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garden and landscape


PPFS-AG-C-11

Drone Fungicide Applications in Corn

3/12/2021 (new)
Authors: Ricky Arnett, Pat Hardesty, Nick Roy, Kiersten Wise

Foliar fungicide applications occur commonly in corn to manage foliar diseases such as gray leaf spot. University of Kentucky research indicates that the most effective application timing for both foliar disease control and yield benefits is at tasseling/early silking (VT/R1). Because of the height of corn at this growth stage, these applications are typically applied aerially, with fixed wing or helicopter aircraft. However, many Kentucky fields are small, surrounded by trees or other obstacles to aircraft, meaning that fungicide application is not an option in these areas.

Departments: Adair County, Green County, Plant Pathology, Taylor County
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, garden and landscape, grain crops, pests, plant diseases
Size: 513 kb
Pages: 3



NEP-227

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Beets

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Beets, planted in the spring, grow well in Kentucky. They are easy to grow and quick to mature. Both the roots and the leaves are edible.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-228

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Radishes

3/9/2021 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Radishes are easy and fast to grow and only take up a little space. Radish roots are low in calories and high in vitamins C, K, and B6. Because they require little time and space, radishes are great vegetables for children to grow. This publication will discuss only spring radishes.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 4



ID-128

Home Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky, 2021

3/1/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Rachel Rudolph, Mark Williams, Shawn Wright

A well-planned and properly kept garden should produce 600 to 700 pounds of produce per 1,000 square feet and may include many different crops. Consult "Vegetable Cultivars for Kentucky Gardens" (ID-133) for the latest recommendations on home vegetable varieties.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 4.80 mb
Pages: 56



PPFS-AG-C-10

Northern Corn Leaf Blight

2/15/2021 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) is a significant foliar corn disease in Kentucky. This disease has been damaging in the United States Corn Belt since the early 1900s, but has increased in severity and prevalence throughout the U.S., including Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and signs of NCLB, conditions that favor disease development, and management methods to reduce impact on yield.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, crops and plants, farm crops, garden and landscape, grain crops, pests, plant diseases
Size: 800 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-16

Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck of Apple

1/26/2021 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a common late summer disease complex. The resulting superficial blemishes do not cause fruit decay, but they can reduce market value for commercial produce. Infections of the waxy cuticle can also shorten storage life, as it allows for accelerated desiccation during refrigerated storage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, farm crops, food crops, fruits and nuts, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 682 kb
Pages: 3



AEN-158

Raised Wicking Bed

1/8/2021 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A raised bed is an excellent addition to many backyard gardens. A modification of this design may be of interest to gardeners. A raised wicking bed is a self-contained method for growing vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers. The bed provides a built-in water reservoir that allows plants to water themselves. The design is ideal for individuals who are new to gardening, but experienced gardeners will find it helpful as well. The greatest benefit of this system is that it provides control of the water supply to the plants within the defined area.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, practices, structures
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-S-6

Rust Diseases of Brambles

1/5/2021 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jessica Sayre

The three most important rust diseases occurring on brambles in Kentucky are cane and leaf rust, late rust, and orange rust. The most destructive of these diseases is orange rust, which is ultimately lethal to plants. Once infected, entire plants must be removed and destroyed. In contrast, cane and leaf rust, along with late rust, are not lethal to plants and can be managed using cultural practices and fungicides. Distinguishing between these rust diseases is critical for proper management.

Departments: Harrison County, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-VG-25

Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot of Tomato - Disease Management for Commercial Grower

12/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Early blight and Septoria leaf spot are the most common fungal diseases of tomato in Kentucky. Often occurring together, these diseases can significantly reduce yields during seasons with humid, wet weather.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.37 mb
Pages: 5



AEN-157

Self-Watering Wicking Container

10/28/2020 (new)
Authors: Steve Higgins

A wicking container is a self-contained method for growing vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers. This container provides a built-in water reservoir that allows a plant to self-irrigate. The design is ideal for individuals who are new to gardening or have limited space, but is also used by seasoned gardeners. The greatest benefit of the system is that it provides the plant with control of its water supply, which helps free up more of the gardener's time.

Departments: Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Agricultural Engineering (AEN series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, practices, structures
Size: 3.80 mb
Pages: 5



NEP-225

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Broccoli

9/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Broccoli is a cool-season plant in the same family as cabbage and cauliflower. It, and others in the same family, is known as a cole crop. Broccoli can be grown in both the fall and the spring and can be eaten many ways.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.38 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-226

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Kale

9/15/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

In recent years, kale has been a "super food" because of the ways it can benefit our health. Kale contains many vitamins like A, K and C. It promotes heart health and can help prevent cancer. Kale is a cool-season crop and may be among the first vegetables you harvest from your garden.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.97 mb
Pages: 4



HO-126

Consumer Horticulture Benefits for Businesses, Workplaces, and Employees

9/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham

Consumer Horticulture is the cultivation, use, and enjoyment of plants, gardens, landscapes and related horticultural items to the bene?t of individuals, communities, and the environment. These activities rely on the understanding and application of the art and science of horticulture. Consumer horticulture doesn't just impact our lives in terms of our homes, families, and communities. It also intersects with business and industry both in terms of the overall economy as well as the workplace environment that can improve the economic bottom line as well as the health and well-being of employees. In this publication we will focus on ways plants enhance the attractiveness of businesses and how their placement in the workplace may increase the productivity and wellbeing of employees.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape
Size: 2.36 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-T-6

Necrotic Ringspot and Summer Patch in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns

9/11/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Necrotic ring spot and summer patch are two patch diseases that can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. In addition to bluegrass, certain fine-leaved fescues are susceptible.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 793 kb
Pages: 4



NEP-222

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Summer Squash

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Summer squash is a low-growing, bush-type squash. Examples are yellow (straight and crookneck), scalloped, and zucchini. They are fast growing and well-liked garden crops.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.96 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-223

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Collards

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Collards (or collard greens) are quick and easy to grow. They can be planted in early spring and can withstand frosty weather. They can also be planted later in the summer to mature in the fall after weather becomes cooler.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 3.21 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-224

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Tomatoes

8/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Tomatoes are a popular summer crop that many consider to be a basic part of the home garden. However, growing tomatoes can require more labor compared to other vegetables, but the results can be very rewarding.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 3.53 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-GH-7

Cleaning and Sanitizing Commercial Greenhouse Surfaces

8/3/2020 (new)
Authors: Samantha Anderson, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Josh Knight, W. Garrett Owen

Greenhouse and nursery sanitation practices help prevent the introduction and spread of plant diseases and pests, as well as eliminate safety hazards. In general, being proactive in maintaining a clean growing environment will often be less expensive and more effective than reacting to a disease or pest issue after it emerges.

Departments: Graves County, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, garden and landscape, greenhouse, pests, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 750 kb
Pages: 4



NEP-219s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Preparando Su Huerto

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Una buena tierra es la base para un huerto saludable. La tierra suministra nutrientes a las plantas para el crecimiento y el apoyo para las raices. Una buena tierra ayuda a producir verduras saludables.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 8



NEP-220s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Los Ejotes

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Los ejotes son faciles de sembrar y rapidos de producir cuando se recogen mientras todavia estan verdes o inmaduro. Ellos son aun mas nutritivos cuando se les permite madurar ligeramente para producir frijoles verdes "shelly beans".

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.25 mb
Pages: 4



NEP-221s

Cosechando Lo Suyo: Un Manual para Principiantes de Huertos Urbanos: Los Pimientos

6/25/2020 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Rachel Rudolph

Los pimientos son relativamente faciles de cultivar y pueden proporcionar una cosecha consistente durante todo el verano. Puede comerlos crudos o cocidos para agregar sabor a muchos alimentos.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.62 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-251

Quick Identification Tips for Turfgrasses Commonly Grown in Kentucky

6/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Species of both warm- and cool-season turfgrasses are grown in Kentucky. Identification of these grasses is critical for implementation of proper management practices. Grass identification is commonly performed by observing specific parts of the plant. For a review of the parts of the grass plant, see AGR-216: 'Turfgrasses of Kentucky'. The objective of this extension publication is to provide concise identification tips to properly identify Kentucky turfgrasses.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.10 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-9

Peach Fruit Diseases

3/9/2020 (major revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach fruit diseases can cause significant losses in yield and quality in commercial and home orchards. Often these diseases go unnoticed until late in the season or at harvest. Although there are no curative treatments for infected fruit, many diseases can be prevented using cultural practices and (optional) fungicides. Accurate diagnosis, however, is critical to determine the best management practices and to prevent future losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape, pests, plant diseases
Size: 915 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-248

The Fate of Nitrogen Applied to Kentucky Turfgrass

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The quality of Kentucky's surface and ground waters are of utmost importance to flora and fauna living in these waters. The growth of flora and fauna is directly related to the amount of available nutrients in these waters. In addition, we use these waters as the primary source of drinking water for ourselves and our families. A wide range of compounds may be found in these waters, the most common of which may be nitrate (NO3-). The sources of nitrogen (N) may include, but are not limited to, atmospheric deposition, septic tanks, effluent water disposal, agricultural fertilization, and landscape fertilization. The objective of this publication is to identify and describe the sources and potential fates of N applied to Kentucky turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 748 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-249

Potassium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Potassium (K) is an essential plant element and is the most abundant mineral, macro-nutrient in turfgrass after nitrogen (N). Sufficient concentrations of K are important to maximize turfgrass tolerance to stresses caused by temperature, drought, traffic, and salinity. Understanding the function, soil content, and fertilizer forms of K is essential to creating an efficient nutrient management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 286 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-247

Manganese for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Manganese (Mn) is a common component of micronutrient packages applied to turfgrass and has been documented to result in increased greening of turfgrass. In order to effectively manage Mn applications, it is important to understand the function of Mn in turfgrass, the dynamics of Mn in the soil, and the various forms of Mn available for turfgrass applications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 879 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-T-4

Anthracnose in Commercial Turfgrass

2/13/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of intensely managed turfgrass, such as creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass, on golf course putting greens. Outbreaks are generally induced by environmental conditions or cultural practices that result in stress to the turf. The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 527 kb
Pages: 4



PPA-1

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2020

11/19/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 34



PPFS-OR-T-12

Brown Patch in Home Lawns and Commercial Turfgrass

10/21/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Brown patch, also known as Rhizoctonia blight, is a common disease of turfgrass. All cultivated grasses grown in Kentucky can be affected; however, this disease is usually only destructive in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Fine fescues (hard fescue, creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, and sheep fescue) are all moderately susceptible to the disease. Occasionally, Kentucky bluegrass lawns can be affected by brown patch, although this grass is less susceptible than others.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-241

Improved Turfgrass Varieties Can Reduce Your Environmental Impact

8/29/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Turfgrasses have many benefits, but oftentimes people question if pesticides, fertilizers, and water are justified to sustain a quality turfed area. Although these inputs have long been required to produce thick and dark green turfgrass, some turfgrass breeders have focused on improving the genetics of turfgrasses to produce high quality turf with fewer inputs. Improved turfgrass varieties with increased density, better color, deeper rooting, and improved disease resistance through improved breeding can reduce the overall environmental footprint. Many people select a turfgrass species and variety based on cost, but choosing an improved variety can reduce environment risk and overall maintenance costs in the long-run.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-52

Selecting the Right Grass for Your Kentucky Lawn

8/29/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The best grass for your lawn is not necessarily the one you like the best, but the one that is best adapted to where you live and will take less work and fewer inputs (water, fertilizer, pesticides). Many people think that since Kentucky is the "Bluegrass State," it's best to grow Kentucky bluegrass across our state. Actually, Kentucky bluegrass is only marginally adapted to our climate and can require more inputs to keep an appealing lawn than some other choices. In general, Kentucky bluegrass can be an option for parts of central and eastern Kentucky, while zoysiagrass may be a better option in western Kentucky. Tall fescue is adapted to the entire state so is a good choice for most locations. Perennial ryegrasses and fine fescues are occasionally useful in different areas of the state, depending on specific conditions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.46 mb
Pages: 7



NEP-219

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Preparing Your Garden

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

This publication provides easy to follow advice on how to start and maintain your garden. For specific fruit and vegetable guides, refer to the NEP "Grow your own" series.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 7



NEP-220

Growing Your Own Vegetables: Green Beans

8/27/2019 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Jann Knappage, Rachel Rudolph, Katie Shoultz

Green beans are easy to grow and fairly quick to produce when picked while still green or immature. They are even more nutritious when allowed to slightly mature to produce "shelly" beans. Pole beans in the garden are often popular with children since the bean vines on their supports create great hiding places.

Departments: Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture
Series: Nutrition Education Program (NEP series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 2.20 mb
Pages: 4



HO-117

Guide to Landscape Appraisal of Tree Species in Kentucky Landscapes

8/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain

This publication is intended to aid professionals in determining the value of species in Kentucky (the Commonwealth). This valuation method is not appropriate for valuation of shrubs, forest trees, pasture trees, trees being used for income (i.e. orchards, nursery production, Christmas tree production, etc.). It is solely for trees that are an integral part of a formal, managed landscape.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: mb
Pages:



ID-255

BerryCare: Building a Blackberry Community

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

So you've heard how blackberries are good for your health. Growing blackberry bushes as a garden project can be quite rewarding, especially if you do it as a group. Your local Cooperative Extension Office or non-profit organization may have the perfect place for planting the bushes where berries can be shared with an identified community. With a little sunshine and good drainage, the right variety, and proper blackberry plant care, a group can work towards a successful harvest.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape
Size: 1.87 mb
Pages: 3



ID-256

BerryCare: When Blackberries and Other Berries are in Season

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

Blackberries are fresh and in season during the mid summer months. But this does not mean you cannot eat them year round. In addition to buying frozen berries during the winter months, you can also plan ahead and freeze your berries when they're in season. Frozen berries are just as healthy and easy to use as fresh.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape
Size: 2.14 mb
Pages: 4



ID-257

BerryCare: Protection from Pollution with Phytonutrient-Rich Berries

7/30/2019 (new)
Authors: Dawn Brewer, Annie Koempel, Amy Kostelic

Pollution in the environment cannot always be avoided. However, eating for good health may help reduce the effects of pollution in the body. Choosing more nutritious foods, such as those high in phytonutrients, may reduce oxidative stress and protect the body from the negative health effects of pollution.

Departments: Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Family Science
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, fruits, garden and landscape
Size: 2.28 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-206

Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15

3/5/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, A.J. Powell

Turf is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface. Quality lawns greatly increase the economic and sociological value of urban homes. They beautify and reduce the often harsh urban environment by decreasing noise, glare, heat, dust, and mud. Lawns and other recreational turf areas are an integral part of our daily activities.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 22



ID-248

Gardening in Small Spaces

1/24/2018 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee, Ashley Osborne

Although most would agree that gardening is a worthwhile endeavor, traditional gardening with long neat rows spaced 3 or 4 feet apart to allow cultivation by a tractor or tiller may not be feasible for everyone. Individuals that live in urban areas, especially those living in townhomes, condominiums, and apartments may not have the outdoor space needed for this conventional style of gardening. In addition, those with limited mobility may not be able to establish and maintain this type of garden. For many, raised bed gardening and container gardening may be a more practical and manageable choice for those gardening in small spaces and those with limited mobility.

Departments: Ag Programs, Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.14 mb
Pages: 8



ENT-70

Pesticides and Pesticide Safety: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 10

1/23/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Lee Townsend

"Pest" is not a biological term for an organism's environmental role as are the words plant, herbivore, predator, and scavenger. It is a term for an organism that is either causing damage or is somewhere where it's not wanted. Pests can include plants, insects and their relatives, and microorganisms that cause plant diseases. Often, pests are a problem because we use cultural practices or create conditions favoring organisms that they feed on, compete with, or infect the desirable species.

Departments: Entomology
Series: Entomology (ENT series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, insect pests, pests
Size: 310 kb
Pages: 10



AGR-205

Weed Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 20

1/22/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: J.D. Green

Every garden has weeds, and every gardener wonders what to do about them. Gardening involves lots of small decisions that can have a cumulative effect on those weed problems. This chapter will explore the origin of weeds, their adaptation and impact, and the techniques you can use to manage weeds in your landscape.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, pests, weeds
Size: 965 kb
Pages: 14



HO-118

A Beginners Guide to Vegetable Gardening in Kentucky: Plans and Preparations

10/2/2017 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Ken Hunter, Bethany Pratt, John Strang

Begin by thinking about vegetables you and your family like to eat. Then think about what you want to grow. Some vegetables will grow better in Kentucky than others because of the average daily temperatures and amount of rainfall. It is also important to learn about the needs of each vegetable variety you are thinking about planting in your garden. Does it grow better in sun or shade? How much water does it need? What type of soil does it grow best in? Is it a cool season crop or a warm season crop?

Departments: County Extension, Family and Consumer Sciences, Horticulture, Jefferson County
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, edible plants, garden and landscape, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 7



ID-244

Landscape Site Assessment

9/6/2017 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain

The most common reason trees and shrubs fail to perform as anticipated is that their cultural requirements differ from the site characteristics. People often plant things they know and love from a distant state, purchase because they are on sale, or find attractive but don't understand the environmental requirements. In some cases, a site can be easily modified to make it more suitable for a desired species. Most of the time, it is difficult or impossible to change the site characteristics enough for the plant to thrive. Appropriate watering is essential for establishment of recently transplanted trees and shrubs. This becomes even more important (and challenging) for plants poorly matched to their sites. Selecting plant species that will thrive under particular site conditions is an easier and less expensive option. The first step in doing this is to understand the site where you plan to plant.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 125 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-26

Volutella Blight of Boxwood

8/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses
Size: 1.57 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-25

Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine

7/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, trees
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-H-1

Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals

5/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 19



ID-240

What Is Your Tree Worth?

12/22/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 903 kb
Pages: 5



ID-241

After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant

12/22/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 247 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-50

Lawn Establishment in Kentucky

7/27/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 3.04 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-55

Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky

7/22/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 119 kb
Pages: 1



AGR-220

A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns

4/7/2016 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-115

Irrigation Tips to Conserve Water and Grow a Healthy Lawn

11/11/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw

The goal of water conservation in the landscape does not need to be as drastic as eliminating all irrigation, but we should choose plant material wisely and decide if and when irrigation is necessary. This publication is designed to promote a healthy lawn through watering while promoting water conservation through best management practices. One of the easiest things you can do to reduce the need for irrigation in your yard is to plant species that naturally need less water. When choosing plants, remember that just because a particular plant is drought tolerant does not mean that it is suitable for Kentucky's climate.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 892 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-51

Improving Turf Through Renovation

11/3/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Often a poor lawn can be improved by using proper maintenance practices, including mowing, fertilizing, watering, and pest control. In some instances, however, portions of the lawn must be reseeded. Usually one of two methods is used to re-establish a lawn: conventional or renovation. The conventional method involves killing existing vegetation, tilling the soil, and replanting. The advantages of conventional tillage include more complete control of weeds and undesirable grass, a smoother soil surface, and the opportunity to improve the existing soil by adding organic matter and sand. Renovation involves replanting without completely tilling the soil and often without destroying all existing vegetation.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-54

Aerifying and Dethatching Lawns

11/3/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Lawns in Kentucky will occasionally suffer due to compacted (hard) soils and excessive thatch layers. Although most lawns will not have problems with these issues, you may occasionally need to dethatch or aerify (core) to maintain a high quality lawn.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 4



ID-222

Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach

7/30/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 9.00 mb
Pages: 8



ID-89

How Dry Seasons Affect Landscape Plants

7/1/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Susan Fox, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Kathy Wimberly

Pattern, frequency, and amounts of rainfall are important components to plant health. Water is an essential plant component, making up 70 percent to 90 percent of plant mass. During dry seasons and drought conditions, plants become stressed. Growth ceases, nutrient transport slows, and plants wilt as cells become water-deficient. Severe, long-term, or consecutive drought events may cause permanent damage.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape
Size: 6.00 mb
Pages: 7



ID-84

Iron Deficiency of Landscape Plants

10/16/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Edwin Ritchey, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Iron deficiency is a nutritional deficit that can occur in woody and herbaceous plants in landscapes, nurseries, greenhouses, and production fields. It is most often associated with soils that have neutral or alkaline pH (pH 7.0 or above). Plants that grow best in acidic soils are particularly vulnerable to this condition. In Kentucky, iron deficiency is most commonly observed on pin oak, willow oak, azalea, rhododendron, and blueberry, but other woody plants are also susceptible.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape
Size: 3.13 mb
Pages: 4



ID-52

What's Wrong with My Taxus?

6/5/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses
Size: 2.30 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-209

Mowing Your Kentucky Lawn

4/15/2013 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Mowing is a recurring cutting of a portion of a grass shoot. Lawns are mowed to maintain topgrowth within a specific range, to control weed plants that are intolerant to mowing, or to sustain an ornamental turf. Mowing is usually thought of as the most simple of lawn maintenance practices; however, even though we perform it more than any other, it can result in mistakes.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.50 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-208

Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns

2/25/2013 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gregg Munshaw

The best defense against weed problems in home lawns is a healthy and dense lawn. In thick lawns, weed seeds may not germinate because light may never reach the soil surface. A thick lawn is competitive with weeds, keeping them from growing and reproducing. Developing a healthy and dense lawn comes from using cultural practices such as proper grass species and cultivar selection, proper mowing heights and fertilization, and other good management practices. The need for herbicides to control weeds in home lawns can be greatly reduced if the lawn is well maintained.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 390 kb
Pages: 6



ID-203

Trees, Turf, and People

8/6/2012 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Gregg Munshaw

The shade trees and fruit trees that we treasure in our landscapes were originally adapted to growing in forests in close association with other trees. In the forest they can remain small for many years. As soon as there is an opening in the canopy allowing light to reach the forest floor they grow rapidly. This great height allows trees to assume a place of dominance over other plants; their trunks lift their leaves high into the air, allowing them to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight before it reaches other plants. Thus, trees grow tall and provide us with their much-appreciated shade.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees, turfgrass
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



ID-88

Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky

3/22/2012 (major revision)
Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Cheryl Kaiser, Kenny Seebold, Sarah Vanek, Paul Vincelli, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses
Size: 3.70 mb
Pages: 16



ID-192

Composting: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 5

10/12/2011 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Brad Lee

Gardeners have long made and used compost to improve garden soil. Composting plant and vegetable matter is an important way to reduce the waste burned or dumped in landfills. Yard wastes and vegetable scraps can make up as much as 20 percent of household garbage. Composting effectively recycles that waste into valuable organic matter that can be used as soil amendments.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, practices
Size: 470 kb
Pages: 8



HO-70

Preserving Flowers and Foliage

3/8/2006 (minor revision)
Authors: Sharon Bale

Dried flowers, pine cones, grasses, and seed heads are popular materials for decorative arrangements and craft projects. Using a wide variety of plant material gives the best results, and you may find an assortment of usable plants throughout the entire growing season. A preservation method exists for just about any type of plant or flower, depending on how much time and expense you are willing to commit to the project.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, garden and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 298 kb
Pages: 6



AGR-186

Kudzu Identification and Control in Kentucky

11/30/2005 (new)
Authors: Mitch Blair, Bill Witt

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, pests, weeds
Size: 199 kb
Pages: 2



ID-68

The Flowering Crabapple

10/1/1999 (minor revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, John Hartman, Bob McNeil, Dan Potter

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 331 kb
Pages: 6



ID-113

Winter Cover Crops for Kentucky Gardens and Fields

6/15/1998 (minor revision)
Authors: Win Dunwell, Monroe Rasnake

Cover crops have long been used to reduce soil erosion, add organic matter to improve the soil, and provide some winter and early spring grazing. With the develop ment of no-till cropping systems, cover crops were recognized for their ability to provide moisture-conserving residues as well as nitrogen for the succeeding crop. Recent concern for water quality has provided additional reasons to use cover crops. Cover crops take up and hold nutrients, especially nitrogen, that were not used by the previous crop. Because they remove water from the soil, they may reduce the risk of nutrients and pesticides moving through the soil. Cover crops may reduce weed problems and the need for herbicides by competing with them for space and nutrients and by providing a mulch to cover the soil surface. Some also release chemicals that suppress weed growth and may reduce populations of soil-borne plant pathogens.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, practices
Size: 81 kb
Pages: 4



ID-80

Transplanting Trees and Shrubs

11/1/1990 (reprinted)
Authors: Bill Fountain, John Hartman, Mary Witt

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 8



AGR-12

Weeds of Kentucky Turf

3/1/1961 (new)
Authors: J.W. Herron, Jim Martin, A.J. Powell

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 2.19 mb
Pages: 24