University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

Online Publications

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College publications are given 2-part "pub numbers" that are used to identify them. The first part (the prefix) is a set of letters that indicates which series the document belongs to. A series is a grouping of documents that share similar content.

The second part of the pub number is just a sequential number.

Series: Interdepartmental

Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2018-19
12/11/2017 (major revision)

Successful vegetable production generally requires the grower to make daily decisions regarding pest management, irrigation, and cultural practices. The most widely commercially-grown vegetables in Kentucky are included in this publication. | ID-36
3,000 printed copies | 140 pages | 109,401 words | 124 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates
10/11/2017 (minor revision)

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions. | ID-149
web only | 20 pages | 11,224 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 265 kb

Pastured Poultry
9/21/2017 (new)

There has been an increased interest in pasture-raising poultry for both meat and egg production in the last decade. Raising poultry on pasture was a common occurrence until the latter half of the 20th century. Fresh forage provided an important ration balancing factor during the years before poultry nutritionists fully understood the required essential vitamins and minerals for growth and optimum meat and egg production. With the development of balanced rations, poultry no longer require access to pasture and year-round production of meat and eggs is possible. However, there are still some benefits from the lush forage, invertebrates, and exercise that pasture provides. In addition, we continue to learn more and more about the positive influence that fresh grasses and legumes have on fatty acid profiles and general bird health. As a result, there is an increased interest in pasture-raised poultry for both meat and eggs. | ID-247
web only | 7 pages | 4,900 words | 6 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Landscape Site Assessment
9/6/2017 (new)

The most common reason trees and shrubs fail to perform as anticipated is that their cultural requirements differ from the site characteristics. People often plant things they know and love from a distant state, purchase because they are on sale, or find attractive but don't understand the environmental requirements. In some cases, a site can be easily modified to make it more suitable for a desired species. Most of the time, it is difficult or impossible to change the site characteristics enough for the plant to thrive. Appropriate watering is essential for establishment of recently transplanted trees and shrubs. This becomes even more important (and challenging) for plants poorly matched to their sites. Selecting plant species that will thrive under particular site conditions is an easier and less expensive option. The first step in doing this is to understand the site where you plan to plant. | ID-244
web only | 4 pages | 1,739 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 125 kb

UK Ag Equine Programs Calendar, 2018
9/6/2017 (minor revision)

The information in this calendar is provided to aid owners in planning for the care and use of their horses. When necessary, information is discussed in the month prior to application to allow horse owners adequate time to plan for activities such as weed control, soil testing, and vaccinations. Contact your local veterinarian for health-related issues and your county extension agent for further information. | ID-196
2,900 printed copies | 32 pages | 5,598 words | 91 downloads | PDF: 10,700 kb

Measuring the Ph of Different Food Products
7/21/2017 (new)

The scientific scale for measuring how acidic or basic a substance is when it is dissolved in water is called pH. The pH scale runs from 0 - 14. 0 means it is very acidic, 7 means it is neither acidic nor basic, but just right in the middle like plain water (neutral), and 14 means it is very basic. If you are producing a food product that depends on the acidic components or ingredients of the product to extend its shelf life and ensure the safety of the product, monitoring the pH of food products is very important. Food safety is the biggest reason for monitoring pH, but pH also influences the quality of food products. | ID-246
web only | 2 pages | 1,743 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 365 kb

Manejo Integrado de Plagas
6/15/2017 (reprinted)

La sociedad moderna demanda alimentos variados y de buena calidad, esto implica un reto para los agricultores de frutas, hortalizas y granos, ya que deben producir lo suficiente para obtener ganancias y al mismo tiempo, evitar la contaminacion del producto requerido por la poblacion. El Manejo Integrado de Plagas, es una herramienta importante en el manejo de los cultivos, ya que propone alternativas de control que no se limitan unicamente al uso de pesticidas, sino tambien, a tomar ventaja de los recursos existentes en el campo, tales como, organismos beneficos, plantas florales, biologia de la plaga, rotacion de cultivos, labores culturales apropiadas y otros mas que permiten manejar con perspectiva ambiental los problemas encontrados. | ID-181
1,500 printed copies | 20 pages | 9,096 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 651 kb

Predator Management for Small-Scale Poultry Enterprises in Kentucky
5/4/2017 (new)

As urban expansion spreads, there is a loss of natural habitat for wildlife. Wildlife has come into closer contact with livestock operations, and some of these animals are predators of poultry. | ID-245
web only | 8 pages | 3,090 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 2,401 kb

Central Kentucky Backyard Stream Guide
2/1/2017 (new)

Many urban homeowners are not sure what to do about the stream in their backyard. Who owns it? How can I take care of it? What plants are good for my streambanks? These common questions lead to some confusing answers. This publication is designed to help the homeowner of a backyard stream appreciate this resource, protect personal property, and improve water quality and habitat. | ID-242
1,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,530 words | 82 downloads | PDF: 15,699 kb

Management of Wildlife and Domestic Animals on Your Farm: Good Agricultural Practices
1/10/2017 (new)

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) are necessary to ensure that fresh fruits and vegetables are harvested, handled, and packaged in a sanitary manner. Field crops are at a higher food safety risk than processed foods because of regular exposure to several sources of contamination, including soil, manure, human handling, domestic and wild animals, and water. While it is impossible to completely eliminate these risks, GAPs ensure that these risks are as small as possible when implemented correctly. | ID-243
150 printed copies | 3 pages | 2,023 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 908 kb

After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant
12/22/2016 (new)

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future. | ID-241
web only | 5 pages | 4,224 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 247 kb

What Is Your Tree Worth?
12/22/2016 (new)

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate. | ID-240
web only | 5 pages | 3,041 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 903 kb

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2016
12/21/2016 (reprinted)

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties. | ID-128
1 printed copies | 48 pages | 32,061 words | 443 downloads | PDF: 4,000 kb

Burley and Dark Tobacco Production Guide, 2017-2018
12/13/2016 (minor revision)

Under ideal conditions, growing a good crop of tobacco is relatively easy, but when conditions are challenging it takes good management skills and attention to detail to make tobacco a profitable crop. This publication is designed to provide the good manager with the latest information for the production of high yielding, good quality tobacco. | ID-160
9,000 printed copies | 76 pages | 65,319 words | 167 downloads | PDF: 3,714 kb

Rotational Grazing
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

A rotational grazing program can generally be defined as use of several pastures, one of which is grazed while the others are rested before being regrazed. Continuous grazing is the use of one pasture for the entire grazing season. | ID-143
2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | - | 102 downloads | PDF: 887 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky
11/17/2016 (new)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings. | ID-238
1,600 printed copies | 28 pages | 6,288 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 10,025 kb

Producer's Guide to Pasture-Based Beef Finishing
10/6/2016 (reprinted)

Will pasture-finished beef eventually become a commodity with lowered product prices? These and other questions must be evaluated by those considering pasture-based beef finishing. As with any new enterprise, however, the learning curve is steep, and success requires a commitment to working through the many production, marketing, and processing details. This reference guide provides a foundation for this process. | ID-224
700 printed copies | 48 pages | 24,457 words | 72 downloads | PDF: 1,505 kb

Equine Metabolic Syndrome: Is My Horse Just Fat, or Is He Sick?
10/4/2016 (new)

Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is an endocrine disorder that affects equids (horses, ponies, and donkeys) in three defining ways: they are obese and/or have localized fat deposits, they are in an insulin resistance (IR) state, now referred to as insulin dysregulation (ID), and they are predisposed to developing laminitis. | ID-239
web only | 3 pages | 1,558 words | 13 downloads | PDF: 1,473 kb

Soil Percolation: A Key to Survival of Landscape Plants
9/14/2016 (new)

Eighty to 90 percent of disease and insect problems on landscape plants can be traced back to soil problems. Plants must be adapted to the site if they are to meet our expectations of growing, remain healthy, and attractive. | ID-237
web only | 4 pages | 1,929 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 3,289 kb

Providing Water for Beef Cattle in Rotational Grazing Systems
8/2/2016 (new)

Water is the most essential nutrient for cattle production. Water is used in almost every bodily function, including digestion, milk production, and excretion. Given the role and function of water in relation to animal production, health, and welfare, it is critical that abundant, clean water is available in any livestock production operation. Livestock must have immediate access to water within every paddock of a rotational grazing system to realize maximum efficiency and production. | ID-236
web only | 6 pages | 3,800 words | 71 downloads | PDF: 3,000 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky
7/8/2016 (new)

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance. | ID-235
2,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 5,187 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 5,436 kb

Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP)
3/4/2016 (minor revision)

Nutrients are constantly cycling through farms. Nutrients come onto a farm in the form of feed, commercial fertilizers, manure, or compost, and they leave the farm with harvested crops, sold livestock, and off-site disposal of manure and other waste. Sometimes nutrients are even lost to the air, soil, or water. Nutrient management allows farmers to use nutrients wisely for optimal economic benefit with minimal impact on the environment. | ID-211
web only | 50 pages | 10,283 words | 141 downloads | PDF: 3,600 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky
2/23/2016 (reprinted)

The soft red winter wheat grown in Kentucky is the fourth most valuable cash crop in the state. Winter wheat has been an integral part of crop rotation for Kentucky farmers. Wheat is normally harvested in June in Kentucky and provides an important source of cash flow during the summer months. | ID-125
1,500 printed copies | 72 pages | 36,662 words | 17 downloads | PDF: 6,500 kb

Grain Sorghum (Milo) Production in Kentucky
2/8/2016 (new)

Grain sorghum can be used for a variety of purposes including animal feed, unleavened breads, cakes, wallboard, starch, dextrose, brooms, ethanol, high quality wax, and alcoholic beverages. Grain sorghum produced in Kentucky is most commonly used for animal feed and was first grown here in the 1920s. Although acreage in Kentucky has fluctuated considerably over the years, yields have generally exceeded the national average since the 1970s, indicating that grain sorghum is an option for producers interested in diversifying grain crop operations. | ID-234
web only | 8 pages | 5,390 words | 31 downloads | PDF: 1,800 kb

Agricultural Lime Recommendations Based on Lime Quality
1/13/2016 (major revision)

Soil acidity is one of the most important soil factors affecting crop growth and ultimately, yield and profitability. It is determined by measuring the soil pH, which is a measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. As soil acidity increases, the soil pH decreases. Soils tend to be naturally acidic in areas where rainfall is sufficient to cause substantial leaching of basic ions (such as calcium and magnesium), which are replaced by hydrogen ions. Most soils in Kentucky are naturally acidic because of our abundant rainfall. | ID-163
web only | 6 pages | 2,749 words | 73 downloads | PDF: 485 kb

Tomato Disease Management in Greenhouses
12/22/2015 (new)

Tomato is, by far, the most common vegetable crop grown in greenhouses in Indiana and Kentucky. This publication examines common tomato diseases of the greenhouse and provides management recommendations. | ID-233
web only | 6 pages | - | 47 downloads | PDF: 465 kb

All-Weather Surfaces for Cattle Watering Facilities
7/28/2015 (new)

Strategically locating the watering facility will also provide production benefits such as increased forage utilization and improved access to water, and may possibly reduce the cost per pasture of providing water. This publication will provide guidelines for the location, design, and construction of all-weather surfaces for cattle watering facilities. | ID-229
web only | 6 pages | 2,612 words | 64 downloads | PDF: 2,980 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Acute or Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP)
7/17/2015 (new)

In the Southeastern United States, acute interstitial pneumonia has been produced by ingestion of the leaves and seeds of perilla mint (Perilla frutescens). Perilla ketone is the toxin absorbed from the rumen into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs where it damages the lung tissue in cattle. | ID-231
web only | 3 pages | 1,551 words | 18 downloads | PDF: 507 kb

Slaframine Toxicosis or "Slobbers" in Cattle and Horses
7/17/2015 (new)

Although black patch occurs only sporadically, the right temperature, moisture, and soil pH may combine and allow Rhizoctonia leguminicola to thrive. Be aware of the possible consequences of this fungus, especially profuse salivation or "Sobbers" in cattle and horses. Good forage management, will reduce the risk of problems when utilizing this forage. | ID-230
web only | 2 pages | 948 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 256 kb

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky
7/15/2015 (new)

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]). | ID-91s
2,500 printed copies | 24 pages | 8,426 words | 25 downloads | PDF: 1,743 kb

Aquatic Macroinvertebrates: Biological Indicators of Stream Health
5/12/2015 (new)

Streams are an important part of the landscape. Streams transport water, sediment and energy; provide habitat for aquatic life and support terrestrial life; provide a place for recreation; and in many cases serve as a water supply. The health of streams---or their ability to perform these important functions---is dependent on the conditions of the watersheds which they drain. Changes in land use within a watershed can affect a stream's health. | ID-228
web only | 5 pages | 1,962 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 4,800 kb

Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program
2/6/2015 (reprinted)

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) is a program developed to ensure that beef and dairy cattle are managed in a manner that will result in safe and wholesome beef and milk products for the consumer. Specifically, BQA is designed to enhance carcass quality by preventing drug residues, injection-site blemishes, and bruises. The Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance Program is based on recommended national guidelines and scientific research. This program enables beef and dairy producers to enhance their product, maximize marketability, and strengthen consumer confidence. | ID-140
4,000 printed copies | 83 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 2,353 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky
1/30/2015 (new)

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance. | ID-227
1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 6,479 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 33,000 kb

Organic Corn Production in Kentucky
1/15/2015 (new)

The number of organic dairy cows in Kentucky has been steadily increasing for years, yet there's not enough organic corn produced in the state to feed the growing herds. In short, a new market has developed in the state, but few local farmers are taking advantage of it. While Kentucky farmers are no strangers to corn, growing corn organically utilizes different management, cultural and marketing practices and requires new skills. And, importantly, organic production must follow an approved farm plan that allows farmers to sell their corn as certified organic. This publication is designed to be both an introduction to a new enterprise as well as a practical manual for those interested in pursuing organic corn production on their own farms. | ID-225
2,000 printed copies | 30 pages | 19,856 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Hypomagnesemic Tetany or "Grass Tetany"
9/18/2014 (new)

Magnesium is a vital component of normal nerve conduction, muscle function, and bone mineral formation. Hypomagnesemic tetany or "grass tetany" is a disorder caused by an abnormally low blood concentration of the essential mineral magnesium (Mg). Synonyms for this disorder include spring tetany, grass staggers, wheat pasture poisoning, or lactation tetany. | ID-226
web only | 3 pages | 1,726 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 121 kb

Forage-Related Cattle Disorders: Brassicas--Be Aware of the Animal Health Risks
8/12/2014 (new)

Although infrequent, brassica crops can cause animal health disorders if grazing is managed improperly. Most brassica-related disorders in cattle tend to occur during the first two weeks of grazing while adjusting to the forage. The primary potential disorders are polioencephalomalcia or PEM, hemolytic anemia (mainly with kale), nitrate poisoning, and pulmonary emphysema. Other possible clinical disorders include bloat and rumen acidosis, and metabolic problems such as hypomagnesemia and hypothyroidism with goiter. Glucosinates present in brassicas are precursors of irritants that can cause colic and diarrhea. Large bulbs may lodge in the esophagus and lead to choking. Certain brassicas (specifically rape) can cause sunburn or "scald" on light-skinned animals, especially when grazed while the plants are immature. Other potential problems include oxalate poisoning and off-flavoring of meat and milk. | ID-223
web only | 3 pages | 1,867 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 913 kb

Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach
7/30/2014 (new)

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs. | ID-222
web only | 8 pages | 4,099 words | 47 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos de Solanaceas on Kentucky
7/9/2014 (new)

La identificacion correcta de los patogenos y de insectos plagas, asi como los trastornos nutricionales y fisiologicos e incluso derivas de herbicidas es esencial para determinar el curso apropiado de accion. Las imagenes incluidas en esta guia representan algunas plagas o problemas comunes que los agricultores pueden encontrar cuando se producen cultivos de solanaceas (tomates, pimientos, berenjena y papas) en Kentucky. | ID-172s
1,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 5,600 kb

Fescue Toxicosis
7/3/2014 (new)

"Fescue toxicosis" is the general term used for the clinical diseases that can affect cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tall-fescue pastures containing ergot alkaloids are responsible for the toxic effects observed in livestock, including hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), gangrene of the extremities, decreased weight gain, and poor reproductive performance. Clinical signs vary depending on the cattle, the environmental conditions, and the level and duration of the exposure. Early clinical signs are often reversible after removal from contaminated pastures or hay. | ID-221
web only | 4 pages | 2,470 words | 28 downloads | PDF: 740 kb

How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants
7/1/2014 (major revision)

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage. | ID-89
web only | 7 pages | 2,439 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 6,000 kb

Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems
7/1/2014 (major revision)

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material. | ID-50
web only | 11 pages | 4,025 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 9,000 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky
6/3/2014 (reprinted)

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop. | ID-184
4,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 5,437 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 1,054 kb

Midwest Blueberry Production Guide
5/12/2014 (reprinted)

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world. | ID-210
1,500 printed copies | 58 pages | 28,039 words | 86 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky
5/7/2014 (new)

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky. | ID-219
3,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 5,056 words | 42 downloads | PDF: 2,600 kb

Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky
4/29/2014 (reprinted)

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels. | ID-21
1,000 printed copies | 20 pages | 10,516 words | 128 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Cyanide Poisoning in Ruminants
4/21/2014 (new)

Cyanide poisoning of livestock is commonly associated with johnsongrass, sorghum-sudangrass, and other forage sorghums. Choke-cherry or wild cherry, elderberry, and arrow grass are less frequent causes. Young plants, new shoots, and regrowth of plants after cutting often contain the highest levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The risk from potentially dangerous forages may be reduced by following the management practices in this publication. | ID-220
web only | 2 pages | 973 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 255 kb

Collection and Preparation of Milk Samples for Microbiological Culturing
4/16/2014 (major revision)

In developing individual farm mastitis control and treatment strategies, it is often necessary to characterize the types of bacteria that are present on your farm. To answer this question, a microbiological analysis, or milk culture, must be performed on milk samples collected from cows showing clinical or subclinical signs of mastitis. Results of the milk cultures will help identify which bacteria are causing the mastitis. In turn, this information can be used to alter mastitis control, prevention, and treatment options to fit your herd's conditions. | ID-180
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,439 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 873 kb

A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System
4/2/2014 (new)

Researchers at the University of Kentucky combined existing disease detection systems to produce a fresh cow examination system that may help producers detect diseases earlier by monitoring subtle changes every day during a cow's fresh period. Compiling daily information about each animal will enable producers to notice changes in health that may otherwise have been overlooked. These records may help producers detect illnesses early, thus reducing the long-term effects (reduced milk production or fertility) and costs (re-treatment, milk loss, or death) of a disease. Learning what diseases are common on a particular farm can focus producers' efforts towards preventive measures specific to their operation. Preventing disease, rather than treating, can save producers time and money and can improve overall cow well-being. | ID-218
web only | 15 pages | 3,501 words | 41 downloads | PDF: 1,900 kb

Forage-Related Disorders in Cattle: Nitrate Poisoning
3/10/2014 (new)

Few plants normally contain high nitrate levels, since under normal growing conditions the nitrates are converted to protein as quickly as they are absorbed from the roots. However, under certain conditions plants can develop dangerously high nitrate levels which can cause nitrate intoxication. Death or abortion may result. Care must be taken to recognize possible toxic forages and manage them appropriately to avoid animal loss. | ID-217
web only | 3 pages | 2,447 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 314 kb

Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants
10/16/2013 (major revision)

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible. | ID-84
web only | 4 pages | 1,862 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 3,130 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky
7/22/2013 (new)

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop. | ID-216
3,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 4,491 words | 39 downloads | PDF: 5,300 kb

Stormwater Wetlands
7/1/2013 (new)

As our population has grown, so have our towns and cities, and this growth has led to an increase in stormwater runoff. Stormwater best management practices help mitigate the impact of stormwater runoff on water quality by reducing pollutant loads through physical, chemical and/or biological processes. One of the most effective BMPs at improving stormwater quality is the stormwater wetland. | ID-215
web only | 4 pages | 2,647 words | 38 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

What's Wrong with My Taxus?
6/5/2013 (major revision)

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors. | ID-52
web only | 4 pages | 2,010 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 2,300 kb

On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

Animal mortalities are an expected part of animal production. Depending on the scale of the animal enterprise, animal mortalities can overwhelm the producer with a large number and mass of dead animals. This publication provides guidance to the producer for handling animal mortalities in accordance with Kentucky law. | ID-167
web only | 4 pages | 1,382 words | 60 downloads | PDF: 1,300 kb

On-Farm Composting of Animal Mortalities
5/6/2013 (minor revision)

On-farm composting can provide animal producers with a convenient method for disposing of animal mortalities and also provide a valuable soil amendment. In addition, the finished compost can be stockpiled and reused to help compost other mortalities. | ID-166
web only | 6 pages | 2,973 words | 93 downloads | PDF: 2,800 kb

Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens, 2013
5/6/2013 (major revision)

Gardening makes sense! Growing your own vegetables makes you feel self-sufficient and provides fresh, healthful food. Your surplus crop can be frozen, canned, or stored in cool, dry locations. To assure gardening success, start by selecting suitable vegetable cultivars. Planting resistant or tolerant varieties is one of the most effective ways for the home gardener to avoid destructive vegetable diseases. | ID-133
web only | 8 pages | 814 words | 125 downloads | PDF: 425 kb

Mulching with Large Round Bales between Plastic-covered Beds
4/26/2013 (new)

Large round bales lend themselves very well to the application of mulching rows of vegetables because the bales can be unrolled to peel off layers that are about the right thickness for mulch. An innovative implement that offsets the bale so that it can be unrolled between the rows while the tractor straddles the row can make the practice of mulching with round bales considerably more efficient. | ID-214
250 printed copies | 6 pages | 3,335 words | 34 downloads | PDF: 2,400 kb

2011 Kentucky Compost Bedded Pack Barn Project
4/26/2013 (new)

Kentucky dairy producers are adopting compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) as dairy cattle housing at a rapid rate. When properly managed, as an alternative dairy housing system, CBPs may decrease somatic cell count (SCC), increase production, and reduce lameness. Because the system is relatively new, however, many questions remain regarding best management practices and key factors for success. University of Kentucky dairy scientists and agricultural engineers conducted a comprehensive observational study of Kentucky CBPs from October 2010 to March 2011. The goal of this research was to determine key management concepts that determine success or failure in the compost-bedded pack system. | ID-213
web only | 13 pages | 6,600 words | 80 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Using DHIA Records for Somatic Cell Count Management
4/26/2013 (new)

DHIA (Dairy Herd Improvement Association) records are an essential part of dairy herd management for many progressive dairy operations. However, for producers new to DHIA, interpreting the meaning of all this information can be a bit overwhelming. Even producers who have been DHIA members for many years may not fully understand all the value that DHIA records can provide for SCC management. What follows is a description and interpretation of SCC-related information available to dairy producers on DHIA test reports. | ID-212
web only | 5 pages | 1,560 words | 33 downloads | PDF: 915 kb

Environmental Compliance for Dairy Operations
4/24/2013 (new)

Some farmers are reluctant to talk about the environment, but because farms are under increasing review by state and federal regulatory agencies, producers need to be familiar with environmental issues and regulations. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) can help farmers continue to protect the environment and increase productivity. | ID-200
web only | 6 pages | 4,179 words | 57 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Feedlot Design and Environmental Management for Backgrounding and Stocker Operations
3/21/2013 (new)

Kentucky's cattle industry represents the largest beef cattle herd east of the Mississippi, ranking eighth in the nation for number of beef cows. This industry is extremely important to Kentucky's economy. This publication discusses site evaluation strategies, production area management techniques, and a variety of facility types for intensive cattle production that preserve natural resources and improve production. | ID-202
125 printed copies | 12 pages | 6,071 words | 114 downloads | PDF: 3,800 kb

Drought-Stressed Corn Silage Valuation, 2012
2/6/2013 (new)

Extended dry conditions have impacted the corn crop severely in many areas of the state this year. As the condition of the corn crop deteriorates, many have been forced to look at salvage options such as cutting corn for silage and possibly hay for some fields. Due to the extreme weather conditions this year, this publication will focus on valuing drought-stressed corn silage. | ID-205
web only | 6 pages | 4,213 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 445 kb

Management of the Dry Cow to Prevent Mastitis
11/30/2012 (new)

As we move into a new era of lower acceptable somatic cell count levels, the prevention and control of mastitis takes on increased importance. For many years, the contagious mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis were the focus of control measures primarily implemented in the milking parlor to stop the spread of these organisms from cow to cow. These contagious organisms often cause high individual somatic cell counts and ultimately high bulk tank somatic cell counts. As these high somatic cell count cows have been culled due to milk marketing regulations and more dairymen have adopted NMC recommended milking procedures, the contagious pathogens are decreasing. | ID-209
100 printed copies | 3 pages | 1,647 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 430 kb

Recommended Milking Procedures for Maximum Milk Quality
11/30/2012 (new)

When it comes to minimizing mastitis and lowering somatic cell counts, the area where you have the most control is your milking procedures. Understanding and following proper milking procedures is a critical step to maintaining maximum milk quality. | ID-208
web only | 4 pages | 1,807 words | 35 downloads | PDF: 2,700 kb

Compost Bedded Pack Barn Design: Features and Management Consideration
11/12/2012 (new)

The compost bedded pack barn is a housing system for lactating dairy cows. It consists of a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings and manure composted into place and mechanically stirred on a regular basis. | ID-206
web only | 32 pages | 5,724 words | 90 downloads | PDF: 15,444 kb

Considerations for Starting an On-Farm Dairy Processing Enterprise
10/17/2012 (new)

With proper facilities and education, entreprenuers can successfully produce value-added dairy products on-farm. | ID-207
web only | 5 pages | 3,084 words | 20 downloads | PDF: 327 kb

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis ("Pinkeye") in Cattle
9/24/2012 (major revision)

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as pinkeye, is a costly disease for the beef producer. Tremendous losses stem from poor weight gain and loss of appetite in affected animals suffering from visual impairment and ocular pain. | ID-135
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,053 words | 37 downloads | PDF: 325 kb

Trees, Turf, and People
8/6/2012 (new)

The shade trees and fruit trees that we treasure in our landscapes were originally adapted to growing in forests in close association with other trees. In the forest they can remain small for many years. As soon as there is an opening in the canopy allowing light to reach the forest floor they grow rapidly. This great height allows trees to assume a place of dominance over other plants; their trunks lift their leaves high into the air, allowing them to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight before it reaches other plants. Thus, trees grow tall and provide us with their much-appreciated shade. | ID-203
web only | 4 pages | 2,432 words | 46 downloads | PDF: 1,500 kb

Introductory Safety Training for Tobacco Workers
7/25/2012 (new)

This safety bulletin is intended to offer introductory safety training to tobacco workers in conjunction with a farm walk-around. It was written as if you and your workers are standing in or around the object currently being discussed, e.g., a tractor, with you or a designated assistant pointing out the various safety issues listed in the bulletin. It is not meant to be used as a stand-alone bulletin, especially just in a room, unless you have already gone through the walk-around and are reviewing points or having a discussion. It must be used out by the barn, equipment, or other subject being discussed. | ID-204
2,500 printed copies | 16 pages | 2,237 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 476 kb

Prechilling Switchgrass Seed on Farm to Break Dormancy
4/23/2012 (new)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial bunch-type grass native to the North American Tallgrass Prairie. It has been investigated as a renewable energy crop due to its high productivity across a wide geographic range including various environmental conditions and soil types. Switchgrass has also been used for erosion control, summer grazing in pasture and hay systems for cattle, native prairie restoration, wildlife habitat, fiber production, and as an ornamental grass. | ID-199
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,590 words | 7 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

3/27/2012 (major revision)

Roses have many landscape uses. They can be placed as accent plants or used to form hedges or ground covers. They offer a rainbow of colors and a variety of forms and fragrances, and their sizes range from miniatures to tall climbing plants. Roses may be grown under many climatic and soil conditions and, with care, thrive and produce flowers for many years. | ID-118
2,000 printed copies | 16 pages | 7,927 words | 70 downloads | PDF: 3,331 kb

Your Yard and Water Quality: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 11
3/26/2012 (new)

We generally view gardening as a wholesome activity that enhances our environment. But pesticides, fertilizers, and erosion from gardens and landscapes can contaminate lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Since the quality of our water resources affects our quality of life, we must learn how gardening practices can contribute to water contamination and how to reduce the threat to water quality. | ID-201
web only | 8 pages | 2,589 words | 24 downloads | PDF: 410 kb

Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky
3/22/2012 (major revision)

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides. | ID-88
web only | 16 pages | 7,345 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 3,700 kb

Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis
3/5/2012 (reprinted)

Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial cause of contagious mastitis on dairy farms worldwide. More importantly, it is often at the root of chronically high somatic cell counts, recurrent clinical mastitis, and damaged mammary gland tissue. It is considered to be a contagious udder pathogen that spreads within and between cows during milking. Because it is often subclinical (milk looks normal but with a potentially high somatic cell count), infected animals pose a risk of infection to herd mates during each milking. | ID-190
200 printed copies | 4 pages | 3,035 words | 16 downloads | PDF: 271 kb

Vegetative Filter Strips for Livestock Facilities
2/23/2012 (new)

An enhanced vegetative strip is a best management practice that can be installed to protect surface waters from pollution produced by animal production facilities. Most people think of a vegetative strip as a grassed area or waterway, but when intentionally installed and properly managed, an EVS can be much more effective than a simple grassed filter strip. If properly managed, enhanced vegetative strips can be used to trap, treat, and absorb pollutants, which can be removed from the designated area by harvesting or grazing. | ID-189
web only | 4 pages | 2,364 words | 43 downloads | PDF: 380 kb

Sweetpotato Production for Kentucky
2/21/2012 (new)

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a member of the morningglory or Convolvulaceae family. Sweetpotatoes have their origins in tropical America, with early remains having been found in Panama, Peru and Mexico. A perennial plant in their native regions, they are typically killed by frost when grown in a temperate climate. Sweetpotatoes are true roots and not tubers as is the case with the Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Because they are true roots they will continue to grow and enlarge as long as the plant continues to grow. | ID-195
500 printed copies | 16 pages | 6,240 words | 48 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Benefits and Costs Associated with the Wheat Storage Hedge
1/24/2012 (new)

Each year producers must decide whether to store or sell their crop at harvest. Market prices are important in guiding producers on whether to store priced grain for future delivery (referred to as a storage hedge), store unpriced grain, or sell. Generally, producers know more about deciding to sell or store unpriced grain than using the storage hedge. This publication explains how a storage hedge works, when to use it, and risks and costs involved. (See glossary for definition of terms.) | ID-198
100 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,549 words | 11 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Equine Viral Arteritis
11/14/2011 (new)

Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease of horses and other equine species caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV) that is found in horse populations in many countries. It was first isolated and identified in 1953 from the lung of an aborted fetus with characteristic pathologic changes in the smaller arteries, which is how the disease got its name. | ID-197
web only | 3 pages | 1,640 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 270 kb

Diagnosing Plant Problems: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 7
10/12/2011 (new)

To determine what factors have damaged a plant, you'll need to systematically and carefully observe the plant, its environment, and other plants in the area, then put all the pieces together to reconstruct the event(s) that produced the damage. You must make an accurate diagnosis before taking corrective action. Even if no corrective measures are available, it is good to know what the problem is and what its future development might be. | ID-194
web only | 32 pages | 14,578 words | 22 downloads | PDF: 1,200 kb

Composting: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 5
10/12/2011 (new)

Gardeners have long made and used compost to improve garden soil. Composting plant and vegetable matter is an important way to reduce the waste burned or dumped in landfills. Yard wastes and vegetable scraps can make up as much as 20 percent of household garbage. Composting effectively recycles that waste into valuable organic matter that can be used as soil amendments. | ID-192
web only | 8 pages | 4,200 words | 68 downloads | PDF: 470 kb

Profitability of Nitrogen Applications for Stockpiling Tall Fescue Pastures: 2011 Guide
10/5/2011 (new)

The concept of stockpiling is pretty straightforward, but the challenge each year is to determine the likelihood that this practice will be profitable given the economic and agronomic conditions present at mid-summer. This practice can yield significant benefits, but it also carries significant costs. These benefits and costs must be quantified and compared to assess the overall profitability of the practice. | ID-193
web only | 4 pages | 3,344 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 290 kb

Soybean Cyst Nematode: A Potential Problem for Nursuries
10/4/2011 (major revision)

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most serious disease pest of soybean in the United States (and Kentucky) and results in an estimated $1 billion in losses annually. SCN is a microscopic roundworm (Heterodera glycines) that feeds on root of soybean and reduces its capacity to absorb water and nutrients. Yield losses of 30% or more are common where SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are grown and SCN levels are high. SCN was first discovered in Kentucky in 1957 in Fulton County but is now found in every Kentucky county in which soybean is grown commercially. | ID-110
web only | 4 pages | 1,256 words | 8 downloads | PDF: 368 kb

Climate Change: A Brief Summary for Kentucky Extension Agents
9/20/2011 (new)

Nearly all climate science experts agree that global warming is occurring and that it is caused primarily by human activity. Regardless of what you may read on blogs or in the media, there is no meaningful scientific controversy on these points. The future impacts of global warming are difficult to predict, but the changes caused by greenhouse gases are expected to increasingly affect Kentucky agriculture. | ID-191
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | 1,975 words | 53 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure
8/4/2011 (new)

Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience. | ID-188
web only | 4 pages | 2,255 words | 112 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Woodland Winter Feeding of Cattle: Water Quality Best Management Practices
5/5/2011 (new)

Cattle maintain their body temperature in winter by burning more calories, which requires them to consume more feed. Livestock producers use wooded areas to provide protection for cattle from wind and low temperatures. That protection enables the cattle to conserve energy and eat less. Using wooded areas for winter feeding makes practical sense, but producers need to consider several environmental issues when planning for it. | ID-187
web only | 2 pages | 1,145 words | 30 downloads | PDF: 273 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky
4/29/2011 (minor revision)

Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky. | ID-172
3,500 printed copies | 32 pages | 7,500 words | 36 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Managing Legume Induced Bloat in Cattle
3/10/2011 (new)

Ruminal tympany, or bloat, can result in lost animal performance and in severe cases, death. It occurs as a result of a buildup of fermentation gases in the rumen. Bloat may be categorized as frothy bloat, which is caused by the formation of a stable foam in the rumen, or free gas bloat, which is due to excessive production of gaseous compounds from fermentation or as a result of an obstruction preventing the escape of gas compounds. Legume bloat is a frothy bloat condition. | ID-186
500 printed copies | 4 pages | 2,366 words | 40 downloads | PDF: 400 kb

Using Dry Lots to Conserve Pastures and Reduce Pollution Potential
2/16/2011 (reprinted)

| ID-171
300 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 860 kb

Planning Fencing Systems for Intensive Grazing Management
2/16/2011 (reprinted)

| ID-74
300 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 79 downloads | PDF: 646 kb

Planting a Riparian Buffer
9/28/2010 (new)

Actively creating a riparian buffer typically consists of six steps: site assessment, planting plan development, site preparation, species selection, planting, and protection and maintenance. | ID-185
web only | 8 pages | - | 96 downloads | PDF: 3,265 kb

Trail Riding Etiquette for Horse Enthusiasts
9/20/2010 (new)

When you're trail riding, you need to be aware of safety, not only for yourself and the horse, but also as a courtesy for other trail users. You should follow all general precautions about safe riding, but also follow practices that apply specifically to trails, whether you're riding alone or in a group, for a short or long distance, or for fun or competition. | ID-183
web only | 2 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 203 kb

Establishing Horse Pastures
9/20/2010 (major revision)

Kentucky and surrounding states are known for grass pastures and horses. Pastures supply nutrients, provide hoof support for exercise, control erosion, and add to the aesthetic value of horse farms. The ability to establish and manage horse pastures is therefore important to horse owners. | ID-147
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 45 downloads | PDF: 207 kb

Wobbler Syndrome in Horses
9/13/2010 (new)

Wobbler syndrome, or cervical vertebral malformation (CVM), is a devastating disease that can affect a horse's neurologic and musculoskeletal systems. It is a structural narrowing of the spinal canal due to a variety of vertebral malformations and leads to spinal cord compression. As a result, horses exhibit clinical signs of spasticity, ataxia, and lack of coordination. | ID-182
web only | 2 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky
4/22/2010 (major revision)

Kentucky is generally well suited for growing nut trees. Northern pecans, black walnuts, heartnuts, hickory nuts, hardy Persian walnuts (Carpathian strain), American hazelnuts, and Chinese chestnuts all grow well in the state. Although most nut trees are grown by hobbyists and backyard gardeners, several varieties appear to have potential for commercial production, particularly some of the USDA pecan selections and some Chinese chestnut varieties. | ID-77
web only | 24 pages | - | 52 downloads | PDF: 680 kb

Evaluating the Health of Your Horse
2/5/2010 (new)

Horse owners, managers, and handlers can help to maintain the health of their animals by studying their behavior through observation and inspection, and should be able to accurately determine important measurements such as temperature, pulse, respiration, and mucous membrane color through a clinical examination. Having this information about your horse can be critical if the animal is ill or injured and you need to supply these details to your veterinarian. | ID-179
web only | 6 pages | - | 38 downloads | PDF: 373 kb

Corn and Soybean Production Calendar
12/16/2009 (reprinted)

The Corn and Soybean Production Calendar was developed to help producers prioritize and schedule work events in a timely fashion on the farm. Weather events and equipment breakdowns rarely follow an organized schedule. However, if other practices within the farming operation are prioritized, perhaps a producer can better address the emergencies that will occur. | ID-159
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 650 kb

Riparian Buffers: A Livestock Best Management Practice for Protecting Water Quality
9/22/2009 (new)

In Kentucky, cattle on pastures are often watered by streams. Although this practice solves water requirements for cattle, providing livestock free access to streams and riparian areas can lead to a contaminated water supply and damaged ecosystems. A better solution is to implement riparian buffers with limited access points to streams or provide alternative water sources. This practice can protect water quality, increase herd production, and provide other landowner benefits. The purpose of this publication is to explain the role of riparian areas and how they can benefit the livestock producer, the herd, and the environment. | ID-175
200 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 72 downloads | PDF: 721 kb

Compost Bedded Pack Barns in Kentucky
9/16/2009 (new)

Choosing the environment in which lactating dairy cows will spend the majority of their time is an important decision for dairy producers. This choice has considerable influence on productivity, health, milk quality, reproduction, animal well-being, and farm profitability. Innovative dairy producers have introduced a variation on the loose-housing system, generally referred to as a compost-bedded pack barn. Its key component is a large, open resting area, usually bedded with sawdust or dry, fine wood shavings. | ID-178
300 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 350 kb

Comparing No-Till and Tilled Wheat in Kentucky
8/26/2009 (new)

Historically, wheat planting in Kentucky has involved tillage. With conventional tillage practices, most residues from the previous crop are cut and buried prior to seeding wheat. No-till wheat planting eliminates tillage and reduces soil erosion, particularly on sloping soils, as well as reducing labor, machinery, and energy costs. | ID-177
1,000 printed copies | 10 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 233 kb

Using Soil Cement on Horse and Livestock Farms
8/3/2009 (new)

Most farmers in Kentucky can identify with a myriad of problems associated with mud forming around high traffic areas, including areas around horse and cattle waterers, feed bunks, round bale feeders, walk paths and gate entrances. Mud is usually a result of animals congregating in and around these areas, but increased traffic can enhance the problem. In many cases, finding solutions to mud problems on farms is not the issue--the issue is determining how to make solutions economical. | ID-176
web only | 4 pages | - | 39 downloads | PDF: 329 kb

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops in Kentucky
7/27/2009 (minor revision)

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed to reduce their negative impact on the crop, although pests are rarely eliminated. | ID-91
5,000 printed copies | 24 pages | 6,729 words | 29 downloads | PDF: 1,863 kb

Options for Controlling Canada Geese
1/15/2009 (new)

The average Canada goose produces more fecal waste than a dairy cow on a per-weight basis. In addition, gaggles of resident Canada geese have been associated with problems of over grazing. Having large amounts of fecal waste around a riparian area that has limited vegetation can lead to the runoff of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, which can contaminate ponds, lakes, and streams in Kentucky. | ID-174
200 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 23 downloads | PDF: 140 kb

Equine Emergency and Disaster Preparedness
10/3/2008 (new)

| ID-173
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 36 downloads | PDF: 240 kb

Drinking Water Quality Guidelines for Cattle
3/26/2008 (new)

| ID-170
120 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 300 kb

Composting Horse Muck
10/10/2007 (new)

| ID-168
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 62 downloads | PDF: 291 kb

Temporary Fencing for Horse Pastures
8/24/2007 (new)

| ID-165
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 37 downloads | PDF: 250 kb

High Traffic Area Pads for Horses
7/15/2007 (new)

| ID-164
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 54 downloads | PDF: 348 kb

Pervious Concrete as a Flooring Material for Horse Handling Areas
3/13/2007 (new)

| ID-161
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 34 downloads | PDF: 243 kb

Goat Production Basics in Kentucky
3/6/2007 (new)

| ID-162
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 90 downloads | PDF: 167 kb

Ornamental Gourd Production in Kentucky
1/3/2007 (minor revision)

| ID-119
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 281 kb

Managing Steep Terrain for Livestock Forage Production
8/30/2006 (new)

| ID-158
2,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 38 downloads | PDF: 417 kb

Managing Livestock Forage for Beef Cattle Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land
1/20/2006 (new)

| ID-157
2,500 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 13 downloads | PDF: 477 kb

The Kentucky Beef Book
9/15/2005 (minor revision)

| ID-108
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 26 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

Bt Basics for Vegetable Integrated Pest Management
8/1/2005 (new)

| ID-156
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 655 kb

Growers' Guide to Bt
8/1/2005 (new)

| ID-156A
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 21 downloads | PDF: 478 kb

Grain Farming Primer for Landowners
4/30/2005 (new)

| ID-155
2,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 158 kb

Low-Maintenance Lawn Care, Stressing Pest Avoidance and Organic Inputs
3/15/2005 (reprinted)

This publication is written for those who wish to maintain their lawn with minimal inputs. Low-maintenance lawn care offers certain benefits, such as minimal pesticide use, reduced fertilizer input, less need for irrigation, and reduced mowing frequency. However, when choosing a low-maintenance approach, recognize that the lawn will not offer the same dark green, uniform sward of turf that is seen under a high-maintenance lawn-care program. | ID-154
2,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 19 downloads | PDF: 176 kb

Grazing Corn: an Option for Extending the Grazing Season in Kentucky
7/15/2004 (reprinted)

| ID-152
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 16 downloads | PDF: 266 kb

2003 Summary of the Five State Beef Initiative in Kentucky
5/30/2004 (new)

| ID-151
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 14 downloads | PDF: 309 kb

Assessing and Preventing Soil Compaction in Kentucky
5/28/2004 (new)

| ID-153
3,000 printed copies | 5 pages | - | 17 downloads | PDF: 1,067 kb

Interpreting Forage Quality Reports
3/15/2004 (reprinted)

| ID-101
1,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 30 downloads | PDF: 170 kb

Understanding Beef Carcass Data Reports
11/15/2002 (new)

| ID-150
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 90 kb

Grazing Alfalfa
11/1/2002 (reprinted)

| ID-97
2,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 34 downloads | PDF: 152 kb

New Recommendations for Perennial Ryegrass Seedings for Kentucky Horse Farms
1/1/2002 (new)

| ID-142
500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 41 kb

Feeding Your Dairy Cows a Total Mixed Ration: Getting Started
12/15/2001 (new)

| ID-141A
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 18 downloads | PDF: 55 kb

Managing the Total Mixed Ration to Prevent Problems in Dairy Cows
12/15/2001 (new)

| ID-141B
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 93 kb

A Comprehensive Guide to Corn Management in Kentucky
9/30/2001 (new)

The corn grown in Kentucky is used mainly for livestock feed and as a cash crop. As a cash crop sold from the farm, corn ranks third behind tobacco and soybeans but is the number one row crop in terms of acreage. Because the cost of producing an acre of corn is high and the value per bushel has declined in recent years, producers must manage and market their corn crop more carefully for adequate profits. The goal of this publication is to serve as a guide for corn production strategies that focus on efficient use of resources and provide the principles and practices for obtaining maximum, profitable corn yields. | ID-139
7,500 printed copies | 64 pages | 37,214 words | 52 downloads | PDF: 639 kb

Considerations When Purchasing Hay for a Dairy Milking Herd
8/30/2001 (new)

| ID-138
1,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 88 kb

Choosing Hay for Horses
5/1/2001 (reprinted)

| ID-146
1,500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 35 downloads | PDF: 397 kb

Alfalfa Cubes for Horses
5/1/2001 (reprinted)

| ID-145
1,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 24 downloads | PDF: 310 kb

Understanding Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue and Its Effect on Broodmares
5/1/2001 (reprinted)

| ID-144
1,500 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 26 downloads | PDF: 362 kb

Total Quality Assurance Apple Production: Best Management Practices
5/1/2001 (new)

| ID-137
500 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 32 downloads | PDF: 271 kb

Principles of Home Landscape Fertilizing
3/1/2001 (minor revision)

| ID-72
4,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 53 downloads | PDF: 183 kb

Sampling Animal Manure
10/30/2000 (new)

| ID-148
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 27 downloads | PDF: 312 kb

Marketing Options for Commercial Vegetable Growers
9/7/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-134
3,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 10 downloads | PDF: 598 kb

Brown Patch Disease
5/30/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-112
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 10 kb

No-Till Small Grain Production in Kentucky
5/1/2000 (new)

| ID-136
5,000 printed copies | 11 pages | - | 20 downloads | PDF: 467 kb

Growing Grapes in Kentucky
4/30/2000 (reprinted)

Kentucky has a long record of good grape production. As a home fruit crop or commercial crop, grapes have many benefits. Grapevines are relatively inexpensive and easy to propagate. They reach full bearing potential in four years and bear annually. The many varieties of grapes can be consumed fresh or used to make grape juice, jams, jellies, and wine. Grapes are also easy to manage. Vines are trained on trellises or arbors and easily can be sprayed using small equipment for control of insects and diseases. | ID-126
3,000 printed copies | 24 pages | - | 70 downloads | PDF: 238 kb

Basics for Heating and Cooling Greenhouses
2/25/2000 (reprinted)

| ID-131
1,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 38 downloads | PDF: 637 kb

Packaging and Handling Burley Tobacco in Bales at the Farm
11/1/1999 (reprinted)

| ID-39
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 39 kb

The Flowering Crabapple
10/1/1999 (minor revision)

| ID-68
5,000 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 28 downloads | PDF: 331 kb

Low Cost Post-Row Field Tobacco Curing Framework
5/1/1999 (minor revision)

| ID-116
2,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 1 download | PDF: 202 kb

Understanding Pesticide Labels and Labeling
4/30/1999 (reprinted)

| ID-100
5,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 705 kb

Management of Tobacco Float Systems
1/10/1999 (new)

| ID-132
web only | 8 pages | - | 8 downloads | PDF: 445 kb

Midwest Tree Fruit Pest Management Handbook
11/1/1998 (new)

| ID-93
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 10 downloads | HTML: 3 kb

Winter Cover Crops for Kentucky Gardens and Fields
6/15/1998 (minor revision)

| ID-113
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 41 downloads | PDF: 81 kb

A Cost Comparison of Three 10-Acre Tobacco Transplant Production Systems
2/15/1998 (reprinted)

| ID-129
1,500 printed copies | 6 pages | - | 6 downloads | PDF: 209 kb

Kentucky Winter Wheat Calendar
9/1/1997 (reprinted)

| ID-125A
2,000 printed copies | 2 pages | - | 11 downloads | PDF: 117 kb

Factors to Consider in Bringing Idle Land Back to Production
4/1/1997 (new)

| ID-124
5,000 printed copies | 12 pages | - | 22 downloads | PDF: 228 kb

Livestock Waste Sampling and Testing
1/1/1997 (new)

| ID-123
3,000 printed copies | 4 pages | - | 5 downloads | PDF: 128 kb

Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree's Health
1/1/1996 (reprinted)

| ID-55
2,000 printed copies | 3 pages | - | 29 downloads | PDF: 200 kb

Managing Commensal Rodent Problems in Kentucky
6/1/1995 (reprinted)

| ID-115
5,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 9 downloads | PDF: 352 kb

Poultry Litter Management
1/1/1995 (new)

| ID-117
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 9 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Production-Oriented Lamb Marketing
6/1/1994 (reprinted)

Grading and marketing lambs is the culmination of a year-long program. Decisions concerning marketing and the management of lambs still on the farm markedly affect the success of a sheep producing program. By its prices for different types of lambs, the market sends signals about what should be produced. Managers must look at price trends over time and compare them with production costs. Your income is the true measure of success in any production program. The steps to a good marketing program include analyzing both the market and the product you plan to market. | ID-102
1,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 31 kb

Canola Production and Management
9/1/1992 (new)

| ID-114
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 200 kb

Understanding Produce Marketing for Kentucky's Direct Markets
8/1/1991 (new)

| ID-107
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 8 downloads | HTML: 19 kb

Promotion and Advertising for Kentucky's Direct Markets
8/1/1991 (new)

| ID-106
3,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 43 kb

Kentucky's Endangered and Threatened Species
11/1/1990 (new)

| ID-103
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 16 kb

Transplanting Trees and Shrubs
11/1/1990 (reprinted)

| ID-80
10,000 printed copies | 8 pages | - | 47 downloads | PDF: 1,000 kb

Preparing Burley in Bales
9/1/1988 (reprinted)

| ID-38
4,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 7 kb

Using Drought-Stressed Corn Harvesting, Storage, Feeding, Pricing and Marketing
8/1/1988 (new)

| ID-86
7,500 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 32 kb

Creep Grazing for Beef Calves
4/1/1987 (new)

| ID-76
20,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Beef Cattle Corrals and Handling Facilities
4/1/1986 (reprinted)

| ID-13
20,000 printed copies | - | - | 9 downloads | HTML: 17 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Injection Techniques in Swine
11/1/1985 (new)

| ID-70
2,000 printed copies | - | - | - | HTML: 16 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Therapeutic Selection in Swine
10/1/1985 (new)

| ID-69
2,000 printed copies | - | - | - | HTML: 11 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Feed Additives and Residue Prevention in Swine
2/1/1985 (new)

| ID-66
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 20 kb

Residue Avoidance Program: Feed Handling System
2/1/1985 (new)

| ID-65
2,000 printed copies | - | - | 1 download | HTML: 14 kb

Swine Confinement Breeding Facilities
9/1/1983 (new)

| ID-58
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 5 downloads | HTML: 11 kb

Housing for Pleasure Horses
9/1/1983 (reprinted)

| ID-57
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 23 kb

Hay Preservatives
3/1/1983 (reprinted)

| ID-46
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 2 downloads | HTML: 25 kb

Wind Chill
4/2/1980 (new)

| ID-23
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 7 kb

Preventing Storage Rots of Grain
1/1/1974 (reprinted)

| ID-3
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 9 kb

Grass Loafing Paddocks for Dairy Cows
8/1/1973 (new)

| ID-7
5,000 printed copies | - | - | 4 downloads | HTML: 7 kb

Some Plants of Kentucky Poisonous to Livestock
6/1/1972 (minor revision)

| ID-2
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 6 downloads | HTML: 59 kb