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equipment and structures


AEN-156

Using a Kit to Set up a Cattle Scale System under a Squeeze Chute

10/23/2020 (new)
Authors: Joshua Jackson

On cattle operations, the use of a scale system to weigh animals is vital to the proper administration of health products such as dewormers and antibiotics, and for making management decisions. A scale system mounted to a chute allows animals to be securely restrained for measuring weights accurately and minimally impacts cattle flow through the working facilities. Excitable animals can be properly restrained and, with their movement limited, cattle can be weighed accurately.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock
Size: 6.83 mb
Pages: 9



HO-89

Characteristics of Kentucky's Nursery and Greenhouse Industries, 2020

10/5/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The purpose of this publication is to characterize Kentucky's nursery and greenhouse industry in relation to the national and re-gional industry by gleaning information from the national surveys conducted by the Green Industry Research Consortium for 2018, 2013, 2008, and 2003. The survey data will be augmented by information obtained from the experiences of the authors and from conversations with nursery owners. Information is presented relative to employment, plant types sold, product types, markets and marketing channels, sales methods and marketing practices, advertising expenditures, integrated pest management practices, water sources, and irrigation methods.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: equipment and structures, greenhouse, production practices
Size: 569 kb
Pages: 11



AEN-155

The Importance of Water Source Layout in Farm Infrastructure

8/28/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Water source layout is a critical infrastructure component for cattle and cattle producers. Strategic water resource layout is a part of a farmstead plan that does not always get adequate attention, despite its critical importance. Nonetheless, when farm infrastructure planning incorporates the latest practices, rules, and knowledge, the resulting design can satisfy generations of users.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures
Size: 3.56 mb
Pages: 6



AEN-152

Building a Hoop Barn

7/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Joshua Jackson

Hoop barns are a cost-effective alternative to pole barns. For example, a farmer might choose a hoop barn when deciding to expand hay sales, or for providing cover for costly equipment. Hoop barns have the additional benefit of being a construction project that can be done by the farmer (and a group of friends), which can provide an additional cost savings. This publication goes through the steps involved by following the construction of two hoop barns built by a local farmer. In this case, hoop barns were built to increase the farm's hay storage capacity.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 8.14 mb
Pages: 14



AEN-151

Lanes for Beef Cattle Operations

5/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The benefits of lanes can be applied to pasture-based Kentucky cattle operations of any size. Lanes can be used to move cattle from pasture to pasture, and to access structures or barns, handling facilities, load-out areas, and areas with shade.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock
Size: 2.89 mb
Pages: 2



ID-261

Are Common Stall Fans Effective? Orientation, Placement, and Fan Style

5/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Bob Coleman, Morgan Hayes, Staci McGill, Kimberly Tumlin

During summer months, horse owners hang fans around their barn and stalls in an effort to increase air movement to reduce temperature and flies in stall areas. These fans typically are 20-inch 3-speed box fans or 20-inch high velocity mounted fans. Both fans are easy to find at any home improvement or big box store and are ready to use with little to no assembly. But are these commonly used fans really serving these intended purposes?

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Epidemiology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 3



AEN-147

Structures for Beef Cattle

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Livestock housing, whether simple or sophisticated, must perform the required functions. It should meet the thermal and physical needs of the animal; it should provide a place to store and feed materials without damage or loss; it should increase the performance of cattle; and, it should allow the producer to conduct all chores associated with cattle production efficiently. A building can contribute to management efficiency and animal performance, which itself is defined by productivity, health and welfare. The building should create optimum environmental conditions for cattle by providing light, air flow, appropriate flooring, space, and ventilation.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock, production practices
Size: 956 kb
Pages: 3



AEN-145

Designing or Reworking Your Cattle-handling Facilities: A Checklist for Success

2/3/2020 (new)
Authors: Morgan Hayes, Joshua Jackson

Cattle-handling facilities should be designed to match the management goals of the operation. The safety of workers and cattle should be the highest priority when designing or reworking a handling facility. A well-designed facility will make working cattle faster, safer, less labor intensive, and less frustrating.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock, production practices
Size: 126 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-144

Four Beef Cattle Barn Flooring Options: A Case Study

11/21/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

Barn floor design is critical to the physical and thermal comfort, health and safety of cattle. Generally speaking, barn flooring is the surface on which an animal stands, lies down, and excretes its urine and manure. Therefore, to meet animal needs, it must be durable, not slippery, and well drained, as well as comfortable, warm, and dry. In addition to providing animal comfort, the flooring should easily be cleaned. No single material, from concrete to soil, meets all of these specifications.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock, production practices
Size: 3.55 mb
Pages: 3



AEN-142

Loose Housing for First-Calf Heifers: A Case Study

11/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The loose housing system increases the productivity of the replacement herd and the stockman by providing the optimum environment for production and management. While there is work in creating the system upfront, the design will reduce effort later by creating greater efficiency, flow, and movement of materials.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures, livestock
Size: 1.94 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-143

Calf Areas, Pens or Pastures: A Case Study

11/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

The creation of a creep pen or pasture area can be accomplished using various methods and materials. Using what is on hand and/or revitalizing an unused area of the farm that has infrastructure may reduce expenses. The cost of one fallen calf could pay for the implementation of the practice. This practice may benefit spring calves over fall calves, so that might be a consideration when choosing a time to plan construction of your creep area.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures, livestock
Size: 1.25 mb
Pages: 3



ID-188

Strategic Winter Feeding of Cattle using a Rotational Grazing Structure

7/30/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Jeff Lehmkuhler, Sarah Wightman

Winter feeding of cattle is a necessary part of nearly all cow-calf operations. In winter months, livestock producers often confine animals to smaller "sacrifice" pastures to reduce the area damaged from winter feeding. A poorly chosen site for winter feeding can have significant negative impacts on soil and water quality. Such areas include locations in floodplains, such as those along creek bottoms or around barns near streams. These locations are convenient, flat areas for setting hay ring feeders; however, their negative effects on water quality outweigh the convenience.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock, nutrition and health
Size: 737 kb
Pages: 4



AEN-134

Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation

7/29/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock, nutrition and health
Size: 2.55 mb
Pages: 13



AEN-141

Maps for Farm Planning

6/18/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser

Planning and design are critical steps when modernizing a farm to meet the current and future operational needs. Farm renovations and redevelopment must always consider the cost/benefit of changes, while staying consistent with good agricultural practice guidelines that conserve labor and the resources of the farm. The process of developing a farm map will be used to guide producers on the concepts and considerations necessary to make decisions related to planning renovations and developing new infrastructure on the farm.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 1.32 mb
Pages: 4



HO-122

Go with the Flow: Simple Calculations for Drip Irrigation

5/10/2019 (new)
Authors: Brent Rowell

While drip irrigation is relatively easy, information about drip irrigation is often more complicated and confusing than it needs to be. Well-meaning professors and engineers use terms like "head" and "flow rate" without explaining exactly what they mean and how they are used. And it's often difficult to get help planning a small farm system in states without large irrigated acreages and irrigation traditions. The purpose of this bulletin is to help farmers understand the simple calculations involved in designing a small drip irrigation system.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: equipment and structures, production practices
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 6



AEN-138

Protecting Pastured Cattle using Windbreaks and Mounds

4/10/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser

Research shows that cattle benefit from summer shade and winter shelter. Pastured cattle seek shelter around structures, under trees, and in forested streamside zones. These areas are often heavily trafficked and become muddy, compacted loafing areas. Mud creates further stress on cattle and compounds the problems of temperature stress and feed inefficiencies. One option that could be used to lure cattle from these areas and provide winter shelter and summer shade is a constructed windbreak fence on a mound.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-137

Farm Gates: Design Considerations

2/18/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Lee Moser

Farm gates are a necessity for controlling traffic and increasing security. There are many design considerations for optimizing a system of farm gates. Very few gates incorporate all the recommended design components that will be discussed in this publication. However, to move people, materials, equipment, and livestock through a gateway, the gateway should economize time, be navigable, and operate in an efficient manner. Time spent operating a poorly designed gateway is time wasted and a hindrance to production. This publication is a guide to aid producers in creating more functional designs for gateways.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 6



AEN-136

Fence Line Stiles, Escapes, and Refuges

1/23/2019 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Michele McHugh, Lee Moser

Opening farm gates for trucks, tractors, equipment, and livestock is unavoidable. However, opening a large gate, or a set of gates, for a person on foot is extremely inefficient, especially if the entrance does not put the producer where they need to be. An inconveniently located gate can lead to additional steps and unnecessary movements. Opening gates may require dealing with clasps, chains, or ropes just to get the gate unfastened. The gate may then have to be lifted or dragged open and closed. The bottom-line is that entering a poorly installed and unmaintained gateway can make the experience of opening and closing gates a time consuming nuisance.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures
Size: 9.30 mb
Pages: 4



ID-235

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky

10/17/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Obrycki, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, Shubin Saha, Shawn Wright

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.94 mb
Pages: 28



CCD-CP-57

Greenhouse Tomatoes

6/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Greenhouse tomato production has increased in recent years, responding to consumer demand for year-round fresh produce and advances in greenhouse vegetable production practices. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, greenhouse, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



HO-120

Off the Grid: Ultra-Low Pressure Drip Irrigation and Rainwater Catchment for Small Plots and High Tunnels

1/24/2018 (new)
Authors: Krista Jacobsen, Brent Rowell

All forms of irrigation need a push or pressure to move water from its source to its destination. Water sources include wells, springs, lakes, creeks, canals, rivers, cisterns, elevated tanks, or municipal water supplies. The amount of pressure or push required depends on many things including the height water must be lifted, length and size of the delivery pipe(s), crop and size of the area to be irrigated, and the distance water needs to be moved from the source to the field, greenhouse, or tunnel.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 9.42 mb
Pages: 12



AEN-115

Appropriate All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock

10/16/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Steve Higgins, Stephanie Mehlhope, Lee Moser, Sarah Wightman

Many livestock producers would say that mud is a natural part of livestock production. But the creation of mud costs producers money and makes them less competitive. Livestock that walk through mud require more feed for energy but actually eat less because walking in mud requires more effort to get to feed and water. Therefore, mud decreases average daily gains. Mud accumulation on the coat increases the amount of energy needed to generate heat in the winter or to keep cool in the summer. Also, it can lower sale prices due to hanging tags. The creation of mud also increases animal stress and leads to a variety of health problems, including protozoan and bacterial infections. It is essential that livestock producers understand that mud hinders cost-efficient livestock production and efforts should be made to limit the creation of mud. This publication explains how mud is created and describes different types of hardened surfaces and pads that agricultural producers should use to reduce mud creation and ultimately increase production efficiency and protect natural resources.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures, livestock
Size: 2.73 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-62

High Tunnel Tomatoes

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures that typically do not use fans for ventilation. Tunnels can be covered with one or two sheets of plastic; those covered with two have an air layer in between, thus offering better insulation and, consequently, more cold protection (and wind protection). High tunnels are used to extend the growing season earlier into spring and later into fall. Determinate and indeterminate tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) can be successfully grown in this production system, yielding a potentially profitable "out of season."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



AEN-133

Tire Tanks for Watering Livestock

8/8/2017 (new)
Authors: Carmen Agouridis, Steve Higgins, Joshua Jackson, Lee Moser

Kentucky's abundant forage and extensive stream system have helped the Commonwealth become the largest beef producing state east of the Mississippi River. While streams and ponds serve as a water source for many operations, livestock can quickly degrade soil and water quality by trampling streambanks and defecating and urinating in and around waterbodies. These actions increase sediment, pathogen, and nutrient loads to streams, rivers, and lakes which in turn can causes eutrophication. To help protect the health of Kentucky's soil and water, producers can implement best management practices (BMPs). These practices help reduce the sources of pollutants and/or the transport of pollutants to waterways. One such practice or BMP is limiting cattle access to streams and ponds. When producers exclude livestock access to stream and ponds and their associated riparian buffers, an alternative source of water is required. Automatic water fountains are one commonly used means of providing cattle with water from an alternate source. A water tank constructed using a heavy equipment tire may serve as a viable option for supplying livestock with an alternate source of water.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: equipment and structures, livestock
Size: 4.65 mb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-58

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

11/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, production practices
Size: 503 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-61

High Tunnel Strawberries

4/4/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, fruits and nuts, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 528 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-SP-2

High Tunnel Overview

6/12/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels, also known as hoop houses, are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouse-like structures built over ground beds. High tunnels can be used to extend the production season and marketing window of a wide variety of crops. They have been used in Kentucky to produce early season vegetables, cut flowers, brambles, and strawberries. High tunnels can also make it possible to produce leafy greens and herbs during the winter. Shaded, well-vented high tunnels can be used to grow some cool-season crops later into early summer.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 963 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-SP-1

Greenhouse Structures

5/25/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

A greenhouse is a "tool" that can be used to facilitate the growing of plants. Generally, the tool is fitted for the job, and not the other way around. Growers need to determine what plants will be produced before making a decision about the type of greenhouse needed to accomplish the job. Depending on the crops to be grown, a conventional greenhouse may not even be needed. Instead, a simpler structure could more economically extend the growing season into spring and fall. For example, if the primary target is an early start date for farmers markets, row covers or a high tunnel may be quite adequate to handle the job.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, greenhouse, production practices
Size: 807 kb
Pages: 5



ID-13

Beef Cattle Corrals and Handling Facilities

4/1/1986 (reprinted)
Authors: Curtis Absher, Roy Burris, Sam McNeill, Larry Turner

Proven management practices such as castrating, dehorning, pregnancy examination, controlling parasites, implanting, vaccinating, etc. are essential if profits are to be realized in beef herds. Although most practices are relatively simple, they cannot be done easily without some type of restraining equipment which will prevent injury to both man and animal. The absence of cattle handling facilities probably contributes more than anything else to failure to perform these money-making procedures.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: beef cattle, equipment and structures, livestock
Size: 17 kb
Pages: