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Nicole Ward Gauthier



PPFS-GEN-1
Crown Gall
10/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: David Embry, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,044 kb



ID-194
Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7
8/22/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jessica Bessin, Rick Durham,
 Departments: Barren County, Bell County, Entomology,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

For those with a green thumb, growing plants may seem easy. However, when plant problems arise, determining the cause of these issues can be difficult. Developing the skills necessary to determine the cause of a plant problem takes experience and time. The steps involved in the diagnostic process first require analysis of information regarding the history of the symptomatic plant and the surrounding area. Plant symptoms and signs provide additional evidence to aid in determination of a possible cause.

web only | 28 pages | 9,487 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-FR-S-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases
8/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 398 kb



PPFS-FR-T-26
Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,385 kb



PPFS-FR-T-25
Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 986 kb



PPFS-FR-T-24
Bitter Rot of Apple
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

web only | 6 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,492 kb



PPFS-FR-T-2
Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest
8/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 306 kb



PPFS-FR-S-26
Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 230 kb



PPFS-FR-S-25
Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,037 kb



PPFS-FR-S-24
Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,213 kb



PPFS-FR-S-23
Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 351 kb



PPFS-FR-S-21
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 280 kb



PPFS-FR-S-18
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 407 kb



PPFS-FR-T-23
Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 458 kb



PPFS-FR-T-22
Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 890 kb



PPFS-FR-T-21
Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,013 kb



PPFS-FR-T-20
Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 672 kb



PPFS-FR-T-18
Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 626 kb



PPFS-FR-T-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 385 kb



PPFS-GEN-15
Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger,
 Departments: County Extension, Franklin County, Hardin
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

web only | 6 pages | - | - | PDF: 3,377 kb



ID-254
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky
6/11/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, <

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

2,500 printed copies | 36 pages | 9,801 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



PPFS-FR-T-14
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases
6/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 401 kb



PPFS-FR-S-20
Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags:

A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 427 kb



PPFS-FR-T-19
Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 337 kb



PPFS-GEN-8
Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 431 kb



PPFS-GEN-7
Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 491 kb



PPFS-OR-W-27
Canker Sampling of Trees and Woody Ornamentals
3/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Cankers on woody plants can result in dieback, decline, structural failure, or plant death. Cankers form when plant pathogens enter woody tissues. Plants stressed by poor planting practices, improper maintenance, extreme weather, insect damage, mechanical damage, or other wounds are at increased risk for infection by canker causing pathogens.

web only | 5 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



ID-232
Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20
2/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

1 printed copies | 168 pages | - | - | PDF: 3,500 kb



ID-232
Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20
2/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

1 printed copies | 168 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 3,500 kb



PR-755
2017 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
1/18/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Bo
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horti
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

web only | 38 pages | 17,092 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 9,300 kb



PPFS-FR-T-7
Plant Diseases of Fruit Prediction Models for Kentucky Counties
1/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Evan Tate,
 Departments: Hancock County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Numerous plant diseases impact fruit crops throughout Kentucky. Factors such as plant growth stage, as well as rainfall, temperature, and other weather conditions, can be used to determine risk for plant disease. Prediction models are critical tools for growers, as they allow for protective management strategies to be deployed when disease risk is high. Use of these models can provide growers with cost savings, as unnecessary chemical applications are eliminated when risk of infection is low.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,586 kb



PR-757
2018 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/13/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

900 printed copies | 44 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 6,838 kb



PR-741
2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
10/11/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Jenni
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, research

The 2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report includes research in the areas of production and economics, ecology, and pest control.

web only | 20 pages | 6,922 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 2,232 kb



ID-251
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky
9/13/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, C
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, <

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

2,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,827 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 2,500 kb



PPFS-GEN-16
Southern Blight
8/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Southern blight affects hundreds of different plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals, and fruit. This disease is also known as southern stem blight, basal stem rot, Sclerotium blight, crown rot, and white mold (not to be confused with Sclerotinia white mold). Depending on host plant, production system, and environmental conditions, the severity of this disease can vary from a minor problem on isolated plants to extensive damage causing significant crop losses.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: kb



PPFS-OR-W-20
Boxwood Blight
8/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Boxwood blight is a disease of boxwood (Buxus spp.), causing rapid defoliation and plant dieback. The fungal disease is particularly devastating to American boxwood cultivars, which can defoliate within a week and die within one growing season. Plants are eventually weakened by repeated defoliation and dieback, and resulting plant stress and consequent colonization by secondary invaders result in plant death.

web only | 5 pages | 1,000 words | - | PDF: 1,440 kb



PPFS-FR-S-3
Blackberry Rosette (Double Blossom)
12/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Michele Stanton, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Kenton County, Plant Pathology<
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags:

Rosette disease, caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi, is a serious and destructive disease of blackberries in most parts of Kentucky. In some locations, growers have been forced out of growing blackberries because of rosette disease.

web only | 3 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 637 kb



PPFS-FR-S-17
Cane Diseases of Brambles
11/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

web only | 5 pages | 800 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 299 kb



PPFS-OR-W-26
Volutella Blight of Boxwood
8/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases,

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

web only | 4 pages | 226 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,568 kb



PPFS-OR-W-6
Flowering Dogwood Diseases
8/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sarah Stolz, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings.

web only | 6 pages | 586 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 500 kb



PPFS-OR-W-25
Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine
7/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, trees

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 256 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,053 kb



PPFS-OR-H-1
Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals
5/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases,

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

web only | 19 pages | 669 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 3,137 kb



ID-241
After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant
12/22/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

web only | 5 pages | 4,224 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 247 kb



ID-238
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings.

1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb



PR-641
2011 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
8/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

web only | 32 pages | 14,698 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 7,642 kb



PPFS-OR-W-24
Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame.

web only | 5 pages | 1,627 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 2,118 kb



PPFS-FR-S-22
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

web only | 1 pages | 152 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 236 kb



PPFS-GEN-13
Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.

web only | 3 pages | 2,173 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 388 kb



PPFS-GH-3
Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 737 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



PPFS-OR-W-14
Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 734 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



PPA-46
Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6
3/2/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.

web only | 24 pages | 5,749 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 5,000 kb



PPFS-GH-1
Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Philip Konopka, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread.

web only | 6 pages | 2,233 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,494 kb



PPFS-FR-T-3
Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

web only | 3 pages | 785 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,003 kb



PPFS-GEN-14
Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths.

web only | 5 pages | 1,611 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,283 kb



PPFS-OR-W-23
Shade Tree Anthracnose
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Flynt, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens.

web only | 4 pages | 1,279 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 869 kb



PR-706
2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.

1,000 printed copies | 44 pages | 27,911 words | 59 downloads | PDF: 1,542 kb



PPFS-FR-T-4
Black Knot
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

web only | 2 pages | 617 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 784 kb



PPFS-FR-T-1
Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

web only | 3 pages | 667 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 887 kb



PPFS-OR-W-4
"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals
11/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee, Tracey Parriman,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium.

web only | 4 pages | 1,199 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,362 kb



PPFS-OR-W-1
Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi
9/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain, Traci Missun,
 Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Path
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.

web only | 7 pages | 1,947 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,953 kb



PPFS-FR-T-5
Apple Rust Diseases
8/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

web only | 5 pages | 1,395 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 813 kb



PPFS-FR-S-19
Blueberry Root Rot
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

web only | 3 pages | 993 words | 1 download | PDF: 702 kb



PPFS-OR-H-10
Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ray Tackett, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management.

web only | 7 pages | 461 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,803 kb



PPFS-OR-W-22
When White Pines Turn Brown: Common Problems of White Pines in Kentucky
4/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is a popular conifer in many Kentucky landscapes, although its use may be limited to loose, well-drained, pathogen-free soil. Often, needle browning is the primary symptom that alerts homeowners and nursery growers of health problems. In Kentucky, brown needles on white pine are often caused by one of the following three conditions: white pine decline, white pine root decline (Procerum root rot), or Phytophthora root rot.

web only | 4 pages | 1,497 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,170 kb



ID-227
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky
1/30/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.

1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,479 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 33,000 kb



PR-688
2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
1/7/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Julie Beale, L
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The 2014 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in three counties in Kentucky, including: Mason, Shelby, and Spencer.

web only | 42 pages | 29,201 words | 71 downloads | PDF: 950 kb



PPFS-OR-W-21
Diplodia Tip Blight of Pine
1/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, D.J. Scully,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Tip blight is a serious disease of landscape pines in Kentucky. Pines such as Austrian (Pinus nigra), Scots (P. sylvestris), and Mugo (P. mugo) are most commonly affected. Other landscape conifers occasionally may be affected by tip blight as well. Tip blight disease has not been found on eastern white pine (P. strobus).

web only | 3 pages | 922 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,268 kb



ID-89
How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
7/1/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.

web only | 7 pages | 2,439 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb



ID-50
Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
7/1/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jamie Dockery, Kristin Goodin,
 Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Path
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.

web only | 11 pages | 4,025 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb



PPFS-OR-W-11
Twig Blights of Juniper
6/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

web only | 2 pages | 720 words | 1 download | PDF: 600 kb



ID-210
Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
5/12/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Tom Barnes, Cheryl Kaiser, C
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

1,500 printed copies | 58 pages | 28,039 words | 90 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



ID-219
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
5/7/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

3,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 5,056 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



PPFS-OR-W-19
Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Mike Klahr,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs.

web only | 10 pages | 706 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb



ID-21
Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky
4/29/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, John St
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.

1,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 10,516 words | 134 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



PPFS-GEN-11
Diagnosis of "No Disease"
3/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, S
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Extension Agents and growers may occasionally receive diagnostic reports from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory that indicate "no disease was found." One or both of the following explanations may account for the diagnosis of "No Disease."

web only | 3 pages | 916 words | 1 download | PDF: 867 kb



PPFS-GEN-9
Submitting Plant Specimens for Disease Diagnosis
3/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, S
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the many ways that the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and UK Cooperative Extension serve the citizens of Kentucky. This publication is designed to help growers collect and submit the best plant samples for an accurate diagnosis.

web only | 7 pages | 872 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 2,312 kb



PR-673
2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
1/8/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Shu
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.

web only | 44 pages | 23,586 words | 78 downloads | PDF: 2,491 kb



ID-84
Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
10/16/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Edwin Ritchey,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.

web only | 4 pages | 1,862 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 3,130 kb



PPFS-GEN-5
Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation
8/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

web only | 3 pages | 919 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 723 kb



PPFS-GEN-4
Landscape Sanitation
7/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda Sears, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home landscape plantings (Figure 1a), resulting in premature leaf drop, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

web only | 3 pages | 951 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 644 kb



ID-52
What's Wrong with My Taxus?
6/5/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.

web only | 4 pages | 2,010 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb



PPFS-OR-W-17
Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants
6/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below.

web only | 4 pages | 1,587 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 681 kb



PPFS-GH-4
Greenhouse Sanitation
3/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

web only | 3 pages | 942 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 640 kb



PPFS-OR-W-18
Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants
3/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease.

web only | 3 pages | 806 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 534 kb



PR-656
2012 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/6/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Ben Abell, Angela Anandappa,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2012 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and several demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in more than 15 counties in Kentucky. Research was conducted by faculty and staff from several departments within the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture including: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Agricultural Economics. This report also includes collaborative research projects conducted with faculty and staff at Kentucky State University.

web only | 47 pages | 21,679 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-FR-S-16
Black Rot of Grape
10/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

web only | 4 pages | 1,272 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb



PPFS-FR-T-13
Apple Scab
8/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring.

web only | 3 pages | 1,045 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 486 kb



PPFS-FR-T-12
Fire Blight
8/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

web only | 4 pages | 1,556 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 650 kb



PPFS-OR-W-16
Rose Rosette Disease
5/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Rose rosette is a devastating disease that is a threat to virtually all cultivated roses (Rosa spp.) in Kentucky, regardless of cultivar. Even rose cultivars known for their exceptional disease resistance and hardiness are susceptible to rose rosette disease. Losses can occur in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and botanical garden plantings.

web only | 3 pages | 962 words | 1 download | PDF: 383 kb



PPFS-OR-W-3
Black Root Rot of Ornamentals
5/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Chery
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Black root rot can affect a wide range of ornamentals in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and greenhouses. In Kentucky, this disease is commonly observed on Japanese and blue hollies, inkberry, pansy, petunia, and vinca. In addition to ornamentals, numerous vegetable and agronomic crops are susceptible.

web only | 3 pages | 873 words | 1 download | PDF: 585 kb



ID-118
Roses
3/27/2012 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Rick Durham, Tim
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Roses have many landscape uses. They can be placed as accent plants or used to form hedges or ground covers. They offer a rainbow of colors and a variety of forms and fragrances, and their sizes range from miniatures to tall climbing plants. Roses may be grown under many climatic and soil conditions and, with care, thrive and produce flowers for many years.

2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 7,927 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 3,331 kb



ID-88
Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky
3/22/2012 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides.

web only | 16 pages | 7,345 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 3,700 kb



PPFS-FR-S-5
Strawberry Anthracnose
2/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: John Hartman, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

web only | 3 pages | 815 words | 1 download | PDF: 293 kb



PPFS-GEN-3
Damping-off of Vegetables and Herbaceous Ornamentals
2/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Damping-off can occur on any herbaceous crop grown from seed, including vegetables, ornamentals, and field crops. Seeds, seedlings, and young plants may be affected, resulting in poor stands in home gardens, greenhouses, and commercial fields. Losses to damping-off can be severe, especially when cool, wet weather prevails at seeding or seed emergence.

web only | 2 pages | 622 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 288 kb



PPFS-OR-W-15
Sample Submission Protocol for Diagnosis of Thousand Cankers Disease in Walnut
2/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Bren
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a fatal disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra), and most recently, butternut (Juglans cinerea). The disease complex involves a fungus that is carried to trees by the walnut twig beetle, causing numerous cankers on branches and killing trees 5 to 6 years after infection. The disease complex is widespread in the western U.S., and has recently been identified in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

web only | 2 pages | 557 words | 1 download | PDF: 361 kb



PR-626
2011 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/20/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Jul
 Departments: Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The 2011 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and several demonstration trials. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools, which they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

web only | 53 pages | 26,604 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,391 kb



ID-110
Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
10/4/2011 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Don Hershman,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States (and Kentucky) and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially.

web only | 4 pages | 1,256 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 368 kb