In descending order, by date published.
Hoof damage from livestock during the winter months can result in almost complete disturbance of desired vegetation and soil structure in and around hay feeding areas. Even well-designed hay feeding pads will have significant damage at the edges where animals enter and leave. Highly disturbed areas create perfect growing conditions for summer annual weeds like spiny pigweed and cocklebur. Weed growth is stimulated by lack of competition from a healthy and vigorous sod and the high fertility from the concentrated area of dung, urine, and rotting hay. The objective of this publication is to outline strategies for rapidly establishing stands of desirable forage species on these areas.