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Plant Pathology


SR-112

Science of Hemp: Production and Pest Management, 2020

3/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Bernadette Amsden, Samantha Anderson, Ric Bessin, Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Ross Guffey, Tom Keene, Tyler Mark, Bob Pearce, Christopher Schardl, Jonathan Shepherd, Frank Sikora, Desiree Szarka, Raul Villanueva

Hemp is grown for fiber, grain, and cannabinoid extraction in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Until recently, Cannabis sativa has been classified as a Schedule 1 controlled substance in the US. The Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill) allowed for reintroduction of industrial hemp under a pilot research program. Acreage increases and addition of state legislation resulted in over 78,000 acres of hemp grown in 23 states by the end of 2018. Hemp became a legal commodity under the 2018 Farm Bill, and by the end of 2019, over 500,000 licensed acres were documented across 45 states. Canada re-introduced the crop in 1998, and in 2018, almost 78,000 acres of hemp were licensed and planted.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Graves County, Lyon County, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Special Report (SR series)
Tags:
Size: 9.60 mb
Pages: 54



ID-36

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2020-21

11/26/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 22.00 mb
Pages: 128



PPA-1

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2020

11/19/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 34



PPFS-GEN-1

Crown Gall

10/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Embry, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 5



ID-253

Species Failure Profile for Trees Common to the Ohio River Valley

8/23/2019 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Bill Fountain

Tree failures, especially in urban and recreational areas can result in harm to human life and property. While this is rare, it is important to recognize that the environmental and sociological benefits provided by trees significantly outweighs the limited risks presented by trees. This is especially true when defects and species profiles that increase the potential for failure can be observed or detected. Many of these defects are associated with certain species. This is referred to as the species failure profile.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 320 kb
Pages: 8



ID-194

Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7

8/22/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Jessica Bessin, Rick Durham, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, Andrea Stith, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Stacy White, Erica Wood

For those with a green thumb, growing plants may seem easy. However, when plant problems arise, determining the cause of these issues can be difficult. Developing the skills necessary to determine the cause of a plant problem takes experience and time. The steps involved in the diagnostic process first require analysis of information regarding the history of the symptomatic plant and the surrounding area. Plant symptoms and signs provide additional evidence to aid in determination of a possible cause.

Departments: Barren County, Bell County, Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Franklin County, Hopkins County, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-FR-S-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 398 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-2

Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 306 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-24

Bitter Rot of Apple

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-25

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 986 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-26

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-AG-C-9

Curvularia Leaf Spot

7/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Curvularia leaf spot is a corn disease that was reported for the first time in the United States in Louisiana in 2017, and was confirmed in Kentucky in 2018. While the impact of Curvularia leaf spot in Kentucky is not yet known, this disease causes yield loss in tropical areas, and is considered to be one of the most important diseases of corn in China. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and foliar diseases that have similar symptoms.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-5

Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 473 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-18

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 407 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-21

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-23

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 351 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-24

Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-25

Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-26

Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 230 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-18

Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Beth Wilson

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Pulaski County
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-20

Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-21

Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-22

Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 890 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-23

Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 458 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GEN-15

Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

Departments: County Extension, Franklin County, Hardin County, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 3.38 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-2

Reducing the Risk of Resistance to Fungicides Used to Control Diseases of Turfgrasses

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Fungicides can be an important tactic in an overall integrated program for turf disease control. In order to insure that products available today remain available in the future, golf course superintendents should be aware of the need to use fungicides in ways that minimize the risk of fungicide resistance.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-1

Black Rot of Crucifers

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Davis, Emily Pfeufer

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga.

Departments: Clark County, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 227 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-10

Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 327 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-11-QF

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Steve Osborne, Kenny Seebold

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 2



ID-254

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky

6/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 36



PPFS-FR-T-14

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases

6/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 401 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-24

Biological Products for Tomato Disease Management

6/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Disease management products with biologically-based active ingredients are often labeled for numerous diseases, but can vary markedly in their efficacy. This Extension publication summarizes factors to consider when choosing biological controls and data available pertaining to tomato disease management efficacy.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, nursery and landscape, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 268 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-80

Hops

5/3/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is a native herbaceous plant with a perennial crown and annual climbing stems (bines). Bines are similar to vines; however, bines wind around a support structure and lack the suckers or tendrils typical of vines. Hop crowns can survive for 25 years or more; however, the fast growing bines die back to the ground each winter. Bines can reach a height of 15 to 30 feet in a single growing season. Hops are valued for their female cones, which contain the resins and essential oils used to provide the distinctive flavor, aroma and bitterness to beer.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-7

Kentucky Turfgrass Disease Calendar

5/1/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

A graphic representation showing the times of year that diseases of cool-season grasses are likely.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 161 kb
Pages: 2



ID-128

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2019

4/16/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Emily Pfeufer, John Strang, Mark Williams, Shawn Wright

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 4.00 mb
Pages: 48



CCD-CP-77

Bamboo

4/9/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Bamboo is the general name used for a number of perennial, woody-stemmed grasses. Native cane (Arundinaria gigantea), which is commonly referred to as river cane, grows naturally in Kentucky and throughout much of the Southeast. It is one of three bamboo species native to North America. There are more than a hundred introduced species that can be grown in the U.S., with growth habits ranging from low-growing groundcovers to full-sized trees that reach a height of over 30 feet at maturity. Bamboos are well known for their vigorous growth and variety of uses.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-20

Commercial Grape Fungicide Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guides

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A fungicide schedule worksheet and two sample spray guides for commercial grape growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags:
Size: 427 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-19

Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 337 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-7

Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 491 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-GEN-8

Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 431 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-19

Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 995 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-20

Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 896 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-21

Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 874 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-22

Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 460 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-23

Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 788 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-56

Bedding Plants

3/26/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hundreds of different annuals, perennials, herbs and vegetable transplants can be grown and sold as bedding plants. In general, the term 'bedding plant' refers to any plant that is produced and sold for planting in the landscape, garden or large containers (such as patio pots).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-137

Gourds

3/12/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Gourds, which are related to pumpkins and squash, are generally grown for their hard outer rind. The fruit is dried for fall decorations, handicrafts and functional items. The various types of gourds include hard-shell gourds (Lagenaria spp.; used for dippers, containers and birdhouses), soft-shell gourds (Cucurbita pepo; decorative and ornamental uses), and luffa gourds (their soft interior fiber is used like a sponge).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-27

Canker Sampling of Trees and Woody Ornamentals

3/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cankers on woody plants can result in dieback, decline, structural failure, or plant death. Cankers form when plant pathogens enter woody tissues. Plants stressed by poor planting practices, improper maintenance, extreme weather, insect damage, mechanical damage, or other wounds are at increased risk for infection by canker causing pathogens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-2

Apples

2/5/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Over the past 40 years Kentucky growers have produced apples (Malus domestica) using free-standing trees in low to medium density plantings. Today's high density orchards have closely planted trees on dwarfing rootstocks requiring permanent support structures. Earlier production, quicker returns on the investment, and improved fruit quality are just a few of the many benefits of the new high-density systems.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 4



ID-232

Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20

2/1/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 168



PR-755

2017 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

1/18/2019 (new)
Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, Dewayne Ingram, Dan Potter, Raul Villanueva, Paul Vincelli, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Tim Woods

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 9.30 mb
Pages: 38



CCD-CP-9

High Tunnel Blueberries

1/15/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-74

Turfgrass Sod Production

1/2/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sod production involves growing a solid stand of high quality turfgrass and then harvesting the grass along with roots and a thin layer of topsoil. Many sod producers also transport and install the sod. The primary markets for sod are landscapers and building contractors. Sod is used in parks, golf courses, athletic fields, schools, garden centers, home lawns, road construction sites, commercial properties, and cemeteries. The 2014 USDA Census of Horticultural Specialties reported slightly less than 1,000 acres of sod harvested in Kentucky. The value of sod sales in Kentucky was split almost evenly between wholesale and retail sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-7

Plant Diseases of Fruit Prediction Models for Kentucky Counties

1/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Evan Tate, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Numerous plant diseases impact fruit crops throughout Kentucky. Factors such as plant growth stage, as well as rainfall, temperature, and other weather conditions, can be used to determine risk for plant disease. Prediction models are critical tools for growers, as they allow for protective management strategies to be deployed when disease risk is high. Use of these models can provide growers with cost savings, as unnecessary chemical applications are eliminated when risk of infection is low.

Departments: Hancock County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.59 mb
Pages: 4



PR-757

2018 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Krista Jacobsen, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 6.84 mb
Pages: 44



CCD-CP-114

Pumpkins

12/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The name "pumpkin" is commonly applied to any plant in the taxonomically diverse Cucurbita genus that produces the characteristic yellow to orange, round fruit. Pumpkin cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata and C. mixta.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-19

Strawberries

12/4/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

To many, nothing says summer like the first local ripe strawberries of the season. A versatile fruit, strawberries (Fragaria spp.) can be consumed fresh, frozen or in processed foods. Growers able to provide the earliest crop of these popular berries will often have the marketing edge

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-15

Peaches

11/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The peach (Prunus persica), which originated in China, is a member of the rose family. In the past, commercial peach production in Kentucky has been profitable only in western counties, in southern counties, and in areas along the Ohio River. However, over the past 15 years as winters have become warmer, peach growers are also doing well in areas west of the mountains, as long as good sites that avoid late spring frosts are selected.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 3



ID-235

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky

10/17/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Obrycki, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, Shubin Saha, Shawn Wright

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.94 mb
Pages: 28



PR-741

2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

10/11/2018 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Jennie Condra, Emily Dobbs, Win Dunwell, Bob Geneve, Dewayne Ingram, Brenda Kennedy, Katie Kittrell, Janet Lensing, Sara Long, Susmitha Nambuthiri, John Obrycki, Dan Potter, Nicole Ward Gauthier

The 2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report includes research in the areas of production and economics, ecology, and pest control.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, research
Size: 2.23 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-73

Ornamental Grasses

9/26/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental grasses are popular for use in commercial and homeowner landscapes. Attractive foliage, showy flowers and distinctive seed heads make many annual and perennial grasses suitable for fresh and dried floral arrangements. Ornamental grasses can be added to an existing nursery operation or become the focus of a specialty nursery.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 3



ID-251

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky

9/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-5

Elderberry

9/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-121

Summer Squash

9/10/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Summer squashes (Curcurbita pepo) are warm-season cucurbits that are harvested when the fruits are immature. The most common summer squash types include yellow (crookneck and straightneck) and zucchini. Also included in the summer squash group are scallop squashes and cocozelle. Summer squashes grow on plants with a bush growth habit, rather than vining.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-8

Diplodia Leaf Streak

9/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Diplodia leaf streak of corn is a disease that has become more prevalent in Kentucky in recent years. It is commonly observed in fields in western Kentucky and is easily confused with other corn foliar diseases. Small, round, dark brown-to-tan lesions are first observed on leaves. Dark concentric rings may be observed in the center of early lesions at the infection site on the leaf. These lesions expand lengthwise in long streaks from the infection point and form elongated elliptical lesions. In severe cases, lesions can coalesce to blight large areas of affected leaves.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-98

Field-grown Tomatoes

8/3/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a warm-season crop that originated in South America. Tomatoes are one of the most popular and profitable crop alternatives in Kentucky. Growers able to provide the earliest locally grown tomatoes can often demand a premium price.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 861 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-16

Southern Blight

8/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Southern blight affects hundreds of different plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals, and fruit. This disease is also known as southern stem blight, basal stem rot, Sclerotium blight, crown rot, and white mold (not to be confused with Sclerotinia white mold). Depending on host plant, production system, and environmental conditions, the severity of this disease can vary from a minor problem on isolated plants to extensive damage causing significant crop losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-20

Boxwood Blight

8/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Boxwood blight is a disease of boxwood (Buxus spp.), causing rapid defoliation and plant dieback. The fungal disease is particularly devastating to American boxwood cultivars, which can defoliate within a week and die within one growing season. Plants are eventually weakened by repeated defoliation and dieback, and resulting plant stress and consequent colonization by secondary invaders result in plant death.

Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-14

Pawpaw

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-3

Asian and European Pears

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-122

Sweet Corn

7/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) is one of the most popular fresh market vegetables produced in Kentucky. While field corn has thousands of years of history, sweet corn has only been available since the 1700s. Present day cultivars vary by kernel color (yellow, white and bicolor) and sugar content.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-123

Sweet Potato

7/16/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The terms "sweet potato" and "yam" are often used interchangeably; however, they are actually two entirely different crops. Only sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are grown in the U.S.; yams (Dioscorea spp.) are grown in the Caribbean and many other tropical areas. The most profitable marketing opportunities for sweet potatoes in Kentucky are through local fresh markets, such as farmers markets, direct delivery and CSA, and on-farm stands. Producers also market through local wholesale channels, selling directly from the farm to restaurants, grocers and institutional foodservice, including schools.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 810 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-134

Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky

6/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-4

Blackberries

6/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-57

Greenhouse Tomatoes

6/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, greenhouse, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



ID-249

A Comprehensive Guide to Soybean Management in Kentucky

6/7/2018 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Carl Bradley, J.D. Green, John Grove, Greg Halich, Erin Haramoto, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Travis Legleiter, Josh McGrath, Sam McNeill, Javier Reyes, Edwin Ritchey, Montse Salmeron, Jordan Shockley, Claire Venard, Raul Villanueva, Ole Wendroth, Kiersten Wise, Xi Zhang

This publication provides information on soybean growth and development, principles of variety selection, and management practices to maximize soybean profitability in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 38.99 mb
Pages: 84



CCD-CP-10

Jujube and Aronia

6/6/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 832 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-87

Bell Peppers

5/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Although bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a warm-season annual when grown in temperate regions, it is actually an herbaceous perennial when cultivated in tropical areas, such as its native Latin America. Bell peppers are considered "sweet" since they lack the pungent chemical (capsaicin) present in hot peppers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-88

Broccoli

5/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop that performs poorly in hot weather. As a member of the crucifer family, broccoli is closely related to other cole crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-104

Microgreens

5/8/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Microgreens are young, tender, edible crops that are harvested as seedlings. These tiny plants are grown to the first true leaf stage. They should not be confused with sprouts, which are germinated seeds lacking true leaves. Microgreens are sold as a raw product for use in salads, on sandwiches, and as a garnish.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 819 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-113

Potatoes

4/17/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season plant originally from the Andes Mountains of South America. The tubers are underground stems, not roots. Potatoes are most often grown in Kentucky as an early crop for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-101

Hot Peppers and Specialty Sweet Peppers

4/13/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Hot peppers, also known as chili (or chile) peppers, owe most of their "heat" or pungency to a chemical substance called capsaicin. This chemical is concentrated in the cross walls of the fruit and around the developing seeds. Chili peppers can be mild to fiery hot, depending on the amount of capsaicin present. The amount of capsaicin in peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units (SHU). Currently, the hottest pepper is considered to be the 'Carolina Reaper' which has 2.2 million SHUs. A combination of genetics and environment are responsible for the amount of heat in hot peppers. Peppers that do not contain capsaicin, such as bell peppers (0 SHUs), are considered "sweet." In addition to the hot types, other specialty peppers include sweet varieties of unusual shape, size and/or color.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 823 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-70

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

4/9/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-8

Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2018

4/1/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Will Barlow, Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer

The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 295.34 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-106

Okra

3/20/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a heat-loving vegetable in the Hibiscus family. It is particularly popular in the South, where the immature pods are used as an ingredient and thickening agent in soups, stews and gumbos. Okra can also be boiled, fried or pickled.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 762 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-91

Cauliflower

3/15/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a cool-season crop in the crucifer family. While it is closely related to broccoli and cabbage, cauliflower is more exacting in its environmental requirements than other cole crops. Cauliflower is very sensitive to unusually hot weather, temperatures that are too low, and drought. It is also subject to black rot and other diseases.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 2



CCD-SP-9

Starting a Nursery Business

3/14/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 860 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-96

Ethnic Vegetables: Asian

3/2/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asian vegetables are generally those vegetable crops originating from East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar). They may also include crops of South Asia (India and Pakistan). While often referred to as "oriental" vegetables, the term "Asian" is preferred. A number of these Asian crops have been successfully grown and marketed in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-AG-T-2

Managing Rhizoctonia Damping-off and Target Spot in the Float System

3/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Damping-off and target spot occur each year in tobacco transplant crops in Kentucky. These diseases can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 727 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-T-3

Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System

3/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky, causing a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease tend to be rare but can occur if care is not taken to minimize risk of disease development and reduce spread after it appears.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 666 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-10

Possible Causes of Yellowing Alfalfa

2/16/2018 (new)
Authors: Chris Teutsch, Paul Vincelli, Kiersten Wise

During spring, several leaf spotting diseases--including Leptosphaerulina (Lepto) leaf spot and spring black stem/leaf spot--are common in alfalfa. Leaf spotting diseases result in distinct round to elongated spots that sometimes have a dark margin. Very wet weather in spring and early summer favor activity of leaf spotting diseases in first and second cuttings. Wet and humid weather during summer favor other leaf spotting and blighting diseases. All leaf spots and blights weaken plants, but alfalfa often outgrows the damage in later cuttings. Maintain a regular cutting schedule, cutting at 30- to 35-day intervals.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 754 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-7

Physoderma Brown Spot

2/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Brenda Kennedy, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 743 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-131

Eggplant

1/22/2018 (reviewed)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a heat-loving member of the Solanaceous family. While it is generally grown as an annual in North America, eggplant is actually an herbaceous perennial. Long a popular vegetable in Asian, Middle Eastern, Greek and Italian cuisine, the eggplant is thought to have been introduced to America by Thomas Jefferson.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



PR-739

2017 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2017 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, Bob Geneve, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Emily Pfeufer, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. The 2017 Fruit and Vegetable Crops re-search report includes results for 16 projects.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 7.21 mb
Pages: 46



PPFS-FR-S-3

Blackberry Rosette (Double Blossom)

12/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Michele Stanton, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Rosette disease, caused by the fungus Cercosporella rubi, is a serious and destructive disease of blackberries in most parts of Kentucky. In some locations, growers have been forced out of growing blackberries because of rosette disease.

Departments: Horticulture, Kenton County, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags:
Size: 637 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-17

Cane Diseases of Brambles

11/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 299 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-118

Snap Beans

10/24/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The snap bean or green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a warm-season crop harvested for its immature seed pods. Prior to the development of the stringless bean in the 1890s, snap beans were referred to as "string beans" because of the fiber or "string" running along the pod seam. While stringless beans are more common today, many consumers still prefer the flavor of the stringed types.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 668 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-FS-7

Risk Management in Specialty Crops: Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP)

10/24/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) is a financial assistance program provided through the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA). The program provides producers of crops not eligible for crop insurance with some level of risk management when natural disasters cause crop low yields, crop losses or prevent crop planting.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Factsheets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-FS series)
Tags:
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-C-5

Diplodia Ear Rot

10/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Diplodia ear rot can reduce yield and grain quality by damaging kernels, lowering grain test weight, and reducing grain fill. Incidence of affected ears in the field can vary from 1% or 2% to as high as 80%. Although mycotoxins have been associated with Diplodia ear rot in South America and South Africa, there have been no reports of livestock feeding issues due to mycotoxins linked to Diplodia ear rot in the United States.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 990 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-6

Holcus Leaf Spot

10/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Holcus leaf spot, a bacterial disease, can be seen sporadically in Kentucky cornfields, and it is challenging to diagnose. This publication describes the disease symptoms, conditions that favor disease, and how to distinguish holcus spot from herbicide injury that can mimic this disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 889 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-116

Romaine Lettuce

10/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Romaine (Lactuca sativa), also known as cos, is a lettuce that produces elongated heads. Romaine is considered more nutritious and has more volume than iceberg. Because it is slower to bolt than other head lettuces, romaine can be grown commercially in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 692 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-117

Root Crops

10/4/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Root crops include a number of vegetables grown for their enlarged, edible storage roots. The root crops discussed here are all hardy, cool-season crops with a long storage life. While they belong to several unrelated plant families, these crops have similar cultural requirements. This profile will overview several root crops grown in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 4



PPA-48

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Wheat Diseases

9/28/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

The North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA-184) has developed the following information about fungicide efficacy for the control of certain foliar diseases of wheat for use by the grain production industry in the United States. The efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in this table were determined by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations by the members of the committee.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 2



PPA-49

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Corn Diseases

9/28/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) developed ratings for how well fungicides control major corn diseases in the United States. The CDWG determined efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in the table by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations. Ratings are based on the product's level of disease control and does not necessarily reflect yield increases obtained from product application. A product's efficacy depends upon proper application timing, rate, and application method as determined by the product label and overall disease level in the field at the time of application.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 1.12 mb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-120

Specialty Melons

9/20/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Specialty melons (Cucumis melo) have cultural requirements similar to the more familiar muskmelon (cantaloupe). These melons offer consumers outstanding eating quality and a range of flesh colors, textures, and flavors. With one exception, cultivars of the specialty types listed below have performed well in University of Kentucky research trials. Consult the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for the latest variety recommendations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-55

Stevia

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 791 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-62

High Tunnel Tomatoes

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-90

Cabbage

8/25/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cabbage is a cool-season crop with a high cold tolerance; however, heads may bolt (flower prematurely) in warm temperatures.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 725 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-76

Woody Cuts

8/22/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 909 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-95

English and Edible Pod Peas

8/16/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peas (Pisum sativum) are a cool-season vegetable that must be planted in early spring to ensure good yields in Kentucky. Fall planting of peas is also possible on a small scale, but they are very sensitive to warm temperatures and may not produce well. Types include the English pea (shelled for the fresh green seeds within non-edible pods), sugar snap types (round, fleshy edible pods), and Asian pod types (thin, flat edible pods) also referred to as snow peas.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-93

Cucumber

8/15/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The cucumber (Cucumus sativus) is a warm-season vining crop in the Cucurbit family. Cucumbers suitable for immediate consumption are referred to as "slicers," while those for processing are "picklers." Although there once was a large pickling cucumber industry in Kentucky, nearly all cucumbers grown commercially in the state are now for fresh market consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-50

Catnip

8/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Catnip (Nepeta cataria), best known as a stimulant for cats, is a perennial herb in the mint family (Labiatae). Cats, both domestic and wild, are attracted to catnip mainly due to a compound known as nepatalactone present in plant tissues. In addition, catnip has several properties beneficial to humans. Once used as a folk remedy for a wide variety of medical problems, today catnip's essential oils are used in a number of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements. For example, catnip contains thymol, a compound that can be used as antiseptic. Additionally, catnip extract has a mild anti-spasmodic effect that reduces muscle cramps. Leaves and stems are used in herbal tea mixtures and as flavorings in foods. Researchers have also found that catnip contains several chemicals (citronella, citral, carvacrol, and pulegone) that repel insects; thymol has fungicidal properties.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 451.73 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-1

American Persimmon

8/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The American or common persimmon, Diospyros virginiana, is a slow-growing, moderately sized tree native to Kentucky. Fruit are about 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Unripe fruit, which are high in tannins, have an undesirable astringent taste. Fully ripened fruit, which are golden orange to reddish and occasionally blue in color, are very sweet. Cultivated varieties may have improved quality and lose their astringency earlier in the fall.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 676 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-26

Volutella Blight of Boxwood

8/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses
Size: 1.57 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-6

Flowering Dogwood Diseases

8/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Sarah Stolz, Nicole Ward Gauthier

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-100

Heirloom Vegetables

7/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Heirloom vegetables are vintage varieties that have been preserved by passing seed down from generation to generation. These varieties are generally 50 to 100 years old, although many are much older. All heirlooms are open-pollinated and usually breed true-to-type. Heirlooms were often selected for flavor potential and eating quality before vegetable breeding emphasized hybrid varieties bred for uniformity in size, shape and ripening, as well as for durability in shipping

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 652 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-71

Garden Mums

7/13/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-60

High Tunnel Leafy Greens and Herbs

7/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels and other season extension techniques allow producers to extend the time period over which cash flows are generated from produce crops. High tunnel production is expanding to supply the increasing demand for locally grown produce, as well as policy and grant programs favoring high tunnel production. High tunnel production of leafy greens and herbs can also enable producers to market products at higher prices, before the start of a traditional local season. High tunnel leafy greens and herbs are typically added by producers already selling through direct markets: farmers markets, CSAs (community supported agriculture programs), and direct to local restaurants and groceries.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 893 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-25

Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine

7/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, trees
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-63

Hydroponic Lettuce

6/30/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: hydroponics, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 4



PPA-47

Genetically Engineered Crops: Emerging Opportunities

6/28/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

In certain biotech crops, their genetic material (DNA) has been purposefully manipulated in the laboratory. These genetically engineered crops are often called "GMOs," an acronym for "genetically modified organisms." These GMOs are the focus of this publication.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: science and technology
Size: 5.89 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-SP-8

Propagation Nursery

6/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-103

Leafy Greens

5/3/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Leafy greens" or "greens" are broad terms used for a number of vegetable crops with edible leaves. Plants in this group belong to several unrelated taxonomic plant families that includes Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Asteraceae. Greens are cool-season crops that are planted in early spring or late summer/fall in Kentucky. High tunnels and similar structures can be used to extend the season into winter; however, extreme summer temperatures make year-round production in Kentucky a challenge.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-H-1

Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals

5/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 19



CCD-CP-11

Juneberries

4/19/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-5

Container Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-SP-6

Field Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-107

Onions

4/12/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Onions (Allium cepa) are a cool-season biennial crop typically grown as an annual. Dry bulb onions are harvested after the leaves have died back and the bulbs have fully matured. Green bunching onions are harvested while the leaves are still green and before the bulbs have developed. The terms 'scallion' and 'spring onion' are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably for green onions. Scallions are onions that completely lack bulb formation, while spring onions have bulbs somewhat more developed than green onions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-85

Baby Corn

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby corn (Zea mays) is a popular Asian vegetable that can be consumed cooked or raw due to its sweet and succulent taste. Many people presume the tiny ears come from dwarf corn plants. In fact, baby corn is the immature ear of fully grown standard cultivars; ears are harvested two or three days after silk emergence, but prior to fertilization.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 688 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-86

Baby Vegetables

4/12/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Baby (petite, miniature, mini) vegetables are smaller versions of full-sized produce. Many baby vegetables are simply standard cultivars that are harvested at an immature stage (e.g. baby corn), while others are cultivars that have been genetically developed to produce miniature vegetables (e.g. cherry tomatoes). Smaller vegetables produced from secondary buds after the initial full-sized crop has been harvested can also be sold as baby vegetables (e.g. broccoli).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 975 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-30

Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands

4/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Ray Smith, Tina Tillery, Paul Vincelli

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, plant diseases
Size: 253 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-124

Tomatillo

3/1/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarp) is a small edible fruit in the Solanaceae family. A tan to straw-colored calyx covers the fruit like a husk, giving rise to the common name of "husk tomato." Native to Mexico and Guatemala, these tomato-like fruits are a key ingredient in a number of Latin American recipes, including salsa and chili sauces. Tomatillo may have potential as a specialty crop in some areas of Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-4

Stewart's Wilt of Corn

1/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Emily Pfeufer

Historically, Stewart's wilt of corn has resulted in losses for corn producers. Although this disease still occurs occasionally, it has become less prevalent in recent years in Kentucky and surrounding states. Stewart's wilt has been known by other names, such as bacterial leaf blight, Stewart's leaf blight, and maize bacteriosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 1.45 mb
Pages: 3



ID-241

After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant

12/22/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 247 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-79

Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Commercial growers who have successfully produced shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and/or oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms may want to consider expanding their operation to include other specialty mushrooms. While considered riskier from the perspectives of production and marketing than shiitake and oyster mushrooms, a number of other exotic and native mushroom species could be successfully cultivated in Kentucky. Four of these potential species are discussed here.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-83

Truffles and Other Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

12/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The most highly prized gourmet mushrooms in the world are edible mycorrhizal fungi. Included in this group are truffles, chanterelles, matsutake, porcini (boletes), and morels. All of these mushrooms have complex life cycles that make them difficult to produce artificially. Despite the risk and challenges, however, many have attempted to cultivate these valuable culinary delicacies. To date, only truffles are currently in widespread commercial production; they will be the main focus of this profile. The artificial production of other fungi in this group will be discussed briefly.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-110

Organic Sweet Corn

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic sweet corn is produced using pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic pesticides or petroleum-based fertilizers. Because organic crop production standards are regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP), growers producing and selling sweet corn labeled "organic" must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency. While there are benefits to using the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) for the certification process, Kentucky residents can be certified by any approved agency operating in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 604 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-111

Organic Tomatoes

11/23/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are one of the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky. With the rising consumer demand for organic products, organic tomatoes should be an excellent prospect for local fresh market sales.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 566 kb
Pages: 6



ID-238

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky

11/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 10.03 mb
Pages: 28



CCD-CP-20

Sweet Cherries

11/14/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-58

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

11/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, production practices
Size: 503 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-12

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries

11/3/2016 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 799 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-52

Echinacea

10/10/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Bob Geneve, Cheryl Kaiser

Coneflowers (Echinacea spp.) are herbaceous perennials with large daisy-like flowers. There are nine species of coneflower and all are native to central or eastern North America. Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), a well-known garden flower, is extensively cultivated in nurseries. This hardy ornamental is commonly planted in both home and commercial landscapes. Coneflowers are also effective, long-lasting cut flowers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-MISC-7

Genetically Engineered Crops: A Review of Concerns and Benefits

10/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Genetically engineered crops are plants that have had their genetic material (DNA) purposefully manipulated in the laboratory to produce a particular beneficial outcome. These types of crops are often called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. Commercial genetically engineered crops are designed to have limited and precise genetic changes that provide one or more benefits to humans or the environment.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.26 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-99

Garlic and Elephant Garlic

9/27/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Garlic (Allium sativum) is commonly used as a flavoring for food, as a condiment, and for medicinal purposes. The milder-flavored elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is actually a leek that produces large cloves.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 593 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-97

Ethnic Vegetables: Hispanic

9/13/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

There is a growing demand for ethnic fruits, vegetables, and herbs, particularly in larger cities. One obvious reason for this is the increased ethnic diversity of these areas. Many ethnic groups, including Hispanics, have a high per capita consumption of fresh produce. Also contributing to the increased demand for ethnic produce is a greater emphasis on healthy foods and the public's seemingly insatiable desire for variety in their diets. The increased growth of Kentucky's Hispanic population, along with these other factors, present an opportunity for local growers to develop a product mix aimed at these markets.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 617 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-53

Ginseng

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 967 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-94

Edamame

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edamame is the Japanese name for edible soybeans consumed at the green stage. Also referred to as vegetable soybeans, edamame is the same species as the traditional grain soybean (Glycine max) commonly grown in Kentucky. However, compared to grain soybean, edamame seeds are larger with a sweet, nutty flavor, and better digestibility.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 598 kb
Pages: 4



PR-641

2011 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

8/30/2016 (new)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, John Obrycki, Dan Potter, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Richard Warner, Tim Woods

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 7.64 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-109

Organic Lettuce and Leafy Greens

8/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Leafy greens and lettuce, which are among the most popular fresh market vegetables grown commercially in Kentucky, have excellent potential for organic production. Organic crops are produced using integrated pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling lettuce and greens with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state agency (e.g. the Kentucky Department of Agriculture) or private agency, plus follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-66

Chinese Chestnuts

7/18/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 594 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-17

Plums

7/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-78

Beekeeping and Honey Production

6/30/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Apiculture, the study and maintenance of honey bees, often begins as a hobby, with beekeepers later expanding their interest into small businesses. A beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and serve as a source of pollinators for nearby cultivated crops.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 934 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-18

Raspberries

6/9/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 713 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-108

Organic Asparagus

6/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Asparagus is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Potential markets for organic asparagus include roadside stands, farmers markets, cooperatives, community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, produce auctions, and local wholesalers. Restaurants, health food stores, and locally owned grocers may also be interested in Kentucky-grown organic products. Kentucky's market window for asparagus, which varies depending on region, can start as early as April and run through the month of June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-24

Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky

6/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.12 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-84

Asparagus

5/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

This crop is grown primarily in Kentucky for fresh market, especially near large population centers. Asparagus has great potential for farmers markets, for direct sales to local supermarkets, and for sales to local and regional wholesalers. Direct sales to local restaurants may also be possible. Kentucky's market window for asparagus is from early May through mid-June.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 542 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-54

Goldenseal

4/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 582 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-22

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 236 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GEN-13

Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 388 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-3

Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-14

Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-46

Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6

3/2/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger, Robbie Smith, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 5.00 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-FR-T-6

Cherry Leaf Spot

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GH-1

Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Philip Konopka, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-13

Managing Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 816 kb
Pages: 4



ID-125

A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky

2/23/2016 (reprinted)
Authors: Bill Bruening, J.D. Green, John Grove, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Doug Johnson, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Lloyd Murdock, Doug Overhults, Greg Schwab, Lee Townsend, Dick Trimble, Dave Van Sanford

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 6.50 mb
Pages: 72



ID-234

Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky

2/8/2016 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Doug Johnson, Carrie Knott, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Edwin Ritchey

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-26

Chia

2/4/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual plant in the mint family that is grown commercially for its seeds, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds also provide an excellent source of soluble fiber and antioxidants. Until recently, chia seed production was only feasible in tropical and subtropical latitudes due to the long growing season required to complete seed development. While chia plants grow well in temperate climates, they require short days to flower and are normally killed by frost before seeds mature. Researchers at the University of Kentucky (UK) have been engaged in groundbreaking chia breeding research. This has resulted in patented varieties of long daylength flowering lines of chia capable of producing seed in the Commonwealth and the Midwest. After several years of research and field trials, chia is emerging as a viable commercial crop for Kentucky growers.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 922 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-3

Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-14

Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.28 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-10

Black Spot of Rose

2/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Black spot is the most common and serious disease of roses in Kentucky. It is a problem in greenhouse production and outdoor plantings.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 350 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-OR-W-23

Shade Tree Anthracnose

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Sharon Flynt, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 869 kb
Pages: 4



PR-706

2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/21/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Emily Pfeufer, Shubin Saha, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.54 mb
Pages: 44



PPFS-FR-T-1

Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 887 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-4

Black Knot

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 784 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-8

Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits

11/1/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 207 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-4

"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals

11/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Tracey Parriman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium.

Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-32

Industrial Hemp: Legal Issues

9/24/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Christy Cassady, Cheryl Kaiser

Industrial hemp was widely grown in the United States from the Colonial Period until the mid-1800s. During that time, Kentucky established itself as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. After the Civil War, hemp production declined in Kentucky, as well as in other areas of the country. Production temporarily resumed as part of the war effort during World War II. However, once the war was over, acreages dwindled until U.S. production ended in 1958. However, the last couple of decades have brought a renewed interest in commercial hemp as an alternative or supplementary crop. As the pro-hemp movement has spread, a number of states, including Kentucky, have passed laws favoring its production, generally in connection with scientific, economic, and environmental research studies.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 803 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-33

Industrial Hemp Production

9/23/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Christy Cassady, Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile plant that can be grown for its fiber, seed, or oil. Hemp fields were once a common sight in Kentucky during the state's prominence as the leading hemp producer in the U.S. Although commercial hemp production ceased throughout North America in the late 1950s, there is currently renewed interest in growing this crop. While hemp faces significant legal obstacles due to its close relationship to the marijuana plant, there are a number of states, including Kentucky, working toward reviving the hemp industry. Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the federal farm bill) authorized state departments of agriculture in states that have legalized hemp, including Kentucky, to develop pilot programs for industrial hemp research. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has been working with universities, farmers and processors around the state since 2014 to implement pilot programs.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-W-1

Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi

9/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Traci Missun, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.95 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-67

Christmas Trees

8/18/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 492 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-5

Apple Rust Diseases

8/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 813 kb
Pages: 5



ID-91s

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky

7/15/2015 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Cheryl Kaiser, Kenny Seebold

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.74 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-FR-S-19

Blueberry Root Rot

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-H-10

Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Ray Tackett, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-51

Culinary Herbs

4/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Culinary herbs may be sold fresh, dried, and as live plants. Potential fresh herb growers should talk to upscale restaurant chefs, caterers, or to produce brokers, especially those who sell to restaurants. Kentucky restaurants surveyed in 2006 indicated they were most interested in sourcing basil, chives, cilantro, parsley, and rosemary from local growers. Other herbs of specific interest to restaurants include horseradish, oregano, sage, tarragon, and thyme.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-22

When White Pines Turn Brown: Common Problems of White Pines in Kentucky

4/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is a popular conifer in many Kentucky landscapes, although its use may be limited to loose, well-drained, pathogen-free soil. Often, needle browning is the primary symptom that alerts homeowners and nursery growers of health problems. In Kentucky, brown needles on white pine are often caused by one of the following three conditions: white pine decline, white pine root decline (Procerum root rot), or Phytophthora root rot.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.17 mb
Pages: 4



PPA-41

Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers

3/9/2015 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 3.80 mb
Pages: 7



ID-227

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky

1/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 33.00 mb
Pages: 32



PR-688

2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/7/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Julie Beale, Lucas Hanks, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Tracey Parriman, Shubin Saha, Nancy Savage, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

The 2014 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in three counties in Kentucky, including: Mason, Shelby, and Spencer.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 42



PPFS-OR-W-21

Diplodia Tip Blight of Pine

1/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, D.J. Scully, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Tip blight is a serious disease of landscape pines in Kentucky. Pines such as Austrian (Pinus nigra), Scots (P. sylvestris), and Mugo (P. mugo) are most commonly affected. Other landscape conifers occasionally may be affected by tip blight as well. Tip blight disease has not been found on eastern white pine (P. strobus).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.27 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-126

Winter Squash

12/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Winter squash is a taxonomically diverse group of vegetables in the Cucurbita genus. Cultivars may belong to one of several species: Cucurbita pepo (acorn and spaghetti squashes), C. maxima (hubbard, buttercup, and kabocha), C. moschata (butternut), and C. mixta (cushaw). Because these squash are harvested when mature and rinds have hardened, most types can be stored for use during the winter.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 668 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-F-9

Managing Diseases of Alfalfa

12/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Alfalfa can be a vigorous and productive forage crop for Kentucky farmers. Like all farm crops, however, alfalfa is subject to infectious diseases that can limit forage production. Managing these diseases is an important part of economical alfalfa production.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 756 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-T-12

Brown Patch Disease in Kentucky Lawns

12/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Brown patch, also called Rhizoctonia blight, is a common infectious disease of turfgrass. All turfgrasses grown in Kentucky lawns can be affected by brown patch. However, this disease is usually destructive only in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass during warm, humid weather. While brown patch can temporarily harm a lawn's appearance, it usually does not cause permanent loss of turf except in plantings less than 1 year old.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 745 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-59

Hanging Baskets

11/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 631 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-24

Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015

11/1/2014 (reviewed)
Authors: Don Hershman

SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 546 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-T-11

Disease Management in the Home Lawn

11/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

This publication describes lawn management practices that can help control diseases of turfgrasses commonly used in home lawns--Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and perennial ryegrass. You can control diseases of turfgrasses most effectively by using as many of the following lawn management practices as feasible.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.02 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-T-6

Patch Diseases in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns

11/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

"Patch diseases" can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. Two patch diseases with similar symptoms can occur. Necrotic ring spot often appears in early summer. Summer patch, the more common disease in Kentucky landscapes, develops in middle to late summer.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 793 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-F-8

Kentucky Plant Disease Management Guide for Forage Legumes

10/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Disease management in forage legumes relies heavily on using disease-resistant varieties and employing sound agronomic practices. It is important to integrate both of these strategies into a comprehensive disease management program. Failure to consider one or the other will compromise the success of your efforts. The appropriate use of pesticides sometimes plays a significant role in managing certain diseases, but it is secondary to sound cultural practices and proper variety selection.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 907 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-VG-18

Blackleg and Bacterial Soft Rot of Potato

10/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Blackleg and soft rot are bacterial diseases that cause heavy losses in Kentucky potato patches in some years. These diseases may result in missing hills when seed pieces are destroyed or the sprouts decay before they emerge from the ground. Serious rotting of tubers in potato hills and in storage can also occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 707 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-R-1

Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Carrie Knott

Interest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Canola Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-R series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-17

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 636 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-13

Organic Blueberries

8/20/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 633 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-VG-16

Bean Diseases

8/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Anthracnose can reduce bean quality, as well as yield. Losses can be severe during cool, rainy weather. It is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which appears on all aboveground parts of the plant but rarely on roots. Lesions generally are dark brown and may contain pink spore masses during moist weather. Elongate, angular spots appear on lower leaf veins. As the fungus spreads into surrounding tissue, lesions eventually appear on the upper side of veins. Affected seeds become discolored. Plants grown from infected seed may develop lesions on the cotyledons.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.15 mb
Pages: 6



ID-222

Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach

7/30/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 9.00 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-105

Muskmelon (Cantaloupe)

7/21/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky fresh market muskmelons are sold at farmers markets throughout the Commonwealth. Other retail outlets include community supported agriculture (CSA) subscriptions, roadside stands, and farm markets. Local groceries and restaurants are also potential melon markets. Larger-scale wholesale markets are also accessible for muskmelons, and some Kentucky growers have made wholesale alliances with national melon shippers. Kentucky's produce auctions, especially the Fairview Produce Auction in Western Kentucky, have handled more and more melons each year since 2002.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 612 kb
Pages: 3



ID-172s

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky

7/9/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 5.60 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-82

Shiitake and Oyster Mushrooms

7/3/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms are specialty mushrooms that are well-suited for small-scale production in Kentucky. Unlike Agaricus types (common button mushroom, portabellas, and criminis), which require large, highly mechanized facilities with environmental controls, shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be log-cultivated outdoors. While growers with access to a woodlot will have a clear advantage in terms of production site and log supply, these mushrooms can also be cultivated in other heavily shaded locations.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



ID-50

Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems

7/1/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Jamie Dockery, Kristin Goodin, Cheryl Kaiser, Delia Scott, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeremy Williams

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 9.00 mb
Pages: 11



ID-89

How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants

7/1/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kathy Wimberly

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 6.00 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-7

Grapes

6/23/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 694 kb
Pages: 4



ID-184

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky

6/3/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 16



PPFS-OR-W-11

Twig Blights of Juniper

6/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



ID-210

Midwest Blueberry Production Guide

5/12/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Tom Barnes, Cheryl Kaiser, Chris Smigell, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 58



ID-219

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky

5/7/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-27

Cool-season Forage Grasses: Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, Bluegrass, and Timothy

5/5/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Tall fescue, orchardgrass, bluegrass, and timothy are the dominant forage grasses in Kentucky. They have potential for the cash hay market and for intensive grazing. Significant price premiums may be possible for high-quality hay. Timothy hay, either alone or in mixtures with alfalfa, is much desired by horse owners. Historically, timothy has been an important seed crop in Kentucky; however, at present only a small acreage of timothy is grown for seed.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, nutrition and health
Size: 410 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-31

Grain Sorghum

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), commonly called "milo," is used primarily as a feed grain for livestock. Sorghum stubble makes excellent roughage following harvest and can be used for pasture. Grain sorghum can also be made into silage, although sorghum/sudangrass hybrids are more commonly used for this purpose.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 496 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-64

Poinsettias

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 409 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-10

Root-knot Nematode in Commercial and Residential Crops

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Root-knot nematode (RKN) is a soil-dwelling microscopic roundworm. This nematode is parasitic on numerous plants, including vegetables, fruits, field crops, ornamentals, and common weeds. RKN can occur in commercial and homeowner plantings. Frequently, the nematode interacts with other plant pathogens to form a disease complex in which the resulting disease is much more severe than that caused by either component alone. Root-knot nematode is particularly serious when high populations are allowed to build up due to continuous replanting of susceptible plants on the same site.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 917 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-19

Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Mike Klahr, Nicole Ward Gauthier

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.48 mb
Pages: 10



PPFS-VG-15

Tomato Wilt Problems

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are two fungal diseases that cause similar wilts in tomato. Fusarium wilt tends to be more common during warm weather, while Verticillium wilt is found more often when temperatures are cool. Both diseases share similar symptoms and can be hard to tell apart visually; laboratory tests are often needed for an accurate diagnosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 2.07 mb
Pages: 4



ID-21

Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky

4/29/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-72

Ornamental Corn

4/24/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 643 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-10

Organic Certification Process

4/14/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

Growers who plan to market their agricultural products as "organic" or "certified organic" must first be certified by a USDA accredited certifier. Certification, required by federal regulation, provides third party verification that the grower is complying with production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP). Annual inspections and detailed record keeping are required for continuing certification. These strict regulations are meant to protect consumers by ensuring that all organic producers are adhering to the same set of uniform standards.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: organic production, production practices
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-8

High Tunnel Brambles

4/7/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 619 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-61

High Tunnel Strawberries

4/4/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, fruits and nuts, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 528 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-11

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits

4/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-36

Millet

3/7/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Millet" is a name that has been applied to several different annual summer grasses used for hay, pasture, silage, and grain. The millets most commonly cultivated in Kentucky, pearl millet and foxtail millet, are grown primarily as a forage for temporary pasture. If properly managed, these millets can provide high yields of good quality forage in a short period, without the risk of prussic acid poisoning.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 406 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-35

Kura Clover

3/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kura clover was investigated by the University of Kentucky Department of Plant and Soil Sciences for several years. Unfortunately, due to establishment difficulties, UK researchers have concluded that kura clover succeeds best further north.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes
Size: 389 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-43

Sunflower for Seed

3/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser, Michael Vassalos

Sunflower is classified as either an oil type or a confection (non-oil) type, each with its own distinct market. Seeds from oil types are processed into vegetable oil or as meal in livestock feed. Most confection type seed is sold, with or without the hull, as snack foods. While either type can be packaged for birdseed, the confectionery type is grown in Kentucky for this purpose. Sunflowers are not recommended for oil crop production here.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 377 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-11

Diagnosis of "No Disease"

3/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Extension Agents and growers may occasionally receive diagnostic reports from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory that indicate "no disease was found." One or both of the following explanations may account for the diagnosis of "No Disease."

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 867 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-9

Submitting Plant Specimens for Disease Diagnosis

3/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the many ways that the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and UK Cooperative Extension serve the citizens of Kentucky. This publication is designed to help growers collect and submit the best plant samples for an accurate diagnosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.31 mb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-34

Kenaf

2/18/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a warm season annual row crop in the same plant family as okra and cotton (Malvaceae). Kenaf plants are capable of growing to a height of 20 feet under favorable conditions; however, heights generally average 8 to 14 feet in a growing season of 4 to 5 months. The stalks consist of two kinds of fiber: an outer fiber (bast) and an inner fiber (core). The bast is comparable to softwood tree fibers, while the core is comparable to hardwood fibers. After harvest, the plant is processed to separate these fibers for various products

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 426 kb
Pages: 2



PR-673

2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/8/2014 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Kenny Seebold, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.49 mb
Pages: 44



PPFS-AG-S-9

Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis

1/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, soybeans
Size: 679 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-MISC-2

Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance

1/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Fungicides are important tools in modern crop production. Unfortunately, one of the risks of using these products is that fungi sometimes develop resistance to them. Resistance development is a concern because the products may become less effective--or even useless--for controlling resistant pathogens and pests. This is a concern for all pesticides, including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. This fact sheet is intended to help pesticide applicators better understand this process.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.33 mb
Pages: 10



ID-84

Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants

10/16/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Edwin Ritchey, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 3.13 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-GEN-5

Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation

8/1/2013 (new)
Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 723 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-MP-16

Selected Resources for Developing Value-added Products in Kentucky

7/27/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

The following list is intended to provide Kentucky growers with resources that will help them on their way to adding value to their raw farm products. Included are the names and contact information of pertinent agencies and departments at the University, State, and Federal levels. Links to government regulations and laws related to processing value-added food products are included, as well as links to other selected Internet resources, fact sheets, and guidebooks.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Marketing Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-MP series)
Tags:
Size: 745 kb
Pages: 7



ID-216

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky

7/22/2013 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 5.30 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-75

Willows for Cuttings

7/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-29

Dry Beans

7/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser, Michael Vassalos

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are beans grown to maturity and harvested for the seeds within the pods. Also referred to as field beans, dry beans are primarily grown in the U.S. for human consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 438 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-48

White and Yellow Food-Grade Corn

7/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky continues to be one of the leading states in the production of white and yellow corn for food. The demand for food grade corn remains strong, with an increasing demand for white corn for snack food uses. Food grains can be grown for the open market or under contract to dry mill processors. The contract should be in place prior to planting. There is no on-farm market.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 344 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-F-7

Rating Scale for Brown Stripe of Orchardgrass

7/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Leah Saylor, Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

As of right now, there is little published on how to assess foliar disease severity in forage grasses in order to determine the percentage which may be diseased. This publication provides a tool for visually determining the percentage of diseased foliar tissue in orchardgrass. It is based on the observation of individual leaves; however, it is hoped that eventually a rating system will be devised that provides disease percentages for entire plots.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, plant diseases
Size: 566 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-4

Landscape Sanitation

7/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Amanda Sears, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home landscape plantings (Figure 1a), resulting in premature leaf drop, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 644 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-25

Cereal Straw Production

6/21/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Winter small grains, especially wheat and barley, are an important part of the typical crop rotation system of many Kentucky farmers. These crops are primarily grown for their grain; however, harvesting the straw as a secondary product can provide additional income. Harvesting straw as a secondary commodity when grown in a double crop system with soybeans also minimizes harvest residue, which helps the establishment and growth of the following soybean crop. Some growers choose to forgo the grain harvest altogether, producing high quality straw as the main commodity. Other grains, such as rye, oats, and triticale, also have potential for straw production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 532 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-28

Corn for Grain and Silage

6/15/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Corn for grain and silage can be produced for on-farm use and/or off-farm sale. There are a variety of local and regional markets for corn in Kentucky, such as local grain elevators. U.S. producers face international competition in the livestock category; corn prices have fluctuated greatly in recent years. Expanded corn markets, as well as the emergence of more uses for corn, could help stabilize future prices. In addition to animal feed, field corn uses include industrial (sweeteners) and energy (ethanol) products

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 360 kb
Pages: 3



ID-52

What's Wrong with My Taxus?

6/5/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: garden and landscape, shrubs and grasses
Size: 2.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-38

Popcorn and Blue Corn

6/4/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Popcorn and blue corn (Zea mays) are harvested for their grain and sold for human consumption. Popcorn is a special type of flint corn, while blue corn is a general term for corn varieties that produce ears with blue or mixtures of blue and white kernels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 532 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-17

Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants

6/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 681 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-39

Red and White Clover

5/28/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser

Red and white (ladino) clovers are high quality forage legumes with excellent feed value and animal palatability. Red clover (Trifolium pretense), a tall-growing and short-lived perennial, is used for hay, pasture, silage, green chop, soil improvement, and wildlife habitats. While white clover (Trifolium repens), a low-growing perennial, is best suited for grazing, it can also be used for soil improvement and reclaiming disturbed land.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes
Size: 512 kb
Pages: 2



ID-133

Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens, 2013

5/6/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Tim Coolong, Rick Durham, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 425 kb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-46

Switchgrass for Bioenergy

5/1/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Greg Halich, Cheryl Kaiser

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial bunchgrass native to portions of Kentucky. Once a major component of the Midwestern prairies, switchgrass stands have dwindled as natural grasslands have given way to expanding farms and developments.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 557 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-19

Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights

5/1/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 856 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-23

Broomcorn

4/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare) is not actually corn, but is instead related to the sorghums used for grain and syrup (Sorghum bicolor). Broomcorn has a coarse, fibrous seed head that has been used to make various types of brooms and brushes for several hundred years. While there are still artisans creating these natural brooms today, this crop is now more commonly used to make decorative items, such as wreaths, swags, floral arrangements, baskets, and autumn displays. It takes about 60 sprays (heads) to make a broom, but wreaths and dried arrangements require only a few plants. Broomcorn is available in natural colors, as well as purple and various fall colors.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 623 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-44

Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel

4/18/2013 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth—as a bioenergy crop. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. They concluded that "overall sweet sorghum would appear to be a very feasible crop for ethanol production in Kentucky." Additional states, along with several other countries, have also been actively conducting research on sweet sorghum for biofuel and with promising results.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 434 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-4

Selected Resources and References for Commercial Greenhouse Operators

4/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

Books can be obtained from the publisher (known links are provided), by ordering through a local bookstore, or by ordering through an industry trade magazine (books are generally advertised in each issue). Book sources can also be located by searching the Internet using the title as the keyword.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 553 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-21

Alfalfa

4/2/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Burdine, Cheryl Kaiser

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the highest yield potential and highest feeding values of all adapted perennial forage legumes. It is a versatile crop that may be used for pasture, hay, silage, green-chop, pellets, cubes, soil improvement, and soil conservation.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes
Size: 426 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-45

Sweet Sorghum for Syrup

4/2/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown for the sweet juice that is extracted from the plant's stalks. Stalks are crushed and the extracted juice is cooked down to a thick, sticky syrup. The syrup is sometimes incorrectly referred to as sorghum molasses.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 569 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-41

Specialty Soybeans

3/19/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Carl Dillon, Cheryl Kaiser, Michael Vassalos

The first commercial use of soybean (Glycine max) was for its oil; however, this crop is now considered a valuable source of protein as well. Specialty or novel soybeans are used to produce various soyfoods of Asian origin, such as tofu, miso, soy sauce, natto, soymilk, and tempeh. Assorted health food snacks, energy foods, and cereals are also produced from specialty soybeans. Other uses include bean sprouts and soy nuts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes
Size: 922 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-40

Specialty Field Corns

3/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

This profile discusses some of the types of special purpose field corn (Zea mays) that are harvested for grain and sold for animal feed, industrial use, or human consumption. These specialty corns have been genetically altered to improve their starch, protein, or oil content, depending on their intended use.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 512 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-4

Greenhouse Sanitation

3/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 640 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-18

Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants

3/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 534 kb
Pages: 3



PR-656

2012 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/6/2012 (new)
Authors: Ben Abell, Angela Anandappa, Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Ty Cato, Tim Coolong, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Zheng Wang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Mark Williams, Neil Wilson, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Tim Woods, Shang-Ho Yang

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2012 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and several demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in more than 15 counties in Kentucky. Research was conducted by faculty and staff from several departments within the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture including: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Agricultural Economics. This report also includes collaborative research projects conducted with faculty and staff at Kentucky State University.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 47



CCD-CP-22

Barley

10/24/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a cereal grain in the grass family, is used as a livestock feed and in foods (e.g. cereals and soups) for human consumption. Barley is also converted into malt for brewing, distilling, and various other products (e.g. malted milk). Some growers use smooth-awn or awnless varieties in hay production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 410 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-47

Wheat

10/24/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Wheat, a cereal grain in the grass family, is the fourth most valuable cash crop grown in Kentucky. Current intensive management technology has made it possible for growers to produce a high quality, high-yielding crop. Wheat production is mechanized; with the exception of scouting, little to no handwork is involved with this crop. Despite significant acreage already dedicated to wheat production, additional opportunities continue to be available to make profitable returns. Most wheat grown in the Commonwealth is soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) which is used in cakes, pastries, cookies, crackers, and cereals.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 434 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-65

Sprouts

10/23/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sprouts are the germinated seeds of various herbaceous plants, including vegetables, herbs, and field crops. The entire germinated plant (root, shoot, cotyledons, and remnant seed coat) is sold for use mainly in salads and sandwiches. Sprouting is considered a form of food processing, rather than agricultural crop production; as such, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, other crops
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-16

Black Rot of Grape

10/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 555 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-69

Edible Flowers

9/5/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 396 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-S-3

Downy Mildew of Soybean

9/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 538 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-119

Southernpean (Cowpea)

8/28/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Southernpeas (Vigna unguiculata), also referred to as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are a warm season annual. The highly nutritious seed is grown for fresh, processed, and dried uses. Interestingly, southernpeas are not a pea at all, but a type of bean related to the yardlong bean and marble pea. This profile will only discuss its production as a vegetable crop, but southernpea is also an excellent cover crop for weed suppression and nitrogen fixation. It can also be used as livestock feed.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 432 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-12

Fire Blight

8/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-13

Apple Scab

8/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 486 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-S-4

Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean

7/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRSR), caused by Phythophthora sojae, is infrequently encountered in Kentucky. However, where it does occur, the disease can be quite destructive. Soon after planting, P. sojae can cause damping-off of germinating seeds and/or young seedlings. Severe stand loss often necessitates replanting. Alternately, this pathogen can infect and kill established plants of susceptible soybean varieties any time during the season. Varieties that have some resistance to P. sojae may be stunted, but rarely die. PRSR is primarily a problem in poorly drained fields (due to high clay content, "hard pan," and/or soil compaction) or areas of fields that are prone to flooding.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 355 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-14

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Legal Considerations

6/28/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

Wildcrafters who want to harvest materials outside their own property lines need to know there are laws which protect other privately owned property and public areas from unauthorized harvesting and trespassing. Poaching, the illegal taking of wild plants or animals, is a serious problem in Kentucky. Not only are there legal ramifications, but poaching is also responsible for the decline in selected native Kentucky plant species, such lady slipper orchids. Some plant species are protected by state and/or federal laws. Even plant material collected and sold from personally owned property is not without its legal restrictions.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 713 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-SP-2

High Tunnel Overview

6/12/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 963 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-SP-12

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: An Overview

6/6/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentuckians have been collecting plant products from forests, meadows, and other natural habitats for generations. This practice, commonly referred to as wildcrafting, is a tradition in many areas of the state, especially Appalachia. Plant materials other than timber that are harvested from the forest are generally referred to as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) or special(ty) forest products. Although often collected for personal use, many wildcrafted materials also have commercial value and could offer a means of providing additional income.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 877 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-SP-13

Wildcrafting Non-Timber Forest Products: Environmental Issues

6/6/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

Whether collecting for personal use or for commercial sales, wildcrafting has the potential of adversely impacting our native plant populations. While the effects of collecting NTFPs are not always as obvious as, for example, harvesting timber in logging operations, some wildcrafting activities can cause subtle but lasting damage to the forest ecology.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 815 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-S-1

Brown Spot of Soybean

6/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines, is present in all soybean fields in Kentucky. In most years the disease causes little to no yield impact; however, up to 15% yield losses can occur in select environments. For example, brown sport tends to be worse where soybeans follow no-till soybeans, where early-maturing varieties are planted, and/or when fields are planted in late April. River bottom fields or fields subject to fog or morning shade are frequently impacted.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 420 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-8

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) in Kentucky

6/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a potentially devastating virus disease of wheat. In the United States, WSM is most prevalent in hard red wheat grown in the central Great Plains region. Soft red winter wheat produced in the mid-south and Midwest is infrequently impacted by WSM. Epidemics are rare in Kentucky with the only recorded ones occurring in 1989 and 2000.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 282 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-16

Rose Rosette Disease

5/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Rose rosette is a devastating disease that is a threat to virtually all cultivated roses (Rosa spp.) in Kentucky, regardless of cultivar. Even rose cultivars known for their exceptional disease resistance and hardiness are susceptible to rose rosette disease. Losses can occur in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and botanical garden plantings.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 383 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-3

Black Root Rot of Ornamentals

5/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black root rot can affect a wide range of ornamentals in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and greenhouses. In Kentucky, this disease is commonly observed on Japanese and blue hollies, inkberry, pansy, petunia, and vinca. In addition to ornamentals, numerous vegetable and agronomic crops are susceptible.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 585 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-68

Corn Shocks

4/24/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Potential markets for corn shocks include farmers markets, roadside stands, and garden centers. Stores that specialize in decorative and craft items may present another marketing option. Grocery stores and other retailers who create store displays may be interested in purchasing shocks. Some Kentucky producers have had success in selling entire lawn displays that include corn shocks, along with other fall decoratives. The displays are delivered directly to the customer and set up by the grower.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 555 kb
Pages: 2



ID-118

Roses

3/27/2012 (major revision)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Rick Durham, Tim Phillips, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Roses have many landscape uses. They can be placed as accent plants or used to form hedges or ground covers. They offer a rainbow of colors and a variety of forms and fragrances, and their sizes range from miniatures to tall climbing plants. Roses may be grown under many climatic and soil conditions and, with care, thrive and produce flowers for many years.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 3.33 mb
Pages: 16



ID-88

Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky

3/22/2012 (major revision)
Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Cheryl Kaiser, Kenny Seebold, Sarah Vanek, Paul Vincelli, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 3.70 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-6

Gooseberries and Currants

2/27/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



ID-195

Sweetpotato Production for Kentucky

2/21/2012 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Sarah Fannin, Kenny Seebold, Tim Woods

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a member of the morningglory or Convolvulaceae family. Sweetpotatoes have their origins in tropical America, with early remains having been found in Panama, Peru and Mexico. A perennial plant in their native regions, they are typically killed by frost when grown in a temperate climate. Sweetpotatoes are true roots and not tubers as is the case with the Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Because they are true roots they will continue to grow and enlarge as long as the plant continues to grow.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 16



CCD-CP-42

Spelt

2/6/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta) is a subspecies of wheat that is primarily used as an alternative feed grain for livestock. It is generally grown for on-farm use, often as a substitute for oats. Most of the nation's feed-grade spelt is grown in Ohio. Spelt can also be used in many of the same processed foods as soft red winter wheat (for example, pasta, high fiber cereals, and crackers). Some people with allergies to wheat are not allergic to spelt, making spelt an excellent substitute for wheat in their diets. Spelt products are available through organic and health food stores.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 348 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-5

Strawberry Anthracnose

2/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 293 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-3

Damping-off of Vegetables and Herbaceous Ornamentals

2/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Damping-off can occur on any herbaceous crop grown from seed, including vegetables, ornamentals, and field crops. Seeds, seedlings, and young plants may be affected, resulting in poor stands in home gardens, greenhouses, and commercial fields. Losses to damping-off can be severe, especially when cool, wet weather prevails at seeding or seed emergence.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 288 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-15

Sample Submission Protocol for Diagnosis of Thousand Cankers Disease in Walnut

2/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a fatal disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra), and most recently, butternut (Juglans cinerea). The disease complex involves a fungus that is carried to trees by the walnut twig beetle, causing numerous cankers on branches and killing trees 5 to 6 years after infection. The disease complex is widespread in the western U.S., and has recently been identified in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 361 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-49

Woody Biomass for Energy

1/27/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Biomass, when used in reference to renewable energy, is any biological (plant or animal) matter that can be converted to electricity or fuel. Woody biomass refers to biomass material specifically from trees and shrubs. It is most often transformed to usable energy by direct combustion, either alone or co-fired with coal; however, efforts are underway to develop methods to cost effectively convert woody material to liquid fuels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 569 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-112

Peanuts

1/25/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 620 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-24

Canola

1/23/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Canola (Brassica napus) is a genetically altered and improved version of rapeseed that was developed for its superior edible oil and high value meal. The term "canola" can only be applied to those varieties that produce less than 2 percent erucic acid. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil, making it a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. The portion of the seed left after the oil is extracted (canola meal) is of value as feed for livestock and poultry. Canola may also be used as an annual forage. In addition, canola is being considered as a source of biodiesel fuel.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags:
Size: 504 kb
Pages: 3



PR-626

2011 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/20/2011 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Steve Berberich, Ric Bessin, Jessica Cole, Tim Coolong, Vaden Fenton, Lucas Hanks, John Hartman, June Johnston, Sara Long, Logan Minter, Janet Pfeiffer, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Zheng Wang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

The 2011 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and several demonstration trials. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools, which they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Kentucky State University, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 53



PPFS-MISC-6

Assessing Foliar Diseases of Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat: Principles and Practices

11/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli

This publication provides basic information on how to conduct disease assessments in on-farm trials. The focus is on foliar diseases, since root diseases are much more difficult to assess properly. The publication begins with fundamentals of proper design of field trials.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains, soybeans
Size: 719 kb
Pages: 5



ID-110

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries

10/4/2011 (major revision)
Authors: Win Dunwell, Don Hershman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States (and Kentucky) and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 368 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-GEN-12

Foliar Fungicide Use in Corn and Soybeans

10/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Cheryl Kaiser, Paul Vincelli

Interest in the use of foliar fungicides for corn and soybean has expanded dramatically in the U.S. over the past few years, resulting in a major change in how these crops are being produced on many farms. Until recently, foliar fungicides for soybeans and corn were reserved for seed production fields to protect seed quality in very specific circumstances or for specialty crops. Applications for the purpose of protecting crop yield were rarely economical. However, the current trend in Kentucky, as well as many other corn/soybean producing states, is towards an increased use of foliar fungicides on these crops as a means of maximizing yields.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, soybeans
Size: 1.09 mb
Pages: 9



CCD-SP-11

Agritourism

9/26/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Agritourism is any commercial enterprise that combines agriculture and tourism on a working farm, ranch, or other agribusiness operation. The Commonwealth of Kentucky defines agritourism as "The act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural, or agribusiness operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education or active involvement in the activities of the farm or operation."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 553 kb
Pages: 4



ID-191

Climate Change: A Brief Summary for Kentucky Extension Agents

9/20/2011 (new)
Authors: Tom Barnes, Ric Bessin, Jeffrey Bewley, Roy Burris, Tim Coolong, Lee Meyer, Joe Taraba, Paul Vincelli, George Wagner

Nearly all climate science experts agree that global warming is occurring and that it is caused primarily by human activity. Regardless of what you may read on blogs or in the media, there is no meaningful scientific controversy on these points. The future impacts of global warming are difficult to predict, but the changes caused by greenhouse gases are expected to increasingly affect Kentucky agriculture.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 250 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-SG-5

Fungicide Use in Wheat

9/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Disease management is a key component of high-yielding wheat production. In most years, it simply is not possible to produce high wheat yields without paying attention to disease control. Most diseases are best managed through the use of multiple tactics, both proactive (e.g., crop rotation, delayed and/or staggered planting plates, use of resistant varieties of varying maturities, proper fertility, and application of seed treatment and/or foliar fungicides) and reactive (e.g., application of foliar fungicides and timely harvest). Fungicides are just one tool in the disease management arsenal; however, growers often place too much emphasis on this one tool.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 459 kb
Pages: 8



PPFS-AG-SG-7

Black "Sooty" Head Mold of Wheat

9/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Each year, just prior to and during wheat harvest, the Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratories at Princeton and Lexington receive many samples with questions about severe head molding. This condition is known as black head mold or sooty head mold.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 264 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-12

Yellow Vine Decline of Cucurbits

8/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold

Symptoms of yellow vine decline begin to appear approximately 2 weeks before fruit maturity. The disease may appear initially as stunting of plants and/or intense yellowing of foliage, followed by a slow decline in plant health. In some cases, a sudden collapse of vines may occur with no other symptoms. Vascular tissue (phloem) from crowns of affected plants is often discolored, appearing light brown rather than a healthy translucent green.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 454 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-30

Grain Amaranth

7/19/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Amaranth is a versatile warm-season, broadleaf plant that can be grown as a grain, ornamental, leafy vegetable, or forage crop. In the U.S. it is grown almost exclusively for its grain, which is produced on large, brightly colored seed heads. Most grain amaranth grown in the States is Amaranthus hypochondriacus; however, A. cruentus is grown to a lesser extent. The seeds are high in lysine, fiber, and protein; low in saturated fats; and gluten-free. Amaranth can be ground into flour, popped like popcorn, or flaked like oatmeal. Because many of amaranth's uses are similar to that of cereal grasses, amaranth is often referred to as a pseudo-cereal.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 442 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-3

Season Extension Tools and Techniques

6/22/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Season extension techniques can be as simple as selecting early maturing varieties; or they can be a more complex combination of multiple methods. Regardless, the objective is to extend the growing season by producing earlier crops in the spring and/or push production later into the fall and early winter.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags:
Size: 807 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-AG-T-4

Blackleg of Tobacco

6/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Blackleg becomes a concern whenever Kentucky experiences extended periods of warm, wet, overcast weather in the spring. This disease, also referred to as bacterial soft rot, is one of the most serious problems likely to be encountered on tobacco seedlings. Blackleg has the potential for destroying large numbers of plants in a relatively short period of time. As with other diseases in the float system, proper management goes a long way in preventing problems with blackleg.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 428 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-SP-1

Greenhouse Structures

5/25/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, greenhouse, production practices
Size: 807 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-AG-T-1

Pythium Root Rot in Tobacco Float Systems

5/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Pythium root rot is the most common disease found in tobacco float beds in Kentucky; it can cause severe losses or delays in transplanting. Damage caused by this disease can be minimized through a combination of sound management practices and timely application of fungicide.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 883 kb
Pages: 3



ID-172

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky

4/29/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 32



PPFS-AG-S-12

Seed Treatment Fungicides for Soybeans: Issues to Consider

4/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Kentucky soybean producers frequently ask the question "Is it advisable to treat soybean seed with fungicides?" There is no pat answer to this question because of the many variables involved. Historically, soybean has not been treated to the same extent that corn and wheat have in the U.S. There are many good reasons for this, and some of them are discussed below. However, the trend is toward greater use of fungicide seed treatment on soybean, both in Kentucky and nationally.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-SG-12

The Importance of Scouting Wheat for Plant Diseases

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman

For a variety of reasons, few Kentucky wheat producers place much emphasis on scouting their wheat diseases. Time and labor constraints (for do-it-yourselfers), the cost of hiring a crop consultant, and indifference to the need for scouting rank among the top reasons why this is the case. However, scouting is essential for those interested in managing diseases using an integrated approach.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 195 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-6

Preplant Decisions Greatly Impact Disease Potential in Wheat

4/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Kentucky wheat producers have a majority of their disease management program in place once the seed is in the ground. By that time, decisions have been made regarding the length of time since the last wheat crop, tillage method and seedbed preparation, variety selection, seed quality, seed treatment, planting date, seeding rate, seeding method, and fall fertility. Individually and collectively, these decisions play an important role in determining which diseases might develop, their severity, and their potential impact on crop yield, test weight, and grain quality. Because pre-plant and planting decisions are so important in the management of wheat diseases, you need to understand how they influence disease development.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 413 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-13

Late Blight of Tomato

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Late blight is an extremely important and damaging disease of tomatoes and potatoes, and can be found nearly anywhere these crops are produced. Total crop failures are common with this disease. In the United States, significant losses occur each year--mainly in northeastern and north-central states. However, serious outbreaks have been reported in the southeastern U.S. as well.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 565 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-14

Recognizing Late Blight on Tomato Seedlings

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Tomato seedlings that have late blight when transplanted can serve as sources of inoculum (spores) that can spread to nearby gardens and commercial plantings, so every measure should be taken to prevent these plants from making it to the field. The added threat is that sources of disease are introduced early in the tomato production season, magnifying the potential for heavy losses in seasons that favor late blight.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 436 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-8

Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Gummy stem blight is an important disease of cucurbits in many parts of Kentucky. Under conditions favorable to disease development, commercial growers and home gardeners may experience heavy losses. This disease can occur at any point in plant growth, from seedling stage to fruit in storage. Gummy stem blight is the name given to the disease when leaves and stems are infected. Muskmelon (cantaloupe), cucumber, and watermelon are most commonly affected by this phase of the disease. Black rot refers to the same disease on fruit; it is seen less often than the foliar phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 584 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-4

Phytophthora Blight of Cucurbits and Peppers

3/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Under ideal conditions, Phytophthora blight is an aggressive, fast moving disease that can cause extensive losses. This disease has become increasingly problematic on cucurbits and solanaceous crops in the United States. During the past decade, Phytophthora blight has been causing significant losses in several major vegetable production areas of the U.S. In Kentucky, serious outbreaks have been reported on summer squash, winter squash, cucumbers, watermelons, and peppers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 544 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-37

Organic Corn for Feed or Food

2/14/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Organic white and yellow food grade corn is produced for use in organic cereals, tortillas, corn chips, snack foods, cornmeal, and other corn-based processed products. Organic corn is also used as animal feed in organic beef, dairy, poultry, and hog production

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, organic production, production practices, vegetables
Size: 467 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-AG-SG-4

Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV)

2/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Wheat spindle streak mosaic (WSSM), also known as wheat yellow mosaic, is a common virus disease that affects only wheat. In most years, WSSM has little to no impact on crops grown in Kentucky. However, significant yield damage can occur in highly susceptible varieties when conditions favor infection and subsequent disease development.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 308 kb
Pages: 3



PR-621

2010 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

1/28/2011 (new)
Authors: Bernadette Amsden, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Steve Berberich, Ed Dixon, Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Amy Fulcher, Carey Grable, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, June Johnston, Katie Kittrell, Janet Lensing, Sara Long, John Obrycki, Dan Potter, Rebecca Schnelle, Ginny Travis, Paul Vincelli, Dwight Wolfe

The UK Nursery and Landscape Program coordinates the efforts of faculty, staff, and students in several departments within the College of Agriculture tor the benefit of the Kentucky nursery and landscape industry.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 629 kb
Pages: 29



PPFS-AG-SG-3

Barley Yellow Dwarf

1/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman, Doug Johnson

Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is a virus disease that can cause serious yield loss when stunted and discolored plants are widely distributed in a field. Severe losses due to BYD occur state-wide about every five years or so, but individual fields are impacted to varying degrees each year. There are many diseases that can reduce wheat yields, but in the case of BYD, most of the disease management decisions (such as field selection, tillage practices, variety, and planting date) are made by the time the seed is actually sown in the fall.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 602 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-115

Rhubarb

12/20/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial grown for its edible leaf stalks. The tart-flavored stalks are most commonly used in pies, often in combination with strawberries for added sweetness. The leaves themselves are not eaten, either cooked or raw, as they contain toxic levels of oxalic acid.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, vegetables
Size: 747 kb
Pages: 2



PR-608

2010 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/20/2010 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Sandra Bastin, Julie Beale, Steve Berberich, Ric Bessin, Bob Caudle, Jennie Condra, Tim Coolong, Leighia Eggett, Vaden Fenton, Lucas Hanks, John Hartman, Nathan Howell, Kelly Jackson, June Johnston, Chlodys Johnstone, Patrick Kelley, Katie Kittrell, Janet Lensing, Amy Lentz Poston, Sara Long, Patty Lucas, Sean Lynch, Logan Minter, John Obrycki, Janet Pfeiffer, Sutapa Roy, Marc Ruberg, Rebecca Schnelle, Delia Scott, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Sarah Vanek, Jeff Wheeler, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2010 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 34 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 20 counties in Kentucky.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Kentucky State University, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 70



PPFS-MISC-4

Real-time PCR Detection of Xylella fastidiosa is Independent of Sample Storage Time and Temperature

11/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Bernadette Amsden, John Hartman, Paul Vincelli

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, first associated with Pierce's disease of grapevines and alfalfa dwarf disease in 1973 (4) continues to be an economically important pathogen of several commercial crops. It also causes bacterial leaf scorch in urban shade trees such as sycamore, oaks, maples, mulberry, and elm (5). The usual course of action, in an effort to control the spread of this pathogen by insect vectors (9), is to prune out infected branches and vines or to rogue infected plants. Therefore, timely testing of suspect hosts is important.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 236 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-VG-7

Fruit Rots of Cucurbits

11/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 315 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-T-4

Turfgrass Anthracnose

8/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of high maintenance turfgrass, such as annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) at golf courses. In Kentucky it can be a disfiguring disease of creeping bentgrass under putting green management conditions during summertime (June to September). The disease may make its appearance on intensely managed annual bluegrass somewhat earlier (April to September). The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 527 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-10

Soybean Loss Prediction Tool for Managing Soybean Rust

7/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Joseph Omielan

Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a potentially devastating foliar disease of soybean. The disease was first detected in the Continental United States in the fall of 2004. Since that time, it has caused only sporadic yield losses in the U.S., primarily in the Gulf States. However, the potential still exists for devastating losses to occur in all soybean producing areas of the U.S. should the proper combination of weather conditions come together to support significant disease development by mid-summer. Currently, the only way to avert significant yield loss caused by SBR when disease risk is high is by applying foliar fungicides.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 656 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-23

Soybean Rust Fungicide Use Guidelines

6/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Effective use of fungicides to control soybean rust is not very complicated. The whole idea is to wait to spray until the soybean rust risk is at least moderate, and make a fungicide application before significant infection has occurred. This means applying fungicides when plant pathologists in and around Kentucky are "sounding the alarm," but before symptoms are evident. Many soybean producers in the deep South have been using fungicides to control soybean rust since 2005 with considerable success. I believe we will have the same experience if it ever becomes necessary to apply fungicides for soybean rust in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 473 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-1

Take-All of Wheat

5/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Don Hershman

"Take-all" is the common name of a root, crown, and basal stem (foot) rot that primarily affects wheat, but can also affect barley, oats, rye, as well as other grass crops and weeds. The disease has been known to destroy entire stands of wheat, thus the name. Barley, oats, rye, and other grass crops, however, have not been seriously impacted in Kentucky. Take-all is most common where susceptible crops are grown continuously without adequate rotation, or in fields where weedy grass hosts were not controlled in non-host crops, and were subsequently sown to wheat. The disease is rarely a serious problem in Kentucky due to excellent weed control practices, as well as the widespread adoption of cropping systems where wheat is produced, at most, every other year.

Departments:
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 248 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-2

Wheat Bacterial Streak

5/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Don Hershman

Occasionally, wheat leaves and spikes are invaded by the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. When leaf tissue is affected, the resulting disease is known as bacterial streak. When the bacterium invades the head, the disease is called black chaff. While this disease has primarily been a problem in the lower mid-South, it is often found in Kentucky in fields that have been impacted by strong winds with blowing soil or following a damaging freeze.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 247 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-6

Poinsettia Diseases

5/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias grown through the fall months for Christmas sales are vulnerable to destructive diseases from the time the cuttings are stuck into the rooting media until they are mature and ready for sale. A number of poinsettia diseases are favored by the same environmental conditions that promote propagation, making plant material at this stage particularly vulnerable. Diseases occurring in the later stages of production can be related to management issues or cultural problems, as well as the cooler temperatures needed for finishing. Some other diseases can be problematic to poinsettias at any phase of production. And finally, a phytoplasma organism found associated with poinsettias provides evidence that some host/pathogen relationships can actually be economically beneficial.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, plant diseases
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 6



ID-77

Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky

4/22/2010 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, John Strang

Kentucky is generally well suited for growing nut trees. Northern pecans, black walnuts, heartnuts, hickory nuts, hardy Persian walnuts (Carpathian strain), American hazelnuts, and Chinese chestnuts all grow well in the state. Although most nut trees are grown by hobbyists and backyard gardeners, several varieties appear to have potential for commercial production, particularly some of the USDA pecan selections and some Chinese chestnut varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 24



PR-602

2009 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

1/7/2010 (new)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, John Obrycki, Dan Potter, Richard Warner, Tim Woods

The 2009 report has been organized according to our primary areas of emphasis: production and economics, pest management, and plant evaluation. These areas reflect stated industry needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world that generate information applicable to Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 1.26 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-AG-S-13

Soybean Diseases Control Series: Soybean Cyst Nematode

1/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) exists virtually everywhere soybean is grown in Kentucky. The pest is insidious in that significant yield damage often occurs without the appearance of visible disease symptoms. This is an extremely important point because it suggests that farmers are frequently unaware that SCN is active and doing damage in a field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 336 kb
Pages: 4



ID-159

Corn and Soybean Production Calendar

12/16/2009 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, J.D. Green, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Doug Johnson, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Lloyd Murdock, Steve Riggins, Greg Schwab, Tim Stombaugh, Paul Vincelli

The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, soybeans
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 12



PR-603

2009 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/11/2009 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Tim Coolong, Vaden Fenton, John Hartman, Ryan Hays, Otto Hoffman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, June Johnston, Terry Jones, Amy Lentz Poston, Sara Long, Brandon O'Daniel, Janet Pfeiffer, Rebecca Schnelle, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, Crystal Sparks, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Richard Warner, Jeff Wheeler, John Wilhoit, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

The 2009 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report includes results for more than 45 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 19 counties in Kentucky. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools that they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 850 kb
Pages: 56



PPFS-AG-S-20

Cercospora Leaf Blight in Kentucky

10/1/2009 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman

In most years, Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is a minor disease problem in Kentucky soybeans. It is one of the more common "late-season" diseases, but usually comes in too little, too late to cause damage. However, in wet, late seasons like the one we experienced in 2009, significant yield and grain/seed quality losses can occur in fields that develop severe CLB before pod fill has completed.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 296 kb
Pages: 3



ID-177

Comparing No-Till and Tilled Wheat in Kentucky

8/26/2009 (new)
Authors: Dottie Call, Larry Grabau, John Grove, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, John James, Doug Johnson, Jim Martin, Lloyd Murdock, Dave Van Sanford

Historically, wheat planting in Kentucky has involved tillage. With conventional tillage practices, most residues from the previous crop are cut and buried prior to seeding wheat. No-till wheat planting eliminates tillage and reduces soil erosion, particularly on sloping soils, as well as reducing labor, machinery, and energy costs.

Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 233 kb
Pages: 10



PPFS-OR-T-1

Weather Favorable for Cottony Blight in Turfgrasses

8/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Hot, humid weather with occasional showers is favorable for cottony blight, caused by various Pythium species. This disease, also known as Pythium blight, can be very destructive in swards of creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass in a high-maintenance setting, such as golf courses, croquet courts, etc. Cottony blight can occasionally be found on other cool-season turfgrasses, though very infrequently.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 267 kb
Pages: 2



ID-91

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops in Kentucky

7/27/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed to reduce their negative impact on the crop, although pests are rarely eliminated.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.86 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-AG-F-5

Crown Rots of Alfalfa

5/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Crown rots are chronic disease problems of alfalfa throughout the world. Crown rots cause loss of stand and forage yield in several ways. If the crowns are rotted severely enough, infected plants will die simply by being choked off. Carbohydrates for winter survival are stored in the crown and upper taproot. By rotting this area, crown rots also make alfalfa plants more sensitive to winter kill. Some crown rot fungi produce toxins, thus weakening or even killing the plant.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 239 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-F-3

Common Alfalfa Seedling Diseases and Disorders

3/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Alfalfa seedlings are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic problems which can affect establishment. Several of the more common seedling diseases and disorders are described below. This information is being provided as a diagnostic aid; publications which provide specific management and production information can be found in the resource list.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 115 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-S-8

Value of Wheat Residue in Soybean Cyst Nematode Management

3/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is the most widespread and significant pest of soybean in Kentucky. SCN is managed primarily by rotating fields to non-host crops (such as corn) and using SCN-resistant varieties. However, for a variety of reasons, producers occasionally desire to plant a SCN-susceptible variety.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains, soybeans
Size: 218 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-4

"Emergency" Inoculation for Poorly Inoculated Legumes

2/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Frequently, stunted and yellowed legumes are thought by growers to be diseased. Close examination often reveals that such "diseased" plants are actually just poorly nodulated.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 187 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-2

Risk Factors for Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot in Fall-Seeded Alfalfa

12/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Alfalfa seeded during late summer or fall is susceptible to the destructive disease Sclerotinia crown and stem rot. Fall-seeded stands are particularly vulnerable to this disease because the young seedlings have not had sufficient time to develop adequate resistance before infectious spores of the pathogen are produced in late October. In contrast, spring-seeded stands are able to develop larger, more resistant crowns prior to this infectious period. Thus, spring plantings are better able to withstand an attack, should these air-borne spores be present in the field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 3



PR-571

2008 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

12/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Richard Gates, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Ken Haynes, Dewayne Ingram, Dan Potter, Richard Warner, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 1.48 mb
Pages: 30



PR-572

2008 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, Vaden Fenton, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Wuyang Hu, Dewayne Ingram, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Paul Vincelli, Richard Warner, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 800 kb
Pages: 72



PPFS-AG-F-1

Summertime Foliar Diseases of Alfalfa

11/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Warm, humid weather can favor development of foliar diseases of alfalfa during summer.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 194 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-F-6

Alfalfa Diseases Caused by Rhizoctonia Fungi

11/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Rhizoctonia fungi, particularly Rhizoctonia solani, are found in most agricultural soils in Kentucky. These fungi are natural soil inhabitants that colonize and live on dead organic matter. Under the right environmental conditions, the Rhizoctonia organisms are often able to attack living plants, including alfalfa. When warm, wet conditions prevail, Rhizoctonia fungi can cause just about every conceivable type of alfalfa disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 294 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-1

Diseases of Concern in Continuous Corn

10/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli

Although most corn in Kentucky is planted following a rotation to other crops, individual producers are often interested in planting corn following corn. In these situations, one of the main concerns voiced by producers is increased pressure from diseases, and rightfully so. Crop rotation is one of the most fundamental disease control practices available. Rotating to other crops deprives pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) of a food source and exposes them to "starvation." Furthermore, as infested crop residues decompose, pathogens are exposed to antagonism by native soil microbes. These mechanisms have the effect of naturally reducing the populations of many pathogens in the soil.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 233 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-2

Seed and Seedling Diseases of Corn

10/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 160 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-14

Fruit Rots of Grape

10/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 358 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-S-13

Downy Mildew of Grape

9/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 282 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-9

Poor Fruit Set in Brambles

9/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Poor fruit set and sterility commonly occur on bramble fruits (red raspberries, black raspberries, and blackberries) both in commercial and home plantings. Typically the fruit fails to develop or small misshapen berries form. When an insufficient number of drupelets fully develop, they tend to separate so that the fruit "crumbles" when picked. This symptom, referred to as "crumbly berry," is another common result of poor fruit set.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 234 kb
Pages: 4



HO-81

Ornamental Corn Production

7/10/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Kenny Seebold, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 1.23 mb
Pages: 12



PPFS-FR-S-7

Phytophthora Root Rot of Brambles

7/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Brambles that are subjected to wet soil conditions or periods of flooding are often predisposed to Phytophthora root rot. Excess water not only promotes susceptibility of roots to this disease, but also aids the fungus in moving to new infection sites. Phytophthora root rot is primarily a disease of raspberries; however, it can also occur on blackberries.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 296 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-6

Bacterial Canker of Tomato

7/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Bacterial canker is a potentially serious disease of tomato that can occur in commercial plantings and home gardens. This infectious disease is capable of spreading rapidly, resulting in devastating losses. It is a particularly difficult disease to manage because not only is there no cure, but the pathogen can be hard to eradicate once it has been introduced into a greenhouse, garden, or field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 392 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-8

Strawberry Fruit Rots

6/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky's typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 274 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-10

Blueberry Diseases

1/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, John Hartman, Sara Long

Kentucky blueberry growers sometimes experience plant and crop losses due to diseases. While most losses are due to root rot, or to stem and twig canker diseases, fruit rots and nutritional problems can also reduce yields. With good crop management, most blueberry diseases can be avoided.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 292 kb
Pages: 4



PR-555

2007 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

11/29/2007 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong, Tom Cottrell, Courtney Flood, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Wuyang Hu, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Richard Warner, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 92



PR-554

2007 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

11/26/2007 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Chris Barton, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Richard Gates, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Ken Haynes, Dewayne Ingram, Bob McNeil, Dan Potter, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 48



AGR-195

Replanting Options for Corn

7/27/2007 (new)
Authors: J.D. Green, Jim Herbek, Chad Lee, Jim Martin, Paul Vincelli

Evaluating damaged corn stands and determining when to replant is often a difficult task. Survival, health, and expected yield of the current stand must be weighed against replanting costs, additional management, and expected yield of a replanted crop. The options are rarely clear-cut because damaged corn is rarely uniform throughout the field. The following information will help when making evaluations and management decisions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops
Size: 194 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-W-12

Bacterial Leaf Scorch

7/1/2007 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Bacterial leaf scorch has devastated many landscape and shade trees in Kentucky's urban forests in recent years. Especially hard hit have been the mature pin oaks lining many urban streets. First diagnosed in the U.S. in the early 1980s, this epidemic shows no signs of abating.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 249 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-9

Peach Fruit Diseases

6/1/2007 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Peaches are grown in many Kentucky orchards for local fresh market sales. Fruit diseases, often resulting in decayed peaches, are a serious problem, especially during warm, humid, rainy weather conditions.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 277 kb
Pages: 5



HO-57

Growing Peaches in Kentucky

3/30/2007 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Joe Masabni, John Strang

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags:
Size: 978 kb
Pages: 20



ID-119

Ornamental Gourd Production in Kentucky

1/3/2007 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Amanda Sears, Kenny Seebold, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 281 kb
Pages: 12



PR-537

2006 Nursery and Landscape Report

12/15/2006 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Richard Gates, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Ken Haynes, Dewayne Ingram, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 2.12 mb
Pages: 46



PR-538

2006 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/15/2006 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Dan Potter, Brent Rowell, Amanda Sears, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 82



PPFS-FR-S-6

Orange Rust of Brambles

9/1/2006 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Chris Smigell

Orange rust is a disease caused by one of two very similar fungi, Gymnoconia nitens in the Southeast, and Arthuriomyces peckianus in the Midwest. Both fungi, causing the same symptoms, may be active in Kentucky. In Kentucky, orange rust is severe on some wild and cultivated thorny blackberries. It infects black and purple raspberries and thornless blackberries somewhat, but is not known to infect red raspberries.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 232 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-6

Slime Mold, Lichens, and Sooty Mold Problems on Plants

8/1/2006 (minor revision)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman

Slime molds are amoeba-like organisms which feed on bacteria and yeasts in the soil. During cloudy, humid weather these molds grow out of the soil and creep onto whatever is available. Turfgrass, weeds, strawberries, bedded flowers, and ground covers, as well as mulches, sidewalks and driveways may become covered with masses of gray, yellowish or black dusty spores.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 208 kb
Pages: 2



PR-533

2006 New Crop Opportunities Research Report

7/15/2006 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Doug Archbold, Sharon Bale, Steve Berberich, Morris Bitzer, Bill Bruening, Ron Curd, Carl Dillon, Win Dunwell, Dennis Egli, Matthew Ernst, Cindy Finneseth, Amy Fulcher, Bob Geneve, Larry Grabau, John Grove, John Hartman, Ken Haynes, Bob Houtz, June Johnston, Terry Jones, Carrie Knott, Eugene Lacefield, Chad Lee, Joe Masabni, Bob McNeil, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Bill Pearce, Todd Pfeiffer, Amy Poston, Dan Potter, Brent Rowell, Amanda Sears, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Dave Van Sanford, Mark Williams, Dwight Wolfe, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 72



PR-520

2005 Nursery and Landscape Report

12/30/2005 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Ken Haynes, Dewayne Ingram, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 5.17 mb
Pages: 46



PR-521

2005 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/30/2005 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Brent Rowell, Christopher Schardl, Amanda Sears, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Paul Vincelli, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.56 mb
Pages: 98



PPFS-FR-S-1

Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot and Eutypa Dieback Diseases of Grape

11/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

"Cane and leaf spot" and "Eutypa dieback" were once thought to be the same disease. However, it is now known that each is a distinct disease caused by a different fungus. Grapes grown in areas where a moist environment persists are especially vulnerable to these fungal diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-5

Controlling Phytophthora Root Rot in Greenhouse Ornamentals

5/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli

Phytophthora fungi can attack a number of potted herbaceous ornamentals produced in greenhouses. The potted flowering plants reported as hosts include: begonia, bougainvillea, ornamental pepper, vinca, poinsettia, Persian violet, fuchsia, common gardenia, African daisy, kalanchoe, Lantana, African violet, holiday cactus, gloxinia, and Jerusalem cherry.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 615 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-5

Shoestring Root Rot: A Cause of Tree and Shrub Decline

5/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman

Most woody landscape plants are susceptible to shoestring root rot, cause of dieback and decline in the landscape. Diagnosis of this problem requires close examination of the base of the trunk which often reveals loose or decayed bark and dead cambium. By peeling back the bark one can often observe dark brown rhizomorphs (thick strands of hyphae), resembling narrow "shoestrings."

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 337 kb
Pages: 2



ID-154

Low-Maintenance Lawn Care, Stressing Pest Avoidance and Organic Inputs

3/15/2005 (reprinted)
Authors: Dan Potter, A.J. Powell, Paul Vincelli, David Williams

This publication is written for those who wish to maintain their lawn with minimal inputs. Low-maintenance lawn care offers certain benefits, such as minimal pesticide use, reduced fertilizer input, less need for irrigation, and reduced mowing frequency. However, when choosing a low-maintenance approach, recognize that the lawn will not offer the same dark green, uniform sward of turf that is seen under a high-maintenance lawn-care program.

Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: organic production, production practices
Size: 176 kb
Pages: 6



PR-506

2004 Alfalfa Report

1/30/2005 (new)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Gene Olson, Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 521 kb
Pages: 8



PR-502

2004 Nursery and Landscape Report

12/20/2004 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Richard Gates, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Ken Haynes, Dewayne Ingram, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 2.38 mb
Pages: 46



PR-504

2004 Fruit and Vegetable Report

12/15/2004 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Shane Bogle, Gerald Brown, John Hartman, Bob Houtz, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 74



PPFS-GEN-2

Powdery Mildew

8/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman

Powdery mildew may affect numerous ornamentals, fruits, vegetables, and agronomic crops. In Kentucky, mildew diseases are most commonly observed on apple, begonia, crabapple, cherry, dogwood, lilac, phlox, pin oak, rose, sycamore, tuliptree, turfgrass, zinnia, squash, pumpkin, cantaloupe, wheat and barley.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 240 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-H-5

Oedema

8/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman

Odema is a non-parasitic disorder which, under the right environmental conditions, can affect a wide variety of herbaceous plants. We most frequently observe this problem on indoor plants, such as dracaena, geranium and schefflera. Oedema tends to be more of a problem in greenhouses, but it may also occur on plants grown in homes and offices. Field and garden grown crops, such as cabbage, may also be affected.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 150 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-4

Raspberry Fruit Rots

7/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman

Rainy summer and fall weather in Kentucky can provide ideal conditions for fruit decay diseases of raspberries. The most damaging are the fungal diseases gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and soft rot, or leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.). Both diseases are favored by long periods of wet fruit and foliage, and by high humidity levels. During some parts of the season, fruit rots account for up to 50% loss of potential harvest, and additional losses after harvest.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 181 kb
Pages: 2



PR-489

2003 Alfalfa Report

12/24/2003 (new)
Authors: Mike Collins, Garry Lacefield, Robert Spitaleri, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 107 kb
Pages: 8



PR-488

2003 Fruit and Vegetable Report

12/15/2003 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Bob Houtz, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1 kb
Pages:



PR-486

2003 Nursery and Landscape Report

12/5/2003 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Paul Cappiello, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 474 kb
Pages: 42



PR-471

2002 Alfalfa Report

1/5/2003 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Robert Spitaleri, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 185 kb
Pages: 12



PR-468

2002 Nursery and Landscape Report

1/3/2003 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Paul Cappiello, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Richard Gates, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, Terry Jones, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 42



PR-470

2002 Fruit and Vegetable Report

1/3/2003 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 65



PR-453

2001 Alfalfa Report

5/13/2002 (reprinted)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Robert Spitaleri, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 209 kb
Pages: 16



PR-452

2001 Fruit and Vegetable Report

1/4/2002 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 437 kb
Pages: 60



ID-142

New Recommendations for Perennial Ryegrass Seedings for Kentucky Horse Farms

1/1/2002 (new)
Authors: Lowell Bush, Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Christopher Schardl, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, horses
Size: 41 kb
Pages: 2



PR-450

2001 UK Nursery and Landscape Program

12/1/2001 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Sharon Bale, Jack Buxton, Paul Cappiello, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Richard Gates, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 369 kb
Pages: 40



ID-139

A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky

9/30/2001 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Morris Bitzer, J.D. Green, Jim Herbek, Greg Ibendahl, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Michael Montross, Lloyd Murdock, Paul Vincelli, Ken Wells

The corn grown in Kentucky is used mainly for livestock feed and as a cash crop. As a cash crop sold from the farm, corn ranks third behind tobacco and soybeans but is the number one row crop in terms of acreage. Because the cost of producing an acre of corn is high and the value per bushel has declined in recent years, producers must manage and market their corn crop more carefully for adequate profits. The goal of this publication is to serve as a guide for corn production strategies that focus on efficient use of resources and provide the principles and practices for obtaining maximum, profitable corn yields.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, vegetables
Size: 639 kb
Pages: 64



ID-137

Total Quality Assurance Apple Production: Best Management Practices

5/1/2001 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Joe O'Leary, John Strang

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 271 kb
Pages: 4



ID-72

Principles of Home Landscape Fertilizing

3/1/2001 (minor revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, John Hartman, A.J. Powell, Bill Thom

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: nutrient management, production practices
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 6



PR-440

2000 Alfalfa Report

1/15/2001 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Robert Spitaleri, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 398 kb
Pages: 16



PR-437

2000 UK Nursery and Landscape Program

1/1/2001 (new)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Paul Cappiello, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Richard Gates, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, Monte Johnson, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, Mike Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 574 kb
Pages: 38



PR-436

Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report 2000

12/3/2000 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Joe O'Leary, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 768 kb
Pages: 57



PR-432

Agronomy Research Report 2000

7/10/2000 (new)
Authors: Richard Barnheisel, Morris Bitzer, Jimmie Calvert, Glenn Collins, Mike Collins, Mark Coyne, David Ditsch, Charles Dougherty, Larry Grabau, J.D. Green, Dan Grigson, John Grove, Dennis Hancock, Jimmy Henning, Jim Herbek, John James, John Johns, A.D. Karathanasis, Brenda Kennedy, Garry Lacefield, Eugene Lacefield, Len Lauriault, Bill Maksymowicz, Jim Martin, Bob Miller, Tom Mueller, Gregg Munshaw, Lloyd Murdock, Gary Palmer, Bob Pearce, Todd Pfeiffer, Chuck Poneleit, A.J. Powell, Monroe Rasnake, Edwin Ritchey, Scott Shearer, Frank Sikora, Robert Spitaleri, Norm Taylor, Charles Tutt, Dave Van Sanford, Paul Vincelli, Ken Wells, David Williams, Bill Witt

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 550 kb
Pages: 55



ID-112

Brown Patch Disease

5/30/2000 (reprinted)
Authors: A.J. Powell, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 10 kb
Pages:



ID-136

No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky

5/1/2000 (new)
Authors: John Grove, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Doug Johnson, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Lloyd Murdock, Dick Trimble, Dave Van Sanford, Bill Witt

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 467 kb
Pages: 11



PPA-44

An Alfalfa Disease Calendar

5/1/2000 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 168 kb
Pages: 4



ID-126

Growing Grapes in Kentucky

4/30/2000 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, John Hartman, Terry Jones, John Strang, Dwight Wolfe

Kentucky has a long record of good grape production. As a home fruit crop or commercial crop, grapes have many benefits. Grapevines are relatively inexpensive and easy to propagate. They reach full bearing potential in four years and bear annually. The many varieties of grapes can be consumed fresh or used to make grape juice, jams, jellies, and wine. Grapes are also easy to manage. Vines are trained on trellises or arbors and easily can be sprayed using small equipment for control of insects and diseases.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 238 kb
Pages: 24



PR-422

Nursery and Landscape Program: 1999 Research Report

12/31/1999 (new)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Paul Cappiello, Win Dunwell, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, Monte Johnson, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, Mike Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 689 kb
Pages: 33



PR-423

Fruit and Vegetable Crop Research Report 1999

12/31/1999 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 712 kb
Pages: 43



PR-425

1999 Alfalfa Report

12/15/1999 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Robert Spitaleri, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 244 kb
Pages: 14



ID-68

The Flowering Crabapple

10/1/1999 (minor revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, John Hartman, Bob McNeil, Dan Potter

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 331 kb
Pages: 6



PR-411

1998 Alfalfa Report

1/15/1999 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Robert Spitaleri, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 188 kb
Pages: 12



ID-132

Management of Tobacco Float Systems

1/10/1999 (new)
Authors: Bill Nesmith, Gary Palmer, Bob Pearce, Lee Townsend

Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, tobacco
Size: 445 kb
Pages: 8



PR-409

Nursery and Landscape Program: 1998 Research Report

12/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Sharon Bale, Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Dewayne Ingram, Monte Johnson, Bob McNeil, Tim Phillips, Dan Potter, Mike Potter, A.J. Powell, Lisa Vaillancourt, Richard Warner, Lesley Weston, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 318 kb
Pages: 44



PR-410

Fruit and Vegetable Program: 1998 Research Report

12/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, George Duncan, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Sue Nokes, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

The emphases in our research program reflect industry-defined needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world generating information applicable to Kentucky. Although the purpose of this publication is to report research results, the report also highlights our Extension program and Undergraduate and Graduate degree programs that address the needs of the horticultural industries.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 335 kb
Pages: 46



PR-402

1998 Agronomy Research Report

7/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Richard Barnheisel, Mike Barrett, Morris Bitzer, Bill Bruening, Lowell Bush, Dottie Call, Mike Collins, Mark Coyne, Maelor Davies, David Ditsch, Charles Dougherty, Dennis Egli, Don Ely, Larry Grabau, J.D. Green, John Grove, Jimmy Henning, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, John Johns, Doug Johnson, Fred Knapp, Garry Lacefield, Eugene Lacefield, Bill Maksymowicz, Jim Martin, Lloyd Murdock, Gary Palmer, Bob Pearce, Todd Pfeiffer, Tim Phillips, Chuck Poneleit, A.J. Powell, Monroe Rasnake, Charles Slack, Scott Smith, Robert Spitaleri, Norm Taylor, Dennis Tekrony, Bill Thom, Charles Tutt, Dave Van Sanford, Ken Wells, David Williams, Bill Witt

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Entomology, KTRDC, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags:
Size: 403 kb
Pages: 56



PR-399

1997 Alfalfa Report

2/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Jimmy Henning, Garry Lacefield, Robert Spitaleri, Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, research, variety trials
Size: 153 kb
Pages: 12



ID-125A

Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar

9/1/1997 (reprinted)
Authors: Morris Bitzer, J.D. Green, John Grove, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Doug Johnson, Jim Martin, Sam McNeill, Lloyd Murdock, Lee Townsend, Dick Trimble, Dave Van Sanford

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, small grains
Size: 117 kb
Pages: 2



ID-124

Factors to Consider in Bringing Idle Land Back to Production

4/1/1997 (new)
Authors: Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, Deborah Hill, Jim Martin, Lloyd Murdock, Monroe Rasnake, Lee Townsend, Dick Trimble

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 228 kb
Pages: 12



ID-55

Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree's Health

1/1/1996 (reprinted)
Authors: Win Dunwell, John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser, Bob McNeil, Mary Witt

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 200 kb
Pages: 3



IP-9

Food Safety Pesticide Residues in Grains, Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts

9/1/1992 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Jim Martin

Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interprogram (IP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, vegetables
Size: 16 kb
Pages:



ID-80

Transplanting Trees and Shrubs

11/1/1990 (reprinted)
Authors: Bill Fountain, John Hartman, Mary Witt

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags:
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 8