In descending order, by date published.
Land judging is a way of appraising the physical nature and capability of soils. Certain soil properties, such as slope, depth, and color, that can be seen, felt, or measured, are reliable indicators of soil characteristics that impact crop growth and productivity. Land judging does not replace soil testing. Laboratory tests that determine the chemical and physical nature of soil help us predict plant response to lime and fertilizer, estimate the amount of a waste product that can be safely applied to the soil, and determine the limitations for uses such as homesites and roads.
Departments: 4-H Programs, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: 4-H Plant Science and Crops: Plant and Soil Science (4BA series)
Size: 7.25 mb
Pastures for sheep and goats are fertilized to ensure a reliable supply of energy, protein, and other nutrients for a long season of grazing. Management of plant nutrients maintains a balance of improved grasses and legumes and improves forage species competitiveness with many pasture weeds. The most important part of obtaining fertilizer recommendations is collecting a representative soil sample to send to the lab.
A quick resource on grain crop production.
A quick resource on grain crop production. NOTE: This poster is 25 x 38 inches. ID-268 is the booklet-sized version.
Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco.
Adequate soil fertility in pastures and hayfields is key to maintaining productivity and optimizing profitability. Soil testing is the basis of well-designed fertilization and liming programs. In order to develop effective programs, soil samples must be collected in a manner that results in an accurate representation of each pasture or hayfield area. The objective of this publication is to provide guidelines that, when followed, result in representative soil samples.
Recommended nutrient additions, based on a soil test, are only made when a crop yield or economic response has been measured for that crop under Kentucky soil-climatic conditions. Many field studies have been conducted by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station under Kentucky farm conditions to determine the extent of any primary, secondary, or micronutrient needs. Yield and soil test data from these studies serve as guidelines for establishing recommendations contained in this publication. Recommendations in this publication strive to supply the plant nutrients needed to achieve maximum economic return assuming good management practices.
Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Bradley, J.D. Green, John Grove, Greg Halich, Erin Haramoto, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Josh McGrath, Sam McNeill, Javier Reyes, Edwin Ritchey, Montse Salmeron, Jordan Shockley, Claire Venard, Raul Villanueva, Ole Wendroth, Kiersten Wise, Xi Zhang
This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky.
Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.
Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall.
Soil texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil. Texture influences almost every aspect of soil use, both in agricultural and engineering applications, and even how natural ecosystems function. Many scientists consider soil texture the most important soil property as it can influence soil/water relationships, gas exchange, and plant nutrition. Accurately determining soil texture in a lab requires time and money; therefore, it is often necessary to estimate soil texture in the field by feel, which can be very accurate if done correctly.
The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms.
Historically, between-row cultivation for weed control has been an integral part of tobacco production. In one season, a grower might perform five or more cultivations and several hand weeding operations for adequate weed control. Early herbicide chemistries would control some weeds, but not all, forcing the producer to cultivate and hand weed. The development of better herbicides improved the range of weeds controlled, sometimes to the point that cultivation for weed control was not warranted. Many producers are so accustomed to cultivating they have forgotten why cultivation was necessary. The decision to cultivate should largely be based on the presence of weeds, but there are exceptions.
Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Size: 155 kb
The most successful land use decisions are those where the intended use matches the capabilities of the land. Determining the capability of the land begins with a visual assessment of the landscape such as topography (percent slope) and surface drainage patterns followed by a closer examination of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The purpose of this publication is to provide a basic understanding of the relationship between these landscape and soil properties to facilitate wise land use decisions.
Most homeowners desire an aesthetically pleasing landscape and will take steps to ensure success. Proper fertilizing, watering, and pest control are all steps that will lead to a quality lawn. However, some confusion surrounds when and why lime should be applied to a lawn. Many homeowners believe that lime needs to be applied on an annual basis for a quality lawn. The purpose of this publication is to explain why lime is needed and whether it is required on your lawn.
Soybean grows best on fertile soils. For decades, the University of Kentucky has conducted field studies to establish the relationship between soil nutrient supplies and soybean yield. Adequate soil fertility must be present so that yields are not limited.
Soybean variety selection is one of the most important and most difficult management decisions a producer must make each year. It takes careful identification of the problems and needs of the production system. When done properly it increases the chance the variety will reach its full yield potential while eliminating costs for unnecessary traits, resulting in highly profitable returns.
Alfalfa is a high quality, valuable forage crop that can be successfully produced on most well-drained soils in Kentucky for hay, silage, and grazing. Fertilizing alfalfa can be uniquely challenging because it is a high-yielding crop that removes a tremendous amount of soil nutrients when compared to other crops grown in Kentucky. A thorough understanding of alfalfa's growth habits, nutrient requirements, and soil nutrient supply mechanisms is necessary to effectively manage fertilizer inputs and maximize profitability while minimizing environmental impact.
Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.
Historically, tobacco producers have relied heavily on surface tillage to prepare fields for transplanting. This study was established to determine how soil penetrometer resistance and burley tobacco yields were influenced by surface and subsurface tillage (subsoiling) on soils with no known compaction present.
Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Size: 350 kb
Soil is a mixture of weathered rock fragments and organic matter at the earth's surface. It is biologically active--a home to countless microorganisms, invertebrates, and plant roots. Soil provides nutrients, water, and physical support for plants as well as air for plant roots. Soil organisms are nature's primary recyclers, turning dead cells and tissue into nutrients, energy, carbon dioxide, and water to fuel new life.
Authors: Edwin Ritchey
Landscapes with little or no topsoil can make it difficult to produce a garden, lawn, or other plants. Topsoil, dark in color compared to the underlying soil, is the part of a soil that is most biologically active, nutrient rich, and easily managed. It also is usually more easily worked than underlying soil, supplies most of the plant's water and nutrients, and is generally best for plant growth.
Authors: Richard Barnheisel, Morris Bitzer, Jimmie Calvert, Glenn Collins, Mike Collins, Mark Coyne, David Ditsch, Charles Dougherty, Larry Grabau, J.D. Green, Dan Grigson, John Grove, Dennis Hancock, Jimmy Henning, Jim Herbek, John James, John Johns, A.D. Karathanasis, Brenda Kennedy, Garry Lacefield, Eugene Lacefield, Len Lauriault, Bill Maksymowicz, Jim Martin, Bob Miller, Tom Mueller, Gregg Munshaw, Lloyd Murdock, Gary Palmer, Bob Pearce, Todd Pfeiffer, Chuck Poneleit, A.J. Powell, Monroe Rasnake, Edwin Ritchey, Scott Shearer, Frank Sikora, Robert Spitaleri, Norm Taylor, Charles Tutt, Dave Van Sanford, Paul Vincelli, Ken Wells, David Williams, Bill Witt
Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Size: 550 kb