University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

Filter by Department

Agricultural Economics Publications

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2019-2020
12/4/2018 (major revision)

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco. | ID-160
6,000 printed copies | 84 pages | 68,090 words | 190 downloads | PDF: 4,150 kb

9/12/2018 (minor revision)

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit. | CCD-CP-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

Summer Squash
9/10/2018 (minor revision)

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining. | CCD-CP-121
web only | 3 pages | 1,057 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Highbush Blueberries
8/8/2018 (minor revision)

The Northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil is properly adjusted. With proper care, blueberry plants may remain productive for 40 years or more. | CCD-CP-9
web only | 4 pages | 1,675 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Field-grown Tomatoes
8/3/2018 (minor revision)

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price. | CCD-CP-98
web only | 3 pages | 1,268 words | - | PDF: 861 kb

7/31/2018 (minor revision)

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort. | CCD-CP-14
web only | 3 pages | 1,320 words | - | PDF: 778 kb

Asian and European Pears
7/31/2018 (minor revision)

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears. | CCD-CP-3
web only | 3 pages | 1,247 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb

7/25/2018 (new)

Figs are harvested for both fresh consumption and processing. There are three main types of cultivated Ficus carica: Common, San Pedro and Smyrna. Common figs produce fruit parenthocarpically, without any pollination. Smyrna figs require pollen transfer from male trees that produce small caprifigs for fruit growth. Pollen transfer is obtained by the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.), a species unable to survive the southern U.S. winter temperatures. San Pedro figs are intermediate between the two; a minor summer "breba" crop will set without fertilization but the later main crop requires pollination by the fig wasp. The common fig is the only type suggested for cultivation in the southern U.S. | CCD-CP-135
web only | 3 pages | 1,224 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Heirloom Beans
7/25/2018 (new)

Heirloom beans are vintage varieties of the warm-season crop (Phaseolus vulgaris) that have been handed down from generation to generation. There is a long tradition of saving bean seed in Appalachia, and heirloom beans are sought by customers at Kentucky farmers markets. Heirloom bean varieties, often named after particular areas or families, appeal to buyers because of both taste characteristics and cultural heritage. | CCD-CP-133
web only | 3 pages | 1,410 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb

Sweet Corn
7/18/2018 (minor revision)

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content. | CCD-CP-122
web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Sweet Potato
7/16/2018 (minor revision)

The terms “sweet potato” and “yam” are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools. | CCD-CP-123
web only | 3 pages | 1,423 words | - | PDF: 810 kb

Days Suitable for Fieldwork in Kentucky
7/2/2018 (new)

Weather risk plays a unique role and influences many decisions made on the farm. Weather determines when you can get into the field and your ability to perform timely operations such as planting, fertilizing, spraying, and harvesting. Delays from weather events of time sensitive operations will result in substantial yield and economic losses. Therefore, having an expectation of the number of days suitable for fieldwork will allow producers to size farm machinery to mitigate such yield losses appropriately. | AEC-101
web only | 6 pages | 1,603 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 857 kb

Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky
6/25/2018 (new)

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth. | CCD-CP-134
web only | 4 pages | 1,676 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

6/18/2018 (minor revision)

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as ‘brambles’ or ‘caneberries.’ They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort. | CCD-CP-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Greenhouse Tomatoes
6/12/2018 (minor revision)

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise. | CCD-CP-57
web only | 4 pages | 1,415 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Soybean Management in Kentucky
6/7/2018 (new)

This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky. | ID-249
2,500 printed copies | 84 pages | 44,074 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 38,987 kb

Heirloom Tomatoes
6/6/2018 (new)

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most popular of heirloom vegetables, which are vintage varieties preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. Heirloom tomato purchases grew in popularity as consumers sought flavorful, historic varieties. Many heirloom tomato varieties have unique coloration and appearance, but poor shipping characteristics, giving heirloom tomatoes an advantage for local sales. | CCD-CP-132
web only | 3 pages | 1,825 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

Jujube and Aronia
6/6/2018 (minor revision)

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale. | CCD-CP-10
web only | 4 pages | 2,168 words | - | PDF: 832 kb

Bell Peppers
5/17/2018 (minor revision)

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers. | CCD-CP-87
web only | 3 pages | 1,530 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb

5/15/2018 (minor revision)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. | CCD-CP-88
web only | 3 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 786 kb

5/8/2018 (minor revision)

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish. | CCD-CP-104
web only | 3 pages | 1,340 words | - | PDF: 819 kb

5/7/2018 (minor revision)

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is a cool-season annual cole crop that is related to broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Kohlrabi originated in northern Europe in the 16th century. It forms a round globe just above the soil line with leaves emerging in a spiral from the stem. The edible portion is actually an enlarged stem, not root tissue. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw or cooked. In flavor, it is like a mild, sweet broccoli stem or turnip. Once the thick skin is peeled off, the crisp flesh can be eaten like a carrot often with a dip or in salads. It can be boiled, braised, used in soups and stews, made into home fries and even pies. In Kentucky, kohlrabi does well in the spring but is best as a fall crop. | CCD-CP-102
web only | 3 pages | 981 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb

What to Think About Before You Plant: Marketing Considerations for Kentucky Specialty Crop Growers
5/3/2018 (minor revision)

This publication poses questions that can benefit farmers who are considering planting a new crop. The publication is divided into the following six sections, with the majority of the content focused in the first two: 1) Market options by size and scale of production, 2) Conducting basic market research, 3) Certifications, 4) Insurance and risk management, 5) Management and labor needs, and 6) Resources needed beyond the field or garden. | CCD-FS-2
web only | 11 pages | 3,898 words | - | PDF: 8,700 kb

4/17/2018 (minor revision)

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption. | CCD-CP-113
web only | 3 pages | 1,411 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers
4/13/2018 (minor revision)

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color. | CCD-CP-101
web only | 5 pages | 2,445 words | - | PDF: 823 kb

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
4/9/2018 (minor revision)

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products. | CCD-CP-70
web only | 3 pages | 1,594 words | - | PDF: 729 kb

3/20/2018 (minor revision)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled. | CCD-CP-106
web only | 2 pages | 799 words | - | PDF: 762 kb

3/15/2018 (minor revision)

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases. | CCD-CP-91
web only | 2 pages | 844 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Starting a Nursery Business
3/14/2018 (minor revision)

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success. | CCD-SP-9
web only | 5 pages | 2,442 words | - | PDF: 860 kb

3/7/2018 (new)

The pecan and Eastern black walnut are Kentucky's most significant nut crops. Commercial pecan plantings are located near Paducah and Henderson, and native pecan groves have long been harvested near the Mississippi River. Only northern pecan cultivars are recommended for cultivation in Kentucky, as the state's usual growing season is not long enough for southern pecan varieties to mature. The established popularity of pecans with consumers could offer potential for producers willing to carefully establish pecan plantings on appropriate sites. | CCD-CP-129
web only | 4 pages | 1,891 words | - | PDF: 647 kb

Ethnic Vegetables: Asian
3/2/2018 (minor revision)

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as “oriental” vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-96
web only | 5 pages | 1,967 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

Organic Regulations and Resources
2/28/2018 (new)

Two challenges for beginning organic crop production are meeting certified organic requirements and sourcing crop inputs that are approved for organic use. This fact sheet will summarize key considerations for meeting these challenges and list important sources of additional information for a producer interested in evaluating the feasibility of organic production on his or her farm. | CCD-FS-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,305 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb

Roadside Farm Markets
2/23/2018 (minor revision)

A roadside farm market is sometimes distinguished from a roadside stand by location and hours. The term "roadside farm market" can refer to those markets located in permanent facilities at the farm or food manufacturing location; they are typically open most of the year. Roadside stand, by contrast, is a more general term referring to those markets that may be located off the farm and are seasonal in operation. | CCD-MP-4
web only | 4 pages | 1,757 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb

Marketing Fresh Produce to Food Retailers (Grocery Stores)
2/1/2018 (minor revision)

The food retail industry saw a renaissance of interest in local and regional sourcing of fresh fruits and vegetables during the 2000s. This interest came within an industry characterized by heavy investment in fewer and larger centralized distribution centers. Although the distribution center model remains prominent within the food retail industry, some retailers have created flexibility within their distribution models to answer consumer demand for local produce. Large retailers are also finding transportation and distribution cost savings by sourcing fresh produce items from new or expanding producers. Smaller chains and local grocers remain potential markets for fresh produce growers expanding to wholesale volumes. Producers of value-added produce products may also find local groceries a possible market for their product. | CCD-MP-20
web only | 4 pages | 1,737 words | - | PDF: 3,000 kb

Marketing Fresh Produce to Restaurants
1/25/2018 (minor revision)

Sourcing and serving fresh produce from local farms remains a trend in the U.S. foodservice industry. The practice of sourcing locally grown fresh produce, first featured by niche and high-end restaurants, moved into mainstream foodservice distribution channels in the early 2000s. A focus on local food appears to be persisting into the 2020s. The National Restaurant Association's 2018 Culinary Forecast, based on surveys of nearly 700 chefs, identified hyper-local sourcing as the top restaurant concept trend, with local produce also among the Top 10 concept trends. | CCD-MP-21
web only | 5 pages | 2,260 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb

1/22/2018 (reviewed)

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson. | CCD-CP-131
web only | 3 pages | 919 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

MarketReady Producer Training Program
12/15/2017 (minor revision)

The MarketReady Producer Training Program instructs producers in the key business functions that small farmers and ranchers must manage as they seek to develop supplier relationships with restaurants, grocers, wholesalers, and foodservice buyers, including schools. While significant opportunity exists to build on the demand for local products in local markets, many farmers are hesitant or unprepared to meet the transactional requirements expected by these buyers to manage their own food safety, insurance, product quality, and traceability risks. MarketReady addresses these issues. After training, producers will be prepared for business transactions when selling a variety of products including dairy, fruits, meats and vegetables. | CCD-MP-11
web only | 3 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb

2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Small-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet. Most of the worksheets assume all production is sold at the same price, but there is also a blank line for a second quantity/cost for users to add if desired, such as already done in sweet potatoes. | CCD-BG-11
web only | - | - | 25 downloads | Excel: 1,200 kb

2017 Vegetable and Melon Budgets (Large-scale)
11/20/2017 (new)

These commercial vegetable and melon budgets compare and analyze profitability between crops using assumptions developed during the 2017 season. These budgets should not be considered as production recommendations or profitability projections. Production practices vary widely between farms and regions. Producers may request details for each budget from the Center for Crop Diversification. Budget details will allow greater comparison of budget assumptions with a user's actual field situation. All values may be changed within each budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-10
web only | 1 pages | - | 25 downloads | Excel: 1,600 kb

Snap Beans
10/24/2017 (minor revision)

The snap bean or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. Prior to the development of the stringless bean in the 1890s, snap beans were referred to as "string beans" because of the fiber or "string" running along the pod seam. While stringless beans are more common today, many consumers still prefer the flavor of the stringed types. | CCD-CP-118
web only | 3 pages | 1,176 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 668 kb

Risk Management in Specialty Crops: Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)
10/24/2017 (new)

The Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) is a financial assistance program provided through the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). The program provides producers of crops not eligible for crop insurance with some level of risk management when natural disasters cause crop low yields, crop losses or prevent crop planting. | CCD-FS-7
web only | 2 pages | 574 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates
10/11/2017 (minor revision)

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions. | ID-149
web only | 20 pages | 11,224 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 265 kb

Romaine Lettuce
10/10/2017 (minor revision)

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-116
web only | 4 pages | 1,753 words | - | PDF: 692 kb

Root Crops
10/4/2017 (minor revision)

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-117
web only | 4 pages | 1,728 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb

Specialty Melons
9/20/2017 (minor revision)

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations. | CCD-CP-120
web only | 3 pages | 1,431 words | - | PDF: 950 kb

High Tunnel Tomatoes
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season." | CCD-CP-62
web only | 4 pages | 2,063 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

9/5/2017 (minor revision)

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf." | CCD-CP-55
web only | 4 pages | 1,145 words | - | PDF: 791 kb

The Unique Qualities of the Southern Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

Milk is a heavily regulated commodity, and therefore there are a large number of rules that pertain to its production and processing. These regulations are enforced within regional boundaries called federal milk marketing orders. Most milk marketing orders have similar regulations, but the Appalachian, Florida, and Southeast Orders are somewhat unique when it comes to diversion limits, transportation credits, and delivery day requirements. This publication will highlight these distinctive qualities of Southern milk marketing orders and how those qualities can influence production and processing in those orders. | AEC-ES-2017-12
web only | 10 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 551 kb

The History and Class Pricing of the Federal Milk Marketing Orders
9/1/2017 (new)

The regulation of milk is an important part of the development of the milk industry and an understanding of the history of milk regulation is critical to understanding the pros and cons of the current industry. Additionally, to understand milk pricing it is important to understand the history of the federal milk marketing orders. This publication will provide information on how milk became regulated and how the class pricing system works. | AEC-ES-2017-13
web only | 11 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 283 kb

Malabar Spinach
8/25/2017 (new)

Malabar spinach is a leafy vine native to tropical Asia and is a commonly cultivated vegetable in Asia and Africa. Malabar spinach--also called Indian spinach, Ceylon spinach, climbing spinach and vine spinach--is a member of the Basellacea family. (Spinach commonly grown for market in North America is a member of the family Chenopodiaceae.) According to the University of Florida, Malabar spinach is also known as basella, gui, acelga trepadora, bretana, libato and Malabar nightshade. | CCD-CP-130
printed copies | 3 pages | 1,133 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb

8/25/2017 (minor revision)

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures. | CCD-CP-90
web only | 2 pages | 949 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 725 kb

Woody Cuts
8/22/2017 (minor revision)

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material. | CCD-CP-76
web only | 3 pages | 1,519 words | - | PDF: 909 kb

English and Edible Pod Peas
8/16/2017 (minor revision)

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas. | CCD-CP-95
web only | 2 pages | 993 words | - | PDF: 647 kb

8/15/2017 (minor revision)

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption. | CCD-CP-93
web only | 3 pages | 1,120 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 729 kb

Three-Year Average Prices and Quantities at Kentucky Produce Auctions: 2014-2016
8/15/2017 (new)

This report compares average volumes and prices for 18 crops from two major Kentucky produce auctions for the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons. | CCD-FS-6
web only | 22 pages | 1,705 words | - | PDF: 1,300 kb

8/11/2017 (minor revision)

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties. | CCD-CP-50
web only | 3 pages | 999 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 451,725 kb

American Persimmon
8/10/2017 (minor revision)

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow-growing, moderately sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which are high in tannins, have an undesirable astringent taste. Fully ripened fruit, which are golden orange to reddish and occasionally blue in color, are very sweet. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall. | CCD-CP-1
web only | 3 pages | 1,235 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 676 kb

Heirloom Vegetables
7/17/2017 (minor revision)

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping | CCD-CP-100
web only | 4 pages | 1,769 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 652 kb

Garden Mums
7/13/2017 (minor revision)

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state. | CCD-CP-71
web only | 3 pages | 969 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Economic Analysis of the University of Kentucky Community Supported Agriculture Organic Vegetable Production System
7/12/2017 (new)

Farms marketing through a vegetable CSA are complex businesses facing many operational and economic challenges. To be economically viable, CSA farms must achieve the appropriate match of crops, equipment, and labor with farm size and number of CSA members. A diverse array of vegetable crops are typically grown with unique requirements for crop production, pest management, harvest, and post-harvest handling. An extensive suite of skills, tools, and equipment are required to produce these crops efficiently, and mechanization becomes critical as the number of acres in production increases. | SR-111
200 printed copies | 28 pages | 8,907 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb

High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs
7/11/2017 (minor revision)

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries. | CCD-CP-60
web only | 5 pages | 2,531 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 893 kb

Hydroponic Lettuce
6/30/2017 (minor revision)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water. | CCD-CP-63
web only | 4 pages | 1,872 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Vegetable Transplant Production
6/22/2017 (new)

Vegetable transplants may be grown in the greenhouse as a stand-alone crop or grown alongside other plants. Information in this factsheet can aid growers in determining whether to produce their own vegetable transplants or obtain transplants from another source. It will also help growers evaluate transplant production as a primary enterprise. | CCD-FS-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,351 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Regional Food Hubs
6/19/2017 (minor revision)

The term "regional food hub" has been devised by the USDA to refer to facilities that aid farmers in getting locally produced products to consumer markets. | CCD-MP-23
web only | 3 pages | 1,492 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Propagation Nursery
6/5/2017 (minor revision)

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use. | CCD-SP-8
web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb

Community Supported Agriculture
5/25/2017 (major revision)

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)is relatively new to the United States, beginning in Massachusetts in 1986 and growing to 60 CSA farms in the U.S. in 1990. The CSA structure grew significantly in popularity among both producers and consumers during the 2000s; by 2009, as many as 6,000 farms were operating a CSA. The 2015 USDA Local Food Marketing Practices Survey reported 7,398 farms nationally selling by CSA for a sales value of $226 million. There were nearly 60 CSAs listed for Kentucky, in 2016, in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture CSA directory. The CSA marketing channel continues to increase in popularity, moving to new demographics besides the original core affluent urban consumer. | CCD-MP-1
web only | 8 pages | 4,511 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 3,300 kb

Weed Management
5/12/2017 (new)

Weed management is a major crop production concern in Kentucky. Weeds compete for crop nutrients, water, light, and space as well as harboring potential pests and diseases, resulting in poorer growth and lower yields, leading to lower financial returns for producers. Weed management is a long-term concern, as poor weed management during one season can result in higher weed seed populations germinating in subsequent years. Weed pressure can greatly increase annual weed management costs in commodity row crop production, creating financial pressure on producers, especially during periods of low prices. Weed management is also a major challenge for organic farming in Kentucky and surrounding states. | CCD-FS-4
web only | 3 pages | 1,209 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb

Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (minor revision)

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge. | CCD-CP-103
web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Three-year Average Weekly Prices at Kentucky Farmers Markets: 2014-2016
4/27/2017 (new)

This report compares average prices for 17 crops from Kentucky farmers markets across the 2014, 2015, and 2016 seasons. Farmers markets are inherently difficult to track and compare. For example, vendors at markets from across the state sell the same products in a wide variety of units. Do you want to buy your beets by the pound, quart, bunch, or bulb? What about broccoli? By the head, pound, ounce, pint or "bag"? Beyond units, farmers markets also offer immense varietal and crop diversity, sold by vendors with a wide range of experience, in a variety of market conditions. These conditions, crops and other variables also change by season. For the first time, recognizing the caveats of slight crop differences and unit harmonization, we have assembled 3-year average prices in hopes of drawing out some trends in our Kentucky Farmers Market prices. | CCD-FS-3
web only | 10 pages | 626 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 422 kb

4/25/2017 (new)

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-127
web only | 3 pages | 1,339 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 897 kb

Black Walnuts
4/19/2017 (new)

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production. | CCD-CP-128
web only | 4 pages | 2,000 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 672 kb

4/19/2017 (minor revision)

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky | CCD-CP-11
web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 700 kb

Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap. | CCD-SP-6
web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season. | CCD-SP-5
web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb

4/12/2017 (major revision)

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions. | CCD-CP-107
web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 881 kb

Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli). | CCD-CP-86
web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 975 kb

Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization. | CCD-CP-85
web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 688 kb

Irrigation Systems
4/3/2017 (new)

Irrigation is used in Kentucky for both specialty and row crops. Irrigation systems reduce risks of low profitability from low yields and crop stress. Drip irrigation, essential for producing many specialty crops, is used throughout the state on farms of all sizes. Overhead irrigation systems are concentrated in western Kentucky, where farms of 1,000 or more acres account for most of the annual acreage changes in Kentucky's irrigated farmland. This fact sheet focuses on drip irrigation, which increased in use as more Kentucky farms began specialty crop production. | CCD-FS-1
web only | 4 pages | 1,287 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb

3/1/2017 (minor revision)

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky. | CCD-CP-124
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 680 kb

Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production
1/31/2017 (minor revision)

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods. | CCD-SP-7
web only | 5 pages | 2,325 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 918 kb

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly. | CCD-CP-83
web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 786 kb

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here. | CCD-CP-79
web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 778 kb

Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales. | CCD-CP-111
web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 566 kb

Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth. | CCD-CP-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 604 kb

Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (minor revision)

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky. | CCD-CP-20
web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 881 kb

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (minor revision)

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus). | CCD-CP-58
web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 503 kb

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production. | CCD-CP-12
web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 799 kb

Marketing Crops to Schools and Institutions: An Overview
10/31/2016 (minor revision)

Schools and institutions have long been identified as potential markets for local and regional food crops. These markets have both generated greater interest and purchases during the past 20 years due to consumer interest, food and health policy initiatives, and changes in school and institutional purchasing and procurement systems. | CCD-MP-19
web only | 4 pages | 1,579 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 864 kb

Post-Harvest Management: The Economics of Grain Transportation
10/13/2016 (new)

While transporting grain to the market may be the last input cost in the production of grain, it is a critical decision a producer has to make, especially when margins are thin. Determining which market to sell your grain (if you have options) can be a complex decision, as the market that provides the highest price is not always the most profitable price. | AEC-100
web only | 5 pages | 2,727 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 458 kb

10/10/2016 (minor revision)

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long-lasting cut flowers. | CCD-CP-52
web only | 5 pages | 2,206 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
10/6/2016 (reprinted)

Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process. | ID-224
700 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | 77 downloads | PDF: 1,505 kb

Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (minor revision)

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves. | CCD-CP-99
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 593 kb

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (minor revision)

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets. | CCD-CP-97
web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 617 kb

9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility. | CCD-CP-94
web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 598 kb

9/1/2016 (minor revision)

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only. | CCD-CP-53
web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 967 kb

2011 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
8/30/2016 (new)

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry. | PR-641
web only | 32 pages | 14,698 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 7,642 kb

Maple Syrup
8/17/2016 (new)

Maple syrup is made by processing (boiling) tree sap. Sap may be processed from all maple tree species; the highest sugar content usually occurs in sugar maple and black maple sap. Maple sugaring may occur wherever late winter temperatures permit sap collection, ideally when nighttimes are below freezing and daytime highs do not exceed 45F. Kentucky is among the southernmost states for commercial maple syrup production. | CCD-CP-81
web only | 5 pages | 1,405 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (minor revision)

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-109
web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 575 kb

Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (minor revision)

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production. | CCD-CP-66
web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 594 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-9
web only | 6 pages | 1,318 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 336 kb

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,365 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 340 kb

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-7
web only | 5 pages | 1,094 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 119 kb

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions
7/15/2016 (minor revision)

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky. | CCD-BG-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,177 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 193 kb

Kentucky MarketMaker
7/11/2016 (minor revision)

Kentucky MarketMaker is a web-based marketing aid adapted for Kentucky markets. The primary purpose of this resource is to provide a link between agricultural producers and potential buyers of food products. In addition to a searchable database of markets and growers, MarketMaker also contains a wealth of demographic and business data which can be summarized in a map-based format. | CCD-MP-10
web only | 2 pages | 802 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 963 kb

7/5/2016 (minor revision)

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried. | CCD-CP-17
web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 750 kb

Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (minor revision)

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops. | CCD-CP-78
web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 934 kb

6/21/2016 (minor revision)

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor and aroma to beer. | CCD-CP-80
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 967 kb

6/9/2016 (minor revision)

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes. | CCD-CP-18
web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 713 kb

Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (minor revision)

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June. | CCD-CP-108
web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 513 kb

Sample Asparagus Production Budget for Kentucky
5/2/2016 (minor revision)

Asparagus is a popular, early-season crop that can aid a diversified vegetable producer's cash flow during the first part of Kentucky's harvest season. Once established, properly managed asparagus plantings can produce for many years. According to these sample budgets, an acre of asparagus marketed at $1.75 per pound will return the costs of establishment in the second year of full production (third year after planting). Following that year, properly managed asparagus can return in the $1200 to $1500 range to land, labor, and management. | CCD-BG-1
web only | 6 pages | 1,128 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 389 kb

5/1/2016 (minor revision)

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June. | CCD-CP-84
web only | 4 pages | 1,387 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 542 kb

4/15/2016 (minor revision)

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species. | CCD-CP-54
web only | 4 pages | 1,799 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 582 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months. | ID-125
1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb

2/4/2016 (minor revision)

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers. | CCD-CP-26
web only | 3 pages | 1,155 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 922 kb

Industrial Hemp Production
9/23/2015 (minor revision)

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs. | CCD-CP-33
web only | 6 pages | 2,682 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Christmas Trees
8/18/2015 (minor revision)

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor. | CCD-CP-67
web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 492 kb

Celery and Celeriac
6/8/2015 (new)

Celery (Apium graveolens) is an herb and vegetable member of the parsley family. It is a cool-season crop that is a biennial, but is often grown as an annual for fresh market consumption. It does best when temperatures are relatively cool, particularly at night. Celery is a versatile ingredient for cooking and during 2012 U.S. consumers used an average 6 pounds of fresh celery per person per year. Celery leaves are used much like an herb, similar to parsley, in flavoring soups, stews, salads and other dishes. Celeriac (Apium rapaceum) is also known as celery root, and is grown for its smooth celery flavor and long storage capacity. | CCD-CP-92
web only | 3 pages | 1,139 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 635 kb

Produce Auctions
5/1/2015 (minor revision)

A produce auction is a market outlet for locally produced wholesale products. Fresh produce, as well as a variety of other agricultural products, are offered for sale to the highest bidder. The auction charges the seller a commission, usually a percent of sales, to cover the auction's operating expenses. | CCD-MP-22
web only | 5 pages | 1,843 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Culinary Herbs
4/1/2015 (new)

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme. | CCD-CP-51
web only | 4 pages | 1,620 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb

Grasshoppers Distribution: Lessons Learned and Lasting Legacy
1/28/2015 (new)

Grasshoppers Distribution was a food hub in Louisville, Kentucky, that opened for business in 2007. The enterprise was launched by four producers who saw a need for agricultural diversification in a post-tobacco era and burgeoning opportunity in regional and sustainable food markets. This paper examines the story behind the evolution of the business and points to lessons that may be learned by others involved with similar efforts. | SR-108
100 printed copies | 28 pages | 16,759 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,881 kb

Organic Corn Production in Kentucky
1/15/2015 (new)

The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms. | ID-225
2,000 printed copies | 30 pages | 19,856 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

12/17/2014 (minor revision)

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a warm-season crop in the Cucurbit family, Watermelons are grown in various areas across the state, including: Casey County, Lincoln County, Hart County, Allen County, and Daviess County. Watermelon is the second largest fresh market vegetable produced in the state, with 1,116 acres, and accounts for 16% of the total fresh market vegetable acreage (USDA, 2013). | CCD-CP-125
web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

Winter Squash
12/10/2014 (minor revision)

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter. | CCD-CP-126
web only | 2 pages | 794 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 668 kb

Hanging Baskets
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production. | CCD-CP-59
web only | 4 pages | 1,460 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 631 kb

Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns
11/10/2014 (minor revision)

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production. | CCD-BG-5
web only | 2 pages | 695 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 332 kb

Social Meida/Mobile Technology Tools for Ag Businesses
10/7/2014 (new)

The way we communicate with each other is changing. Many consumers are now using their smartphones or tablet devices to connect to and interact with local businesses. It is becoming very practical to connect your business to your clientele through social media using mobile technology tools. These tools offer easy methods to communicate, connect, and engage with your customers. Social media is increasingly important to marketing your business. Mobile technology tools are becoming more accessible to rural areas and they offer different options to both businesses and customers in increasing the ease of transactions and finding more connections. | CCD-MP-7
web only | 8 pages | 3,650 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 12,800 kb

Roadside Stands
9/26/2014 (minor revision)

Roadside stand is generic term for a type of marketing site in which a farm producer sells directly to consumers. A roadside stand is a seasonal, temporary or semi-temporary structure that may be located on or off the farm. A roadside stand may be distinguished from a roadside market in that the latter is usually a permanent structure that is often open year-round. | CCD-MP-5
web only | 4 pages | 1,547 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 774 kb

Taking Advantage of a Strong Cattle Market
9/15/2014 (new)

A combination of several factors has led to extremely strong prices across beef cattle markets during recent years. Established cow-calf operators are the primary beneficiaries of these unprecedented price levels as they represent the only industry within the beef sector that is not margin oriented. While the current market environment has greatly improved profitability at the cow-calf level, it also presents challenges as producers consider long term decisions about cattle inventory, investments in equipment and facilities, and managing the financial aspects of greater cash flow in the coming years. The purpose of this publication is to (1) outline the factors behind the current strength of the cattle market and describe how producers typically respond to strong markets and (2) to help frame the economics of several key long-term investment decisions that producers are likely considering. |
web only | 5 pages | - | 57 downloads | PDF: 93 kb

The Margin Protection Program for Dairy in the 2014 Farm Bill
9/15/2014 (new)

The Margin Protection Program for Dairy (MPP-Dairy) was authorized in the Food, Farm and Jobs Bill, aka "2014 Farm Bill." The new program was established in August 2014 and will run through December 31, 2018. The bill effectively repeals the Dairy Export Incentive Program and the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program while establishing the new MPP-Dairy program and a Dairy Product Donation Program (DPDP). Producers are permitted to participate in the new program, or the previously existing LGM-Dairy program, but not both at the same time. The purpose of this publication is three-fold, (1) provide an overview of how MPP-Dairy works, (2) provide some historical perspective on how a similar program might have worked had it been available over the last several years, and (3) help frame the participation decision that dairy producers will make in the coming years. |
web only | 5 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 107 kb

Brussels Sprouts
9/1/2014 (new)

Currently there is little production of brussels sprouts in Kentucky. Much of the commercial production for brussels sprouts produced in the United States is concentrated in California. The Census of Agriculture reported that two Kentucky farms harvested brussels sprouts in the 2012 growing season. | CCD-CP-89
web only | 3 pages | 1,329 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 626 kb

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-4
web only | 7 pages | 1,573 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 352 kb

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Budget worksheet. | CCD-BG-3
web only | 2 pages | 1,573 words | 1 download | PDF: 352 kb

Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates
8/29/2014 (minor revision)

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years. | CCD-BG-2
web only | 4 pages | 1,164 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 561 kb

Organic Blueberries
8/20/2014 (minor revision)

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). | CCD-CP-13
web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 633 kb

8/19/2014 (minor revision)

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the Rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected. | CCD-CP-15
web only | 3 pages | 1,309 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 491 kb

7/31/2014 (minor revision)

The quality of Kentucky-grown strawberries can be far superior to berries that are shipped-in. There is a strong market for local berries, particularly near population centers. A large proportion of the strawberries grown in Kentucky are currently sold on a U-Pick basis. Other marketing options include roadside stands and local grocers. Farmers markets, produce auctions, community supported agriculture (CSA) shares, and restaurants are also outlets for strawberries. Some producers are using crop surpluses to produce jams and jellies for local sale. | CCD-CP-19
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 499 kb

Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)
7/21/2014 (minor revision)

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002. | CCD-CP-105
web only | 3 pages | 1,054 words | - | PDF: 612 kb

Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms
7/3/2014 (minor revision)

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations. | CCD-CP-82
web only | 4 pages | 1,689 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 561 kb

Pick-Your-Own (U-Pick) Marketing
6/30/2014 (minor revision)

Pick-Your-Own (PYO), also referred to as U-Pick, occurs when farmers "invite the public onto the farm to harvest their own food."1 Producers searching for new crops, combined with a growing Kentucky population, renewed interest in PYO during the past 20 years. | CCD-MP-3
web only | 4 pages | 1,399 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Marketing Organic Produce
6/27/2014 (minor revision)

Growth in organic food consumption has been a major trend in the U.S. food industry during the last two decades. Sales of organic food rose from $3.6 billion in 1997 to $21.1 billion in 2007. Sales of organic food products were estimated at $28.4 billion in 2012 and approaching $35 billion in 2014. | CCD-MP-9
web only | 5 pages | 1,687 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

6/23/2014 (minor revision)

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented. | CCD-CP-7
web only | 4 pages | 1,653 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 694 kb

Marketing Asian Produce in Kentucky
6/19/2014 (minor revision)

Burgeoning Asian populations and consumer interest in Asian cuisine helped stimulate increased interest in purchasing fresh Asian vegetables to prepare at home, a trend expected to continue. Caucasian consumers tend to prefer value-added and processed vegetables, but there are market niches for fresh Asian vegetables. Kentucky producers have received inquiries to source edamame (vegetable soybean) and daikon (Chinese radish) at wholesale quantities. | CCD-MP-8
web only | 6 pages | 1,403 words | 1 download | PDF: 758 kb

Bedding Plants
5/31/2014 (minor revision)

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs, and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden, or large containers (such as patio pots). | CCD-CP-56
web only | 3 pages | 1,203 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb

Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy
5/5/2014 (minor revision)

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed. | CCD-CP-27
web only | 3 pages | 773 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb

5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts. | CCD-CP-64
web only | 3 pages | 1,262 words | - | PDF: 409 kb

Grain Sorghum
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose. | CCD-CP-31
web only | 3 pages | 901 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 496 kb

Marketing Via the Internet
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

The Internet can be utilized in a variety of marketing strategies. Producers may sell their products online through e-commerce, use a website to take orders for their goods, or simply advertise their operation through a "billboard" type website. Social media and blogs provide yet another way the Internet can be used for promoting a farm enterprise. The increase in access to Web-based services through handheld devices makes many customers more immediately accessible to products and services. | CCD-MP-2
web only | 4 pages | 1,937 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 442 kb

Ornamental Corn
4/24/2014 (minor revision)

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes. | CCD-CP-72
web only | 3 pages | 984 words | - | PDF: 643 kb

4/10/2014 (minor revision)

Most pumpkins are used for ornamental purposes, with the greatest market demand during the Halloween season. Marketing options include: roadside stands, local retailers, wholesale markets, grower marketing associations, consumer supported agriculture (CSA), and U-Pick. Kentucky faces major competition in wholesale pumpkin production from surrounding states, especially Tennessee. Smaller-sized and unique pumpkin varieties, especially those with good eating characteristics, may appeal to many direct market customers. | CCD-CP-114
web only | 3 pages | 1,144 words | - | PDF: 503 kb

High Tunnel Brambles
4/7/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels. | CCD-CP-8
web only | 6 pages | 2,906 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 619 kb

High Tunnel Strawberries
4/4/2014 (minor revision)

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production. | CCD-CP-61
web only | 4 pages | 2,061 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 528 kb

Grower Cooperatives (Co-ops)
4/1/2014 (minor revision)

Cooperatives have historically been utilized to market wholesale quantities of produce in Kentucky. In the early 2000s, as many as five grower cooperatives in Kentucky were actively marketing tomatoes, melons, sweet corn, cabbage, bell peppers, pumpkins, and other crops to wholesale buyers. By 2006, however, produce marketing by grower co-ops had largely disappeared from Kentucky's produce industry as growers found other ways to ship produce. The involvement of co-ops in marketing produce from Kentucky has since been limited. | CCD-MP-17
web only | 4 pages | 1,467 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 385 kb

Selling Farm Products at Farmers Markets
3/25/2014 (minor revision)

Farmers markets are used by Kentucky growers of all farm sizes and scales. "Market gardeners" often tend less than an acre of land for selling strictly at the local farmers market. On the other hand, some of Kentucky's largest orchards use local farmers markets as a retail outlet during the fall to command a premium price for their crop. | CCD-MP-6
web only | 6 pages | 2,340 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 811 kb

Plasticulture Strawberries
3/20/2014 (minor revision)

There is always a market for fresh, local strawberries (Fragaria spp.), and growers able to provide the earliest crop often have the marketing edge. For growers willing to make the investment in time and resources, the annual plasticulture system may allow the grower to have berries about one month sooner than growers using the traditional matted row system. Plasticulture production can either be used as a stand-alone enterprise or as part of a diversified operation. | CCD-CP-16
web only | 3 pages | 1,374 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 491 kb

3/15/2014 (minor revision)

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems. | CCD-CP-2
web only | 3 pages | 1,389 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 519 kb

3/7/2014 (minor revision)

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning. | CCD-CP-36
web only | 3 pages | 1,035 words | - | PDF: 406 kb

Sunflower for Seed
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

Sunflower is classified as either an oil type or a confection (non-oil) type, each with its own distinct market. Seeds from oil types are processed into vegetable oil or as meal in livestock feed. Most confection type seed is sold, with or without the hull, as snack foods. While either type can be packaged for birdseed, the confectionery type is grown in Kentucky for this purpose. Sunflowers are not recommended for oil crop production here. | CCD-CP-43
web only | 3 pages | 898 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 377 kb

Kura Clover
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north. | CCD-CP-35
web only | 2 pages | 751 words | - | PDF: 389 kb

2/18/2014 (minor revision)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products | CCD-CP-34
web only | 2 pages | 909 words | - | PDF: 426 kb

Using the Futures Market to Predict Prices and Calculate Breakevens for Feeder Cattle
7/29/2013 (new)

The purpose of this publication is to show beef cattle producers how the feeder cattle futures market can be used to predict sale prices for cattle sold at a later date, and how those prices could be used to estimate what can be paid for calves placed into stocker and backgrounding programs. By using the futures market as a way to forecast prices, and by carefully considering expenses, a target purchase price can be estimated for calves placed into these programs. While there are many unknowns that producers must manage such as prices, gains, health challenges, death loss, etc, this type of breakeven analysis is crucial for anyone placing calves in today's market environment. |
web only | 13 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 110 kb

Willows for Cuttings
7/18/2013 (minor revision)

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods. | CCD-CP-75
web only | 3 pages | 1,137 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 430 kb

Ornamental Grasses
7/17/2013 (minor revision)

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers, and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery. | CCD-CP-73
web only | 3 pages | 1,193 words | - | PDF: 477 kb

White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market. | CCD-CP-48
web only | 2 pages | 809 words | 1 download | PDF: 344 kb

Dry Beans
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are beans grown to maturity and harvested for the seeds within the pods. Also referred to as field beans, dry beans are primarily grown in the U.S. for human consumption. | CCD-CP-29
web only | 3 pages | 1,084 words | - | PDF: 438 kb

Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program
7/1/2013 (minor revision)

The Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) is providing an incentive to local restaurants to purchase eligible Kentucky Proud products. The Kentucky Restaurant Rewards Program reimburses participating restaurants and caterers with a percentage of the purchase cost of qualifying products. | CCD-MP-18
web only | 4 pages | 1,215 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 639 kb

Cereal Straw Production
6/21/2013 (minor revision)

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production. | CCD-CP-25
web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | - | PDF: 532 kb

Corn for Grain and Silage
6/15/2013 (minor revision)

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products | CCD-CP-28
web only | 3 pages | 1,003 words | - | PDF: 360 kb

Popcorn and Blue Corn
6/4/2013 (minor revision)

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels. | CCD-CP-38
web only | 2 pages | 894 words | 1 download | PDF: 532 kb

Red and White Clover
5/28/2013 (minor revision)

Red and white (ladino) clovers are high quality forage legumes with excellent feed value and animal palatability. Red clover (Trifolium pretense), a tall-growing and short-lived perennial, is used for hay, pasture, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitats. While white clover (Trifolium repens), a low-growing perennial, is best suited for grazing, it can also be used for soil improvement and reclaiming disturbed land. | CCD-CP-39
web only | 2 pages | 731 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 512 kb

Switchgrass for Bioenergy
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial bunchgrass native to portions of Kentucky. Once a major component of the Midwestern prairies, switchgrass stands have dwindled as natural grasslands have given way to expanding farms and developments. | CCD-CP-46
web only | 4 pages | 1,779 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 557 kb

Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel
4/18/2013 (new)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results. | CCD-CP-44
web only | 3 pages | 1,465 words | 1 download | PDF: 434 kb

4/18/2013 (minor revision)

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors. | CCD-CP-23
web only | 2 pages | 992 words | - | PDF: 623 kb

Agricultural Land Prices, Supply, Demand and Current Trends
4/17/2013 (new)

The purpose of this article is to describe the incentives faced by farmland buyers and sellers in a supply and demand framework explaining the reasons why farmland values are relatively high. |
web only | 9 pages | - | 168 downloads | PDF: 120 kb

Exchange Traded Funds and Agriculture
4/17/2013 (new)

Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) represent a relatively new form of investment instruments allowing investors easier access to stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities, and futures markets. The purpose of this article is to identify how ETFs operate, their valuation, their history, and provide an example of how a hypothetical ETF functions. |
web only | 8 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 280 kb

Financial Impacts From Farmland Value Declines by Various Farm Ownership Levels
4/17/2013 (new)

Long-term farm financial strength stemming from investment decisions is a primary concern of all producers, bankers, and the entire agricultural industry. Farmland in Kentucky represents the primary resource for producers to accumulate wealth and represents, on average, 75% of producers' assets (KFBM, 2012). In this article, we examine farm financial impacts from farmland value declines by various farmland ownership levels through key financial ratios. |
web only | 8 pages | - | 31 downloads | PDF: 111 kb

Trend Adjustment Availability for Wheat in Kentucky
4/17/2013 (new)

Over the past thirty years, the Kentucky Small Grain Growers have invested nearly 2 million in research dollars aimed at improving Kentucky wheat yields. Consequently, Kentucky producers face a wheat yield trend. The purpose of this short article is to highlight why TA-APH availability for wheat is essential for Kentucky wheat producers. |
web only | 4 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 88 kb

4/5/2013 (minor revision)

Edible young bamboo shoots are used in cooking, while mature canes (or culms) are harvested for timber uses that include fences, stakes, fishing poles, crafts, flooring, and furniture. Because they are capable of removing high levels of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, bamboos are being promoted for their environmental benefits. | CCD-CP-77
web only | 4 pages | 1,968 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 442 kb

Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses. | CCD-CP-45
web only | 3 pages | 1,161 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb

4/2/2013 (minor revision)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the highest yield potential and highest feeding values of all adapted perennial forage legumes. It is a versatile crop that may be used for pasture, hay, silage, green-chop, pellets, cubes, soil improvement, and soil conservation. | CCD-CP-21
web only | 3 pages | 998 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 426 kb

Specialty Soybeans
3/19/2013 (minor revision)

The first commercial use of soybean (Glycine max) was for its oil; however, this crop is now considered a valuable source of protein as well. Specialty or novel soybeans are used to produce various soyfoods of Asian origin, such as tofu, miso, soy sauce, natto, soymilk, and tempeh. Assorted health food snacks, energy foods, and cereals are also produced from specialty soybeans. Other uses include bean sprouts and soy nuts. | CCD-CP-41
web only | 4 pages | 1,605 words | 1 download | PDF: 922 kb

Specialty Field Corns
3/18/2013 (minor revision)

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use. | CCD-CP-40
web only | 3 pages | 995 words | - | PDF: 512 kb

Impact of the "Farms to Food Banks" Produce Sourcing Project
3/15/2013 (new)

The Kentucky Association of Food Banks received a Specialty Crop Block Grant from the Kentucky Department of Agriculture in 2011 for the "Farms to Food Banks" program. This program was designed to increase consumption and awareness of fruits and vegetables among low-income consumers through a targeted local fresh produce distribution program. The University of Kentucky Food Systems Innovation Center assisted with an evaluation of the program toward the end of the 2012 marketing season. The primary objective of the evaluation was to determine how impactful the program was for food bank consumers. This report summarizes the results of food bank client intercept surveys by examining fresh produce consumption barriers and changes in consumption behavior. |
web only | 10 pages | - | 44 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

Using Futures Markets to Manage Price Risk for Feeder Cattle: Advanced Strategies
3/13/2013 (new)

This publication is a follow-up to AEC 2013-01, Using Futures Markets to Manage Price Risk for Feeder Cattle. The first publication provided an introduction to the futures' market and outlined the basic use of futures and options, while this publication will discuss some advanced strategies that are commonly used by cattle producers for price risk management. These strategies will all build upon those discussed in AEC 2013-01, so a basic understanding of futures and options is required. If the reader is unfamiliar with those basic strategies, they are encouraged to master those, before moving to the advanced strategies discussed here. |
web only | 11 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 70 kb

Understanding the Impact of Horse Shows and Competitions in Kentucky
2/20/2013 (new)

While most think of Thoroughbred racing when they think about Kentucky's horse industry, few understand the incredible scope of the non-racing industry and the numerous industries that surround and support it. The objective of this publication is to help readers gain an understanding of Kentucky's non-racing horse industry, and in this case, specifically that of competitive shows and competitions. |
web only | 5 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 600 kb

Using Futures Markets to Manage Price Risk for Feeder Cattle
2/20/2013 (new)

The purpose of this publication is to introduce cattle producers to the futures market as a risk management tool and provide an illustration of how hedging with this tool could provide them with downside price risk protection. |
web only | 10 pages | - | 58 downloads | PDF: 100 kb

Financial Oversight for a Nonprofit Organization
2/6/2013 (new)

To be trusted with financial oversight suggests that the organization has confidence that the individual will manage the funds in a timely, transparent, and accurate manner. Openness in reporting receipts, expenditures, and financial status in a clear format and on a regular basis is vital. | CLD2-11
web only | 3 pages | 1,071 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 299 kb

Drought-Stressed Corn Silage Valuation, 2012
2/6/2013 (new)

Extended dry conditions have impacted the corn crop severely in many areas of the state this year. As the condition of the corn crop deteriorates, many have been forced to look at salvage options such as cutting corn for silage and possibly hay for some fields. Due to the extreme weather conditions this year, this publication will focus on valuing drought-stressed corn silage. | ID-205
web only | 6 pages | 4,213 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 445 kb

2012 Land Value and Cash Rent Survey
1/9/2013 (major revision)

In January 2012, Agriculture and Natural Resource (ANR) agents were surveyed to estimate land values and rental rates for various types of farmland. This document summarizes the results from the agent survey. Dollar values are rounded to the nearest $5-$10 for rental rates and $100 for land values. | AEC-97
web only | 4 pages | 1,249 words | 103 downloads | PDF: 728 kb

Best Practices for Sampling at Farmers Markets: A Practical Guide for Farmers Market Vendors
12/11/2012 (new)

This handbook is intended to assist farmers and farmers market managers understand the economic benefits and best practices of providing samples to farmers market patrons. |
web only | 58 pages | - | 87 downloads | PDF: 14,000 kb

2012 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/6/2012 (new)

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2012 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and several demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in more than 15 counties in Kentucky. Research was conducted by faculty and staff from several departments within the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture including: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Agricultural Economics. This report also includes collaborative research projects conducted with faculty and staff at Kentucky State University. | PR-656
web only | 47 pages | 21,679 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

The Kentucky Agricultural Economic Outlook for 2013
12/5/2012 (new)

| AEC-99
web only | 4 pages | - | 70 downloads | PDF: 490 kb

10/24/2012 (new)

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals. | CCD-CP-47
web only | 3 pages | 1,225 words | - | PDF: 434 kb

10/24/2012 (new)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production. | CCD-CP-22
web only | 3 pages | 1,482 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb

10/23/2012 (new)

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). | CCD-CP-65
web only | 4 pages | 1,887 words | 1 download | PDF: 439 kb

Edible Flowers
9/5/2012 (minor revision)

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption. | CCD-CP-69
web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 396 kb

Southernpean (Cowpea)
8/28/2012 (minor revision)

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed. | CCD-CP-119
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | - | PDF: 432 kb

2012 Kentucky Corn and Soybean ACRE Payment Prospects
7/1/2012 (new)

web only | - | - | 102 downloads | PDF: 116 kb

The Influence of Personal Characteristics: Personality, Culture and Environment: FCS Facilitator's Guide
6/20/2012 (new)

To grow as an effective leader you must understand yourself as well as the differences of personal characteristics in others. | CLD1-9-FCS
web only | 5 pages | 1,365 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 339 kb

Understanding and Dealing with Conflict: FCS Facilitator's Guide
6/20/2012 (new)

Successful conflict resolution relies on understanding how to utilize the correct conflict response for each circumstance and the removal of barriers to effectiveness. | CLD1-7-FCS
web only | 6 pages | 1,117 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 292 kb

Influencing Others with the Stories You Tell: FCS Facilitator's Guide
6/20/2012 (new)

Effective leaders have learned that good illustrations can make a point. Stories can be used to train, mentor, and coach others. | CLD1-4-FCS
web only | 4 pages | 1,398 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 286 kb

High Tunnel Overview
6/12/2012 (new)

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer. | CCD-SP-2
web only | 7 pages | 3,489 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 963 kb

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income. | CCD-SP-12
web only | 6 pages | 2,512 words | 1 download | PDF: 877 kb

Investigating Your Crop Insurance Contract in Front of a Drought
6/1/2012 (new)

web only | - | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 211 kb

Corn Shocks
4/24/2012 (minor revision)

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower. | CCD-CP-68
web only | 2 pages | 767 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb

CME Group Expands Trading Hours and ICE Now Offers US Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat Futures Contracts
3/1/2012 (new)

web only | - | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 102 kb

Trend Adjusted Actual Production History Yield Endorsement
3/1/2012 (new)

web only | - | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 213 kb

Gooseberries and Currants
2/27/2012 (minor revision)

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces. | CCD-CP-6
web only | 3 pages | 1,282 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,000 kb

Sweetpotato Production for Kentucky
2/21/2012 (new)

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a member of the morningglory or Convolvulaceae family. Sweetpotatoes have their origins in tropical America, with early remains having been found in Panama, Peru and Mexico. A perennial plant in their native regions, they are typically killed by frost when grown in a temperate climate. Sweetpotatoes are true roots and not tubers as is the case with the Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Because they are true roots they will continue to grow and enlarge as long as the plant continues to grow. | ID-195
500 printed copies | 16 pages | 6,240 words | 51 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Understanding and Quantifying Year-to-Year Changes in the ACRE Revenue Guarantee
2/20/2012 (new)

The United States Department of Agriculture's Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program guarantees producers revenue at the state level, which is tied to state crop production and the National Average Market Price. Payments trigger when the current state revenue is less than the ACRE program guarantee. | AEC-98
120 printed copies | 2 pages | 686 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 235 kb

2/6/2012 (minor revision)

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta) is a subspecies of wheat that is primarily used as an alternative feed grain for livestock. It is generally grown for on-farm use, often as a substitute for oats. Most of the nation's feed-grade spelt is grown in Ohio. Spelt can also be used in many of the same processed foods as soft red winter wheat (for example, pasta, high fiber cereals, and crackers). Some people with allergies to wheat are not allergic to spelt, making spelt an excellent substitute for wheat in their diets. Spelt products are available through organic and health food stores. | CCD-CP-42
web only | 2 pages | 762 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 348 kb

Woody Biomass for Energy
1/27/2012 (new)

Biomass, when used in reference to renewable energy, is any biological (plant or animal) matter that can be converted to electricity or fuel. Woody biomass refers to biomass material specifically from trees and shrubs. It is most often transformed to usable energy by direct combustion, either alone or co-fired with coal; however, efforts are underway to develop methods to cost effectively convert woody material to liquid fuels. | CCD-CP-49
web only | 5 pages | 2,271 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb

1/25/2012 (new)

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull. | CCD-CP-112
web only | 4 pages | 1,726 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 620 kb

Benefits and Costs Associated with the Wheat Storage Hedge
1/24/2012 (new)

Each year producers must decide whether to store or sell their crop at harvest. Market prices are important in guiding producers on whether to store priced grain for future delivery (referred to as a storage hedge), store unpriced grain, or sell. Generally, producers know more about deciding to sell or store unpriced grain than using the storage hedge. This publication explains how a storage hedge works, when to use it, and risks and costs involved. (See glossary for definition of terms.) | ID-198
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,549 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

1/23/2012 (minor revision)

Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically altered and improved version of rapeseed that was developed for its superior edible oil and high value meal. The term "canola" can only be applied to those varieties that produce less than 2 percent erucic acid. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil, making it a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. The portion of the seed left after the oil is extracted (canola meal) is of value as feed for livestock and poultry. Canola may also be used as an annual forage. In addition, canola is being considered as a source of biodiesel fuel. | CCD-CP-24
web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | 1 download | PDF: 504 kb

The Kentucky Agricultural Economic Outlook for 2012
12/1/2011 (new)

web only | 4 pages | - | 43 downloads | PDF: 153 kb

Profitability of Nitrogen Applications for Stockpiling Tall Fescue Pastures: 2011 Guide
10/5/2011 (new)

The concept of stockpiling is pretty straightforward, but the challenge each year is to determine the likelihood that this practice will be profitable given the economic and agronomic conditions present at mid-summer. This practice can yield significant benefits, but it also carries significant costs. These benefits and costs must be quantified and compared to assess the overall profitability of the practice. | ID-193
web only | 4 pages | 3,344 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 290 kb

9/26/2011 (minor revision)

Agritourism is any commercial enterprise that combines agriculture and tourism on a working farm, ranch, or other agribusiness operation. The Commonwealth of Kentucky defines agritourism as "The act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural, or agribusiness operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation." | CCD-SP-11
web only | 4 pages | 1,409 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 553 kb

Climate Change: A Brief Summary for Kentucky Extension Agents
9/20/2011 (new)

Nearly all climate science experts agree that global warming is occurring and that it is caused primarily by human activity. Regardless of what you may read on blogs or in the media, there is no meaningful scientific controversy on these points. The future impacts of global warming are difficult to predict, but the changes caused by greenhouse gases are expected to increasingly affect Kentucky agriculture. | ID-191
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,975 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

2011 Regional Wine Grape Marketing and Price Outlook
7/20/2011 (new)

Wine grape producers in the Southeast benefited from a rapid increase in the number of wineries in the region during the 1990s and early 2000s. The steady winery growth indicates continued expansion and demand for winegrapes. This survey was conducted in early 2011 to better understand how business practices are developing among wineries in Kentucky and six contiguous states---Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Virginia, and Missouri. | CCD-SV-1
web only | 6 pages | 1,984 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 205 kb

Grain Amaranth
7/19/2011 (new)

Amaranth is a versatile warm-season, broadleaf plant that can be grown as a grain, ornamental, leafy vegetable, or forage crop. In the U.S. it is grown almost exclusively for its grain, which is produced on large, brightly colored seed heads. Most grain amaranth grown in the States is Amaranthus hypochondriacus; however, A. cruentus is grown to a lesser extent. The seeds are high in lysine, fiber, and protein; low in saturated fats; and gluten-free. Amaranth can be ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal. Because many of amaranth's uses are similar to that of cereal grasses, amaranth is often referred to as a pseudo-cereal. | CCD-CP-30
web only | 3 pages | 1,239 words | 1 download | PDF: 442 kb

Turfgrass Sod Production
7/18/2011 (minor revision)

The demand for sod is highly dependent on new housing starts and industrial development. Because turfgrass is highly perishable once harvested, it cannot be shipped long distances, thus favoring local production. Most Kentucky-grown sod is marketed locally and little is either exported to or imported from neighboring states. While temporary sod shortages may occur, there is generally no consistent shortage of cultivated sod in Kentucky, indicating that current production is meeting demand. The market is extremely tight and new growers will have to produce a better quality turfgrass at a lower price in order to compete. | CCD-CP-74
web only | 3 pages | 928 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 475 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: Market Research for Value-added Products
6/28/2011 (new)

The University of Kentucky's Center for Crop Diversification has sponsored several market research projects evaluating the value consumers place on different crops and product characteristics. This fact sheet will report the results of that research. | CCD-MP-15
web only | 5 pages | 1,714 words | 1 download | PDF: 791 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Overview
6/28/2011 (new)

"Value-added agriculture" is a broad term encompassing many practices that increase the value of farm products. Value-added agriculture has come to describe practices as varied as agritourism activities that provide consumers value from visiting a farm to large-scale processing endeavors that create mass-market retail food products from commodity crops. | CCD-MP-14
web only | 4 pages | 1,340 words | - | PDF: 741 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: An Introduction to Policies and Regulations for Kentucky Producers
6/28/2011 (new)

This profile identifies the policies and regulations experienced by many value-added crop producers in Kentucky. This is a summary and is intended only to highlight key considerations for crop producers considering value-added products. Producers should always conduct their own investigation of relevant local, state, and federal requirements for their intended value-added production enterprise. | CCD-MP-13
web only | 5 pages | 1,785 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 705 kb

Adding Value to Plant Production: A Summary of Kentucky Products
6/28/2011 (new)

While a complete list of value-added crop products is impractical due to the number of these products marketed from Kentucky crops, producers considering new value-added enterprises may be helped by a summary of products with similar marketing characteristics. The major types of value-added products derived from Kentucky-grown crops listed here are grouped by marketing characteristics. This profile also includes brief summaries of several Kentucky value-added producer success stories. | CCD-MP-12
web only | 7 pages | 2,706 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Season Extension Tools and Techniques
6/22/2011 (minor revision)

Season extension techniques can be as simple as selecting early maturing varieties; or they can be a more complex combination of multiple methods. Regardless, the objective is to extend the growing season by producing earlier crops in the spring and/or push production later into the fall and early winter. | CCD-SP-3
web only | 5 pages | 2,102 words | 1 download | PDF: 807 kb

Greenhouse Structures
5/25/2011 (minor revision)

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job. | CCD-SP-1
web only | 5 pages | 1,764 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 807 kb

The Influence of Personal Characteristics: Personality, Culture and Environment
4/26/2011 (new)

Fundamentally, leadership involves human interaction. Thus, understanding ourselves, our temperaments and why we tend to respond in certain ways is important in our development as a leader and in working with others to reach shared goals. | CLD1-9
web only | 3 pages | 1,476 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 278 kb

Organic Corn for Feed or Food
2/14/2011 (new)

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production | CCD-CP-37
web only | 6 pages | 2,534 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

Understanding and Dealing with Conflict
1/6/2011 (new)

There are a number of ways to respond to conflict, and the response will depend on the situation. Avoiding, accommodating, competing, compromising, and collaborating are all responses to conflict. | CLD1-7
web only | 2 pages | 750 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 316 kb

Influencing Others with the Stories You Tell
1/6/2011 (new)

Effective leaders have learned that good illustrations can make a point. Stories can be used to train, mentor, and coach others. | CLD1-4
web only | 2 pages | 802 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 235 kb

12/20/2010 (minor revision)

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid. | CCD-CP-115
web only | 2 pages | 820 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 747 kb

An Introduction to Futures Hedging for Grain Producers
8/12/2010 (new)

This guide is written for farm producers who want to know the basics of how futures markets operate and how to use them for protection against the risk of falling prices. | AEC-96
200 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 1,363 kb

2009 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
1/7/2010 (new)

The 2009 report has been organized according to our primary areas of emphasis: production and economics, pest management, and plant evaluation. These areas reflect stated industry needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world that generate information applicable to Kentucky. | PR-602
1,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,258 kb

Corn and Soybean Production Calendar
12/16/2009 (reprinted)

The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur. | ID-159
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 650 kb

2008 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/1/2008 (new)

| PR-572
1,100 printed copies | 72 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 800 kb

2008 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
12/1/2008 (new)

| PR-571
1,100 printed copies | 30 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,476 kb

Ornamental Corn Production
7/10/2008 (minor revision)

| HO-81
1,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,234 kb

Understanding USDA's Livestock Risk Protection Insurance Program for Feeder Catle
7/1/2008 (new)

web only | 7 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 60 kb

2007 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
11/29/2007 (new)

| PR-555
1,000 printed copies | 92 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

2007 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
11/26/2007 (new)

| PR-554
1,100 printed copies | 48 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Temporary Fencing for Horse Pastures
8/24/2007 (new)

| ID-165
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Ornamental Gourd Production in Kentucky
1/3/2007 (minor revision)

| ID-119
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 281 kb

2006 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/15/2006 (new)

| PR-538
1,100 printed copies | 82 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,337 kb

2006 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/15/2006 (new)

| PR-537
1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 2,115 kb

The American Private Enterprise System
10/15/2006 (reprinted)

| AEC-90
2,000 printed copies | 36 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 891 kb

2006 New Crop Opportunities Research Report
7/15/2006 (new)

| PR-533
web only | 72 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,359 kb

2005 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/30/2005 (new)

| PR-521
1,100 printed copies | 98 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,555 kb

2005 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/30/2005 (new)

| PR-520
1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 5,168 kb

Agricultural Cooperatives - How They Fit Into the American Free Enterprise System
10/30/2005 (reprinted)

| AEC-42
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

The Kentucky Beef Book
9/15/2005 (minor revision)

| ID-108
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 28 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

Grain Farming Primer for Landowners
4/30/2005 (new)

| ID-155
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 158 kb

A Profile of Female Farmers in Kentucky
2/1/2005 (reprinted)

| AEC-89
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 315 kb

2004 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/20/2004 (new)

| PR-502
1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | - | PDF: 2,376 kb

2004 Fruit and Vegetable Report
12/15/2004 (new)

| PR-504
1,100 printed copies | 74 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,899 kb

Grazing Corn: an Option for Extending the Grazing Season in Kentucky
7/15/2004 (reprinted)

| ID-152
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 266 kb

2003 Research and Extension Beef Report
6/1/2004 (new)

| SR-2004-2
500 printed copies | 43 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 481 kb

2003 Summary of the Five State Beef Initiative in Kentucky
5/30/2004 (new)

| ID-151
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 309 kb

Round Bale Hay Storage in Kentucky
4/1/2004 (reprinted)

| AGR-171
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Conducting a Feasibility Study for Marketing Cooperatives
3/31/2004 (reprinted)

| AEC-45
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

Shiitake Production: Potential Profits from a Small-Scale Shiitake Enterprise
3/21/2004 (reprinted)

| FOR-88
950 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 25 downloads | PDF: 242 kb

Cattle Handling Facilities
12/19/2003 (reprinted)

Cattle handling facilities are used to confine cattle safely and efficiently for close observation and to perform routine health and management procedures. Adequate facilities are an essential part of an efficient cattle operation for any producer who wants to improve marketing, cattle health, and production. A well-planned handling facility can help you save money by making easier practices such as preventive health management, pregnancy testing, implanting, controlling parasites, vaccinating, castrating, and dehorning. | AEN-82
2,000 printed copies | 36 pages | - | 266 downloads | PDF: 1,386 kb

2003 Fruit and Vegetable Report
12/15/2003 (new)

| PR-488
1,100 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 1 kb

2003 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/5/2003 (new)

| PR-486
1,200 printed copies | 42 pages | - | - | PDF: 474 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Understanding Cooperative Terminology
11/15/2003 (reprinted)

| AEC-47
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 78 kb

Community Economic Analysis Strategies: Tools and Data
3/10/2003 (new)

| AEC-93
250 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 116 kb

2002 Fruit and Vegetable Report
1/3/2003 (new)

| PR-470
1,000 printed copies | 65 pages | - | - | PDF: 2,400 kb

2002 Nursery and Landscape Report
1/3/2003 (new)

| PR-468
1,200 printed copies | 42 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,900 kb

Understanding Beef Carcass Data Reports
11/15/2002 (new)

| ID-150
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 90 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Food Buying Organizations
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-61
500 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Guidelines for Writing Cooperative Bylaws
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-60
500 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Refunds: Patronage and Revolving
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-54
500 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 44 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Taxation Should Your Cooperative Be 'Exempt' or 'Non-Exempt'?
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-53
500 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Role of the Co-Op Manager
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-51
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Your Role as a Co-Op Member
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-50
1,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 69 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: General Guidelines for Writing Co-Op Articles of Incorporation
10/15/2002 (reprinted)

| AEC-48
500 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | MS Word: 38 kb

Kentucky Rural Health Works: Connecting Health Care and Economic Development
8/27/2002 (new)

| AEC-92
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 45 kb

2001 UK Nursery and Landscape Program
12/1/2001 (new)

| PR-450
web only | 40 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 369 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky
9/30/2001 (new)

The corn grown in Kentucky is used mainly for livestock feed and as a cash crop. As a cash crop sold from the farm, corn ranks third behind tobacco and soybeans but is the number one row crop in terms of acreage. Because the cost of producing an acre of corn is high and the value per bushel has declined in recent years, producers must manage and market their corn crop more carefully for adequate profits. The goal of this publication is to serve as a guide for corn production strategies that focus on efficient use of resources and provide the principles and practices for obtaining maximum, profitable corn yields. | ID-139
7,500 printed copies | 64 pages | 37,214 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 639 kb

Biotechnology in Our Food System: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers
9/15/2001 (reprinted)

| BREI-1
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 238 kb

Guidelines for Adopting Precision Agricultural Practices
5/15/2001 (new)

| PA-2
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 85 kb

2000 UK Nursery and Landscape Program
1/1/2001 (new)

| PR-437
1,800 printed copies | 38 pages | - | - | PDF: 574 kb

Directions for Using the Farm Planning Tool
12/1/2000 (new)

| AEC-91
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 78 downloads | PDF: 245 kb

Molecular Farming
9/29/2000 (new)

| BREI-5
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 272 kb

Marketing Options for Commercial Vegetable Growers
9/7/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-134
3,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 598 kb

No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky
5/1/2000 (new)

| ID-136
5,000 printed copies | 11 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

Consumer Trends: An Overview
3/15/2000 (new)

| IP-58A
1,500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 15 downloads | PDF: 201 kb

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Building a Base
3/15/2000 (new)

| IP-58B
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 88 kb

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Vegetables
3/15/2000 (new)

| IP-58C
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 90 kb

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Fruits
3/15/2000 (new)

| IP-58D
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 89 kb

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Dairy
3/15/2000 (new)

| IP-58E
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 87 kb

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Protein Foods
3/15/2000 (new)

| IP-58F
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 91 kb

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Fats, Oils and Sweets
3/15/2000 (new)

| IP-58G
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 92 kb

Dairy Simulation of Put Options
1/31/2000 (new)

| AEC-88
550 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 255 kb

Put Options as Price Insurance for Dairy Farmers
1/31/2000 (new)

| AEC-87
550 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 188 kb

Risk Management Tools for Dairy Farmers: Options on Dairy Futures
1/30/2000 (new)

| AEC-86
350 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 204 kb

Risk Management Tools for DaIry Farmers: Dairy Futures Contracts
1/30/2000 (new)

| AEC-85
350 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 75 kb

Fruit and Vegetable Crop Research Report 1999
12/31/1999 (new)

| PR-423
750 printed copies | 43 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 712 kb

Nursery and Landscape Program: 1999 Research Report
12/31/1999 (new)

| PR-422
web only | 33 pages | - | - | PDF: 689 kb

Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
9/8/1999 (new)

| IP-57
3,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 43 downloads | PDF: 641 kb

Assessment of the Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
9/1/1999 (new)

| IP-56
1,000 printed copies | 18 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 794 kb

Low Cost Post-Row Field Tobacco Curing Framework
5/1/1999 (minor revision)

| ID-116
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 202 kb

Fruit and Vegetable Program: 1998 Research Report
12/1/1998 (new)

The emphases in our research program reflect industry-defined needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world generating information applicable to Kentucky. Although the purpose of this publication is to report research results, the report also highlights our Extension program and Undergraduate and Graduate degree programs that address the needs of the horticultural industries. | PR-410
web only | 46 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 335 kb

Nursery and Landscape Program: 1998 Research Report
12/1/1998 (new)

| PR-409
web only | 44 pages | - | - | PDF: 318 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative YardsTick: Cooperative Education and Communication
11/1/1998 (minor revision)

| AEC-56
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 75 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Financing Agricultural Cooperatives
11/1/1998 (minor revision)

| AEC-52
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 72 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Boards of Directors for Farm Cooperatives Powers-Responsibilities-LiabilIty
11/1/1998 (reprinted)

| AEC-49
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 75 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Farmer and Consumer Cooperatives Structure and Classification
11/1/1998 (minor revision)

| AEC-44
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 74 kb

A Brief Look at Farmland Conversion in Kentucky
9/1/1998 (new)

| AEC-84
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 100 kb

A Cost Comparison of Three 10-Acre Tobacco Transplant Production Systems
2/15/1998 (reprinted)

| ID-129
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 209 kb

Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar
9/1/1997 (reprinted)

| ID-125A
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 117 kb

Overview of Kentucky's Tobacco Economy
6/1/1997 (new)

| AEC-83
8,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 217 kb

Factors to Consider in Bringing Idle Land Back to Production
4/1/1997 (new)

| ID-124
5,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 228 kb

The US Tobacco Program: How It Works and Who Pays for It
9/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-82
10,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 113 kb

1996 Kentucky Custom Rates for Farm Machinery
6/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-81
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 237 kb

Guidelines for Public Issues Education
6/1/1996 (reprinted)

| IP-53
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 311 kb

Kentucky Farm Machinery Economic Cost Estimates for 1996
5/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-80
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 142 kb

1995 Farm Bill
5/1/1995 (new)

| AEC-79
600 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 227 kb

Production-Oriented Lamb Marketing
6/1/1994 (reprinted)

Grading and marketing lambs is the culmination of a year-long program. Decisions concerning marketing and the management of lambs still on the farm markedly affect the success of a sheep producing program. By its prices for different types of lambs, the market sends signals about what should be produced. Managers must look at price trends over time and compare them with production costs. Your income is the true measure of success in any production program. The steps to a good marketing program include analyzing both the market and the product you plan to market. | ID-102
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 31 kb

Macroeconomic Policy Linkages to Agriculture
12/2/1993 (reprinted)

| AEC-71
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 119 kb

Adoption of Bst
6/1/1993 (new)

| BULL-725
web only | 12 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 236 kb

Kentucky Dairy Termination Program Participants
2/1/1993 (new)

| PR-347
web only | 8 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 155 kb

Adoption of Bovine Somatotropin
2/1/1993 (new)

| PR-346
web only | 8 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

Canola Production and Management
9/1/1992 (new)

| ID-114
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 200 kb

Establishing and Operating a Community Farmers' Market
8/1/1992 (new)

| AEC-77
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Buying and Selling Burley Quota: What Factors Should Farmers Consider?
10/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-76
2,000 printed copies | 7 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 67 kb

Global Policies and US Agricultural Trade
8/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-74
250 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 58 kb

Understanding Produce Marketing for Kentucky's Direct Markets
8/1/1991 (new)

| ID-107
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 19 kb

Promotion and Advertising for Kentucky's Direct Markets
8/1/1991 (new)

| ID-106
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 43 kb

Macroeconomic and International Policy Terms
7/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-75
250 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 54 kb

A Review of Macroeconomic Policy Linkages to Agriculture
7/1/1991 (reprinted)

| AEC-72
250 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 512 kb

Kentucky Christmas Tree Production Workbook Budgeting and Economics
12/10/1988 (reprinted)

| FOR-36
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 60 kb

Using Drought-Stressed Corn Harvesting, Storage, Feeding, Pricing and Marketing
8/1/1988 (new)

| ID-86
7,500 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 32 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: Cooperative Mergers, Aquisitions and Other Forms of Restructuring
8/1/1987 (new)

| AEC-58
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | MS Word: 40 kb

The Farmer's Cooperative Yardstick: How to Start a Cooperative
9/1/1986 (new)

| AEC-43
8,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb