In descending order, by date published.
Nitrates are natural constituents of all plants. Under normal conditions, plants take up nitrate through their roots and transport it to the leaves for use in photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis decreases under adverse environmental conditions (e.g., drought; leaf damage due to disease, hail, frost, insects, or herbicides; cool and cloudy weather; and other plant stressors). When photosynthesis is reduced, nitrate transportation to the leaves slows also. Potentially toxic nitrate concentrations can remain in the lower stalks and stems.
Poisonous plants are responsible for considerable losses to farmers and stockmen in Kentucky. Many cases of plant poisoning are never diagnosed or even suspected. There are nearly 100 different species of plants growing in Kentucky that under certain conditions may be poisonous to livestock, although only one third of these are likely to cause serious trouble. The primary purpose of this publication is to enable individuals to recognize, at sight, some plants which are known to be dangerously poisonous, and to have knowledge of those additional plants, which, under certain conditions, may cause trouble.
Kentucky's county animal shelter conditions have not been studied for over 20 years. Major goals of this study were to assess current conditions in Kentucky's county shelters and determine the degree of compliance with Kentucky shelter laws. Additional information was gathered to determine the major problems and needs identified by shelter personnel and researchers. Data was used to determine if additional state funds or refinements and additions to current laws are warranted to ensure humane care of animals in Kentucky's county shelters.
"Fescue toxicosis" is the general term used for the clinical diseases that can affect cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tall-fescue pastures containing ergot alkaloids are responsible for the toxic effects observed in livestock, including hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), gangrene of the extremities, decreased weight gain, and poor reproductive performance. Clinical signs vary depending on the cattle, the environmental conditions, and the level and duration of the exposure. Early clinical signs are often reversible after removal from contaminated pastures or hay.
Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication.
In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions.
Authors: Les Anderson, Darrh Bullock, Roy Burris, Lowell Bush, Blair Knight, Kevin Laurent, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Jim Matthews, Kyle McLeod, Lori Porter, Jim Randolph, Gregg Rentfrow, Keith Schillo, Meg Steinman, Jim Strickland, Laurentia van Rensburg, Eric Vanzant
The 2010 Research and Extension Beef Report highlights advances in understanding of basic scientific principles of livestock production as well as applied research from which producers and the industry can benefit. Extension educational programs, on-farm demonstrations, and other activities help transfer this knowledge to producers so they can adopt of management changes as appropriate.