the cuttings are stuck into the rooting media until they are mature and ready for sale. A number of poinsettia diseases are favored by the same environmental conditions that promote propagation, making plant material at this stage particularly vulnerable. Diseases occurring in the later stages of production can be related to management issues or cultural problems, as well as the cooler temperatures needed for finishing. Some other diseases can be problematic to poinsettias at any phase of production. And finally, a phytoplasma organism found associated with poinsettias provides evidence that some host/pathogen relationships can actually be economically beneficial. | PPFS-GH-6
web only | 6 pages | 1,122 words | - | PDF: 1,335 kb


Fruit Rots of Grape
10/1/2008 (new)

Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot. | PPFS-FR-S-14
web only | 7 pages | 2,467 words | 1 download | PDF: 358 kb


Downy Mildew of Grape
9/1/2008 (new)

Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury. | PPFS-FR-S-13
web only | 3 pages | 987 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 282 kb


Strawberry Fruit Rots
6/1/2008 (new)

Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky's typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose. | PPFS-FR-S-8
web only | 5 pages | 2,025 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 274 kb


Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree's Health
1/1/1996 (reprinted)

| ID-55
2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 200 kb