University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

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Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Publications

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2019-2020
12/4/2018 (major revision)

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco. | ID-160
6,000 printed copies | 84 pages | 68,090 words | 190 downloads | PDF: 4,150 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Soybean Management in Kentucky
6/7/2018 (new)

This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky. | ID-249
2,500 printed copies | 84 pages | 44,074 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 38,987 kb

Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands
3/19/2018 (new)

Wide fluctuations in springtime temperature are common in Kentucky. Late freezing temperatures in the spring can cause damage to alfalfa depending on how far along it is in breaking dormancy. This publication provides information on the effect of low spring temperatures on both established and new alfalfa stands that have begun growth, as well as a method of predicting sensitivity to late frosts or freezes. | AGR-236
web only | 3 pages | 2,110 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 2,397 kb

Baleage: Frequently Asked Questions
3/5/2018 (new)

Baled silage, or "baleage", is an excellent method for forage harvest, storage and feed efficiency. Baled silage allows forage to be harvested at higher whole plant moisture levels than required for dry hay. Baleage is ideal for spring cuttings of annual and perennial forages when seasonally frequent rainfall events provide little opportunity for properly curing dry hay. Many producers who want to harvest high quality small grain crops have found baleage to be a good fit for their operation. | AGR-235
web only | 4 pages | 2,625 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 145 kb

Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation
11/21/2017 (new)

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area. | AEN-134
web only | 13 pages | 3,535 words | 151 downloads | PDF: 2,430 kb

Rainwater Harvesting for Livestock Production Systems
11/7/2017 (new)

Abundant, clean drinking water is an essential nutrient for livestock. The obvious water source that is recommended by veterinarians is city water. However, city water has its drawbacks. City water distribution systems are often expensive to install and have a recurring usage charge. In some instances, city water is unavailable, may have inadequate pressure, or producers consider it too expensive to operate, forcing them to use streams and ponds to water livestock. Collecting rainwater from a catchment area, is a low cost, high quality alternative water source that can supplement traditional water distribution systems and improve the environmental quality of farming operations. Rainwater harvesting involves the collection of rainfall from rooftops or land based catchments systems for storage and distribution as needed. Capturing rainfall has the added benefit of improving water quality by reducing soil erosion and runoff. Strategically installed rainwater harvesting systems can be used to direct stormwater around sensitive areas of the farm where animal waste is present, thus reducing the potential for nutrient and pathogen delivery to nearby waterways. Rainwater harvesting and stormwater management techniques can also reduce the volume of water that must be managed in liquid manure management systems by diverting clean water away from manure pits and lagoons. | AEN-135
web only | 5 pages | 2,801 words | 60 downloads | PDF: 807 kb

Appropriate All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock
10/16/2017 (minor revision)

Many livestock producers would say that mud is a natural part of livestock production. But the creation of mud costs producers money and makes them less competitive. Livestock that walk through mud require more feed for energy but actually eat less because walking in mud requires more effort to get to feed and water. Therefore, mud decreases average daily gains. Mud accumulation on the coat increases the amount of energy needed to generate heat in the winter or to keep cool in the summer. Also, it can lower sale prices due to hanging tags. The creation of mud also increases animal stress and leads to a variety of health problems, including protozoan and bacterial infections. It is essential that livestock producers understand that mud hinders cost-efficient livestock production and efforts should be made to limit the creation of mud. This publication explains how mud is created and describes different types of hardened surfaces and pads that agricultural producers should use to reduce mud creation and ultimately increase production efficiency and protect natural resources. | AEN-115
web only | 8 pages | 3,441 words | 209 downloads | PDF: 2,730 kb

Tire Tanks for Watering Livestock
8/8/2017 (new)

Kentucky's abundant forage and extensive stream system have helped the Commonwealth become the largest beef producing state east of the Mississippi River. While streams and ponds serve as a water source for many operations, livestock can quickly degrade soil and water quality by trampling streambanks and defecating and urinating in and around waterbodies. These actions increase sediment, pathogen, and nutrient loads to streams, rivers, and lakes which in turn can causes eutrophication. To help protect the health of Kentucky's soil and water, producers can implement best management practices (BMPs). These practices help reduce the sources of pollutants and/or the transport of pollutants to waterways. One such practice or BMP is limiting cattle access to streams and ponds. When producers exclude livestock access to stream and ponds and their associated riparian buffers, an alternative source of water is required. Automatic water fountains are one commonly used means of providing cattle with water from an alternate source. A water tank constructed using a heavy equipment tire may serve as a viable option for supplying livestock with an alternate source of water. | AEN-133
web only | 8 pages | 4,702 words | 112 downloads | PDF: 4,650 kb

Measuring the Ph of Different Food Products
7/21/2017 (new)

The scientific scale for measuring how acidic or basic a substance is when it is dissolved in water is called pH. The pH scale runs from 0 - 14. 0 means it is very acidic, 7 means it is neither acidic nor basic, but just right in the middle like plain water (neutral), and 14 means it is very basic. If you are producing a food product that depends on the acidic components or ingredients of the product to extend its shelf life and ensure the safety of the product, monitoring the pH of food products is very important. Food safety is the biggest reason for monitoring pH, but pH also influences the quality of food products. | ID-246
web only | 2 pages | 1,743 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 365 kb

Central Kentucky Backyard Stream Guide
2/1/2017 (new)

Many urban homeowners are not sure what to do about the stream in their backyard. Who owns it? How can I take care of it? What plants are good for my streambanks? These common questions lead to some confusing answers. This publication is designed to help the homeowner of a backyard stream appreciate this resource, protect personal property, and improve water quality and habitat. | ID-242
1,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,530 words | 123 downloads | PDF: 15,699 kb

Modeling Best Management Practices
10/20/2016 (new)

Understanding the effectiveness of BMPs based on their location in the watershed and in relation to different types of pollutants is an important part of protecting waterbodies. One way to do this is with the use of models. | AEN-132
web only | 3 pages | 1,386 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 652 kb

2011 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
8/30/2016 (new)

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry. | PR-641
web only | 32 pages | 14,698 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 7,642 kb

Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
8/2/2016 (new)

Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production. | ID-236
web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | 95 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb

Farmstead Planning: Old Farm Buildings Repurposed for Better Farming: How to Develop a Complex
6/6/2016 (new)

The traditional farmstead planning process might have been ideal for farming operations set up on blank slate farms that were surveyed based on 640-acre sections. However, these concepts are more challenging for irregular shaped farms in Kentucky with existing structures built more than a half century ago. Older farm buildings may be underutilized because they were constructed using what would be considered obsolete technologies today. It is essential that producers take the time and obtain the necessary help to develop their farming operation plan in order to realize their potential and achieve their goals. | AEN-131
web only | 3 pages | 1,648 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 516 kb

Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
3/4/2016 (minor revision)

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment. | ID-211
web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | 165 downloads | PDF: 3,600 kb

Drought Risk Management for Beef Cattle Farms
2/25/2016 (new)

Once a drought occurs, it can be difficult to effectively manage your resources and overcome the conditions that drought creates. At the heart of effective drought management is preparedness. A systems-management approach is an ideal tool for drought preparedness, as its goal is to improve each component of the farming operation (soils, forages, facilities, stock, etc.) and improve the connections between the components (i.e. the system). The goal of this publication is to aid beef producers in implementing best management practices (BMPs) that take a systems approach to maximizing farm water use efficiency, while operating under the assumption that water is becoming an increasingly uncertain resource that is vital to the future of the farm. | AEN-130
web only | 7 pages | 3,539 words | 54 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months. | ID-125
1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb

Measuring Discharge in Wadeable Streams
2/9/2016 (new)

Knowing the amount of water flowing in a stream can improve management practices such as those related to streambank erosion, pollutant loading and transport, and flood control. Streamflow or discharge is defined as the volume of water moving past a specific point in a stream for a fixed period of time. | AEN-129
web only | 4 pages | 1,273 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 2,288 kb

Sediment Fingerprinting
2/9/2016 (new)

Sediments in waterbodies cause a number of problems such as harming aquatic habitats, filling reservoirs, and worsening flooding. High amounts of sediment in the water inhibit the ability of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates to move, breathe, hunt and reproduce. Accumulated sediments in reservoirs reduces their useful life and increases costs associated with maintenance. Streams experiencing such sediment buildup carry less water during storm events. | AEN-128
web only | 4 pages | 1,721 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,506 kb

Hydrologic Modeling
2/9/2016 (new)

Increased levels of urbanization result in reductions in the amount of rainfall that infiltrates and evapotranspires and increases the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. These changes can result in flooding, streambank erosion, and water quality degradation. Hydrologic models are useful in understanding watersheds and how changes in a watershed can affect hydrology. Hydrologic models can predict the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff under different scenarios. | AEN-127
web only | 5 pages | 2,704 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 844 kb

Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
2/8/2016 (new)

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations. | ID-234
web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb

All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
7/28/2015 (new)

Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities. | ID-229
web only | 6 pages | 2,612 words | 89 downloads | PDF: 2,980 kb

Aquatic Macroinvertebrates: Biological Indicators of Stream Health
5/12/2015 (new)

Streams are an important part of the landscape. Streams transport water, sediment and energy; provide habitat for aquatic life and support terrestrial life; provide a place for recreation; and in many cases serve as a water supply. The health of streams---or their ability to perform these important functions---is dependent on the conditions of the watersheds which they drain. Changes in land use within a watershed can affect a stream's health. | ID-228
web only | 5 pages | 1,962 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 4,800 kb

Organic Corn Production in Kentucky
1/15/2015 (new)

The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms. | ID-225
2,000 printed copies | 30 pages | 19,856 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

Common Hazards in Karst Terrain
11/11/2014 (new)

Karst refers to terrain largely drained by subsurface conduits and caves. Karst landscapes are characterized by surface features such as springs, sinkholes, shallow depressions, and rolling hills. Karst regions are also known for their subsurface or below-ground features such as conduits and caves. What makes a karst region unique is the way runoff drains from the land. In karst regions, some of the runoff flows into surface features such as sinkholes where it then travels underground. Some of this infiltrated water re-emerges at springs, and some continues moving underground. | AEN-126
web only | 4 pages | 1,581 words | 73 downloads | PDF: 2,704 kb

Closing a Liquid Manure Storage Structure
8/11/2014 (new)

Liquid manure storage structures, such as a lagoon, holding pond, or pit, serve an essential purpose on an active livestock operation. However, when this structure is no longer actively managed it can become a major liability to the producer because of its potential to have a discharge. The discharge from a liquid manure storage structure can contain pollutants such as nutrients, heavy metals, hormones, pathogens, and agriculture chemicals, all of which can pose serious threats to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Because of the pollution potential, livestock producers ceasing their operation are required to close their liquid manure storage structure(s) as part of their Kentucky No Discharge Operational Permit. To help offset the costs of closing the structure, producers may want to apply for cost share funds through the Division of Conservation. Before beginning to close a liquid manure structure, the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) must be provided with a closure plan. This publication outlines the preferred practices and steps for closing a liquid manure structure to meet the guidelines of the KDOW. | AEN-125
web only | 2 pages | 1,148 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 106 kb

Streambank Erosion
7/23/2014 (new)

Streambank erosion refers to the removal of soil and other material, such as rock and vegetation, from the streambank. Streambank erosion is a naturally occurring process, but the rate at which it occurs is often increased by anthropogenic or human activities such as urbanization and agriculture. Changes in land use can cause streambanks to erode at rates much faster than those seen in natural, undisturbed systems. | AEN-124
web only | 8 pages | 2,133 words | 96 downloads | PDF: 3,112 kb

Lowering Somatic Cell Counts with Best Management Practices
5/14/2014 (new)

As health and food safety concerns grow, dairy producers are facing more stringent regulations. In 2010, the European Union (EU) set the somatic cell count (SCC) upper limit, an indicator of milk quality, for exported milk at 400,000 cells per milliliter. However, the current U.S. SCC limit is 750,000 cells per milliliter. As of January 2012, any U.S. milk used in export markets must meet the EU standards. It is projected that US milk processors will gradually adopt the EU upper limit, making it difficult for dairy producers to sell milk containing more than 400,000 somatic cells per milliliter. Dairy producers will have to find innovative and cost-effective ways to reduce the somatic cell count of their milk. This publication will discuss how agriculture best management practices can be used to lower SCC. | AEN-123
web only | 4 pages | 2,808 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Increasing Dry Cow and Bred Heifer Performance with Environmental Management
4/23/2014 (new)

Producers must understand that dry cows and bred heifers are the next milking herd, so focusing on their management can maintain or actually increase future profitability. This publication focuses on environmental management strategies that improve dry cow and bred heifer performance. | AEN-121
web only | 3 pages | 1,606 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 454 kb

Technology to Improve Sprayer Accuracy
3/26/2014 (new)

A number of new technologies have been introduced over the last several years aimed at improving the accuracy of spray application, but do they really work? The purpose of this document is to highlight the most common causes of application errors then discuss the array of new sprayer technologies that are becoming available, how they might affect application accuracy, and pitfalls involved in using them. | PA-9
500 printed copies | 10 pages | 5,166 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Restoring Streams
3/4/2014 (new)

Stream restoration is the re-establishment of the structure (dimension, pattern, and profile) and function (transport of water, sediment, and nutrients; habitat provision) of a degraded stream as closely as possible to pre-disturbance conditions. | AEN-122
web only | 5 pages | 1,752 words | 112 downloads | PDF: 3,632 kb

Groundwater Quality
1/6/2014 (new)

Groundwater is an important water source for activities such as drinking, bathing, cooking, and crop irrigation. Keeping our groundwater sources clean is becoming more challenging with an ever growing population. In watersheds underlain with karst, such as many of those in Kentucky, the groundwater is more susceptible to contamination. This is because surface waters, such as runoff and in some cases streamflow, travel into the subsurface of karst by way of fractures, sinkholes, swallow holes, conduits and caves Such direct paths into the groundwater mean that pollutants reach the aquifer much more quickly with little to no filtration. Thus, while waters from springs and wells may look clean, they may actually contain unsafe levels of pollutants such as bacteria and nitrogen. | AEN-120
web only | 3 pages | 888 words | 76 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Keeping Trash Out of Streams
11/14/2013 (new)

Fresh water is an essential natural resource that is used every day for drinking, bathing, cooking, cleaning, and recreation. In Kentucky, the water used for these tasks mainly comes from streams and rivers, but it can also come from groundwater. Because our streams, rivers, and aquifers are so vital to our daily lives, it is important that we protect them from trash, debris, and other pollutants found in stormwater. What happens to the land around these water sources affects their condition and health. | AEN-119
web only | 2 pages | 941 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Managing Stormwater Using Low Impact Development (LID) Techniques
8/21/2013 (new)

As more land is covered by impervious surfaces, less rainfall infiltrates into the ground and instead becomes runoff. Too much runoff is problematic. Flooding increases, streambanks erode, and water quality is reduced. An increase of impervious area of as little 10 percent has been shown to negatively impact streams. The purpose of this publication is to explain low impact development strategies and how they can be used to improve stormwater management by reducing impacts on streams. | AEN-118
web only | 8 pages | 3,384 words | 89 downloads | PDF: 5,300 kb

Stormwater Wetlands
7/1/2013 (new)

As our population has grown, so have our towns and cities, and this growth has led to an increase in stormwater runoff. Stormwater best management practices help mitigate the impact of stormwater runoff on water quality by reducing pollutant loads through physical, chemical and/or biological processes. One of the most effective BMPs at improving stormwater quality is the stormwater wetland. | ID-215
web only | 4 pages | 2,647 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

6/21/2013 (new)

As stormwater moves across lawns and paved areas, it picks up bacteria, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals before traveling through the storm sewers to our water bodies. Because the stormwater is not cleaned or treated, it creates harmful conditions for the environment and for us. | HENV-203
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 501 words | 109 downloads | PDF: 3,675 kb

Planting Along Your Stream, Pond, or Lake
6/21/2013 (new)

Kentucky has more than 90,000 miles of rivers and streams and thousands of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. You can improve your surroundings and the quality of your stream, pond, or lake by planting an area called a riparian buffer or buffer zone. | HENV-202
500 printed copies | 8 pages | 710 words | 112 downloads | PDF: 3,979 kb

On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

Animal mortalities are an expected part of animal production. Depending on the scale of the animal enterprise, animal mortalities can overwhelm the producer with a large number and mass of dead animals. This publication provides guidance to the producer for handling animal mortalities in accordance with Kentucky law. | ID-167
web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

On-Farm Composting of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

On-farm composting can provide animal producers with a convenient method for disposing of animal mortalities and also provide a valuable soil amendment. In addition, the finished compost can be stockpiled and reused to help compost other mortalities. | ID-166
web only | 6 pages | 2,973 words | 101 downloads | PDF: 2,800 kb

Mulching with Large Round Bales between Plastic-covered Beds
4/26/2013 (new)

Large round bales lend themselves very well to the application of mulching rows of vegetables because the bales can be unrolled to peel off layers that are about the right thickness for mulch. An innovative implement that offsets the bale so that it can be unrolled between the rows while the tractor straddles the row can make the practice of mulching with round bales considerably more efficient. | ID-214
250 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,335 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb

2011 Kentucky Compost Bedded Pack Barn Project
4/26/2013 (new)

Kentucky dairy producers are adopting compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) as dairy cattle housing at a rapid rate. When properly managed, as an alternative dairy housing system, CBPs may decrease somatic cell count (SCC), increase production, and reduce lameness. Because the system is relatively new, however, many questions remain regarding best management practices and key factors for success. University of Kentucky dairy scientists and agricultural engineers conducted a comprehensive observational study of Kentucky CBPs from October 2010 to March 2011. The goal of this research was to determine key management concepts that determine success or failure in the compost-bedded pack system. | ID-213
web only | 13 pages | 6,600 words | 87 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Modifying a Bale Unroller for Mulching between Plastic-covered Beds
4/25/2013 (new)

Round bales of hay or straw can be used to mulch between rows of plastic film mulch used in vegetable production. This practice may be particularly useful for organic production where herbicide use is prohibited. To make the job of unrolling round bales between rows of plastic easier, a commercially available three-point hitch mounted bale unroller was modified by extending the toolbar and adding a second mast so that the bale is offset, allowing the tractor to straddle a row of plastic while unrolling the bale between the rows. | AEN-117
250 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,496 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 3,400 kb

Environmental Compliance for Dairy Operations
4/24/2013 (new)

Some farmers are reluctant to talk about the environment, but because farms are under increasing review by state and federal regulatory agencies, producers need to be familiar with environmental issues and regulations. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can help farmers continue to protect the environment and increase productivity. | ID-200
web only | 6 pages | 4,179 words | 61 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Feedlot Design and Environmental Management for Backgrounding and Stocker Operations
3/21/2013 (new)

Kentucky's cattle industry represents the largest beef cattle herd east of the Mississippi, ranking eighth in the nation for number of beef cows. This industry is extremely important to Kentucky's economy. This publication discusses site evaluation strategies, production area management techniques, and a variety of facility types for intensive cattle production that preserve natural resources and improve production. | ID-202
125 printed copies | 12 pages | 6,071 words | 130 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb

Algae-Based CO2 Mitigation for Coal-Fired Power Plants
1/22/2013 (new)

As the world's population swells and the needs of developing countries increase, the world's overall energy usage also continues to rise. Recent international legislation emphasizes the effects of climate change and the crucial need to find a way to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions being released into the environment. Consequently, power plants have an increased urgency to find a viable way to decrease their GHG emissions. This issue has prominent implications for Kentucky due to our economy's dependence upon coal production. | AEN-116
web only | 3 pages | 1,233 words | 87 downloads | PDF: 1,938 kb

Compost Bedded Pack Barn Design: Features and Management Consideration
11/12/2012 (new)

The compost bedded pack barn is a housing system for lactating dairy cows. It consists of a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings and manure composted into place and mechanically stirred on a regular basis. | ID-206
web only | 32 pages | 5,724 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 15,444 kb

Using Weep Berms to Improve Water Quality
11/9/2012 (new)

Non-point source pollution (NPS) occurs when rainfall and snowmelt flows over the ground, picking up pollutants such as pathogens, sediments, and nutrients on its way to streams, rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. More than 50 percent of the nation's rivers and streams and nearly 70 percent of the nation's lakes are impacted by NPS. Pathogens, sediments, and nutrients are the biggest contributors to impairment of rivers and streams while mercury, nutrients, and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are the biggest contributors to the impairment of lakes. One method of managing NPS pollution is through the use of structural best management practices (BMPs). Structural BMPs are designed to decrease the volume of runoff that enters water bodies by increasing infiltration rates. Examples of structural BMPs include rain gardens, stormwater wetlands, and riparian buffers. A newer structural BMP is a weep berm. | AEN-114
web only | 8 pages | 3,832 words | 98 downloads | PDF: 4,400 kb

Saving Water at Home
10/17/2012 (new)

By conserving water, we decrease our demand for energy-intensive systems that obtain, treat, and distribute water. Simply put, by conserving water we save energy. | HENV-601
web only | 7 pages | 3,036 words | 56 downloads | PDF: 1,902 kb

Introductory Safety Training for Tobacco Workers
7/25/2012 (new)

This safety bulletin is intended to offer introductory safety training to tobacco workers in conjunction with a farm walk-around. It was written as if you and your workers are standing in or around the object currently being discussed, e.g., a tractor, with you or a designated assistant pointing out the various safety issues listed in the bulletin. It is not meant to be used as a stand-alone bulletin, especially just in a room, unless you have already gone through the walk-around and are reviewing points or having a discussion. It must be used out by the barn, equipment, or other subject being discussed. | ID-204
2,500 printed copies | 16 pages | 2,237 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 476 kb

Legacy Building Through Life Review
6/22/2012 (new)

This fact sheet describes different types of things that make up a legacy, talks about how we can develop a meaningful legacy, and offers a variety of ways to communicate our legacy to others. | FCS7-205
web only | 2 pages | 1,385 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 170 kb

Enhancing Mental Health Through Life Story
6/22/2012 (new)

Documenting our life story encourages us to constructively think about and examine both positive and negative personal experiences, the meaning and emotions we attach to our experiences, and the lessons we have learned over time. | FCS7-204
web only | 3 pages | 2,085 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 180 kb

Planning and Decision Making Through Life Story
6/22/2012 (new)

Life story focuses heavily on the past, but we can use these experiences to help us think about and plan for the future. | FCS7-203
web only | 3 pages | 1,473 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 178 kb

Exercising the Brain Through Life Story
6/22/2012 (new)

Life story also contributes to brain health, as the process of documenting and sharing life story is a form of brain exercise. | FCS7-202
web only | 3 pages | 2,173 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

Enhancing Quality Care Relationships Through Life Story
6/22/2012 (new)

Sharing and documenting life story and health history promotes a quality caregiving relationship. A life story is an account of the series of experiences that make up our lives and define who we are. | FCS7-201
web only | 4 pages | 2,196 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 171 kb

Life Story: What Is It and How Do You Write It?
6/22/2012 (new)

Whether it is our own or that of someone we love, writing a life story can be a rich and rewarding experience. It is also a gift that can last for generation after generation. To get started, it is important to be organized, prepared, and flexible. | FCS7-200
web only | 5 pages | 2,863 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 185 kb

Nutrient Management Concepts for Livestock Producers
3/27/2012 (new)

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients (specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment. | AEN-113
web only | 5 pages | 2,133 words | 120 downloads | PDF: 345 kb

A New Concept in On-Farm Biofuel Production
3/19/2012 (new)

For many social, political, and economic reasons, biofuels are moving quickly from the fuel of tomorrow to the fuel of today. Researchers at the University of Kentucky are working on a new system of biofuel production that involves on-farm processing of biomass. This factsheet provides a general overview of this new concept that could have a great impact on agriculture and the fuel-production industry. | AEN-112
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 802 words | 118 downloads | PDF: 235 kb

Butanol: The New Biofuel
3/8/2012 (new)

Butanol is a type of alcohol that has received renewed interest recently as a potential green alternative to petroleum fuels. This factsheet gives a basic history and description of butanol and its potential use as a biofuel in gasoline and diesel engines. | AEN-111
500 printed copies | 2 pages | 653 words | 83 downloads | PDF: 220 kb

Vegetative Filter Strips for Livestock Facilities
2/23/2012 (new)

An enhanced vegetative strip is a best management practice that can be installed to protect surface waters from pollution produced by animal production facilities. Most people think of a vegetative strip as a grassed area or waterway, but when intentionally installed and properly managed, an EVS can be much more effective than a simple grassed filter strip. If properly managed, enhanced vegetative strips can be used to trap, treat, and absorb pollutants, which can be removed from the designated area by harvesting or grazing. | ID-189
web only | 4 pages | 2,364 words | 50 downloads | PDF: 380 kb

Benefits and Costs Associated with the Wheat Storage Hedge
1/24/2012 (new)

Each year producers must decide whether to store or sell their crop at harvest. Market prices are important in guiding producers on whether to store priced grain for future delivery (referred to as a storage hedge), store unpriced grain, or sell. Generally, producers know more about deciding to sell or store unpriced grain than using the storage hedge. This publication explains how a storage hedge works, when to use it, and risks and costs involved. (See glossary for definition of terms.) | ID-198
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,549 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Sinkhole Management for Agricultural Producers
10/18/2011 (new)

A karst landscape develops when the limestone or dolostone bedrock underneath the soil dissolves and/or collapses due to weathering. A karst system can be recognized by surface features such as depressions, sinkholes, sinking streams, and caves. In karst systems, surface water and groundwater are interconnected: surface water runoff flows into sinkholes and sinking streams and recharges the groundwater; likewise, springs maintain stream flow in the dry season. Kentuckians living in karst areas need to be acutely aware that any pollutants that reach either surface water or any karst feature can pollute the entire groundwater system (also called an aquifer). In addition, the cave system that accompanies a karst aquifer can allow pollutants to contaminate miles of water resources in just a few hours. | AEN-109
web only | 4 pages | 1,825 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 487 kb

Climate Change: A Brief Summary for Kentucky Extension Agents
9/20/2011 (new)

Nearly all climate science experts agree that global warming is occurring and that it is caused primarily by human activity. Regardless of what you may read on blogs or in the media, there is no meaningful scientific controversy on these points. The future impacts of global warming are difficult to predict, but the changes caused by greenhouse gases are expected to increasingly affect Kentucky agriculture. | ID-191
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,975 words | 58 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure
8/4/2011 (new)

Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience. | ID-188
web only | 4 pages | 2,255 words | 146 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Paved Feeding Areas and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
7/28/2011 (new)

Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock. Livestock producers can make additional profits by adding a few pounds before marketing calves; however, adding those pounds requires keeping calves during the winter months, when pasture forages are dormant and supplemental feed is required. The areas used to winter calves need to be conducive to feeding and need to avoid negatively impacting the environment, especially water quality. | AEN-107
web only | 5 pages | 3,305 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 260 kb

Stormwater BMPs for Confined Livestock Facilities
7/28/2011 (new)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency states that agricultural sediment, pathogens, and nutrients account for more than 50 percent of water pollution in the United States. Animal confinement facilities, widely used for holding, feeding, and handling animals, are potential sources of that pollution. The pollution load of these facilities can be reduced by installing and maintaining best management practices. The BMPs may be implemented as part of permit compliance or may be used to ensure that a permit is not needed. | AEN-103
web only | 5 pages | 2,881 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Permeable Pavement for Stormwater Management
7/26/2011 (new)

Managing runoff in urban areas offers many challenges for engineers, landscape architects, and planners. As cities grow, the amount of impermeable surfaces--those that do not allow water to infiltrate into the ground--increases. Examples of impervious surfaces are asphalt roads, concrete sidewalks, parking lots, building roofs, and areas of highly compacted soils such as in subdivisions. If not properly managed, the stormwater runoff produced by these impermeable surfaces can have negative effects on nearby surface waters. | AEN-108
web only | 7 pages | 4,028 words | 49 downloads | PDF: 720 kb

Reducing Stormwater Pollution
7/15/2011 (new)

Stormwater is excess water from rainfall and snowmelts that flows over the ground and does not infiltrate the soil. It is a concern not just in urban areas but in suburban and agricultural locations as well. As stormwater runoff flows over the land or impervious surfaces, it picks up and transports trash and debris as well as pollutants such as pathogens, nutrients, sediments, heavy metals, and chemicals. This publication reviews some of these techniques and provides a list of recommended resources for additional information. | AEN-106
web only | 8 pages | 4,381 words | 74 downloads | PDF: 330 kb

Pasture Feeding, Streamside Grazing, and the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan
7/13/2011 (new)

Kentucky's abundant forage makes it well suited for grazing livestock, but the pasturing and pasture feeding of livestock need to be managed. Allowing cattle to behave as they would naturally can lead to overgrazing, congregation in sensitive areas, buildup of mud, loss of vegetation, compaction of soils, and erosion. | AEN-105
web only | 5 pages | 3,420 words | 74 downloads | PDF: 284 kb

Stream Crossings for Cattle
7/13/2011 (new)

This publication provides livestock producers with instructions on how to install a stream crossing that provides animal and vehicular access across streams. This best management practice (BMP) is intended for use with exclusion fencing that restricts cattle access to the stream. Implementation of a stream crossing with exclusion fencing will improve water quality, reducing nutrient, sediment, pathogen, and organic matter loads to streams. | AEN-101
web only | 7 pages | 3,383 words | 90 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb

How to Close an Abandoned Well
7/7/2011 (new)

Abandoned wells are often the only structures remaining after an old house or barn has been removed. If left unmanaged in agricultural areas, these abandoned wells can pose a serious threat to livestock and human safety because of the large surface openings they often have. | AEN-104
web only | 3 pages | 1,419 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Building a Grade Stabilization Structure to Control Erosion
6/15/2011 (new)

Gully erosion creates large eroded channels that become problematic for many farms. Gullies form in natural drainage swales when vegetation in the swale is lost through overgrazing or tillage practices. They cause valuable soil to erode, and they form large channels that drain runoff into streams. This runoff can carry sediment, nutrients, and pathogens that can degrade the water quality. | AEN-100
web only | 4 pages | 1,614 words | 62 downloads | PDF: 900 kb

Basics of Automatic Section Control for Agricultural Sprayers
6/2/2011 (new)

The potential economic and environmental benefits of these systems are gaining the attention of producers and custom applicators looking to reduce their overall chemical costs. The purpose of this publication is to describe the basic operation and benefits of automatic section control systems. | AEN-102
web only | 4 pages | 1,474 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 1,049 kb

Alternative Water Source: Developing Springs for Livestock
5/5/2011 (new)

Water supply is a key component in livestock production. One option producers have when providing water is to develop an existing spring, which occurs when groundwater running along an impervious rock layer hits a fracture and discharges on the surface. | AEN-98
web only | 4 pages | 2,137 words | 69 downloads | PDF: 814 kb

Woodland Winter Feeding of Cattle: Water Quality Best Management Practices
5/5/2011 (new)

Cattle maintain their body temperature in winter by burning more calories, which requires them to consume more feed. Livestock producers use wooded areas to provide protection for cattle from wind and low temperatures. That protection enables the cattle to conserve energy and eat less. Using wooded areas for winter feeding makes practical sense, but producers need to consider several environmental issues when planning for it. | ID-187
web only | 2 pages | 1,145 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 273 kb

Shade Options for Grazing Cattle
3/29/2011 (new)

Shade is a must for pasture-based grazing systems. It curtails heat stress, which is detrimental to cattle and causes a decrease in milk production, feed intake, weight gains, and fertility. | AEN-99
web only | 8 pages | 2,376 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 866 kb

Using Dry Lots to Conserve Pastures and Reduce Pollution Potential
2/16/2011 (reprinted)

| ID-171
300 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 38 downloads | PDF: 860 kb

Planning Fencing Systems for Intensive Grazing Management
2/16/2011 (reprinted)

| ID-74
300 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 83 downloads | PDF: 646 kb

2010 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/20/2010 (new)

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2010 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 34 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 20 counties in Kentucky. | PR-608
1,000 printed copies | 70 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Planting a Riparian Buffer
9/28/2010 (new)

Actively creating a riparian buffer typically consists of six steps: site assessment, planting plan development, site preparation, species selection, planting, and protection and maintenance. | ID-185
web only | 8 pages | - | 108 downloads | PDF: 3,265 kb

Low-Cost Cold Storage Room for Market Growers
8/23/2010 (reprinted)

Lower-cost cold storage options can benefit market growers by helping preserve produce freshness and quality for a few additional days. Produce losses can be significantly reduced, especially for growers transitioning to a higher level of production who have excess produce to carry over from one day's market to the next. | AEN-96
100 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 265 kb

Pallet Rack Structures for Curing Burley Tobacco
7/29/2010 (new)

Curing facilities for housing tobacco can be expensive. However, using pallet racks for suspending stick tobacco, a recently developed technique for curing burley tobacco, can offer tobacco growers an alternative that substantially reduces long-term investment. | AEN-97
500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 513 kb

Building a Rain Barrel
7/28/2010 (new)

Rain barrels offer a number of benefits such as helping to reduce stormwater runoff, decreasing municipal water usage, and potentially protecting your home's foundation. Impervious surfaces such as rooftops, parking lots, and roads prevent rainwater or stormwater from soaking into the soil. | HENV-201
web only | 8 pages | - | 107 downloads | PDF: 1,480 kb

2009 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
1/7/2010 (new)

The 2009 report has been organized according to our primary areas of emphasis: production and economics, pest management, and plant evaluation. These areas reflect stated industry needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world that generate information applicable to Kentucky. | PR-602
1,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,258 kb

Corn and Soybean Production Calendar
12/16/2009 (reprinted)

The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur. | ID-159
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 650 kb

2009 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/11/2009 (new)

The 2009 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report includes results for more than 45 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 19 counties in Kentucky. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools that they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky. | PR-603
1,000 printed copies | 56 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 850 kb

Riparian Buffers: A Livestock Best Management Practice for Protecting Water Quality
9/22/2009 (new)

In Kentucky, cattle on pastures are often watered by streams. Although this practice solves water requirements for cattle, providing livestock free access to streams and riparian areas can lead to a contaminated water supply and damaged ecosystems. A better solution is to implement riparian buffers with limited access points to streams or provide alternative water sources. This practice can protect water quality, increase herd production, and provide other landowner benefits. The purpose of this publication is to explain the role of riparian areas and how they can benefit the livestock producer, the herd, and the environment. | ID-175
200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 79 downloads | PDF: 721 kb

Compost Bedded Pack Barns in Kentucky
9/16/2009 (new)

Choosing the environment in which lactating dairy cows will spend the majority of their time is an important decision for dairy producers. This choice has considerable influence on productivity, health, milk quality, reproduction, animal well-being, and farm profitability. Innovative dairy producers have introduced a variation on the loose-housing system, generally referred to as a compost-bedded pack barn. Its key component is a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings. | ID-178
300 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Using Soil Cement on Horse and Livestock Farms
8/3/2009 (new)

Most farmers in Kentucky can identify with a myriad of problems associated with mud forming around high traffic areas, including areas around horse and cattle waterers, feed bunks, round bale feeders, walk paths and gate entrances. Mud is usually a result of animals congregating in and around these areas, but increased traffic can enhance the problem. In many cases, finding solutions to mud problems on farms is not the issue--the issue is determining how to make solutions economical. | ID-176
web only | 4 pages | - | 55 downloads | PDF: 329 kb

Options for Controlling Canada Geese
1/15/2009 (new)

The average Canada goose produces more fecal waste than a dairy cow on a per-weight basis. In addition, gaggles of resident Canada geese have been associated with problems of over grazing. Having large amounts of fecal waste around a riparian area that has limited vegetation can lead to the runoff of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, which can contaminate ponds, lakes, and streams in Kentucky. | ID-174
200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 140 kb

2008 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/1/2008 (new)

| PR-572
1,100 printed copies | 72 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 800 kb

2008 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
12/1/2008 (new)

| PR-571
1,100 printed copies | 30 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,476 kb

GPS Changes: How to be Prepared
11/14/2008 (new)

| AEN-95
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 179 kb

Saving Fuel in the Field
10/23/2008 (new)

| AEN-94
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 110 kb

Proper Tire and Ballast Inflation
10/23/2008 (new)

| AEN-93
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 201 kb

Drinking Water Quality Guidelines for Cattle
3/26/2008 (new)

| ID-170
120 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

2007 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
11/29/2007 (new)

| PR-555
1,000 printed copies | 92 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

2007 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
11/26/2007 (new)

| PR-554
1,100 printed copies | 48 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb

Composting Horse Muck
10/10/2007 (new)

| ID-168
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 64 downloads | PDF: 291 kb

High Traffic Area Pads for Horses
7/15/2007 (new)

| ID-164
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 58 downloads | PDF: 348 kb

Dairy Waste Utilization Management Tool
3/30/2007 (new)

| AEN-92
200 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 245 kb

Pervious Concrete as a Flooring Material for Horse Handling Areas
3/13/2007 (new)

| ID-161
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 243 kb

2006 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/15/2006 (new)

| PR-537
1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 2,115 kb

Managing Liquid Dairy Manure
9/30/2006 (new)

| AEN-91
200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 216 kb

Managing Steep Terrain for Livestock Forage Production
8/30/2006 (new)

| ID-158
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 38 downloads | PDF: 417 kb

2006 New Crop Opportunities Research Report
7/15/2006 (new)

| PR-533
web only | 72 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,359 kb

Biodiesel FAQ
4/30/2006 (new)

| AEN-90
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 220 kb

Biodiesel Basics
4/30/2006 (new)

| AEN-89
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 263 kb

2005 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/30/2005 (new)

| PR-520
1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 5,168 kb

The Kentucky Beef Book
9/15/2005 (minor revision)

| ID-108
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 28 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

The Global Positioning System
9/1/2005 (new)

| AEN-88
1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 27 downloads | PDF: 305 kb

Implementing Precision Agriculture: Connecting a GPS to Other Devices
7/8/2005 (new)

| PA-7
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 153 kb

Movable Tobacco Curing Frames
4/1/2005 (new)

| AEN-86
500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 631 kb

Measuring Relative Humidity in Agricultural Environments
2/1/2005 (new)

| AEN-87
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 630 kb

Petroleum Power Program Tractor Project Unit 2 Assuring Safe and Efficient Tractor Operation
1/1/2005 (reprinted)

| 4CB-02PO
500 printed copies | 40 pages | - | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,070 kb

2004 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/20/2004 (new)

| PR-502
1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | - | PDF: 2,376 kb

Post-Tier Rail and Typar or Metal-Covered Tobacco Field Curing Structures
7/1/2004 (new)

| AEN-85
1,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 552 kb

Assessing and Preventing Soil Compaction in Kentucky
5/28/2004 (new)

| ID-153
3,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,067 kb

Round Bale Hay Storage in Kentucky
4/1/2004 (reprinted)

| AGR-171
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 181 kb

Using Covers to Minimize Odor and Gas Emissions from Manure Storages
2/15/2004 (new)

| AEN-84
500 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 176 kb

Cattle Handling Facilities
12/19/2003 (reprinted)

Cattle handling facilities are used to confine cattle safely and efficiently for close observation and to perform routine health and management procedures. Adequate facilities are an essential part of an efficient cattle operation for any producer who wants to improve marketing, cattle health, and production. A well-planned handling facility can help you save money by making easier practices such as preventive health management, pregnancy testing, implanting, controlling parasites, vaccinating, castrating, and dehorning. | AEN-82
2,000 printed copies | 36 pages | - | 266 downloads | PDF: 1,386 kb

2003 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/5/2003 (new)

| PR-486
1,200 printed copies | 42 pages | - | - | PDF: 474 kb

Assessing the Benefits of Misting-Cooling Systems for Growing/Finishing Swine in Kentucky as Affected by Environment and Pig Placement Date
11/30/2003 (new)

| AEN-83
1,100 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 122 kb

Implementing Precision Agriculture: What Will This Investment Cost?
11/15/2003 (new)

| PA-6
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 106 kb

Harvesting, Drying and Storing Grain Sorghum
4/30/2003 (minor revision)

| AEN-17
1,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 111 kb

Quality Hay Production
4/1/2003 (reprinted)

| AGR-62
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 43 downloads | PDF: 245 kb

2002 Nursery and Landscape Report
1/3/2003 (new)

| PR-468
1,200 printed copies | 42 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,900 kb

Elements of PrecIsion Agriculture: Basics of Yield Monitor Installation and Operation
10/10/2002 (reprinted)

| PA-1
500 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 234 kb

Elements of Precision Agriculture: GPS Simplified
6/30/2002 (new)

| PA-5
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 38 kb

Implementing Precision Agriculture: Choosing the Right Lightbar
6/15/2002 (new)

| PA-4
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 114 kb

Elements of Precision Agriculture: Lightbar Guidance Aids
6/12/2002 (new)

| PA-3
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 36 kb

Weather Variables Kentucky: 4-H Weather Project Unit 3
3/15/2002 (reprinted)

| 4DA-03PA
500 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 49 downloads | PDF: 2,643 kb

Feeding Your Dairy Cows a Total Mixed Ration: Getting Started
12/15/2001 (new)

| ID-141A
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 55 kb

Managing the Total Mixed Ration to Prevent Problems in Dairy Cows
12/15/2001 (new)

| ID-141B
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 93 kb

Nutrient Management in Kentucky
12/1/2001 (new)

| IP-71
90,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 34 downloads | PDF: 278 kb

2001 UK Nursery and Landscape Program
12/1/2001 (new)

| PR-450
web only | 40 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 369 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky
9/30/2001 (new)

The corn grown in Kentucky is used mainly for livestock feed and as a cash crop. As a cash crop sold from the farm, corn ranks third behind tobacco and soybeans but is the number one row crop in terms of acreage. Because the cost of producing an acre of corn is high and the value per bushel has declined in recent years, producers must manage and market their corn crop more carefully for adequate profits. The goal of this publication is to serve as a guide for corn production strategies that focus on efficient use of resources and provide the principles and practices for obtaining maximum, profitable corn yields. | ID-139
7,500 printed copies | 64 pages | 37,214 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 639 kb

4-H Energy Project 4
6/1/2001 (minor revision)

| 4HA-04PC
1,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 40 downloads | PDF: 409 kb

Guidelines for Adopting Precision Agricultural Practices
5/15/2001 (new)

| PA-2
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 85 kb

Understanding the Water System
4/27/2001 (minor revision)

| IP-1
3,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 380 kb

Summary Sheet Understanding the Water System
4/27/2001 (minor revision)

| IP-1S
3,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 247 kb

2000 UK Nursery and Landscape Program
1/1/2001 (new)

| PR-437
1,800 printed copies | 38 pages | - | - | PDF: 574 kb

Sampling Animal Manure
10/30/2000 (new)

| ID-148
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 312 kb

Agronomy Research Report 2000
7/10/2000 (new)

| PR-432
2,500 printed copies | 55 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 550 kb

No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky
5/1/2000 (new)

| ID-136
5,000 printed copies | 11 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

High Tensile Wire or Cable Tobacco Field Curing Structure
2/25/2000 (reprinted)

| AEN-80
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 316 kb

Basics for Heating and Cooling Greenhouses
2/25/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-131
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 46 downloads | PDF: 637 kb

Grain Drill Calibration Procedures for Winter Wheat
1/30/2000 (new)

| AEN-81
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 254 kb

Nursery and Landscape Program: 1999 Research Report
12/31/1999 (new)

| PR-422
web only | 33 pages | - | - | PDF: 689 kb

Packaging and Handling Burley Tobacco in Bales at the Farm
11/1/1999 (reprinted)

| ID-39
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 39 kb

2000 Kentucky Beef Cattle Research Report
10/1/1999 (new)

| PR-417
700 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 4 kb

Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
9/8/1999 (new)

| IP-57
3,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 43 downloads | PDF: 641 kb

Assessment of the Potential for Livestock and Poultry Manure to Provide the Nutrients Removed by Crops and Forages in Kentucky
9/1/1999 (new)

| IP-56
1,000 printed copies | 18 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 794 kb

Low Cost Post-Row Field Tobacco Curing Framework
5/1/1999 (minor revision)

| ID-116
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 202 kb

Fruit and Vegetable Program: 1998 Research Report
12/1/1998 (new)

The emphases in our research program reflect industry-defined needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world generating information applicable to Kentucky. Although the purpose of this publication is to report research results, the report also highlights our Extension program and Undergraduate and Graduate degree programs that address the needs of the horticultural industries. | PR-410
web only | 46 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 335 kb

Nursery and Landscape Program: 1998 Research Report
12/1/1998 (new)

| PR-409
web only | 44 pages | - | - | PDF: 318 kb

Conserving Water at Home
2/18/1998 (reprinted)

| IP-2
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

One-Tier Plastic-Covered Tobacco Curing Structure: Tier Rail Design
2/1/1998 (reprinted)

| AEN-74
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 302 kb

Using Geotextiles for Feeding and Traffic Surfaces
9/1/1997 (new)

| AEN-79
3,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 222 kb

Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar
9/1/1997 (reprinted)

| ID-125A
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 117 kb

Testing Private Water Sources
9/1/1997 (new)

| IP-3
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 35 kb

Mastitis and Its Control
7/11/1997 (minor revision)

| ASC-140
1,000 printed copies | 14 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 79 kb

Pasture for Dairy Cattle: Challenges and Opportunities
4/1/1997 (new)

| ASC-151
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 184 kb

Two-Tier Air-Cure Tobacco Barn
3/7/1997 (reprinted)

| AEN-76
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 289 kb

Livestock Waste Sampling and Testing
1/1/1997 (new)

| ID-123
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 128 kb

1996 Kentucky Custom Rates for Farm Machinery
6/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-81
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 237 kb

Kentucky Farm Machinery Economic Cost Estimates for 1996
5/1/1996 (new)

| AEC-80
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 142 kb

A Computer Model for Analysis of Alternative Burley Tobacco Harvesting Practices
5/1/1996 (new)

| AEN-78
1,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Poultry Litter Management
1/1/1995 (new)

| ID-117
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

9/1/1992 (new)

| IP-31
9,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 63 kb

Microsprinklers and Fan Cooling For Dairy Cows: Practical Design Considerations
6/1/1992 (new)

| AEN-75
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Indoor Air Quality
6/1/1992 (reprinted)

| IP-23
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 41 kb

Using Fans in Conventional Burley Barns
4/1/1992 (new)

| AEN-69
3,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 229 kb

Preservative Treatment of Greenhouse Wood
11/1/1991 (minor revision)

| AEN-6
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 47 kb

Curing Burley Tobacco
2/4/1991 (reprinted)

| AEN-59
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | MS Word: 40 kb

Poly-Tube Heating-Ventilation Systems and Equipment
2/1/1991 (minor revision)

| AEN-7
1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 262 kb

Using Activated Carbon Filters to Treat Home Drinking Water
9/1/1990 (new)

| IP-6
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 50 kb

Cisterns for Kentucky
9/1/1990 (new)

| IP-4
15,000 printed copies | - | - | 13 downloads | HTML: 53 kb

Summary Sheet Building a Cistern for Home Water Supply
9/1/1990 (new)

| IP-4S
15,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 9 kb

Painting Greenhouses and Equipment
7/1/1990 (minor revision)

| AEN-14
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 9 downloads | MS Word: 30 kb

Summary Sheet Using Activated Carbon Filters to Treat Home Drinking Water
6/1/1990 (reprinted)

| IP-6S
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 22 kb

Preparing Burley in Bales
9/1/1988 (reprinted)

| ID-38
4,000 printed copies | - | - | 3 downloads | HTML: 7 kb

Creep Grazing for Beef Calves
4/1/1987 (new)

| ID-76
20,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Beef Cattle Corrals and Handling Facilities
4/1/1986 (reprinted)

| ID-13
20,000 printed copies | - | - | 12 downloads | HTML: 17 kb

Swine Confinement Breeding Facilities
9/1/1983 (new)

| ID-58
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Housing for Pleasure Horses
9/1/1983 (reprinted)

| ID-57
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 23 kb

Understanding Precipitation Probabilities
5/1/1982 (new)

| AEN-53
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | MS Word: 38 kb

Dryeration Performance Evaluation
12/15/1981 (new)

| AEES-8
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 260 kb

Estimating Fan Sizes for Grain Drying and Storage Bins
12/15/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-6
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 287 kb

Fan Performance on Grain Drying Bins
12/15/1981 (minor revision)

| AEES-5
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 284 kb

Air-Type Solar Collectors for Agricultural and Residential Use
12/15/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-3
1,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 287 kb

Energy for Swine Facilities Part 2: Alternative Sources of Energy
10/10/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-2
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 382 kb

Energy for Swine Facilities Part 1: Energy Conservation
10/1/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-1
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Grain Drying Performance Evaluation
2/1/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-7
3,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 302 kb

Energy Usage in Agricultural Production
1/15/1981 (reprinted)

| AEES-11
3,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 513 kb

Minimizing Odor from Confinement Facilities by Management Practices
1/1/1981 (new)

| AEN-48
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 7 downloads | MS Word: 46 kb

Wind Chill
4/2/1980 (new)

| ID-23
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 7 kb

Suffocation Hazards in Grain Bins
3/1/1980 (reprinted)

| AEN-39
10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,097 kb

Residential Solar Heating
2/10/1980 (minor revision)

| AEES-10
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 62 downloads | PDF: 319 kb

Preventing Storage Rots of Grain
1/1/1974 (reprinted)

| ID-3
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 9 kb

Grass Loafing Paddocks for Dairy Cows
8/1/1973 (new)

| ID-7
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 7 kb