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Plant Pathology Publications



PPFS-GEN-1
Crown Gall
10/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: David Embry, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,044 kb



ID-253
Species Failure Profile for Trees Common to the Ohio River Valley
8/23/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Bill Fountain
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Tree failures, especially in urban and recreational areas can result in harm to human life and property. While this is rare, it is important to recognize that the environmental and sociological benefits provided by trees significantly outweighs the limited risks presented by trees. This is especially true when defects and species profiles that increase the potential for failure can be observed or detected. Many of these defects are associated with certain species. This is referred to as the species failure profile.

web only | 8 pages | 4,014 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 320 kb



ID-194
Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7
8/22/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jessica Bessin, Rick Durham,
 Departments: Barren County, Bell County, Entomology,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

For those with a green thumb, growing plants may seem easy. However, when plant problems arise, determining the cause of these issues can be difficult. Developing the skills necessary to determine the cause of a plant problem takes experience and time. The steps involved in the diagnostic process first require analysis of information regarding the history of the symptomatic plant and the surrounding area. Plant symptoms and signs provide additional evidence to aid in determination of a possible cause.

web only | 28 pages | 9,487 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-FR-S-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases
8/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 398 kb



PPFS-FR-T-26
Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,385 kb



PPFS-FR-T-25
Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 986 kb



PPFS-FR-T-24
Bitter Rot of Apple
8/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant disease

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

web only | 6 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,492 kb



PPFS-FR-T-2
Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest
8/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 306 kb



PPFS-AG-C-9
Curvularia Leaf Spot
7/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Curvularia leaf spot is a corn disease that was reported for the first time in the United States in Louisiana in 2017, and was confirmed in Kentucky in 2018. While the impact of Curvularia leaf spot in Kentucky is not yet known, this disease causes yield loss in tropical areas, and is considered to be one of the most important diseases of corn in China. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and foliar diseases that have similar symptoms.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,779 kb



PPFS-AG-T-5
Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 473 kb



PPFS-FR-S-26
Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 230 kb



PPFS-FR-S-25
Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,037 kb



PPFS-FR-S-24
Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,213 kb



PPFS-FR-S-23
Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 351 kb



PPFS-FR-S-21
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 280 kb



PPFS-FR-S-18
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 407 kb



PPFS-FR-T-23
Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

web only | 1 pages | - | - | PDF: 458 kb



PPFS-FR-T-22
Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 890 kb



PPFS-FR-T-21
Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar
7/1/2019 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,013 kb



PPFS-FR-T-20
Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 672 kb



PPFS-FR-T-18
Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang,
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture,
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 626 kb



PPFS-FR-T-15
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 385 kb



PPFS-GEN-15
Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger,
 Departments: County Extension, Franklin County, Hardin
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

web only | 6 pages | - | - | PDF: 3,377 kb



PPFS-OR-T-2
Reducing the Risk of Resistance to Fungicides Used to Control Diseases of Turfgrasses
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Fungicides can be an important tactic in an overall integrated program for turf disease control. In order to insure that products available today remain available in the future, golf course superintendents should be aware of the need to use fungicides in ways that minimize the risk of fungicide resistance.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 183 kb



PPFS-VG-11-QF
Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Steve Osborne, K
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Plant Patholog
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 786 kb



PPFS-VG-10
Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 327 kb



PPFS-VG-1
Black Rot of Crucifers
7/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: David Davis, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Clark County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 227 kb



ID-254
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky
6/11/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, <

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

2,500 printed copies | 36 pages | 9,801 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb



PPFS-FR-T-14
Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases
6/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 401 kb



PPFS-VG-24
Biological Products for Tomato Disease Management
6/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, nursery and landscape, plant

Disease management products with biologically-based active ingredients are often labeled for numerous diseases, but can vary markedly in their efficacy. This Extension publication summarizes factors to consider when choosing biological controls and data available pertaining to tomato disease management efficacy.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 268 kb



CCD-CP-80
Hops
5/3/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is a native herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor, aroma and bitterness to beer.

web only | 6 pages | 2,869 words | - | PDF: 1,900 kb



PPFS-OR-T-7
Kentucky Turfgrass Disease Calendar
5/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

A graphic representation showing the times of year that diseases of cool-season grasses are likely.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 161 kb



ID-128
Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2019
4/16/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

8,500 printed copies | 48 pages | 32,300 words | 547 downloads | PDF: 4,000 kb



CCD-CP-77
Bamboo
4/9/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Bamboo is the general name used for a number of perennial, woody-stemmed grasses. Native cane (Arundinaria gigantea), which is commonly referred to as river cane, grows naturally in Kentucky and throughout much of the Southeast. It is one of three bamboo species native to North America. There are more than a hundred introduced species that can be grown in the U.S., with growth habits ranging from low-growing groundcovers to full-sized trees that reach a height of over 30 feet at maturity. Bamboos are well known for their vigorous growth and variety of uses.

web only | 4 pages | 2,012 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



PPFS-FR-S-20
Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags:

A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: 427 kb



PPFS-FR-T-19
Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 337 kb



PPFS-GEN-8
Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 431 kb



PPFS-GEN-7
Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: 491 kb



PPFS-VG-23
Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 788 kb



PPFS-VG-22
Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 460 kb



PPFS-VG-21
Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 874 kb



PPFS-VG-20
Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 896 kb



PPFS-VG-19
Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden
4/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

web only | 2 pages | - | - | PDF: 995 kb



CCD-CP-56
Bedding Plants
3/26/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general, the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden or large containers (such as patio pots).

web only | 3 pages | 1,200 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-CP-137
Gourds
3/12/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Gourds, which are related to pumpkins and squash, are generally grown for their hard outer rind. The fruit is dried for fall decorations, handicrafts and functional items. The various types of gourds include hard-shell gourds (Lagenaria spp.; used for dippers, containers and birdhouses), soft-shell gourds (Cucurbita pepo; decorative and ornamental uses), and luffa gourds (their soft interior fiber is used like a sponge).

web only | 3 pages | 1,283 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-OR-W-27
Canker Sampling of Trees and Woody Ornamentals
3/1/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Cankers on woody plants can result in dieback, decline, structural failure, or plant death. Cankers form when plant pathogens enter woody tissues. Plants stressed by poor planting practices, improper maintenance, extreme weather, insect damage, mechanical damage, or other wounds are at increased risk for infection by canker causing pathogens.

web only | 5 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



CCD-CP-2
Apples
2/5/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems.

web only | 4 pages | 1,698 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb



ID-232
Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20
2/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

1 printed copies | 168 pages | - | - | PDF: 3,500 kb



ID-232
Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20
2/1/2019 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

1 printed copies | 168 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 3,500 kb



PR-755
2017 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
1/18/2019 (new)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Bo
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horti
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

web only | 38 pages | 17,092 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 9,300 kb



CCD-CP-9
High Tunnel Blueberries
1/15/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels

web only | 6 pages | 3,333 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,600 kb



CCD-CP-74
Turfgrass Sod Production
1/2/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sod production involves growing a solid stand of high quality turfgrass and then harvesting the grass along with roots and a thin layer of topsoil. Many sod producers also transport and install the sod. The primary markets for sod are landscapers and building contractors. Sod is used in parks, golf courses, athletic fields, schools, garden centers, home lawns, road construction sites, commercial properties, and cemeteries. The 2014 USDA Census of Horticultural Specialties reported slightly less than 1,000 acres of sod harvested in Kentucky. The value of sod sales in Kentucky was split almost evenly between wholesale and retail sales.

web only | 3 pages | 1,109 words | - | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPFS-FR-T-7
Plant Diseases of Fruit Prediction Models for Kentucky Counties
1/1/2019 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Evan Tate,
 Departments: Hancock County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Numerous plant diseases impact fruit crops throughout Kentucky. Factors such as plant growth stage, as well as rainfall, temperature, and other weather conditions, can be used to determine risk for plant disease. Prediction models are critical tools for growers, as they allow for protective management strategies to be deployed when disease risk is high. Use of these models can provide growers with cost savings, as unnecessary chemical applications are eliminated when risk of infection is low.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,586 kb



PR-757
2018 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/13/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

900 printed copies | 44 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 6,838 kb



CCD-CP-114
Pumpkins
12/10/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The name "pumpkin" is commonly applied to any plant in the taxonomically diverse Cucurbita genus that produces the characteristic yellow to orange, round fruit. Pumpkin cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata and C. mixta.

web only | 3 pages | 1,250 words | - | PDF: 1,200 kb



CCD-CP-19
Strawberries
12/4/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

To many, nothing says summer like the first local ripe strawberries of the season. A versatile fruit, strawberries (Fragaria spp.) can be consumed fresh, frozen or in processed foods. Growers able to provide the earliest crop of these popular berries will often have the marketing edge

web only | 3 pages | 1,384 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



CCD-CP-15
Peaches
11/15/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors:
 Departments:
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected.

web only | 3 pages | 1,497 words | - | PDF: 1,487 kb



ID-235
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
10/17/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Jo
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, hi

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

2,500 printed copies | 28 pages | 5,200 words | 81 downloads | PDF: 1,938 kb



PR-741
2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
10/11/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Jenni
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, research

The 2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report includes research in the areas of production and economics, ecology, and pest control.

web only | 20 pages | 6,922 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 2,232 kb



CCD-CP-73
Ornamental Grasses
9/26/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors:
 Departments:
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery.

web only | 3 pages | 1,324 words | - | PDF: 1,600 kb



ID-251
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky
9/13/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, C
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, <

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

2,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,827 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 2,500 kb



CCD-CP-5
Elderberry
9/12/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit.

web only | 4 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-121
Summer Squash
9/10/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining.

web only | 3 pages | 1,057 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



PPFS-AG-C-8
Diplodia Leaf Streak
9/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diplodia leaf streak of corn is a disease that has become more prevalent in Kentucky in recent years. It is commonly observed in fields in western Kentucky and is easily confused with other corn foliar diseases. Small, round, dark brown-to-tan lesions are first observed on leaves. Dark concentric rings may be observed in the center of early lesions at the infection site on the leaf. These lesions expand lengthwise in long streaks from the infection point and form elongated elliptical lesions. In severe cases, lesions can coalesce to blight large areas of affected leaves.

web only | 3 pages | - | - | PDF: kb



CCD-CP-98
Field-grown Tomatoes
8/3/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price.

web only | 3 pages | 1,268 words | - | PDF: 861 kb



PPFS-GEN-16
Southern Blight
8/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Southern blight affects hundreds of different plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals, and fruit. This disease is also known as southern stem blight, basal stem rot, Sclerotium blight, crown rot, and white mold (not to be confused with Sclerotinia white mold). Depending on host plant, production system, and environmental conditions, the severity of this disease can vary from a minor problem on isolated plants to extensive damage causing significant crop losses.

web only | 5 pages | - | - | PDF: kb



PPFS-OR-W-20
Boxwood Blight
8/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Boxwood blight is a disease of boxwood (Buxus spp.), causing rapid defoliation and plant dieback. The fungal disease is particularly devastating to American boxwood cultivars, which can defoliate within a week and die within one growing season. Plants are eventually weakened by repeated defoliation and dieback, and resulting plant stress and consequent colonization by secondary invaders result in plant death.

web only | 5 pages | 1,000 words | - | PDF: 1,440 kb



CCD-CP-14
Pawpaw
7/31/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort.

web only | 3 pages | 1,320 words | - | PDF: 778 kb



CCD-CP-3
Asian and European Pears
7/31/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears.

web only | 3 pages | 1,247 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb



CCD-CP-122
Sweet Corn
7/18/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content.

web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-123
Sweet Potato
7/16/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The terms "sweet potato" and "yam" are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools.

web only | 3 pages | 1,423 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 810 kb



CCD-CP-134
Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky
6/25/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth.

web only | 4 pages | 1,676 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-4
Blackberries
6/18/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort.

web only | 4 pages | 1,320 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-CP-57
Greenhouse Tomatoes
6/12/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, gre

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise.

web only | 4 pages | 1,415 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



ID-249
A Comprehensive Guide to Soybean Management in Kentucky
6/7/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Bradley, J.D. G
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans

This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky.

2,500 printed copies | 84 pages | 44,074 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 38,987 kb



CCD-CP-10
Jujube and Aronia
6/6/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale.

web only | 4 pages | 2,168 words | - | PDF: 832 kb



CCD-CP-87
Bell Peppers
5/17/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers.

web only | 3 pages | 1,530 words | - | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-88
Broccoli
5/15/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.

web only | 3 pages | 1,422 words | - | PDF: 786 kb



CCD-CP-104
Microgreens
5/8/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish.

web only | 3 pages | 1,340 words | - | PDF: 819 kb



CCD-CP-113
Potatoes
4/17/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,411 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-CP-101
Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers
4/13/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color.

web only | 5 pages | 2,445 words | - | PDF: 823 kb



CCD-CP-70
Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
4/9/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

web only | 3 pages | 1,594 words | - | PDF: 729 kb



PPFS-AG-T-8
Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2018
4/1/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors:
 Departments:
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.

web only | 7 pages | - | - | PDF: 295,340 kb



CCD-CP-106
Okra
3/20/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled.

web only | 2 pages | 799 words | - | PDF: 762 kb



CCD-CP-91
Cauliflower
3/15/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases.

web only | 2 pages | 844 words | - | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-SP-9
Starting a Nursery Business
3/14/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success.

web only | 5 pages | 2,442 words | - | PDF: 860 kb



CCD-CP-96
Ethnic Vegetables: Asian
3/2/2018 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky.

web only | 5 pages | 1,967 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



PPFS-AG-T-3
Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky, causing a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease tend to be rare but can occur if care is not taken to minimize risk of disease development and reduce spread after it appears.

web only | 3 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 666 kb



PPFS-AG-T-2
Managing Rhizoctonia Damping-off and Target Spot in the Float System
3/1/2018 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Emily Pfeufer
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Damping-off and target spot occur each year in tobacco transplant crops in Kentucky. These diseases can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle.

web only | 4 pages | - | - | PDF: 727 kb



PPFS-AG-F-10
Possible Causes of Yellowing Alfalfa
2/16/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Chris Teutsch, Paul Vincelli,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

During spring, several leaf spotting diseases--including Leptosphaerulina (Lepto) leaf spot and spring black stem/leaf spot--are common in alfalfa. Leaf spotting diseases result in distinct round to elongated spots that sometimes have a dark margin. Very wet weather in spring and early summer favor activity of leaf spotting diseases in first and second cuttings. Wet and humid weather during summer favor other leaf spotting and blighting diseases. All leaf spots and blights weaken plants, but alfalfa often outgrows the damage in later cuttings. Maintain a regular cutting schedule, cutting at 30- to 35-day intervals.

web only | 4 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 754 kb



PPFS-AG-C-7
Physoderma Brown Spot
2/1/2018 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Brenda Kennedy,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management.

web only | 2 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 743 kb



CCD-CP-131
Eggplant
1/22/2018 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson.

web only | 3 pages | 919 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,500 kb



ID-36
Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2018-19
12/11/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Emily Pfeufer, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.

3,000 printed copies | 140 pages | 109,401 words | 121 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



PR-739
2017 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/5/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ty Cato, Steve Div
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. The 2017 Fruit and Vegetable Crops re-search report includes results for 16 projects.

900 printed copies | 46 pages | 23,687 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 7,210 kb



PPFS-FR-S-3
Blackberry Rosette (Double Blossom)
12/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Michele Stanton, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Kenton County, Plant Pathology<
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags:

Rosette disease, caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi, is a serious and destructive disease of blackberries in most parts of Kentucky. In some locations, growers have been forced out of growing blackberries because of rosette disease.

web only | 3 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 637 kb



PPFS-FR-S-17
Cane Diseases of Brambles
11/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

web only | 5 pages | 800 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 299 kb



CCD-CP-118
Snap Beans
10/24/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The snap bean or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. Prior to the development of the stringless bean in the 1890s, snap beans were referred to as "string beans" because of the fiber or "string" running along the pod seam. While stringless beans are more common today, many consumers still prefer the flavor of the stringed types.

web only | 3 pages | 1,176 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 668 kb



CCD-FS-7
Risk Management in Specialty Crops: Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)
10/24/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-FS series)
 Tags:

The Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) is a financial assistance program provided through the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). The program provides producers of crops not eligible for crop insurance with some level of risk management when natural disasters cause crop low yields, crop losses or prevent crop planting.

web only | 2 pages | 574 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



PPFS-AG-C-6
Holcus Leaf Spot
10/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, K
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Holcus leaf spot, a bacterial disease, can be seen sporadically in Kentucky cornfields, and it is challenging to diagnose. This publication describes the disease symptoms, conditions that favor disease, and how to distinguish holcus spot from herbicide injury that can mimic this disease.

web only | 3 pages | 483 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 889 kb



PPFS-AG-C-5
Diplodia Ear Rot
10/11/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, K
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Diplodia ear rot can reduce yield and grain quality by damaging kernels, lowering grain test weight, and reducing grain fill. Incidence of affected ears in the field can vary from 1% or 2% to as high as 80%. Although mycotoxins have been associated with Diplodia ear rot in South America and South Africa, there have been no reports of livestock feeding issues due to mycotoxins linked to Diplodia ear rot in the United States.

web only | 3 pages | 514 words | - | PDF: 990 kb



CCD-CP-116
Romaine Lettuce
10/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 1,753 words | - | PDF: 692 kb



CCD-CP-117
Root Crops
10/4/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky.

web only | 4 pages | 1,728 words | - | PDF: 1,700 kb



PPA-49
Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Corn Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) developed ratings for how well fungicides control major corn diseases in the United States. The CDWG determined efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in the table by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations. Ratings are based on the product's level of disease control and does not necessarily reflect yield increases obtained from product application. A product's efficacy depends upon proper application timing, rate, and application method as determined by the product label and overall disease level in the field at the time of application.

web only | 2 pages | 690 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,120 kb



PPA-48
Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Wheat Diseases
9/28/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

The North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA-184) has developed the following information about fungicide efficacy for the control of certain foliar diseases of wheat for use by the grain production industry in the United States. The efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in this table were determined by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations by the members of the committee.

web only | 2 pages | 649 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



CCD-CP-120
Specialty Melons
9/20/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations.

web only | 3 pages | 1,431 words | - | PDF: 950 kb



CCD-CP-62
High Tunnel Tomatoes
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, hi

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

web only | 4 pages | 2,063 words | - | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-55
Stevia
9/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

web only | 4 pages | 1,145 words | - | PDF: 791 kb



CCD-CP-90
Cabbage
8/25/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures.

web only | 2 pages | 949 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 725 kb



CCD-CP-76
Woody Cuts
8/22/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

web only | 3 pages | 1,519 words | - | PDF: 909 kb



CCD-CP-95
English and Edible Pod Peas
8/16/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas.

web only | 2 pages | 993 words | - | PDF: 647 kb



CCD-CP-93
Cucumber
8/15/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,120 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 729 kb



CCD-CP-50
Catnip
8/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties.

web only | 3 pages | 999 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 451,725 kb



CCD-CP-1
American Persimmon
8/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow-growing, moderately sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which are high in tannins, have an undesirable astringent taste. Fully ripened fruit, which are golden orange to reddish and occasionally blue in color, are very sweet. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall.

web only | 3 pages | 1,235 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 676 kb



PPFS-OR-W-26
Volutella Blight of Boxwood
8/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases,

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

web only | 4 pages | 226 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,568 kb



PPFS-OR-W-6
Flowering Dogwood Diseases
8/1/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sarah Stolz, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings.

web only | 6 pages | 586 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 500 kb



CCD-CP-100
Heirloom Vegetables
7/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping

web only | 4 pages | 1,769 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 652 kb



CCD-CP-71
Garden Mums
7/13/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

web only | 3 pages | 969 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb



CCD-CP-60
High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs
7/11/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, hi

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries.

web only | 5 pages | 2,531 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 893 kb



PPFS-OR-W-25
Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine
7/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, trees

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 256 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,053 kb



CCD-CP-63
Hydroponic Lettuce
6/30/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: hydroponics, nursery and landscape, vegetab

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water.

web only | 4 pages | 1,872 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPA-47
Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities
6/28/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: science and technology

In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.

web only | 16 pages | 9,014 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 5,892 kb



CCD-SP-8
Propagation Nursery
6/5/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use.

web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb



CCD-CP-103
Leafy Greens
5/3/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge.

web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



PPFS-OR-H-1
Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals
5/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases,

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

web only | 19 pages | 669 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 3,137 kb



CCD-CP-11
Juneberries
4/19/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

web only | 3 pages | 1,529 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 700 kb



CCD-SP-6
Field Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap.

web only | 5 pages | 2,198 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,100 kb



CCD-SP-5
Container Nursery Production
4/17/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season.

web only | 5 pages | 1,123 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 1,700 kb



CCD-CP-107
Onions
4/12/2017 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions.

web only | 3 pages | 1,123 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 881 kb



CCD-CP-86
Baby Vegetables
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli).

web only | 3 pages | 1,368 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 975 kb



CCD-CP-85
Baby Corn
4/12/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization.

web only | 3 pages | 1,148 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 688 kb



PPA-30
Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands
4/10/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ray Smith, Tina Tillery, Paul
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology,
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands.

web only | 2 pages | 1,222 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 253 kb



CCD-CP-124
Tomatillo
3/1/2017 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 680 kb



PPFS-AG-C-4
Stewart's Wilt of Corn
1/1/2017 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, E
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Historically, Stewart's wilt of corn has resulted in losses for corn producers. Although this disease still occurs occasionally, it has become less prevalent in recent years in Kentucky and surrounding states. Stewart's wilt has been known by other names, such as bacterial leaf blight, Stewart's leaf blight, and maize bacteriosis.

web only | 3 pages | 1,079 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,445 kb



ID-241
After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant
12/22/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

web only | 5 pages | 4,224 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 247 kb



CCD-CP-83
Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly.

web only | 7 pages | 3,441 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 786 kb



CCD-CP-79
Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms
12/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here.

web only | 6 pages | 2,873 words | 21 downloads | PDF: 778 kb



CCD-CP-111
Organic Tomatoes
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales.

web only | 6 pages | 2,698 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 566 kb



CCD-CP-110
Organic Sweet Corn
11/23/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth.

web only | 4 pages | 1,786 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 604 kb



ID-238
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings.

1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb



CCD-CP-20
Sweet Cherries
11/14/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

web only | 3 pages | 1,231 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 881 kb



CCD-CP-58
Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers
11/11/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhous

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

web only | 3 pages | 1,298 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 503 kb



CCD-CP-12
Organic Blackberries and Raspberries
11/3/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

web only | 5 pages | 2,523 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 799 kb



CCD-CP-52
Echinacea
10/10/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Bob Geneve, C
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture,
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long-lasting cut flowers.

web only | 5 pages | 2,206 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb



PPFS-MISC-7
Genetically Engineered Crops: A Review of Concerns and Benefits
10/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Genetically engineered crops are plants that have had their genetic material (DNA) purposefully manipulated in the laboratory to produce a particular beneficial outcome. These types of crops are often called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. Commercial genetically engineered crops are designed to have limited and precise genetic changes that provide one or more benefits to humans or the environment.

web only | 5 pages | 1,238 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,260 kb



CCD-CP-99
Garlic and Elephant Garlic
9/27/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves.

web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 593 kb



CCD-CP-97
Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic
9/13/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets.

web only | 5 pages | 1,741 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 617 kb



CCD-CP-94
Edamame
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility.

web only | 4 pages | 1,741 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 598 kb



CCD-CP-53
Ginseng
9/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

web only | 6 pages | 2,459 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 967 kb



PR-641
2011 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
8/30/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

web only | 32 pages | 14,698 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 7,642 kb



CCD-CP-109
Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens
8/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

web only | 6 pages | 2,797 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 575 kb



CCD-CP-66
Chinese Chestnuts
7/18/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,563 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 594 kb



CCD-CP-17
Plums
7/5/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

web only | 3 pages | 1,377 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 750 kb



CCD-CP-78
Beekeeping and Honey Production
6/30/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops.

web only | 5 pages | 2,255 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 934 kb



CCD-CP-18
Raspberries
6/9/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

web only | 3 pages | 1,296 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 713 kb



CCD-CP-108
Organic Asparagus
6/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, organic production, vegetables

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June.

web only | 4 pages | 2,131 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 513 kb



PPFS-OR-W-24
Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky
6/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame.

web only | 5 pages | 1,627 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 2,118 kb



CCD-CP-84
Asparagus
5/1/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June.

web only | 4 pages | 1,387 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 542 kb



CCD-CP-54
Goldenseal
4/15/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

web only | 4 pages | 1,799 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 582 kb



PPFS-FR-S-22
Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

web only | 1 pages | 152 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 236 kb



PPFS-GEN-13
Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.

web only | 3 pages | 2,173 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 388 kb



PPFS-GH-3
Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 737 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



PPFS-OR-W-14
Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases
4/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

web only | 3 pages | 734 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 118 kb



PPA-46
Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6
3/2/2016 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.

web only | 24 pages | 5,749 words | 45 downloads | PDF: 5,000 kb



PPFS-FR-T-6
Cherry Leaf Spot
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

web only | 1 pages | 311 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 500 kb



PPFS-GH-1
Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Philip Konopka, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread.

web only | 6 pages | 2,233 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,494 kb



PPFS-OR-T-13
Managing Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass
3/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well.

web only | 4 pages | 1,638 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 816 kb



ID-125
A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Bill Bruening, J.D. Green, John
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months.

1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb



ID-234
Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
2/8/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Carl Bradley, Doug Johnson,
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.

web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb



CCD-CP-26
Chia
2/4/2016 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers.

web only | 3 pages | 1,155 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 922 kb



PPFS-FR-T-3
Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

web only | 3 pages | 785 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,003 kb



PPFS-GEN-14
Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Ellen Crocker, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths.

web only | 5 pages | 1,611 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 1,283 kb



PPFS-OR-W-23
Shade Tree Anthracnose
2/1/2016 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Flynt, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens.

web only | 4 pages | 1,279 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 869 kb



PPFS-OR-W-10
Black Spot of Rose
2/1/2016 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Black spot is the most common and serious disease of roses in Kentucky. It is a problem in greenhouse production and outdoor plantings.

web only | 1 pages | 344 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 350 kb



PR-706
2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/21/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Emily Pfeufer,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.

1,000 printed copies | 44 pages | 27,911 words | 59 downloads | PDF: 1,542 kb



PPFS-FR-T-4
Black Knot
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

web only | 2 pages | 617 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 784 kb



PPFS-FR-T-1
Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets
12/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

web only | 3 pages | 667 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 887 kb



PPFS-FR-T-8
Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits
11/1/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

web only | 2 pages | 559 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 207 kb



PPFS-OR-W-4
"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals
11/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Brad Lee, Tracey Parriman,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium.

web only | 4 pages | 1,199 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,362 kb



CCD-CP-32
Industrial Hemp: Legal Issues
9/24/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Industrial hemp was widely grown in the United States from the Colonial Period until the mid-1800s. During that time, Kentucky established itself as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. After the Civil War, hemp production declined in Kentucky, as well as in other areas of the country. Production temporarily resumed as part of the war effort during World War II. However, once the war was over, acreages dwindled until U.S. production ended in 1958. However, the last couple of decades have brought a renewed interest in commercial hemp as an alternative or supplementary crop. As the pro-hemp movement has spread, a number of states, including Kentucky, have passed laws favoring its production, generally in connection with scientific, economic, and environmental research studies.

web only | 3 pages | 1,072 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 803 kb



CCD-CP-33
Industrial Hemp Production
9/23/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture,
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs.

web only | 6 pages | 2,682 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-OR-W-1
Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi
9/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain, Traci Missun,
 Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Path
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.

web only | 7 pages | 1,947 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,953 kb



CCD-CP-67
Christmas Trees
8/18/2015 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 492 kb



PPFS-FR-T-5
Apple Rust Diseases
8/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

web only | 5 pages | 1,395 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 813 kb



ID-91s
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
7/15/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Chery
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).

2,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 8,426 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 1,743 kb



PPFS-FR-S-19
Blueberry Root Rot
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

web only | 3 pages | 993 words | 1 download | PDF: 702 kb



PPFS-OR-H-10
Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders
5/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ray Tackett, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management.

web only | 7 pages | 461 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,803 kb



CCD-CP-51
Culinary Herbs
4/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme.

web only | 4 pages | 1,620 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb



PPFS-OR-W-22
When White Pines Turn Brown: Common Problems of White Pines in Kentucky
4/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is a popular conifer in many Kentucky landscapes, although its use may be limited to loose, well-drained, pathogen-free soil. Often, needle browning is the primary symptom that alerts homeowners and nursery growers of health problems. In Kentucky, brown needles on white pine are often caused by one of the following three conditions: white pine decline, white pine root decline (Procerum root rot), or Phytophthora root rot.

web only | 4 pages | 1,497 words | 9 downloads | PDF: 1,170 kb



PPA-41
Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers
3/9/2015 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: plant diseases

All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms.

web only | 7 pages | 3,473 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb



ID-227
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky
1/30/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.

1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,479 words | 44 downloads | PDF: 33,000 kb



PR-688
2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
1/7/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Julie Beale, L
 Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The 2014 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in three counties in Kentucky, including: Mason, Shelby, and Spencer.

web only | 42 pages | 29,201 words | 71 downloads | PDF: 950 kb



PPFS-OR-W-21
Diplodia Tip Blight of Pine
1/1/2015 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, D.J. Scully,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Tip blight is a serious disease of landscape pines in Kentucky. Pines such as Austrian (Pinus nigra), Scots (P. sylvestris), and Mugo (P. mugo) are most commonly affected. Other landscape conifers occasionally may be affected by tip blight as well. Tip blight disease has not been found on eastern white pine (P. strobus).

web only | 3 pages | 922 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,268 kb



CCD-CP-126
Winter Squash
12/10/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter.

web only | 2 pages | 794 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 668 kb



PPFS-AG-F-9
Managing Diseases of Alfalfa
12/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Alfalfa can be a vigorous and productive forage crop for Kentucky farmers. Like all farm crops, however, alfalfa is subject to infectious diseases that can limit forage production. Managing these diseases is an important part of economical alfalfa production.

web only | 4 pages | 1,658 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 756 kb



PPFS-OR-T-12
Brown Patch Disease in Kentucky Lawns
12/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Brown patch, also called Rhizoctonia blight, is a common infectious disease of turfgrass. All turfgrasses grown in Kentucky lawns can be affected by brown patch. However, this disease is usually destructive only in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass during warm, humid weather. While brown patch can temporarily harm a lawn's appearance, it usually does not cause permanent loss of turf except in plantings less than 1 year old.

web only | 4 pages | 1,767 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 745 kb



CCD-CP-59
Hanging Baskets
11/26/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

web only | 4 pages | 1,460 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 631 kb



PPFS-AG-S-24
Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015
11/1/2014 (reviewed)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials.

web only | 4 pages | 875 words | 1 download | PDF: 546 kb



PPFS-OR-T-11
Disease Management in the Home Lawn
11/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

This publication describes lawn management practices that can help control diseases of turfgrasses commonly used in home lawns--Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and perennial ryegrass. You can control diseases of turfgrasses most effectively by using as many of the following lawn management practices as feasible.

web only | 4 pages | 1,670 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,018 kb



PPFS-OR-T-6
Patch Diseases in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns
11/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

"Patch diseases" can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. Two patch diseases with similar symptoms can occur. Necrotic ring spot often appears in early summer. Summer patch, the more common disease in Kentucky landscapes, develops in middle to late summer.

web only | 4 pages | 1,892 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 793 kb



PPFS-AG-F-8
Kentucky Plant Disease Management Guide for Forage Legumes
10/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Disease management in forage legumes relies heavily on using disease-resistant varieties and employing sound agronomic practices. It is important to integrate both of these strategies into a comprehensive disease management program. Failure to consider one or the other will compromise the success of your efforts. The appropriate use of pesticides sometimes plays a significant role in managing certain diseases, but it is secondary to sound cultural practices and proper variety selection.

web only | 7 pages | 2,707 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 907 kb



PPFS-VG-18
Blackleg and Bacterial Soft Rot of Potato
10/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Blackleg and soft rot are bacterial diseases that cause heavy losses in Kentucky potato patches in some years. These diseases may result in missing hills when seed pieces are destroyed or the sprouts decay before they emerge from the ground. Serious rotting of tubers in potato hills and in storage can also occur.

web only | 2 pages | 754 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 707 kb



PPFS-AG-R-1
Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola
9/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Carrie Knott
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Canola Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-R series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Interest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola.

web only | 2 pages | 697 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 600 kb



PPFS-VG-17
Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato
9/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

web only | 3 pages | 786 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 636 kb



CCD-CP-13
Organic Blueberries
8/20/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic produ

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

web only | 6 pages | 2,842 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 633 kb



PPFS-VG-16
Bean Diseases
8/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Anthracnose can reduce bean quality, as well as yield. Losses can be severe during cool, rainy weather. It is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which appears on all aboveground parts of the plant but rarely on roots. Lesions generally are dark brown and may contain pink spore masses during moist weather. Elongate, angular spots appear on lower leaf veins. As the fungus spreads into surrounding tissue, lesions eventually appear on the upper side of veins. Affected seeds become discolored. Plants grown from infected seed may develop lesions on the cotyledons.

web only | 6 pages | 2,129 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,154 kb



ID-222
Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach
7/30/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.

web only | 8 pages | 4,099 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb



CCD-CP-105
Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)
7/21/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002.

web only | 3 pages | 1,054 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 612 kb



ID-172s
Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky
7/9/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.

1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 5,600 kb



CCD-CP-82
Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms
7/3/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations.

web only | 4 pages | 1,689 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 561 kb



ID-89
How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
7/1/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.

web only | 7 pages | 2,439 words | 32 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb



ID-50
Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
7/1/2014 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Jamie Dockery, Kristin Goodin,
 Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Path
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.

web only | 11 pages | 4,025 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb



CCD-CP-7
Grapes
6/23/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented.

web only | 4 pages | 1,653 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 694 kb



ID-184
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky
6/3/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry J
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

4,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,437 words | 27 downloads | PDF: 1,054 kb



PPFS-OR-W-11
Twig Blights of Juniper
6/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

web only | 2 pages | 720 words | 1 download | PDF: 600 kb



ID-210
Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
5/12/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Tom Barnes, Cheryl Kaiser, C
 Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

1,500 printed copies | 58 pages | 28,039 words | 90 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



ID-219
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
5/7/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Joh
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

3,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 5,056 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb



CCD-CP-27
Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy
5/5/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed.

web only | 3 pages | 773 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb



CCD-CP-64
Poinsettias
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

web only | 3 pages | 1,262 words | 1 download | PDF: 409 kb



CCD-CP-31
Grain Sorghum
5/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose.

web only | 3 pages | 901 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 496 kb



PPFS-GEN-10
Root-knot Nematode in Commercial and Residential Crops
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Root-knot nematode (RKN) is a soil-dwelling microscopic roundworm. This nematode is parasitic on numerous plants, including vegetables, fruits, field crops, ornamentals, and common weeds. RKN can occur in commercial and homeowner plantings. Frequently, the nematode interacts with other plant pathogens to form a disease complex in which the resulting disease is much more severe than that caused by either component alone. Root-knot nematode is particularly serious when high populations are allowed to build up due to continuous replanting of susceptible plants on the same site.

web only | 4 pages | 1,619 words | 1 download | PDF: 917 kb



PPFS-OR-W-19
Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Mike Klahr,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs.

web only | 10 pages | 706 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 2,476 kb



PPFS-VG-15
Tomato Wilt Problems
5/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are two fungal diseases that cause similar wilts in tomato. Fusarium wilt tends to be more common during warm weather, while Verticillium wilt is found more often when temperatures are cool. Both diseases share similar symptoms and can be hard to tell apart visually; laboratory tests are often needed for an accurate diagnosis.

web only | 4 pages | 1,510 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 2,070 kb



ID-21
Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky
4/29/2014 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, John St
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.

1,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 10,516 words | 134 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb



CCD-CP-72
Ornamental Corn
4/24/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

web only | 3 pages | 984 words | - | PDF: 643 kb



CCD-SP-10
Organic Certification Process
4/14/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: organic production

Growers who plan to market their agricultural products as "organic" or "certified organic" must first be certified by a USDA accredited certifier. Certification, required by federal regulation, provides third party verification that the grower is complying with production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). Annual inspections and detailed record keeping are required for continuing certification. These strict regulations are meant to protect consumers by ensuring that all organic producers are adhering to the same set of uniform standards.

web only | 4 pages | 1,334 words | - | PDF: 430 kb



CCD-CP-8
High Tunnel Brambles
4/7/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels.

web only | 6 pages | 2,906 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 619 kb



CCD-CP-61
High Tunnel Strawberries
4/4/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops,

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

web only | 4 pages | 2,061 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 528 kb



PPFS-VG-11
Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits
4/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

web only | 3 pages | 1,044 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 575 kb



CCD-CP-36
Millet
3/7/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning.

web only | 3 pages | 1,035 words | - | PDF: 406 kb



CCD-CP-43
Sunflower for Seed
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sunflower is classified as either an oil type or a confection (non-oil) type, each with its own distinct market. Seeds from oil types are processed into vegetable oil or as meal in livestock feed. Most confection type seed is sold, with or without the hull, as snack foods. While either type can be packaged for birdseed, the confectionery type is grown in Kentucky for this purpose. Sunflowers are not recommended for oil crop production here.

web only | 3 pages | 898 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 377 kb



CCD-CP-35
Kura Clover
3/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north.

web only | 2 pages | 751 words | - | PDF: 389 kb



PPFS-GEN-11
Diagnosis of "No Disease"
3/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, S
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Extension Agents and growers may occasionally receive diagnostic reports from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory that indicate "no disease was found." One or both of the following explanations may account for the diagnosis of "No Disease."

web only | 3 pages | 916 words | 1 download | PDF: 867 kb



PPFS-GEN-9
Submitting Plant Specimens for Disease Diagnosis
3/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, S
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the many ways that the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and UK Cooperative Extension serve the citizens of Kentucky. This publication is designed to help growers collect and submit the best plant samples for an accurate diagnosis.

web only | 7 pages | 872 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 2,312 kb



CCD-CP-34
Kenaf
2/18/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products

web only | 2 pages | 909 words | - | PDF: 426 kb



PR-673
2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
1/8/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Shu
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.

web only | 44 pages | 23,586 words | 78 downloads | PDF: 2,491 kb



PPFS-AG-S-9
Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis
1/1/2014 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility.

web only | 3 pages | 1,169 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 679 kb



PPFS-MISC-2
Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance
1/1/2014 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Fungicides are important tools in modern crop production. Unfortunately, one of the risks of using these products is that fungi sometimes develop resistance to them. Resistance development is a concern because the products may become less effective--or even useless--for controlling resistant pathogens and pests. This is a concern for all pesticides, including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. This fact sheet is intended to help pesticide applicators better understand this process.

web only | 10 pages | 5,690 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,325 kb



ID-84
Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
10/16/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Edwin Ritchey,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.

web only | 4 pages | 1,862 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 3,130 kb



PPFS-GEN-5
Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation
8/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury,
 Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

web only | 3 pages | 919 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 723 kb



CCD-MP-16
Selected Resources for Developing Value-added Products in Kentucky
7/27/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-MP series)
 Tags:

The following list is intended to provide Kentucky growers with resources that will help them on their way to adding value to their raw farm products. Included are the names and contact information of pertinent agencies and departments at the University, State, and Federal levels. Links to government regulations and laws related to processing value-added food products are included, as well as links to other selected Internet resources, fact sheets, and guidebooks.

web only | 7 pages | 2,114 words | - | PDF: 745 kb



ID-216
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky
7/22/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

3,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,491 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 5,300 kb



CCD-CP-75
Willows for Cuttings
7/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants,

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

web only | 3 pages | 1,137 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 430 kb



CCD-CP-48
White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market.

web only | 2 pages | 809 words | 1 download | PDF: 344 kb



CCD-CP-29
Dry Beans
7/15/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are beans grown to maturity and harvested for the seeds within the pods. Also referred to as field beans, dry beans are primarily grown in the U.S. for human consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,084 words | - | PDF: 438 kb



PPFS-AG-F-7
Rating Scale for Brown Stripe of Orchardgrass
7/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Leah Saylor, Ray Smith, Paul Vi
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

As of right now, there is little published on how to assess foliar disease severity in forage grasses in order to determine the percentage which may be diseased. This publication provides a tool for visually determining the percentage of diseased foliar tissue in orchardgrass. It is based on the observation of individual leaves; however, it is hoped that eventually a rating system will be devised that provides disease percentages for entire plots.

web only | 3 pages | 511 words | - | PDF: 566 kb



PPFS-GEN-4
Landscape Sanitation
7/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Amanda Sears, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home landscape plantings (Figure 1a), resulting in premature leaf drop, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

web only | 3 pages | 951 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 644 kb



CCD-CP-25
Cereal Straw Production
6/21/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,010 words | - | PDF: 532 kb



CCD-CP-28
Corn for Grain and Silage
6/15/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products

web only | 3 pages | 1,003 words | - | PDF: 360 kb



ID-52
What's Wrong with My Taxus?
6/5/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.

web only | 4 pages | 2,010 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb



CCD-CP-38
Popcorn and Blue Corn
6/4/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels.

web only | 2 pages | 894 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 532 kb



PPFS-OR-W-17
Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants
6/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below.

web only | 4 pages | 1,587 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 681 kb



CCD-CP-39
Red and White Clover
5/28/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Red and white (ladino) clovers are high quality forage legumes with excellent feed value and animal palatability. Red clover (Trifolium pretense), a tall-growing and short-lived perennial, is used for hay, pasture, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitats. While white clover (Trifolium repens), a low-growing perennial, is best suited for grazing, it can also be used for soil improvement and reclaiming disturbed land.

web only | 2 pages | 731 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 512 kb



ID-133
Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens, 2013
5/6/2013 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Tim Coolong, Rick Durham, Terry
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases.

web only | 8 pages | 814 words | 128 downloads | PDF: 425 kb



CCD-CP-46
Switchgrass for Bioenergy
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Greg Halich, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial bunchgrass native to portions of Kentucky. Once a major component of the Midwestern prairies, switchgrass stands have dwindled as natural grasslands have given way to expanding farms and developments.

web only | 4 pages | 1,779 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 557 kb



PPFS-AG-S-19
Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights
5/1/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky.

web only | 6 pages | 2,197 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 856 kb



CCD-CP-44
Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel
4/18/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results.

web only | 3 pages | 1,465 words | 1 download | PDF: 434 kb



CCD-CP-23
Broomcorn
4/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors.

web only | 2 pages | 992 words | - | PDF: 623 kb



CCD-SP-4
Selected Resources and References for Commercial Greenhouse Operators
4/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: nursery and landscape

Books can be obtained from the publisher (known links are provided), by ordering through a local bookstore, or by ordering through an industry trade magazine (books are generally advertised in each issue). Book sources can also be located by searching the Internet using the title as the keyword.

web only | 3 pages | 862 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 553 kb



CCD-CP-45
Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses.

web only | 3 pages | 1,161 words | 1 download | PDF: 569 kb



CCD-CP-21
Alfalfa
4/2/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the highest yield potential and highest feeding values of all adapted perennial forage legumes. It is a versatile crop that may be used for pasture, hay, silage, green-chop, pellets, cubes, soil improvement, and soil conservation.

web only | 3 pages | 998 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 426 kb



CCD-CP-41
Specialty Soybeans
3/19/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

The first commercial use of soybean (Glycine max) was for its oil; however, this crop is now considered a valuable source of protein as well. Specialty or novel soybeans are used to produce various soyfoods of Asian origin, such as tofu, miso, soy sauce, natto, soymilk, and tempeh. Assorted health food snacks, energy foods, and cereals are also produced from specialty soybeans. Other uses include bean sprouts and soy nuts.

web only | 4 pages | 1,605 words | 1 download | PDF: 922 kb



CCD-CP-40
Specialty Field Corns
3/18/2013 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use.

web only | 3 pages | 995 words | - | PDF: 512 kb



PPFS-GH-4
Greenhouse Sanitation
3/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

web only | 3 pages | 942 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 640 kb



PPFS-OR-W-18
Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants
3/1/2013 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease.

web only | 3 pages | 806 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 534 kb



PR-656
2012 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/6/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Ben Abell, Angela Anandappa,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2012 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and several demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in more than 15 counties in Kentucky. Research was conducted by faculty and staff from several departments within the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture including: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Agricultural Economics. This report also includes collaborative research projects conducted with faculty and staff at Kentucky State University.

web only | 47 pages | 21,679 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



CCD-CP-47
Wheat
10/24/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals.

web only | 3 pages | 1,225 words | - | PDF: 434 kb



CCD-CP-22
Barley
10/24/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production.

web only | 3 pages | 1,482 words | 1 download | PDF: 410 kb



CCD-CP-65
Sprouts
10/23/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, other crops

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

web only | 4 pages | 1,887 words | 1 download | PDF: 439 kb



PPFS-FR-S-16
Black Rot of Grape
10/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

web only | 4 pages | 1,272 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb



CCD-CP-69
Edible Flowers
9/5/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

web only | 3 pages | 1,337 words | 4 downloads | PDF: 396 kb



PPFS-AG-S-3
Downy Mildew of Soybean
9/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust.

web only | 2 pages | 512 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 538 kb



CCD-CP-119
Southernpean (Cowpea)
8/28/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed.

web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | 1 download | PDF: 432 kb



PPFS-FR-T-13
Apple Scab
8/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring.

web only | 3 pages | 1,045 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 486 kb



PPFS-FR-T-12
Fire Blight
8/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

web only | 4 pages | 1,556 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 650 kb



PPFS-AG-S-4
Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean
7/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRSR), caused by Phythophthora sojae, is infrequently encountered in Kentucky. However, where it does occur, the disease can be quite destructive. Soon after planting, P. sojae can cause damping-off of germinating seeds and/or young seedlings. Severe stand loss often necessitates replanting. Alternately, this pathogen can infect and kill established plants of susceptible soybean varieties any time during the season. Varieties that have some resistance to P. sojae may be stunted, but rarely die. PRSR is primarily a problem in poorly drained fields (due to high clay content, "hard pan," and/or soil compaction) or areas of fields that are prone to flooding.

web only | 3 pages | 446 words | 1 download | PDF: 355 kb



CCD-SP-14
Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Legal Considerations
6/28/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Wildcrafters who want to harvest materials outside their own property lines need to know there are laws which protect other privately owned property and public areas from unauthorized harvesting and trespassing. Poaching, the illegal taking of wild plants or animals, is a serious problem in Kentucky. Not only are there legal ramifications, but poaching is also responsible for the decline in selected native Kentucky plant species, such lady slipper orchids. Some plant species are protected by state and/or federal laws. Even plant material collected and sold from personally owned property is not without its legal restrictions.

web only | 6 pages | 2,733 words | - | PDF: 713 kb



CCD-SP-2
High Tunnel Overview
6/12/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer.

web only | 7 pages | 3,489 words | 12 downloads | PDF: 963 kb



CCD-SP-13
Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Environmental Issues
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Whether collecting for personal use or for commercial sales, wildcrafting has the potential of adversely impacting our native plant populations. While the effects of collecting NTFPs are not always as obvious as, for example, harvesting timber in logging operations, some wildcrafting activities can cause subtle but lasting damage to the forest ecology.

web only | 3 pages | 1,403 words | - | PDF: 815 kb



CCD-SP-12
Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview
6/6/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income.

web only | 6 pages | 2,512 words | 1 download | PDF: 877 kb



PPFS-AG-S-1
Brown Spot of Soybean
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines, is present in all soybean fields in Kentucky. In most years the disease causes little to no yield impact; however, up to 15% yield losses can occur in select environments. For example, brown sport tends to be worse where soybeans follow no-till soybeans, where early-maturing varieties are planted, and/or when fields are planted in late April. River bottom fields or fields subject to fog or morning shade are frequently impacted.

web only | 2 pages | 666 words | 1 download | PDF: 420 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-8
Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) in Kentucky
6/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a potentially devastating virus disease of wheat. In the United States, WSM is most prevalent in hard red wheat grown in the central Great Plains region. Soft red winter wheat produced in the mid-south and Midwest is infrequently impacted by WSM. Epidemics are rare in Kentucky with the only recorded ones occurring in 1989 and 2000.

web only | 4 pages | 1,453 words | 1 download | PDF: 282 kb



PPFS-OR-W-16
Rose Rosette Disease
5/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Rose rosette is a devastating disease that is a threat to virtually all cultivated roses (Rosa spp.) in Kentucky, regardless of cultivar. Even rose cultivars known for their exceptional disease resistance and hardiness are susceptible to rose rosette disease. Losses can occur in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and botanical garden plantings.

web only | 3 pages | 962 words | 1 download | PDF: 383 kb



PPFS-OR-W-3
Black Root Rot of Ornamentals
5/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Chery
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Black root rot can affect a wide range of ornamentals in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and greenhouses. In Kentucky, this disease is commonly observed on Japanese and blue hollies, inkberry, pansy, petunia, and vinca. In addition to ornamentals, numerous vegetable and agronomic crops are susceptible.

web only | 3 pages | 873 words | 1 download | PDF: 585 kb



CCD-CP-68
Corn Shocks
4/24/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower.

web only | 2 pages | 767 words | 1 download | PDF: 555 kb



ID-118
Roses
3/27/2012 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Rick Durham, Tim
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Roses have many landscape uses. They can be placed as accent plants or used to form hedges or ground covers. They offer a rainbow of colors and a variety of forms and fragrances, and their sizes range from miniatures to tall climbing plants. Roses may be grown under many climatic and soil conditions and, with care, thrive and produce flowers for many years.

2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 7,927 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 3,331 kb



ID-88
Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky
3/22/2012 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides.

web only | 16 pages | 7,345 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 3,700 kb



CCD-CP-6
Gooseberries and Currants
2/27/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces.

web only | 3 pages | 1,282 words | 1 download | PDF: 1,000 kb



ID-195
Sweetpotato Production for Kentucky
2/21/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Sarah
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a member of the morningglory or Convolvulaceae family. Sweetpotatoes have their origins in tropical America, with early remains having been found in Panama, Peru and Mexico. A perennial plant in their native regions, they are typically killed by frost when grown in a temperate climate. Sweetpotatoes are true roots and not tubers as is the case with the Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Because they are true roots they will continue to grow and enlarge as long as the plant continues to grow.

1,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 6,240 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



CCD-CP-42
Spelt
2/6/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta) is a subspecies of wheat that is primarily used as an alternative feed grain for livestock. It is generally grown for on-farm use, often as a substitute for oats. Most of the nation's feed-grade spelt is grown in Ohio. Spelt can also be used in many of the same processed foods as soft red winter wheat (for example, pasta, high fiber cereals, and crackers). Some people with allergies to wheat are not allergic to spelt, making spelt an excellent substitute for wheat in their diets. Spelt products are available through organic and health food stores.

web only | 2 pages | 762 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 348 kb



PPFS-FR-S-5
Strawberry Anthracnose
2/1/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: John Hartman, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

web only | 3 pages | 815 words | 1 download | PDF: 293 kb



PPFS-GEN-3
Damping-off of Vegetables and Herbaceous Ornamentals
2/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Damping-off can occur on any herbaceous crop grown from seed, including vegetables, ornamentals, and field crops. Seeds, seedlings, and young plants may be affected, resulting in poor stands in home gardens, greenhouses, and commercial fields. Losses to damping-off can be severe, especially when cool, wet weather prevails at seeding or seed emergence.

web only | 2 pages | 622 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 288 kb



PPFS-OR-W-15
Sample Submission Protocol for Diagnosis of Thousand Cankers Disease in Walnut
2/1/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Bren
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a fatal disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra), and most recently, butternut (Juglans cinerea). The disease complex involves a fungus that is carried to trees by the walnut twig beetle, causing numerous cankers on branches and killing trees 5 to 6 years after infection. The disease complex is widespread in the western U.S., and has recently been identified in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

web only | 2 pages | 557 words | 1 download | PDF: 361 kb



CCD-CP-49
Woody Biomass for Energy
1/27/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Biomass, when used in reference to renewable energy, is any biological (plant or animal) matter that can be converted to electricity or fuel. Woody biomass refers to biomass material specifically from trees and shrubs. It is most often transformed to usable energy by direct combustion, either alone or co-fired with coal; however, efforts are underway to develop methods to cost effectively convert woody material to liquid fuels.

web only | 5 pages | 2,271 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 569 kb



CCD-CP-112
Peanuts
1/25/2012 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull.

web only | 4 pages | 1,726 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 620 kb



CCD-CP-24
Canola
1/23/2012 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags:

Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically altered and improved version of rapeseed that was developed for its superior edible oil and high value meal. The term "canola" can only be applied to those varieties that produce less than 2 percent erucic acid. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil, making it a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. The portion of the seed left after the oil is extracted (canola meal) is of value as feed for livestock and poultry. Canola may also be used as an annual forage. In addition, canola is being considered as a source of biodiesel fuel.

web only | 3 pages | 1,318 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 504 kb



PR-626
2011 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/20/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Jul
 Departments: Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The 2011 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and several demonstration trials. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools, which they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

web only | 53 pages | 26,604 words | 23 downloads | PDF: 1,391 kb



PPFS-MISC-6
Assessing Foliar Diseases of Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat: Principles and Practices
11/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

This publication provides basic information on how to conduct disease assessments in on-farm trials. The focus is on foliar diseases, since root diseases are much more difficult to assess properly. The publication begins with fundamentals of proper design of field trials.

web only | 5 pages | 1,693 words | 1 download | PDF: 719 kb



ID-110
Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
10/4/2011 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, Don Hershman,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States (and Kentucky) and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially.

web only | 4 pages | 1,256 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 368 kb



PPFS-GEN-12
Foliar Fungicide Use in Corn and Soybeans
10/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Cheryl Kaiser,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Interest in the use of foliar fungicides for corn and soybean has expanded dramatically in the U.S. over the past few years, resulting in a major change in how these crops are being produced on many farms. Until recently, foliar fungicides for soybeans and corn were reserved for seed production fields to protect seed quality in very specific circumstances or for specialty crops. Applications for the purpose of protecting crop yield were rarely economical. However, the current trend in Kentucky, as well as many other corn/soybean producing states, is towards an increased use of foliar fungicides on these crops as a means of maximizing yields.

web only | 9 pages | 3,829 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,093 kb



CCD-SP-11
Agritourism
9/26/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Agritourism is any commercial enterprise that combines agriculture and tourism on a working farm, ranch, or other agribusiness operation. The Commonwealth of Kentucky defines agritourism as "The act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural, or agribusiness operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation."

web only | 4 pages | 1,409 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 553 kb



ID-191
Climate Change: A Brief Summary for Kentucky Extension Agents
9/20/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Tom Barnes, Ric Bessin, Jeffre
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

Nearly all climate science experts agree that global warming is occurring and that it is caused primarily by human activity. Regardless of what you may read on blogs or in the media, there is no meaningful scientific controversy on these points. The future impacts of global warming are difficult to predict, but the changes caused by greenhouse gases are expected to increasingly affect Kentucky agriculture.

2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,975 words | 60 downloads | PDF: 250 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-7
Black "Sooty" Head Mold of Wheat
9/1/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Each year, just prior to and during wheat harvest, the Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratories at Princeton and Lexington receive many samples with questions about severe head molding. This condition is known as black head mold or sooty head mold.

web only | 2 pages | 405 words | 1 download | PDF: 264 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-5
Fungicide Use in Wheat
9/1/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Disease management is a key component of high-yielding wheat production. In most years, it simply is not possible to produce high wheat yields without paying attention to disease control. Most diseases are best managed through the use of multiple tactics, both proactive (e.g., crop rotation, delayed and/or staggered planting plates, use of resistant varieties of varying maturities, proper fertility, and application of seed treatment and/or foliar fungicides) and reactive (e.g., application of foliar fungicides and timely harvest). Fungicides are just one tool in the disease management arsenal; however, growers often place too much emphasis on this one tool.

web only | 8 pages | 3,557 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 459 kb



PPFS-VG-12
Yellow Vine Decline of Cucurbits
8/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Symptoms of yellow vine decline begin to appear approximately 2 weeks before fruit maturity. The disease may appear initially as stunting of plants and/or intense yellowing of foliage, followed by a slow decline in plant health. In some cases, a sudden collapse of vines may occur with no other symptoms. Vascular tissue (phloem) from crowns of affected plants is often discolored, appearing light brown rather than a healthy translucent green.

web only | 3 pages | 824 words | 1 download | PDF: 454 kb



CCD-CP-30
Grain Amaranth
7/19/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Amaranth is a versatile warm-season, broadleaf plant that can be grown as a grain, ornamental, leafy vegetable, or forage crop. In the U.S. it is grown almost exclusively for its grain, which is produced on large, brightly colored seed heads. Most grain amaranth grown in the States is Amaranthus hypochondriacus; however, A. cruentus is grown to a lesser extent. The seeds are high in lysine, fiber, and protein; low in saturated fats; and gluten-free. Amaranth can be ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal. Because many of amaranth's uses are similar to that of cereal grasses, amaranth is often referred to as a pseudo-cereal.

web only | 3 pages | 1,239 words | 1 download | PDF: 442 kb



CCD-SP-3
Season Extension Tools and Techniques
6/22/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags:

Season extension techniques can be as simple as selecting early maturing varieties; or they can be a more complex combination of multiple methods. Regardless, the objective is to extend the growing season by producing earlier crops in the spring and/or push production later into the fall and early winter.

web only | 5 pages | 2,102 words | 1 download | PDF: 807 kb



PPFS-AG-T-4
Blackleg of Tobacco
6/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Blackleg becomes a concern whenever Kentucky experiences extended periods of warm, wet, overcast weather in the spring. This disease, also referred to as bacterial soft rot, is one of the most serious problems likely to be encountered on tobacco seedlings. Blackleg has the potential for destroying large numbers of plants in a relatively short period of time. As with other diseases in the float system, proper management goes a long way in preventing problems with blackleg.

web only | 2 pages | 707 words | 1 download | PDF: 428 kb



CCD-SP-1
Greenhouse Structures
5/25/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-SP series)
 Tags: equipment and structures, greenhouse

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job.

web only | 5 pages | 1,764 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 807 kb



PPFS-AG-T-1
Pythium Root Rot in Tobacco Float Systems
5/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco

Pythium root rot is the most common disease found in tobacco float beds in Kentucky; it can cause severe losses or delays in transplanting. Damage caused by this disease can be minimized through a combination of sound management practices and timely application of fungicide.

web only | 3 pages | 673 words | 1 download | PDF: 883 kb



ID-172
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky
4/29/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky.

3,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb



PPFS-AG-S-12
Seed Treatment Fungicides for Soybeans: Issues to Consider
4/1/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Kentucky soybean producers frequently ask the question "Is it advisable to treat soybean seed with fungicides?" There is no pat answer to this question because of the many variables involved. Historically, soybean has not been treated to the same extent that corn and wheat have in the U.S. There are many good reasons for this, and some of them are discussed below. However, the trend is toward greater use of fungicide seed treatment on soybean, both in Kentucky and nationally.

web only | 3 pages | 974 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 400 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-12
The Importance of Scouting Wheat for Plant Diseases
4/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

For a variety of reasons, few Kentucky wheat producers place much emphasis on scouting their wheat diseases. Time and labor constraints (for do-it-yourselfers), the cost of hiring a crop consultant, and indifference to the need for scouting rank among the top reasons why this is the case. However, scouting is essential for those interested in managing diseases using an integrated approach.

web only | 2 pages | 519 words | - | PDF: 195 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-6
Preplant Decisions Greatly Impact Disease Potential in Wheat
4/1/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Kentucky wheat producers have a majority of their disease management program in place once the seed is in the ground. By that time, decisions have been made regarding the length of time since the last wheat crop, tillage method and seedbed preparation, variety selection, seed quality, seed treatment, planting date, seeding rate, seeding method, and fall fertility. Individually and collectively, these decisions play an important role in determining which diseases might develop, their severity, and their potential impact on crop yield, test weight, and grain quality. Because pre-plant and planting decisions are so important in the management of wheat diseases, you need to understand how they influence disease development.

web only | 4 pages | 1,569 words | 1 download | PDF: 413 kb



PPFS-VG-14
Recognizing Late Blight on Tomato Seedlings
4/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Tomato seedlings that have late blight when transplanted can serve as sources of inoculum (spores) that can spread to nearby gardens and commercial plantings, so every measure should be taken to prevent these plants from making it to the field. The added threat is that sources of disease are introduced early in the tomato production season, magnifying the potential for heavy losses in seasons that favor late blight.

web only | 4 pages | 1,334 words | 1 download | PDF: 436 kb



PPFS-VG-13
Late Blight of Tomato
4/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Late blight is an extremely important and damaging disease of tomatoes and potatoes, and can be found nearly anywhere these crops are produced. Total crop failures are common with this disease. In the United States, significant losses occur each year--mainly in northeastern and north-central states. However, serious outbreaks have been reported in the southeastern U.S. as well.

web only | 4 pages | 1,416 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 565 kb



PPFS-VG-8
Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits
4/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Gummy stem blight is an important disease of cucurbits in many parts of Kentucky. Under conditions favorable to disease development, commercial growers and home gardeners may experience heavy losses. This disease can occur at any point in plant growth, from seedling stage to fruit in storage. Gummy stem blight is the name given to the disease when leaves and stems are infected. Muskmelon (cantaloupe), cucumber, and watermelon are most commonly affected by this phase of the disease. Black rot refers to the same disease on fruit; it is seen less often than the foliar phase.

web only | 3 pages | 820 words | 1 download | PDF: 584 kb



PPFS-VG-4
Phytophthora Blight of Cucurbits and Peppers
3/1/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Under ideal conditions, Phytophthora blight is an aggressive, fast moving disease that can cause extensive losses. This disease has become increasingly problematic on cucurbits and solanaceous crops in the United States. During the past decade, Phytophthora blight has been causing significant losses in several major vegetable production areas of the U.S. In Kentucky, serious outbreaks have been reported on summer squash, winter squash, cucumbers, watermelons, and peppers.

web only | 5 pages | 1,271 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 544 kb



CCD-CP-37
Organic Corn for Feed or Food
2/14/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production

web only | 6 pages | 2,534 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 467 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-4
Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV)
2/1/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Wheat spindle streak mosaic (WSSM), also known as wheat yellow mosaic, is a common virus disease that affects only wheat. In most years, WSSM has little to no impact on crops grown in Kentucky. However, significant yield damage can occur in highly susceptible varieties when conditions favor infection and subsequent disease development.

web only | 3 pages | 765 words | 1 download | PDF: 308 kb



PR-621
2010 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
1/28/2011 (new)

 UK Authors: Bernadette Amsden, Paul Bachi,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

web only | 29 pages | 15,271 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 629 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-3
Barley Yellow Dwarf
1/1/2011 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Doug Johnson
 Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is a virus disease that can cause serious yield loss when stunted and discolored plants are widely distributed in a field. Severe losses due to BYD occur state-wide about every five years or so, but individual fields are impacted to varying degrees each year. There are many diseases that can reduce wheat yields, but in the case of BYD, most of the disease management decisions (such as field selection, tillage practices, variety, and planting date) are made by the time the seed is actually sown in the fall.

web only | 5 pages | 1,959 words | 1 download | PDF: 602 kb



CCD-CP-115
Rhubarb
12/20/2010 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
 Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversity (CCD-CP series)
 Tags: farm crops, vegetables

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid.

web only | 2 pages | 820 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 747 kb



PR-608
2010 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/20/2010 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, S
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2010 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 34 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 20 counties in Kentucky.

1,000 printed copies | 70 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb



PPFS-MISC-4
Real-time PCR Detection of Xylella fastidiosa is Independent of Sample Storage Time and Temperature
11/1/2010 (new)

 UK Authors: Bernadette Amsden, John Hartman,
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
 Tags: plant diseases

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, first associated with Pierce's disease of grapevines and alfalfa dwarf disease in 1973 (4) continues to be an economically important pathogen of several commercial crops. It also causes bacterial leaf scorch in urban shade trees such as sycamore, oaks, maples, mulberry, and elm (5). The usual course of action, in an effort to control the spread of this pathogen by insect vectors (9), is to prune out infected branches and vines or to rogue infected plants. Therefore, timely testing of suspect hosts is important.

web only | 7 pages | 3,014 words | 1 download | PDF: 236 kb



PPFS-VG-7
Fruit Rots of Cucurbits
11/1/2010 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

web only | 5 pages | 1,411 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 315 kb



PPFS-OR-T-4
Turfgrass Anthracnose
8/1/2010 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of high maintenance turfgrass, such as annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) at golf courses. In Kentucky it can be a disfiguring disease of creeping bentgrass under putting green management conditions during summertime (June to September). The disease may make its appearance on intensely managed annual bluegrass somewhat earlier (April to September). The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase.

web only | 4 pages | 1,262 words | 1 download | PDF: 527 kb



PPFS-AG-S-10
Soybean Loss Prediction Tool for Managing Soybean Rust
7/1/2010 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Joseph Omielan
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a potentially devastating foliar disease of soybean. The disease was first detected in the Continental United States in the fall of 2004. Since that time, it has caused only sporadic yield losses in the U.S., primarily in the Gulf States. However, the potential still exists for devastating losses to occur in all soybean producing areas of the U.S. should the proper combination of weather conditions come together to support significant disease development by mid-summer. Currently, the only way to avert significant yield loss caused by SBR when disease risk is high is by applying foliar fungicides.

web only | 4 pages | 1,542 words | 1 download | PDF: 656 kb



PPFS-AG-S-23
Soybean Rust Fungicide Use Guidelines
6/1/2010 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Effective use of fungicides to control soybean rust is not very complicated. The whole idea is to wait to spray until the soybean rust risk is at least moderate, and make a fungicide application before significant infection has occurred. This means applying fungicides when plant pathologists in and around Kentucky are "sounding the alarm," but before symptoms are evident. Many soybean producers in the deep South have been using fungicides to control soybean rust since 2005 with considerable success. I believe we will have the same experience if it ever becomes necessary to apply fungicides for soybean rust in Kentucky.

web only | 2 pages | 407 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 473 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-2
Wheat Bacterial Streak
5/1/2010 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Occasionally, wheat leaves and spikes are invaded by the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. When leaf tissue is affected, the resulting disease is known as bacterial streak. When the bacterium invades the head, the disease is called black chaff. While this disease has primarily been a problem in the lower mid-South, it is often found in Kentucky in fields that have been impacted by strong winds with blowing soil or following a damaging freeze.

web only | 3 pages | 789 words | 1 download | PDF: 247 kb



PPFS-AG-SG-1
Take-All of Wheat
5/1/2010 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Don Hershman
 Departments:
 Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

"Take-all" is the common name of a root, crown, and basal stem (foot) rot that primarily affects wheat, but can also affect barley, oats, rye, as well as other grass crops and weeds. The disease has been known to destroy entire stands of wheat, thus the name. Barley, oats, rye, and other grass crops, however, have not been seriously impacted in Kentucky. Take-all is most common where susceptible crops are grown continuously without adequate rotation, or in fields where weedy grass hosts were not controlled in non-host crops, and were subsequently sown to wheat. The disease is rarely a serious problem in Kentucky due to excellent weed control practices, as well as the widespread adoption of cropping systems where wheat is produced, at most, every other year.

web only | 2 pages | 749 words | 1 download | PDF: 248 kb



PPFS-GH-6
Poinsettia Diseases
5/1/2010 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornament

Poinsettias grown through the fall months for Christmas sales are vulnerable to destructive diseases from the time the cuttings are stuck into the rooting media until they are mature and ready for sale. A number of poinsettia diseases are favored by the same environmental conditions that promote propagation, making plant material at this stage particularly vulnerable. Diseases occurring in the later stages of production can be related to management issues or cultural problems, as well as the cooler temperatures needed for finishing. Some other diseases can be problematic to poinsettias at any phase of production. And finally, a phytoplasma organism found associated with poinsettias provides evidence that some host/pathogen relationships can actually be economically beneficial.

web only | 6 pages | 1,122 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 1,335 kb



ID-77
Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky
4/22/2010 (major revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Terry
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Kentucky is generally well suited for growing nut trees. Northern pecans, black walnuts, heartnuts, hickory nuts, hardy Persian walnuts (Carpathian strain), American hazelnuts, and Chinese chestnuts all grow well in the state. Although most nut trees are grown by hobbyists and backyard gardeners, several varieties appear to have potential for commercial production, particularly some of the USDA pecan selections and some Chinese chestnut varieties.

web only | 24 pages | - | 56 downloads | PDF: 680 kb



PR-602
2009 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
1/7/2010 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

The 2009 report has been organized according to our primary areas of emphasis: production and economics, pest management, and plant evaluation. These areas reflect stated industry needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world that generate information applicable to Kentucky.

1,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 1,258 kb



PPFS-AG-S-13
Soybean Diseases Control Series: Soybean Cyst Nematode
1/1/2010 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) exists virtually everywhere soybean is grown in Kentucky. The pest is insidious in that significant yield damage often occurs without the appearance of visible disease symptoms. This is an extremely important point because it suggests that farmers are frequently unaware that SCN is active and doing damage in a field.

web only | 4 pages | 1,774 words | 1 download | PDF: 336 kb



ID-159
Corn and Soybean Production Calendar
12/16/2009 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, J.D. Green, Jim Herbek
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur.

2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 650 kb



PR-603
2009 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/11/2009 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Jul
 Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Family and Consumer Sciences, <
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The 2009 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report includes results for more than 45 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 19 counties in Kentucky. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools that they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

1,000 printed copies | 56 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 850 kb



PPFS-AG-S-20
Cercospora Leaf Blight in Kentucky
10/1/2009 (new)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: plant diseases

In most years, Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is a minor disease problem in Kentucky soybeans. It is one of the more common "late-season" diseases, but usually comes in too little, too late to cause damage. However, in wet, late seasons like the one we experienced in 2009, significant yield and grain/seed quality losses can occur in fields that develop severe CLB before pod fill has completed.

web only | 3 pages | 729 words | 1 download | PDF: 296 kb



ID-177
Comparing No-Till and Tilled Wheat in Kentucky
8/26/2009 (new)

 UK Authors: Dottie Call, Larry Grabau, John
 Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

Historically, wheat planting in Kentucky has involved tillage. With conventional tillage practices, most residues from the previous crop are cut and buried prior to seeding wheat. No-till wheat planting eliminates tillage and reduces soil erosion, particularly on sloping soils, as well as reducing labor, machinery, and energy costs.

1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 233 kb



PPFS-OR-T-1
Weather Favorable for Cottony Blight in Turfgrasses
8/1/2009 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Hot, humid weather with occasional showers is favorable for cottony blight, caused by various Pythium species. This disease, also known as Pythium blight, can be very destructive in swards of creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass in a high-maintenance setting, such as golf courses, croquet courts, etc. Cottony blight can occasionally be found on other cool-season turfgrasses, though very infrequently.

web only | 2 pages | 622 words | 1 download | PDF: 267 kb



ID-91
An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops in Kentucky
7/27/2009 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry J
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed to reduce their negative impact on the crop, although pests are rarely eliminated.

5,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 6,729 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 1,863 kb



PPFS-AG-F-5
Crown Rots of Alfalfa
5/1/2009 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Crown rots are chronic disease problems of alfalfa throughout the world. Crown rots cause loss of stand and forage yield in several ways. If the crowns are rotted severely enough, infected plants will die simply by being choked off. Carbohydrates for winter survival are stored in the crown and upper taproot. By rotting this area, crown rots also make alfalfa plants more sensitive to winter kill. Some crown rot fungi produce toxins, thus weakening or even killing the plant.

web only | 2 pages | 565 words | 1 download | PDF: 239 kb



PPFS-AG-F-3
Common Alfalfa Seedling Diseases and Disorders
3/1/2009 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Alfalfa seedlings are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic problems which can affect establishment. Several of the more common seedling diseases and disorders are described below. This information is being provided as a diagnostic aid; publications which provide specific management and production information can be found in the resource list.

web only | 2 pages | 639 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 115 kb



PPFS-AG-S-8
Value of Wheat Residue in Soybean Cyst Nematode Management
3/1/2009 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases,

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is the most widespread and significant pest of soybean in Kentucky. SCN is managed primarily by rotating fields to non-host crops (such as corn) and using SCN-resistant varieties. However, for a variety of reasons, producers occasionally desire to plant a SCN-susceptible variety.

web only | 3 pages | 914 words | 1 download | PDF: 218 kb



PPFS-AG-F-4
"Emergency" Inoculation for Poorly Inoculated Legumes
2/1/2009 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Frequently, stunted and yellowed legumes are thought by growers to be diseased. Close examination often reveals that such "diseased" plants are actually just poorly nodulated.

web only | 3 pages | 912 words | 1 download | PDF: 187 kb



PPFS-AG-F-2
Risk Factors for Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot in Fall-Seeded Alfalfa
12/1/2008 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Alfalfa seeded during late summer or fall is susceptible to the destructive disease Sclerotinia crown and stem rot. Fall-seeded stands are particularly vulnerable to this disease because the young seedlings have not had sufficient time to develop adequate resistance before infectious spores of the pathogen are produced in late October. In contrast, spring-seeded stands are able to develop larger, more resistant crowns prior to this infectious period. Thus, spring plantings are better able to withstand an attack, should these air-borne spores be present in the field.

web only | 3 pages | 977 words | 1 download | PDF: 280 kb



PR-572
2008 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,100 printed copies | 72 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 800 kb



PR-571
2008 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
12/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,100 printed copies | 30 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 1,476 kb



PPFS-AG-F-6
Alfalfa Diseases Caused by Rhizoctonia Fungi
11/1/2008 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Rhizoctonia fungi, particularly Rhizoctonia solani, are found in most agricultural soils in Kentucky. These fungi are natural soil inhabitants that colonize and live on dead organic matter. Under the right environmental conditions, the Rhizoctonia organisms are often able to attack living plants, including alfalfa. When warm, wet conditions prevail, Rhizoctonia fungi can cause just about every conceivable type of alfalfa disease.

web only | 3 pages | 701 words | 1 download | PDF: 294 kb



PPFS-AG-F-1
Summertime Foliar Diseases of Alfalfa
11/1/2008 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

Warm, humid weather can favor development of foliar diseases of alfalfa during summer.

web only | 2 pages | 409 words | 1 download | PDF: 194 kb



PPFS-AG-C-2
Seed and Seedling Diseases of Corn
10/1/2008 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system.

web only | 2 pages | 430 words | 1 download | PDF: 160 kb



PPFS-AG-C-1
Diseases of Concern in Continuous Corn
10/1/2008 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

Although most corn in Kentucky is planted following a rotation to other crops, individual producers are often interested in planting corn following corn. In these situations, one of the main concerns voiced by producers is increased pressure from diseases, and rightfully so. Crop rotation is one of the most fundamental disease control practices available. Rotating to other crops deprives pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) of a food source and exposes them to "starvation." Furthermore, as infested crop residues decompose, pathogens are exposed to antagonism by native soil microbes. These mechanisms have the effect of naturally reducing the populations of many pathogens in the soil.

web only | 4 pages | 1,434 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 233 kb



PPFS-FR-S-14
Fruit Rots of Grape
10/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot.

web only | 7 pages | 2,467 words | 1 download | PDF: 358 kb



PPFS-FR-S-13
Downy Mildew of Grape
9/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: Julie Beale, John Hartman, C
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury.

web only | 3 pages | 987 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 282 kb



PPFS-FR-S-9
Poor Fruit Set in Brambles
9/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Poor fruit set and sterility commonly occur on bramble fruits (red raspberries, black raspberries, and blackberries) both in commercial and home plantings. Typically the fruit fails to develop or small misshapen berries form. When an insufficient number of drupelets fully develop, they tend to separate so that the fruit "crumbles" when picked. This symptom, referred to as "crumbly berry," is another common result of poor fruit set.

web only | 4 pages | 1,393 words | 1 download | PDF: 234 kb



HO-81
Ornamental Corn Production
7/10/2008 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry J
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horti
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

1,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 1,234 kb



PPFS-FR-S-7
Phytophthora Root Rot of Brambles
7/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Brambles that are subjected to wet soil conditions or periods of flooding are often predisposed to Phytophthora root rot. Excess water not only promotes susceptibility of roots to this disease, but also aids the fungus in moving to new infection sites. Phytophthora root rot is primarily a disease of raspberries; however, it can also occur on blackberries.

web only | 2 pages | 655 words | 1 download | PDF: 296 kb



PPFS-VG-6
Bacterial Canker of Tomato
7/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: Kenny Seebold
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
 Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables

Bacterial canker is a potentially serious disease of tomato that can occur in commercial plantings and home gardens. This infectious disease is capable of spreading rapidly, resulting in devastating losses. It is a particularly difficult disease to manage because not only is there no cure, but the pathogen can be hard to eradicate once it has been introduced into a greenhouse, garden, or field.

web only | 3 pages | 840 words | 1 download | PDF: 392 kb



PPFS-FR-S-8
Strawberry Fruit Rots
6/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky's typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose.

web only | 5 pages | 2,025 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 274 kb



PPFS-FR-S-10
Blueberry Diseases
1/1/2008 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, John H
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Kentucky blueberry growers sometimes experience plant and crop losses due to diseases. While most losses are due to root rot, or to stem and twig canker diseases, fruit rots and nutritional problems can also reduce yields. With good crop management, most blueberry diseases can be avoided.

web only | 4 pages | 1,107 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 292 kb



PR-555
2007 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
11/29/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,000 printed copies | 92 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



PR-554
2007 Nursery and Landscape Research Report
11/26/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Ch
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,100 printed copies | 48 pages | - | 7 downloads | PDF: 1,400 kb



AGR-195
Replanting Options for Corn
7/27/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: J.D. Green, Jim Herbek, Chad Lee
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops

Evaluating damaged corn stands and determining when to replant is often a difficult task. Survival, health, and expected yield of the current stand must be weighed against replanting costs, additional management, and expected yield of a replanted crop. The options are rarely clear-cut because damaged corn is rarely uniform throughout the field. The following information will help when making evaluations and management decisions.

1,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 194 kb



PPFS-OR-W-12
Bacterial Leaf Scorch
7/1/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Bacterial leaf scorch has devastated many landscape and shade trees in Kentucky's urban forests in recent years. Especially hard hit have been the mature pin oaks lining many urban streets. First diagnosed in the U.S. in the early 1980s, this epidemic shows no signs of abating.

web only | 6 pages | 1,885 words | 1 download | PDF: 249 kb



PPFS-FR-T-9
Peach Fruit Diseases
6/1/2007 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Peaches are grown in many Kentucky orchards for local fresh market sales. Fruit diseases, often resulting in decayed peaches, are a serious problem, especially during warm, humid, rainy weather conditions.

web only | 5 pages | 1,737 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 277 kb



HO-57
Growing Peaches in Kentucky
3/30/2007 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Joe M
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Horticulture (HO series)
 Tags:

1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 79 downloads | PDF: 978 kb



ID-119
Ornamental Gourd Production in Kentucky
1/3/2007 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Terry Jones, Joe Mas
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horti
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 281 kb



PR-538
2006 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/15/2006 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horti
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,100 printed copies | 82 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 1,337 kb



PR-537
2006 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/15/2006 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Win
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 2,115 kb



PPFS-FR-S-6
Orange Rust of Brambles
9/1/2006 (new)

 UK Authors: John Hartman, Chris Smigell
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Orange rust is a disease caused by one of two very similar fungi, Gymnoconia nitens in the Southeast, and Arthuriomyces peckianus in the Midwest. Both fungi, causing the same symptoms, may be active in Kentucky. In Kentucky, orange rust is severe on some wild and cultivated thorny blackberries. It infects black and purple raspberries and thornless blackberries somewhat, but is not known to infect red raspberries.

web only | 2 pages | 657 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 232 kb



PPFS-GEN-6
Slime Mold, Lichens, and Sooty Mold Problems on Plants
8/1/2006 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Slime molds are amoeba-like organisms which feed on bacteria and yeasts in the soil. During cloudy, humid weather these molds grow out of the soil and creep onto whatever is available. Turfgrass, weeds, strawberries, bedded flowers, and ground covers, as well as mulches, sidewalks and driveways may become covered with masses of gray, yellowish or black dusty spores.

web only | 2 pages | 583 words | 1 download | PDF: 208 kb



PR-533
2006 New Crop Opportunities Research Report
7/15/2006 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Doug Archbold,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

web only | 72 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 1,359 kb



PR-521
2005 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report
12/30/2005 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horti
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,100 printed copies | 98 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 1,555 kb



PR-520
2005 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/30/2005 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Win
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 5,168 kb



PPFS-FR-S-1
Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot and Eutypa Dieback Diseases of Grape
11/1/2005 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

"Cane and leaf spot" and "Eutypa dieback" were once thought to be the same disease. However, it is now known that each is a distinct disease caused by a different fungus. Grapes grown in areas where a moist environment persists are especially vulnerable to these fungal diseases.

web only | 2 pages | 631 words | 1 download | PDF: 183 kb



PPFS-GH-5
Controlling Phytophthora Root Rot in Greenhouse Ornamentals
5/1/2005 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Phytophthora fungi can attack a number of potted herbaceous ornamentals produced in greenhouses. The potted flowering plants reported as hosts include: begonia, bougainvillea, ornamental pepper, vinca, poinsettia, Persian violet, fuchsia, common gardenia, African daisy, kalanchoe, Lantana, African violet, holiday cactus, gloxinia, and Jerusalem cherry.

web only | 2 pages | 613 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 615 kb



PPFS-OR-W-5
Shoestring Root Rot: A Cause of Tree and Shrub Decline
5/1/2005 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Most woody landscape plants are susceptible to shoestring root rot, cause of dieback and decline in the landscape. Diagnosis of this problem requires close examination of the base of the trunk which often reveals loose or decayed bark and dead cambium. By peeling back the bark one can often observe dark brown rhizomorphs (thick strands of hyphae), resembling narrow "shoestrings."

web only | 2 pages | 415 words | 1 download | PDF: 337 kb



ID-154
Low-Maintenance Lawn Care, Stressing Pest Avoidance and Organic Inputs
3/15/2005 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Dan Potter, A.J. Powell, Paul
 Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: organic production

This publication is written for those who wish to maintain their lawn with minimal inputs. Low-maintenance lawn care offers certain benefits, such as minimal pesticide use, reduced fertilizer input, less need for irrigation, and reduced mowing frequency. However, when choosing a low-maintenance approach, recognize that the lawn will not offer the same dark green, uniform sward of turf that is seen under a high-maintenance lawn-care program.

2,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 176 kb



PR-506
2004 Alfalfa Report
1/30/2005 (new)

 UK Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, R
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

2,500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 3 downloads | PDF: 521 kb



PR-502
2004 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/20/2004 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Win
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,200 printed copies | 46 pages | - | - | PDF: 2,376 kb



PR-504
2004 Fruit and Vegetable Report
12/15/2004 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Shane Bogle, Gerald
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horti
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,100 printed copies | 74 pages | - | 12 downloads | PDF: 1,899 kb



PPFS-GEN-2
Powdery Mildew
8/1/2004 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Powdery mildew may affect numerous ornamentals, fruits, vegetables, and agronomic crops. In Kentucky, mildew diseases are most commonly observed on apple, begonia, crabapple, cherry, dogwood, lilac, phlox, pin oak, rose, sycamore, tuliptree, turfgrass, zinnia, squash, pumpkin, cantaloupe, wheat and barley.

web only | 2 pages | 472 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 240 kb



PPFS-OR-H-5
Oedema
8/1/2004 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
 Tags: plant diseases

Odema is a non-parasitic disorder which, under the right environmental conditions, can affect a wide variety of herbaceous plants. We most frequently observe this problem on indoor plants, such as dracaena, geranium and schefflera. Oedema tends to be more of a problem in greenhouses, but it may also occur on plants grown in homes and offices. Field and garden grown crops, such as cabbage, may also be affected.

web only | 1 pages | 318 words | 1 download | PDF: 150 kb



PPFS-FR-S-4
Raspberry Fruit Rots
7/1/2004 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: John Hartman
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases

Rainy summer and fall weather in Kentucky can provide ideal conditions for fruit decay diseases of raspberries. The most damaging are the fungal diseases gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and soft rot, or leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.). Both diseases are favored by long periods of wet fruit and foliage, and by high humidity levels. During some parts of the season, fruit rots account for up to 50% loss of potential harvest, and additional losses after harvest.

web only | 2 pages | 446 words | 2 downloads | PDF: 181 kb



PR-489
2003 Alfalfa Report
12/24/2003 (new)

 UK Authors: Mike Collins, Garry Lacefield,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

2,500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 107 kb



PR-488
2003 Fruit and Vegetable Report
12/15/2003 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Rick
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,100 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 1 kb



PR-486
2003 Nursery and Landscape Report
12/5/2003 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,200 printed copies | 42 pages | - | - | PDF: 474 kb



PR-471
2002 Alfalfa Report
1/5/2003 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

3,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 185 kb



PR-470
2002 Fruit and Vegetable Report
1/3/2003 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Davi
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,000 printed copies | 65 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 2,400 kb



PR-468
2002 Nursery and Landscape Report
1/3/2003 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,200 printed copies | 42 pages | - | - | PDF: 1,900 kb



PR-453
2001 Alfalfa Report
5/13/2002 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

500 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 209 kb



PR-452
2001 Fruit and Vegetable Report
1/4/2002 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Ric Bessin, Gera
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,100 printed copies | 60 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 437 kb



ID-142
New Recommendations for Perennial Ryegrass Seedings for Kentucky Horse Farms
1/1/2002 (new)

 UK Authors: Lowell Bush, Jimmy Henning,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses

500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 41 kb



PR-450
2001 UK Nursery and Landscape Program
12/1/2001 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Jac
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

web only | 40 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 369 kb



ID-139
A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky
9/30/2001 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Morris Bitzer, J.D.
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops,

The corn grown in Kentucky is used mainly for livestock feed and as a cash crop. As a cash crop sold from the farm, corn ranks third behind tobacco and soybeans but is the number one row crop in terms of acreage. Because the cost of producing an acre of corn is high and the value per bushel has declined in recent years, producers must manage and market their corn crop more carefully for adequate profits. The goal of this publication is to serve as a guide for corn production strategies that focus on efficient use of resources and provide the principles and practices for obtaining maximum, profitable corn yields.

7,500 printed copies | 64 pages | 37,214 words | 55 downloads | PDF: 639 kb



ID-137
Total Quality Assurance Apple Production: Best Management Practices
5/1/2001 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Joe O
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Entomology, H
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 33 downloads | PDF: 271 kb



ID-72
Principles of Home Landscape Fertilizing
3/1/2001 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: nutrient management

4,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 58 downloads | PDF: 183 kb



PR-440
2000 Alfalfa Report
1/15/2001 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

3,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 398 kb



PR-437
2000 UK Nursery and Landscape Program
1/1/2001 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Paul Cappiello,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,800 printed copies | 38 pages | - | - | PDF: 574 kb



PR-436
Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report 2000
12/3/2000 (new)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Davi
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

1,100 printed copies | 57 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 768 kb



PR-432
Agronomy Research Report 2000
7/10/2000 (new)

 UK Authors: Richard Barnheisel, Morris Bitzer,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

2,500 printed copies | 55 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 550 kb



ID-112
Brown Patch Disease
5/30/2000 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: A.J. Powell, Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

1,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 10 kb



ID-136
No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky
5/1/2000 (new)

 UK Authors: John Grove, Jim Herbek, Don Hers
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

5,000 printed copies | 11 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 467 kb



PPA-44
An Alfalfa Disease Calendar
5/1/2000 (new)

 UK Authors: Paul Vincelli
 Departments: Plant Pathology
 Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 168 kb



ID-126
Growing Grapes in Kentucky
4/30/2000 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, John
 Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts

Kentucky has a long record of good grape production. As a home fruit crop or commercial crop, grapes have many benefits. Grapevines are relatively inexpensive and easy to propagate. They reach full bearing potential in four years and bear annually. The many varieties of grapes can be consumed fresh or used to make grape juice, jams, jellies, and wine. Grapes are also easy to manage. Vines are trained on trellises or arbors and easily can be sprayed using small equipment for control of insects and diseases.

3,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 73 downloads | PDF: 238 kb



PR-423
Fruit and Vegetable Crop Research Report 1999
12/31/1999 (new)

 UK Authors: Bob Anderson, Doug Archbold,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

750 printed copies | 43 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 712 kb



PR-422
Nursery and Landscape Program: 1999 Research Report
12/31/1999 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Paul Cappiello,
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

web only | 33 pages | - | - | PDF: 689 kb



PR-425
1999 Alfalfa Report
12/15/1999 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

4,000 printed copies | 14 pages | - | - | PDF: 244 kb



ID-68
The Flowering Crabapple
10/1/1999 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain,
 Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

5,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 331 kb



PR-411
1998 Alfalfa Report
1/15/1999 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

4,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | - | PDF: 188 kb



ID-132
Management of Tobacco Float Systems
1/10/1999 (new)

 UK Authors: Bill Nesmith, Gary Palmer, Bob
 Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, tobacco

web only | 8 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 445 kb



PR-410
Fruit and Vegetable Program: 1998 Research Report
12/1/1998 (new)

 UK Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Ge
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research,

The emphases in our research program reflect industry-defined needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world generating information applicable to Kentucky. Although the purpose of this publication is to report research results, the report also highlights our Extension program and Undergraduate and Graduate degree programs that address the needs of the horticultural industries.

web only | 46 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 335 kb



PR-409
Nursery and Landscape Program: 1998 Research Report
12/1/1998 (new)

 UK Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Bil
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

web only | 44 pages | - | - | PDF: 318 kb



PR-402
1998 Agronomy Research Report
7/1/1998 (new)

 UK Authors: Richard Barnheisel, Mike Barrett,
 Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Entomology, KTRDC
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags:

1,500 printed copies | 56 pages | - | 4 downloads | PDF: 403 kb



PR-399
1997 Alfalfa Report
2/1/1998 (new)

 UK Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield,
 Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
 Series: Progress Report (PR series)
 Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes

4,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 2 downloads | PDF: 153 kb



ID-125A
Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar
9/1/1997 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Morris Bitzer, J.D. Green, John
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains

2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 117 kb



ID-124
Factors to Consider in Bringing Idle Land Back to Production
4/1/1997 (new)

 UK Authors: Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Debo
 Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology,
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

5,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 228 kb



ID-55
Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree's Health
1/1/1996 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Win Dunwell, John Hartman, C
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 200 kb



IP-9
Food Safety Pesticide Residues in Grains, Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts
9/1/1992 (minor revision)

 UK Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Jim Ma
 Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences,
 Series: Interprogram (IP series)
 Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, vegetables

300 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 16 kb



ID-80
Transplanting Trees and Shrubs
11/1/1990 (reprinted)

 UK Authors: Bill Fountain, John Hartman, M
 Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
 Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
 Tags:

10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 51 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb