In descending order, by date published.
Beef cattle have defined requirements for vitamins. In some instances, vitamin supplementation may be necessary to avoid deficiencies. Vitamins are classified into two categories: water-soluble and fat-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins include the B vitamins, such as riboflavin, thiamin, and niacin, as well as vitamin C. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. Supplementation for beef cattle generally focuses on vitamins A and E. This is because the rumen microbes synthesize the water-soluble vitamins and vitamin K in sufficient quantities to avoid deficiencies. Vitamin D requirements can often be met by exposure to the sun and would therefore only be of concern for cattle in confinement housing.
Among the variety of supplementation options currently available for beef cattle operations, a mineral can be one of the most challenging to select. Mineral tags contain important information regarding the contents of a mineral supplement and are regulated by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). Understanding the information on a mineral tag will aid in the comparison of multiple products and help to ensure the selected mineral product will meet the needs of specific animals.
Various factors such as delayed planting, early frost, drought or suppressed market prices may lead one to consider feeding soybeans to cattle. Soybeans can be fed to beef cattle as an energy and protein source. Depending upon the stage of development, soybeans will have varying degrees of feed value and a feed test for nutrient content is recommended.
3/23/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Les Anderson, Michelle Arnold, Darrh Bullock, Kenny Burdine, Roy Burris, Ben Crites, Jimmy Henning, Steve Higgins, Steve Isaacs, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Lee Moser, Gregg Rentfrow, Kylie Schmidt, Ray Smith, Chris Teutsch, Lee Townsend, Katherine VanValin, Paul Vijayakumar
Kentucky is ideally suited for cattle production. The main feed for cattle is a renewable resource Kentucky has in abundance--forages. The majority of the state's terrain favors cattle production over row crops. Kentucky farms cover 14 million acres, with approximately half of that occupied by forage grasses and legumes. Our natural resources and climate permit the growth of most cool-season and warm-season species. Water is readily available in all areas of the state, and we have a relatively long growing season.
Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Veterinary Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Size: 4.50 mb
Although soybeans are commonly grown as a grain crop, they can be grazed or harvested as either a hay or silage crop. This most commonly occurs when the grain potential of the soybean crop has been reduced by drought, hail damage, or early frost. A realistic forage yield expectation for drought stressed soybeans would be 1.5 to 2.0 tons of dry matter per acre. The objective of this article is to provide practical tips for successfully, grazing, conserving and feeding drought stressed soybeans.
Once wheat and other small grains adapt to cooler weather in the fall, they are relatively tolerant of cold temperatures and freeze injury. Frost injury in the spring normally occurs when February and March are unusually warm and small grains initiate growth earlier than normal or from an unusually late frost event. Freezing temperatures during sensitive growth stages can significantly impact grain yield. In some cases, the impact on yield can be moderate to severe.
Kentucky is in the upper transition zone which allows for the growth of warm- and cool-season forages. Corn, a warm season grass, grows well in the state and may be harvested for either grain or silage. Corn harvested as silage can be an economical alternative for beef cattle. Implementing sound management strategies and determining the nutrient content to balance rations will allow for successful feeding of corn silage to beef cattle.
Kentucky has several bourbon distilleries and one fuel ethanol plant. The spent grains from the production of ethanol is utilized as a protein source in livestock feed. Shutdowns for fuel ethanol plants may also occur as a result of unfavorable profit margins when crude oil prices are low. Most distilleries and fuel ethanol plants will have a scheduled maintenance shutdown each year. During a shutdown, availability of distillers grains and other coproducts from these plants may be limited or unavailable. So, the question is what else can I feed in place of distillers grains?