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fruits and nuts


ID-260

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Peach in Kentucky

6/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky peach plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, garden and landscape, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 20.77 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-FR-S-30

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Strawberry Production

5/27/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 439 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-S-28

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Brambles Production

5/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 347 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-T-27

Brown Rot of Peach

4/17/2020 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Erica Wood

Brown rot is the most devastating disease of peach in Kentucky. The disease affects both commercial and backyard orchards. Crop losses occur primarily as a result of fruit decay; however, blossom blight is also part of the disease cycle. All stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) are susceptible to brown rot.

Departments: Hopkins County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-27

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Grape Production

3/4/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Inegrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: mb
Pages: 7



PR-762

2019 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2019 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Daniel Becker, Win Dunwell, Rachel Rudolph, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmer markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.Evaluation of varieties is a continuing necessity and allows us to provide the most up to date information in communications with vegetable growers. The vegetable variety trial results are the basis for updating the recommendations in our Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 6.67 mb
Pages: 34



HO-82

Rootstocks for Kentucky Fruit Trees

10/15/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, John Strang, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Most fruit trees that can be grown in Kentucky do not come true from seed. For example, a tree grown from a Golden Delicious apple seed will produce an apple tree, but the fruit will have different characteristics than Golden Delicious in color, taste, and shape. This is why fruit trees are reproduced by asexual propagation, such as budding and grafting.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 250 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-S-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 398 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-2

Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 306 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-18

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 407 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-21

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-23

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 351 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-24

Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-25

Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-26

Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 230 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-18

Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Beth Wilson

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Pulaski County
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-20

Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-21

Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-22

Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 890 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-23

Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 458 kb
Pages: 1



ID-254

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky

6/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 36



PPFS-FR-T-14

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases

6/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 401 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-19

Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 337 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-8

Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 431 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-19

Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 995 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-20

Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 896 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-21

Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 874 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-22

Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 460 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-23

Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 788 kb
Pages: 2



ID-232

Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20

2/1/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 168



PR-757

2018 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Krista Jacobsen, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 6.84 mb
Pages: 44



ID-251

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky

9/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 32



CCD-CP-5

Elderberry

9/12/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadnesis) is a large shrub or small tree native to Kentucky. The small fruit has prominent seeds and are produced in large clusters. While elderberries are not normally eaten fresh due to their tartness, wild and cultivated elderberries can be processed, either alone or with other fruit.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-14

Pawpaw

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a unique tree fruit native to the eastern United States. Its highly aromatic fruit has a sweet, almost tropical-like flavor. The large fruit is oblong and typically produced singly or in clusters of two to nine. Pawpaw fruit pulp can be eaten fresh or prepared in a variety of desserts. Kentucky is fortunate to have the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. located at Kentucky State University in Frankfort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 778 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-3

Asian and European Pears

7/31/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Very few European pears (Pyrus communis) are grown commercially in Kentucky, primarily due to problems with fire blight and late spring frosts. Asian pears (P. pyrifolia, synonym P. serotina), on the other hand, are more consistently productive in Kentucky in spite of these problems. Also called apple pears, Asian pears are crisp and juicy like an apple, but with the sweetness associated with pears.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-4

Blackberries

6/18/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as 'brambles' or 'caneberries.' They have perennial crowns and roots. Most blackberry types produce canes the first season (primocanes) that do not bear fruit. The following year these are called floricanes, and bear fruit and then die naturally after harvest. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are an exception. They produce fruit on the primocanes in late summer and fall and again on these same canes (floricanes) the following July and early August before dying. With favorable growing conditions, brambles may produce for 12 or more years. Blackberries are grouped according to their growth habit: erect, semi-erect or trailing. Erect (thorny and thornless) and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries grow and yield well in most parts of the state. The trailing types are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky due to their lack of winter hardiness. Primocane-fruiting thorny and thornless blackberries also do well in Kentucky; however, hot summers substantially reduce the primocane crop because a week of temperatures above 85 degrees F causes flowers to abort.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-10

Jujube and Aronia

6/6/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Black aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube) are minor fruits that could have commercial potential in some areas of Kentucky. Growers looking for unique crops to add to their product mix may want to consider these novel fruits on a small scale.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 832 kb
Pages: 4



PR-739

2017 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/5/2017 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, Bob Geneve, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Emily Pfeufer, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collec-tion of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry. The 2017 Fruit and Vegetable Crops re-search report includes results for 16 projects.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, vegetables
Size: 7.21 mb
Pages: 46



PPFS-FR-S-17

Cane Diseases of Brambles

11/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose can cause severe damage to blackberries, purple and black raspberries, and to a much lesser extent, red raspberries in Kentucky. When left unchecked, anthracnose can significantly reduce overall yields, as well as limit the longevity of bramble plantings. Disease also causes loss of winter hardiness.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 299 kb
Pages: 5



ID-149

2017 Kentucky Blackberry Cost and Return Estimates

10/11/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, John Strang, Tim Woods, Shawn Wright

Potential producers should realize that while thornless semi-erect varieties produce superior economic returns, thorny and thornless erect varieties may hold some marketing advantages that can command superior prices and result in better returns than those estimated using these standard assumptions.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: business and records, farm crops, fruits and nuts, production practices
Size: 265 kb
Pages: 20



HO-116

Wine Distribution for Small Farm Wineries in Kentucky

8/22/2017 (new)
Authors: Ryan Baumgardner, Seth DeBolt

Small farm wineries in the state of Kentucky face a major issue when they look to expand, through wholesale distribution, into retail outlets. Like many states, Kentucky uses a "three-tier system" of distribution, where wineries must sell their product to a distributor, who then can legally sell the product to retailers. But because small- to medium-sized wineries rarely produce a volume that is attractive to major brand distributors, their products either don't make it to the retail shelves, or are placed suboptimally for their target market. Here, we look at ways to address this issue in order to help promote the wine industry from the wholesale point-of-view.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 173 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-11

Juneberries

4/19/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a small multiple-stemmed tree or shrub that bears edible fruit. This genus includes saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia), which are grown commercially for fruit production in Canada and the North Central U.S. Unfortunately, saskatoons are not considered winter hardy in Kentucky and have serious leaf spot problems in this region. Most other species of Amelanchier are cultivated for use in landscape plantings; however, several of these ornamental cultivars show potential for fruit production. Among these are the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis) and hybrids (Amelanchier x grandiflora), which are hardy and have good leaf spot resistance in Kentucky

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 700 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-128

Black Walnuts

4/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

This profile focuses on Eastern black walnut for nut production. Persian walnuts are not recommended for commercial production in Kentucky, where Persian walnut is limited by cold temperatures, winter injury and late spring frost damage; walnut blight; and squirrels, which eat the nuts when they are immature. Detailed production information for both Eastern black walnut and Persian walnut is available in the University of Kentucky Extension publication ID-77, Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky. The University of Missouri offers a very detailed publication, listed in the Selected Resources section at the end of this publication, on establishing and cultivating Eastern black walnut for nut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 4



PR-721

2016 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/13/2016 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Jessica Bessin, Ty Cato, Steve Diver, June Johnston, Dave Lowry, Patty Lucas, Sean Lynch, Shubin Saha, Alexis Sheffield, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, John Walsh, Neil Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production continues to show sustained growth in Kentucky. As the industry grows around a diverse collection of marketing tactics (wholesale, farmers markets, CSAs, and direct to restaurants) as well as various production systems, there continues to be a need for applied practical information to support the industry.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.80 mb
Pages: 40



CCD-CP-20

Sweet Cherries

11/14/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) are mainly consumed fresh; however, they may also be frozen, canned, or processed for wine. Frequent losses due to such factors as fluctuating winter temperatures, spring frosts, rain-induced fruit cracking, and bird losses make commercial sweet cherry production a challenge in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 881 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-12

Organic Blackberries and Raspberries

11/3/2016 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Blackberries and raspberries (both Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." Erect (thorny and thornless), thorny primocane fruiting, and semi-erect (thornless) blackberries, as well as fall bearing raspberries, present an opportunity for organic production in Kentucky. Pests, especially spotted wing drosophila (SWD), present the greatest challenge for organic bramble production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 799 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-66

Chinese Chestnuts

7/18/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

American chestnuts (Castanea dentata), once prominent in the eastern U.S. landscape, all but disappeared in the mid-1900s when chestnut blight eradicated nearly all of these popular trees. Blight resistant varieties of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) are a viable alternative for commercial chestnut production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 594 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-6

2016 Kentucky Grape Costs and Returns: Budget Summaries and Assumptions

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Production budgets for American, hybrid, European (vinifera), and table grape varieties were updated to estimate grape profitability in Kentucky for 2016. This analysis indicates that wine grapes can be economically feasible in Kentucky when best production practices are followed that maximize yields and when market prices approach $1,200/ton for vinifera wine grapes and $1,000 per ton for French-American and American hybrid wine grape varieties. Sound management that maximizes wine grape yields and minimizes input costs, with marketing that captures top grape prices, is absolutely necessary for economically viable wholesale grape production in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 193 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-BG-7

Table Grapes, Kentucky, 2016

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Steve Isaacs, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 119 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-BG-8

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: French-American Hybrid and American Varieties

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 340 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-BG-9

Wine Grapes, Kentucky, 2016: Vinifera

7/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Patsy Wilson, Tim Woods

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 336 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-17

Plums

7/5/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Plums, like peaches, are stone fruits and in the Rose family. These two crops have similar cultural requirements, as well as similar disease and pest concerns. Plums are also sensitive to late spring frosts, which can result in crop losses in Kentucky. Depending on the type and cultivar, plums can be consumed fresh, canned, frozen, processed in jams and jellies, and dried.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-18

Raspberries

6/9/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Raspberries (Rubus spp.) are included in the group of small fruits generally referred to as "brambles" or "caneberries." They have perennial crowns and roots that produce biennial canes. The canes bear fruit the second year and then die naturally after harvest. Some raspberries (known as "everbearing" or "fall-bearing") also produce fruit at the tips of the first-year canes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 713 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-22

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 236 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-T-6

Cherry Leaf Spot

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-T-3

Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



PR-706

2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/21/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Emily Pfeufer, Shubin Saha, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in seven counties in Kentucky: Jefferson, Spencer, Trimble, Shelby, Caldwell, Franklin, and Fayette.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.54 mb
Pages: 44



PPFS-FR-T-1

Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 887 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-4

Black Knot

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 784 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-8

Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits

11/1/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 207 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-5

Apple Rust Diseases

8/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 813 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-19

Blueberry Root Rot

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 3



PR-688

2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/7/2015 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Julie Beale, Lucas Hanks, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Tracey Parriman, Shubin Saha, Nancy Savage, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

The 2014 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in three counties in Kentucky, including: Mason, Shelby, and Spencer.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 950 kb
Pages: 42



CCD-BG-5

Kentucky Strawberry Profitability Estimated Costs and Returns

11/10/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The profitability of two different strawberry production scenarios in Kentucky was analyzed to reflect 2014 production costs. The attached tables report potential profits for both Pick Your Own (PYO) and Wholesale/Retail production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 332 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-BG-2

Blueberry Cost and Return Estimates

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Blueberries are a crop with excellent long-term profitability potential for Kentucky producers willing to invest the time, capital, and management necessary for establishing productive blueberry acreage. Blueberries have the advantage of having lower establishment costs than other berry crops that require trellis systems for production. Once established, properly managed blueberry bushes can produce for many years.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 561 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-BG-3

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (PYO Harvest)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-BG-4

Highbush Blueberries, Kentucky, 2014 (Wholesale/Retail Marketing)

8/29/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Budget worksheet.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Budgets: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-BG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 352 kb
Pages: 7



CCD-CP-13

Organic Blueberries

8/20/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a perennial shrub that will do well in most areas of Kentucky as long as the soil pH is properly adjusted. Organic production requires the use of pest management and fertilization methods that do not include synthetic compounds. Growers producing and selling their berries with an organic label must be certified by a USDA-approved state or private agency and follow production standards regulated by the National Organic Program (NOP).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, production practices
Size: 633 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-7

Grapes

6/23/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are suitable for either large-scale or small-scale commercial production. Typically three types of grapes are grown in Kentucky: Native American, hybrid, and European grapes. The climate in Kentucky is the limiting factor to grape production. Although American and hybrid cultivars are better suited for production in Kentucky, European (vinifera) cultivars are more desirable and potentially have the highest economic gain for grape growers and wine makers. However, vinifera cultivars are more susceptible to winter injury and diseases resulting in a lower yield, reduced fruit quality, and often vine death. Growing grapes in Kentucky can be highly successful and rewarding if the cultivars are matched to a specific site and proper production techniques are implemented.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 694 kb
Pages: 4



ID-210

Midwest Blueberry Production Guide

5/12/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Tom Barnes, Cheryl Kaiser, Chris Smigell, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Dwight Wolfe, Shawn Wright

Blueberries are one of the few fruit crops native to North America. Wild blueberries were utilized by Native Americans for making medicines, dyes, and flavorings, as well as for direct consumption. Once a small-scale crop produced within limited regions, blueberries are now grown throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 58



ID-219

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky

5/7/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 20



ID-21

Disease and Insect Control Program for Home Grown Fruit in Kentucky

4/29/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Many homeowners in Kentucky grow a variety of fruits in their garden and are rewarded for their effort. One distinct advantage homeowners have over commercial orchardists is the diverse ecosystem of the home landscape (vegetable gardens, flower and fruit plantings intermixed with turf and landscape plants). Diversity often reduces the spread of insect and disease organisms and tends to keep their populations at lower, more manageable levels.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-8

High Tunnel Brambles

4/7/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered greenhouses placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels have been used to extend the marketing window of a wide variety of annual crops in Kentucky, such as vegetables and cut flowers. Perennial crops, such as brambles, can also be produced in high tunnels.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 619 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-61

High Tunnel Strawberries

4/4/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

High tunnels are relatively simple polyethylene-covered unheated structures placed over irrigated ground beds. Also known as hoop houses, high tunnels can be used to extend the production season of a wide variety of crops in Kentucky, including strawberries. A plasticulture system with drip irrigation is recommended when using high tunnels for strawberry production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, fruits and nuts, high tunnel, production practices
Size: 528 kb
Pages: 4



HO-110

Sustainable Production Systems: Principles and Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency in Nursery and Landscape Businesses

3/14/2014 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek

Publications in the Sustainable Production Systems series discuss ways of pursuing sustainability in nursery production systems. Sustainable businesses are those that yield acceptable returns on investments, conserve natural resources, make positive contributions to the community, and create a workplace culture where employees feel safe, productive, and valued.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, production practices, sustainabable agriculture
Size: 5.95 mb
Pages: 17



PR-673

2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

1/8/2014 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Kenny Seebold, John Snyder, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

Variety trials included in this year's publication include: cabbage, asparagus, bell peppers, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, peaches, and grapes. Additional research trials include organic management of cucumber beetles, financial comparison of organic potato integrated pest management systems, and effect of organic fertilizer materials for production of kale.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.49 mb
Pages: 44



PPFS-GEN-5

Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation

8/1/2013 (new)
Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 723 kb
Pages: 3



HO-109

Sustainable Production Systems: Efficient Wholesale Nursery Layout

1/31/2013 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Sarah Vanek

This publication provides the framework for planning and implementing efficient wholesale nursery layout. Concepts and ideas presented here are applicable to new construction or the modification of an existing nursery. A basic approach toward creating efficient systems will be discussed as well as common nursery activities that may require consideration during the planning stages. Functional areas will be defined, and a framework for understanding the relationships between these functional areas will be presented.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, production practices, sustainabable agriculture
Size: 4.00 mb
Pages: 10



PR-656

2012 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/6/2012 (new)
Authors: Ben Abell, Angela Anandappa, Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Ty Cato, Tim Coolong, June Johnston, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Sean Lynch, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Zheng Wang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Mark Williams, Neil Wilson, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe, Tim Woods, Shang-Ho Yang

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2012 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 18 field research plots and several demonstration trials. This year fruit and vegetable research and demonstration trials were conducted in more than 15 counties in Kentucky. Research was conducted by faculty and staff from several departments within the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture including: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, and Agricultural Economics. This report also includes collaborative research projects conducted with faculty and staff at Kentucky State University.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 47



PPFS-FR-S-16

Black Rot of Grape

10/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 555 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-12

Fire Blight

8/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-13

Apple Scab

8/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 486 kb
Pages: 3



HO-104

Growing Tree Fruits: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 16

3/12/2012 (new)
Authors: John Strang

Growing tree fruits and/or nuts can provide a great deal of satisfaction, but it takes a commitment to care for your trees year-round.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 14



CCD-CP-6

Gooseberries and Currants

2/27/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.) are woody, multi-stemmed shrubs best known for their tart fruit. While some enjoy eating them fresh, these fruit are especially prized for use in making jellies, jams, pies, and sauces.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-5

Strawberry Anthracnose

2/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 293 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-15

Sample Submission Protocol for Diagnosis of Thousand Cankers Disease in Walnut

2/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a fatal disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra), and most recently, butternut (Juglans cinerea). The disease complex involves a fungus that is carried to trees by the walnut twig beetle, causing numerous cankers on branches and killing trees 5 to 6 years after infection. The disease complex is widespread in the western U.S., and has recently been identified in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 361 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-112

Peanuts

1/25/2012 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), also referred to as groundpeas or groundnuts, are an annual herbaceous legume with an indeterminate growth habit. As these alternate names imply, this unique plant produces its fruit (peanut) below ground. Once the small yellow flowers are self-pollinated, the fertilized ovary elongates into a "peg" which grows downward and penetrates into the soil. Peanuts develop underground at the ends of the pegs. The peanut seed is referred to a kernel and the outer shell is called a pod or hull.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 620 kb
Pages: 4



PR-626

2011 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/20/2011 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Steve Berberich, Ric Bessin, Jessica Cole, Tim Coolong, Vaden Fenton, Lucas Hanks, John Hartman, June Johnston, Sara Long, Logan Minter, Janet Pfeiffer, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Zheng Wang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeff Wheeler, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

The 2011 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 19 field research plots and several demonstration trials. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools, which they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Kentucky State University, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 53



CCD-SV-1

2011 Regional Wine Grape Marketing and Price Outlook

7/20/2011 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Tim Woods

Wine grape producers in the Southeast benefited from a rapid increase in the number of wineries in the region during the 1990s and early 2000s. The steady winery growth indicates continued expansion and demand for winegrapes. This survey was conducted in early 2011 to better understand how business practices are developing among wineries in Kentucky and six contiguous states---Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Virginia, and Missouri.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Surveys: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SV series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 205 kb
Pages: 6



PR-608

2010 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/20/2010 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Sandra Bastin, Julie Beale, Steve Berberich, Ric Bessin, Bob Caudle, Jennie Condra, Tim Coolong, Leighia Eggett, Vaden Fenton, Lucas Hanks, John Hartman, Nathan Howell, Kelly Jackson, June Johnston, Chlodys Johnstone, Patrick Kelley, Katie Kittrell, Janet Lensing, Amy Lentz Poston, Sara Long, Patty Lucas, Sean Lynch, Logan Minter, John Obrycki, Janet Pfeiffer, Sutapa Roy, Marc Ruberg, Rebecca Schnelle, Delia Scott, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Joseph Tucker, Sarah Vanek, Jeff Wheeler, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

Fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky continues to grow. The 2010 Fruit and Vegetable crops research report includes results for more than 34 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 20 counties in Kentucky.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Entomology, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Kentucky State University, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.20 mb
Pages: 70



PPFS-VG-7

Fruit Rots of Cucurbits

11/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 315 kb
Pages: 5



HO-6

Peach Cultivar Performance

6/14/2010 (major revision)
Authors: John Strang, Dwight Wolfe

The commercial success of a peach orchard depends largely on selecting cultivars that will perform reliably and meet market needs. Although many fruit and tree characteristics are presented in this report, the final cultivar selection should be determined by the grower. A grower may be influenced by soil type, local climate, or marketing methods and prefer a cultivar that is not a general favorite. Growers should have test plots of two to four trees of new cultivars to help them judge the performance in their orchard.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 275 kb
Pages: 6



ID-77

Nut Tree Growing in Kentucky

4/22/2010 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, John Strang

Kentucky is generally well suited for growing nut trees. Northern pecans, black walnuts, heartnuts, hickory nuts, hardy Persian walnuts (Carpathian strain), American hazelnuts, and Chinese chestnuts all grow well in the state. Although most nut trees are grown by hobbyists and backyard gardeners, several varieties appear to have potential for commercial production, particularly some of the USDA pecan selections and some Chinese chestnut varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 680 kb
Pages: 24



PR-603

2009 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/11/2009 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Tim Coolong, Vaden Fenton, John Hartman, Ryan Hays, Otto Hoffman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, June Johnston, Terry Jones, Amy Lentz Poston, Sara Long, Brandon O'Daniel, Janet Pfeiffer, Rebecca Schnelle, Kenny Seebold, Pam Sigler, Darrell Slone, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, Crystal Sparks, John Strang, Ginny Travis, Richard Warner, Jeff Wheeler, John Wilhoit, Patsy Wilson, Dwight Wolfe

The 2009 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report includes results for more than 45 field research and demonstration trials that were conducted in 19 counties in Kentucky. Many of these reports include data on varietal performance as well as different production methods in an effort to provide growers with better tools that they can use to improve fruit and vegetable production in Kentucky.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 850 kb
Pages: 56



PR-572

2008 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, Vaden Fenton, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Wuyang Hu, Dewayne Ingram, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Paul Vincelli, Richard Warner, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 800 kb
Pages: 72



PPFS-FR-S-14

Fruit Rots of Grape

10/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 358 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-S-13

Downy Mildew of Grape

9/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 282 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-9

Poor Fruit Set in Brambles

9/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Poor fruit set and sterility commonly occur on bramble fruits (red raspberries, black raspberries, and blackberries) both in commercial and home plantings. Typically the fruit fails to develop or small misshapen berries form. When an insufficient number of drupelets fully develop, they tend to separate so that the fruit "crumbles" when picked. This symptom, referred to as "crumbly berry," is another common result of poor fruit set.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 234 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-7

Phytophthora Root Rot of Brambles

7/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Brambles that are subjected to wet soil conditions or periods of flooding are often predisposed to Phytophthora root rot. Excess water not only promotes susceptibility of roots to this disease, but also aids the fungus in moving to new infection sites. Phytophthora root rot is primarily a disease of raspberries; however, it can also occur on blackberries.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 296 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-8

Strawberry Fruit Rots

6/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky's typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 274 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-10

Blueberry Diseases

1/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, John Hartman, Sara Long

Kentucky blueberry growers sometimes experience plant and crop losses due to diseases. While most losses are due to root rot, or to stem and twig canker diseases, fruit rots and nutritional problems can also reduce yields. With good crop management, most blueberry diseases can be avoided.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 292 kb
Pages: 4



PR-555

2007 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

11/29/2007 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Tim Coolong, Tom Cottrell, Courtney Flood, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Wuyang Hu, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Richard Warner, John Wilhoit, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 92



HO-87

Vineyard Site Selection in Kentucky Based on Climate and Soil Properties

10/5/2007 (new)
Authors: Kaan Kurtural, Patsy Wilson

Commercial wine grapes have recently emerged as an alternative crop in Kentucky after laws evolved encouraging private entrepreneurs to invest in vineyards and small farm wineries many decades after prohibition shut down the industry. Grapes grown in Kentucky are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses that reduce crop yields and quality or kill grapevines. Damaging winter temperatures, spring frosts, and higher than optimal growing temperatures occur regularly. Despite these challenges, grape growing is a successful enterprise in many areas of the state.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, soil and land
Size: 290 kb
Pages: 6



HO-88

Viticultural Regions and Suggested Cultivars in Kentucky

9/14/2007 (new)
Authors: Kaan Kurtural, Patsy Wilson

Grapes grown in Kentucky are subject to environmental stresses that reduce crop yield and quality, and injure and kill grapevines. Damaging critical winter temperatures, late spring frosts, short growing seasons, and extreme summer temperatures all occur with regularity in regions of Kentucky. However, despite the challenging climate, certain species and cultivars of grapes are grown commercially in Kentucky. The aim of this bulletin is to describe the macroclimatic features affecting grape production that should be evaluated in the site selection process and to shorten the trial and error process of finding the best cultivar and climate match.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 6



HO-86

Crop Estimation in Vineyards

8/15/2007 (new)
Authors: Kaan Kurtural, Brandon O'Daniel

Viticulture is becoming a successful alternative cropping system in Kentucky due to the increased demand for locally grown grapes and their profitability. However, the sustainability of the industry is hindered by insufficient experience on estimating crop size of hybrid and vinifera cultivars in a region that is subject to frequent damaging winter and spring temperatures.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 307 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-9

Peach Fruit Diseases

6/1/2007 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Peaches are grown in many Kentucky orchards for local fresh market sales. Fruit diseases, often resulting in decayed peaches, are a serious problem, especially during warm, humid, rainy weather conditions.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 277 kb
Pages: 5



HO-16

Strawberry Production in Kentucky

2/25/2007 (minor revision)
Authors: Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, John Strang

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 340 kb
Pages: 10



HO-85

Honeyvine Milkweed Control in Tree Fruits, Small Fruits, and Grapes

1/19/2007 (new)
Authors: Joe Masabni

Honeyvine milkweed is a perennial weed commonly found in Kentucky fields, groves, and orchards. In general, honeyvine milkweed is a difficult weed to control due to its extensive taproot system and rapid growth rate. It is especially difficult to control in permanent crop situations such as plantings of apples, blueberries, and grapes. This is due to the fact that soil tillage is not practiced in orchards, blueberry fields, or vineyards, which would otherwise destroy the root system of honeyvine milkweed and prevent it from getting established.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 320 kb
Pages: 8



PR-538

2006 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/15/2006 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Dan Potter, Brent Rowell, Amanda Sears, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 82



PPFS-FR-S-6

Orange Rust of Brambles

9/1/2006 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Chris Smigell

Orange rust is a disease caused by one of two very similar fungi, Gymnoconia nitens in the Southeast, and Arthuriomyces peckianus in the Midwest. Both fungi, causing the same symptoms, may be active in Kentucky. In Kentucky, orange rust is severe on some wild and cultivated thorny blackberries. It infects black and purple raspberries and thornless blackberries somewhat, but is not known to infect red raspberries.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 232 kb
Pages: 2



PR-521

2005 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report

12/30/2005 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tom Cottrell, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Kaan Kurtural, Joe Masabni, Brent Rowell, Christopher Schardl, Amanda Sears, Kenny Seebold, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Paul Vincelli, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.56 mb
Pages: 98



HO-15

Growing Blackberries and Raspberries in Kentucky

11/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Gerald Brown, Terry Jones, John Strang

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 325 kb
Pages: 12



HO-39

Reproducing Fruit Trees by Graftage Budding and Grafting

11/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Leonard Stoltz, John Strang

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 789 kb
Pages: 8



PPFS-FR-S-1

Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot and Eutypa Dieback Diseases of Grape

11/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

"Cane and leaf spot" and "Eutypa dieback" were once thought to be the same disease. However, it is now known that each is a distinct disease caused by a different fungus. Grapes grown in areas where a moist environment persists are especially vulnerable to these fungal diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 2



HO-60

Growing Highbush Blueberries in Kentucky

3/15/2005 (reprinted)
Authors: John Strang

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 403 kb
Pages: 12



PR-504

2004 Fruit and Vegetable Report

12/15/2004 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Shane Bogle, Gerald Brown, John Hartman, Bob Houtz, Nathan Howard, Nathan Howell, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, Bonnie Sigmon, Chris Smigell, John Snyder, Dave Spalding, John Strang, Mark Williams, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 74



PPFS-FR-S-4

Raspberry Fruit Rots

7/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman

Rainy summer and fall weather in Kentucky can provide ideal conditions for fruit decay diseases of raspberries. The most damaging are the fungal diseases gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and soft rot, or leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.). Both diseases are favored by long periods of wet fruit and foliage, and by high humidity levels. During some parts of the season, fruit rots account for up to 50% loss of potential harvest, and additional losses after harvest.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 181 kb
Pages: 2



PR-488

2003 Fruit and Vegetable Report

12/15/2003 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Bob Houtz, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 1 kb
Pages:



PR-470

2002 Fruit and Vegetable Report

1/3/2003 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Joe Masabni, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 65



PR-452

2001 Fruit and Vegetable Report

1/4/2002 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, Rick Durham, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 437 kb
Pages: 60



ID-137

Total Quality Assurance Apple Production: Best Management Practices

5/1/2001 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Joe O'Leary, John Strang

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 271 kb
Pages: 4



PR-436

Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report 2000

12/3/2000 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, David Ditsch, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Joe O'Leary, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Animal and Food Sciences, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 768 kb
Pages: 57



ID-126

Growing Grapes in Kentucky

4/30/2000 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, John Hartman, Terry Jones, John Strang, Dwight Wolfe

Kentucky has a long record of good grape production. As a home fruit crop or commercial crop, grapes have many benefits. Grapevines are relatively inexpensive and easy to propagate. They reach full bearing potential in four years and bear annually. The many varieties of grapes can be consumed fresh or used to make grape juice, jams, jellies, and wine. Grapes are also easy to manage. Vines are trained on trellises or arbors and easily can be sprayed using small equipment for control of insects and diseases.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 238 kb
Pages: 24



IP-58D

Consumer Trends and Opportunities: Fruits

3/15/2000 (new)
Authors: Betty King, Janet Tietyen-Mullins, Steven Vickner

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Family and Consumer Sciences
Series: Interprogram (IP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 89 kb
Pages: 4



PR-423

Fruit and Vegetable Crop Research Report 1999

12/31/1999 (new)
Authors: Bob Anderson, Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, Bob Geneve, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

Departments: Agricultural Economics, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 712 kb
Pages: 43



PR-410

Fruit and Vegetable Program: 1998 Research Report

12/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Doug Archbold, Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, George Duncan, John Hartman, Terry Jones, Bill Nesmith, Sue Nokes, Brent Rowell, John Snyder, John Strang, Tim Woods

The emphases in our research program reflect industry-defined needs, expertise available at UK, and the nature of research projects around the world generating information applicable to Kentucky. Although the purpose of this publication is to report research results, the report also highlights our Extension program and Undergraduate and Graduate degree programs that address the needs of the horticultural industries.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, research, variety trials, vegetables
Size: 335 kb
Pages: 46



ID-93

Midwest Tree Fruit Pest Management Handbook

11/1/1998 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Gerald Brown, John Strang

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts
Size: 3 kb
Pages:



IP-9

Food Safety Pesticide Residues in Grains, Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts

9/1/1992 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Hartman, Jim Martin

Departments: Entomology, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interprogram (IP series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, vegetables
Size: 16 kb
Pages: