University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

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Tony Pescatore

Feeds and Feeding for Small-Scale Egg Production Enterprises
1/25/2018 (new)

Animals eat in order to get the energy and nutrients they need to live, grow and reproduce. Animals use energy to perform normal body functions such as breathing, walking, eating, digesting, and maintaining body temperature. Different types of nutrients provide energy as well as the building blocks needed for the development of bone, flesh, feathers, and eggs. These nutrients include: water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Each of these components is important and a deficit of even one can have serious health consequences for poultry. | ASC-233
web only | 12 pages | 5,611 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 2,536 kb

Raising Replacement Pullets for Small-Scale Egg Production
1/25/2018 (new)

Poultry producers who raise their own replacement pullets have better control over the growth, condition, and development of the flock. The quality of the pullet flock will have a direct effect on the subsequent level of egg production. The two most important quality factors for a replacement flock are proper body weight and uniformity. Pullet weight at 6 weeks of age has been shown to influence subsequent egg production. Once the pullets start to lay, it is too late to solve problems from poor nutrition or management during the pullet rearing period. | ASC-232
web only | 9 pages | 4,407 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb

Factors to Consider Before Starting a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise in Kentucky
1/25/2018 (new)

There are several things to consider before starting an egg production operation. The most important is market availability. Before you start production you need to have a market that your production can supply, in terms of both quantity of product and the price you need to get in order to be profitable. You will need to make sure that local regulations allow for poultry production on the land available to you. Cash flow is also an important consideration. A flock will require a considerable investment before the hens start to lay eggs to produce an income. You also need to have a way to deal with the manure produced, and any dead birds. You also need to have a plan for the hens after they have finished laying (referred to as spent hens). | ASC-230
web only | 4 pages | 2,113 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 126 kb

Use of Biosecurity and Natural Remedies for the Prvention of Poultry Disease in "Natural" and "Organic" Flocks
1/22/2018 (new)

It is easier to prevent disease than it is to treat an outbreak. A biosecurity plan is essential to an effective health management plan. "Bio" refers to life and "Security" is protection. A biosecurity program for a poultry farm is a series of common-sense activities designed to keep disease (bacterial, viral, parasitic) out of the poultry flock. | ASC-234
web only | 6 pages | 3,526 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 157 kb

Breed Selection for a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise
1/12/2018 (new)

Once you have decided you are going to go into egg production, you need to determine what breed of chicken will best suit your needs. A variety of different commercial breeds are available for use in small-scale commercial egg production operations. Most lay a brown-shelled egg, which is typically preferred by the people purchasing eggs produced in alterative production systems. Most of these commercial chickens are hybrids selected specifically for these systems. | ASC-231
web only | 5 pages | 1,023 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,280 kb

Marketing Regulations Affecting Small-scale Egg Producers in Kentucky
1/12/2018 (new)

It is important that you comply with all the laws and regulations with regards to the marketing of eggs. Eggs are capable of carrying bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis. As a result, eggs are considered a hazardous food and their sale is regulated. With regard to small-scale producers, if you sell more than 60 dozen eggs in any one week, you will require an egg handler's license. You will also need an egg handler's license if you sell to someone who sells eggs to someone else. This would include grocery stores, restaurants, or wholesalers. The same will hold true if you sell to a bakery, confectionary or ice-cream manufacturer. | ASC-229
web only | 4 pages | 1,756 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 267 kb

Pastured Poultry
9/21/2017 (new)

There has been an increased interest in pasture-raising poultry for both meat and egg production in the last decade. Raising poultry on pasture was a common occurrence until the latter half of the 20th century. Fresh forage provided an important ration balancing factor during the years before poultry nutritionists fully understood the required essential vitamins and minerals for growth and optimum meat and egg production. With the development of balanced rations, poultry no longer require access to pasture and year-round production of meat and eggs is possible. However, there are still some benefits from the lush forage, invertebrates, and exercise that pasture provides. In addition, we continue to learn more and more about the positive influence that fresh grasses and legumes have on fatty acid profiles and general bird health. As a result, there is an increased interest in pasture-raised poultry for both meat and eggs. | ID-247
web only | 7 pages | 4,900 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Common External Parasites of Poultry
9/8/2017 (minor revision)

Periodic examination of your flock is recommended so that infestations can be detected early and a larger flock outbreak contained. It is especially important to detect infestations early in food-producing poultry because there are restrictions on the treatments available. | ASC-206
web only | 4 pages | 1,817 words | 59 downloads | PDF: 839 kb

Predator Management for Small-Scale Poultry Enterprises in Kentucky
5/4/2017 (new)

As urban expansion spreads, there is a loss of natural habitat for wildlife. Wildlife has come into closer contact with livestock operations, and some of these animals are predators of poultry. | ID-245
web only | 8 pages | 3,090 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 2,401 kb

Proper Handling and Transportation of Eggs for Sale at Kentucky Farmer's Markets
12/4/2014 (new)

Regardless of the number of eggs produced, and whether the eggs are for home use or sale, careful egg handling is very important. This publication will give you the information and guidelines in the proper handling and transportation of eggs for sale. | ASC-218
web only | 2 pages | 799 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 1,275 kb

So You Want to Produce Your Own Eggs?
12/4/2014 (new)

Backyard chicken flocks are becoming popular throughout the country in urban, suburban and rural communities. Preparation is essential for a successful backyard flock. This publication will give you the information you need decide if producing your own eggs is right for you. | ASC-217
web only | 6 pages | 2,161 words | 122 downloads | PDF: 3,047 kb

Reading a Feed Tag
12/4/2014 (new)

Feed stores carry a variety of feed types. How do you chose which to buy? You need to read the feed tag. A lot of information is on a feed tag that can help you make your selection and this publication breaks it down for you. | ASC-216
web only | 4 pages | 2,671 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

Avian Digestive System
11/20/2013 (new)

An understanding of the avian digestive system is essential to developing an effective and economical feeding program for your poultry flock. Knowledge of avian anatomy, and what the parts normally look like, will also help you to recognize when something is wrong and take the necessary actions to correct the problem. | ASC-203
web only | 4 pages | 1,879 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 2,065 kb

Avian Skeletal System
11/20/2013 (new)

All animals have a skeleton to allow them to stand up and to protect their internal organs and tissues. The avian skeletal system looks similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, but there are some important differences. | ASC-202
web only | 2 pages | 836 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 310 kb

Avian Female Reproductive System
11/20/2013 (new)

Anyone raising poultry for eggs, whether for eating or for incubation, should have an understanding of the reproductive system. This will help them understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them. | ASC-201
web only | 4 pages | 2,250 words | 60 downloads | PDF: 914 kb

Avian Muscular System
11/19/2013 (new)

If you raise poultry for meat, it is always a good idea to have an understanding of the muscular system of poultry so you can better understand any problems that may occur and how to correct them. | ASC-204
web only | 2 pages | 766 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 1,887 kb

Avian Respiratory System
11/1/2013 (new)

Knowledge of avian anatomy and what the parts normally look like will help you to recognize when something is wrong and to take the necessary actions to correct the problem. | ASC-200
web only | 2 pages | 1,304 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

Avian Male Reproductive System
11/1/2013 (new)

The avian male reproductive system is all inside the bird, unlike the males of mammalian species which have their reproductive systems outside of the body. This is one of the really remarkable things about birds; the sperm remain viable at body temperature. | ASC-199
web only | 2 pages | 678 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 843 kb

Processing Chickens
10/31/2013 (new)

When processing poultry, remember that you are producing a perishable food product that will eventually be consumed by people. The goal is to produce a safe, nutritious product. | ASC-210
web only | 7 pages | 3,190 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 3,105 kb

Raising Guinea Fowl
10/31/2013 (new)

Guinea fowl are rough, vigorous, hardy, and mostly disease-free game birds. They are increasing in popularity for a variety of reasons. | ASC-209
web only | 5 pages | 3,750 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 730 kb

Selecting Ducks
10/31/2013 (new)

As with many domesticated species, ducks are selected for different purposes, primarily meat or egg production. They are also valued for their feathers and down. It is important to choose a breed of duck that best suits your particular needs. | ASC-198
web only | 4 pages | 2,311 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 758 kb

Selecting Turkeys
10/31/2013 (new)

Raising wild turkeys is illegal in some states, including Kentucky. The prohibition includes domestic strains of wild birds. The law is meant to protect native populations of wild turkeys. Learn more about selecting the right breed of turkey in this publication. | ASC-197
web only | 3 pages | 1,675 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 664 kb

Selecting Geese
10/31/2013 (new)

Size, behavior and egg production vary according to breed, and the right breed of goose for your flock will depend on what you intend to use them for. This publication will help you decide on the right breed for you. | ASC-196
web only | 3 pages | 1,822 words | 26 downloads | PDF: 663 kb

Poultry Judging: Grading Eggs
7/17/2013 (new)

In a 4-H poultry judging contest, there are three categories involving the grading of table eggs (eggs for consumption rather than for incubation): external quality, interior quality by candling, and interior quality of broken-out eggs. | 4AJ-05PO
web only | 10 pages | 2,345 words | 76 downloads | PDF: 5,310 kb

Poultry Production Troubleshooting
5/1/2013 (new)

When investigating a problem with a poultry flock, the questions in this publication can help you determine the cause and possible solution. | ASC-194
web only | 4 pages | 1,649 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 272 kb

Development of the Chick
1/14/2013 (new)

Poultry eggs are part of a unique reproductive system. The egg serves to protect and provide nutrients to the developing embryo. Since the embryo receives no additional nutrients from the hen, the egg must contain all the nutrients essential for life. Nutrients are found in the yolk, the albumen, and the shell of the egg. The egg is a convenient, self-contained package for studying embryology. | ASC-195
web only | 3 pages | 1,151 words | 92 downloads | PDF: 700 kb

Poultry Producer Liability
12/10/2012 (new)

As more and more producers begin to have small- or medium-sized poultry operations the issue of liability and responsibility has become a concern. It is important producers are aware of what is expected of them by consumers and society as a whole. | ASC-193
web only | 2 pages | 1,554 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 270 kb

How Much Will My Chickens Eat?
12/10/2012 (new)

Before purchasing chicks (or chickens) it is important to consider the cost of keeping them. Much of this cost is in the feed they consume. So the key question is, "How much will my chickens eat?" Chickens need a complete feed that contains protein (with the right balance of amino acids), energy, vitamins, and minerals. Today we know more about the nutritional requirements of chickens than any other animal. The amount of feed they need will depend on several factors. | ASC-191
web only | 3 pages | 2,070 words | 94 downloads | PDF: 320 kb

Selecting the Right Chicken Breed
12/10/2012 (new)

Many factors should be considered before selecting a chicken breed for your flock, whether you are planning to start a new flock or to add to an existing one. You might be looking for a meat breed, an egg breed, or perhaps a breed that performs reasonably well at both (referred to as a dual-purpose breed). Perhaps you just want a pet or chickens to show at exhibitions. | ASC-190
web only | 3 pages | 2,290 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Making a Hoop Pen for Pasture Poultry
12/10/2012 (new)

Interest in pasture poultry production has been on the rise. This kind of poultry production typically involves housing the birds in a bottomless pen that is placed on pasture and moved at regular intervals. The flock has access to the pasture (plants and any associated insects) while providing them some protection from predators. | ASC-189
web only | 8 pages | 2,254 words | 155 downloads | PDF: 4,600 kb

Why Have My Hens Stopped Laying?
11/27/2012 (new)

Egg production in a chicken flock follows a typical curve. While the curve is similar for most breeds of chickens, the specific numbers can vary significantly, especially with regards to age at first egg, peak production rate, and egg weight. | ASC-192
web only | 5 pages | 3,399 words | 81 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Chicken and Turkey Barbecue Project
7/12/2012 (major revision)

Cooking barbecue is a national pastime--as American as apple pie. What is more welcome than the aroma of food cooking on an outdoor grill? Barbecue cooking is for almost everyone, so get ready to develop skills you will use the rest of your life. | 4AJ-02PO
web only | 11 pages | 3,099 words | 107 downloads | PDF: 3,537 kb

Poultry Barbecue Contests
7/12/2012 (new)

Participants are evaluated on both their cooking skills and the product submitted for sensory evaluation. | 4AJ-03PO
web only | 8 pages | 1,583 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 546 kb

Poultry Judging Contests
7/12/2012 (new)

Judging contests are a tool used in the development of the life skills of 4-H members. Participation in judging and other competitive events helps 4-H'ers learn to make and defend decisions and to speak in public. Poultry judging also provides an excellent opportunity for 4-H'ers to learn about live chickens and the basis of grade and quality of poultry products. | 4AJ-04PO
web only | 6 pages | 2,006 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 785 kb

Poultry Judging: Grading Ready-to-Cook Poultry
7/12/2012 (new)

In the Kentucky state event, the participants are required to grade eight broiler, eight roaster-fowl, and eight turkey carcasses. In the national event, the participants grade 10 carcasses from each of the three weight groups, plus a second group of 10 broiler carcasses. | 4AJ-06PO
web only | 7 pages | 2,162 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 3,107 kb

Poultry Judging: Evaluating Hens
7/12/2012 (new)

In a 4-H poultry judging contest, participants are required to rank a group of four hens from most to least productive. The criteria used in judging the hens are based on pigmentation, handling qualities, abdominal capacity and molt. | 4AJ-07PO
web only | 4 pages | 1,523 words | 67 downloads | PDF: 1,862 kb

Poultry Judging: Giving Oral Reasons
7/12/2012 (new)

Oral reasons are an important part of a poultry judging contest. Participants have the opportunity to defend their placings of an egg production class. In addition, oral reasons are an important tool in the development of organization and communication skills, which in turn will build self-confidence. | 4AJ-08PO
web only | 17 pages | 1,834 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 1,106 kb

Egg Preparation Demonstration
7/12/2012 (new)

Participants in the Kentucky Egg-Preparation Demonstration are required to prepare a dish containing eggs while demonstrating proper food safety and cooking skills. | 4AJ-09PO
web only | 7 pages | 1,423 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 1,631 kb

Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
9/8/1999 (new)

| IP-57
3,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 641 kb

Assessment of the Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
9/1/1999 (new)

| IP-56
1,000 printed copies | 18 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 794 kb

Poultry Litter Management
1/1/1995 (new)

| ID-117
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 9 downloads | HTML: 11 kb