University of Kentucky College of Agriculture

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Not a complete list as of 8-30-17.

Tag: livestock

Molting Small-Scale Commercial Egg Flocks in Kentucky
2/27/2018 (new)

Molting is a common event in the annual life cycle of most avian species. Each year chickens lose feathers and grow new ones, and this occurs in both wild and domestic birds. During molt, laying hens go out of egg production and feathers are replaced. Molting, regardless of what stimulates it, is more than just the replacement of the plumage. Hormonal and physiological changes occur as well. | ASC-236
web only | 2 pages | 1,077 words | 3 downloads | PDF: 280 kb

Feeds and Feeding for Small-Scale Egg Production Enterprises
1/25/2018 (new)

Animals eat in order to get the energy and nutrients they need to live, grow and reproduce. Animals use energy to perform normal body functions such as breathing, walking, eating, digesting, and maintaining body temperature. Different types of nutrients provide energy as well as the building blocks needed for the development of bone, flesh, feathers, and eggs. These nutrients include: water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Each of these components is important and a deficit of even one can have serious health consequences for poultry. | ASC-233
web only | 12 pages | 5,611 words | 15 downloads | PDF: 2,536 kb

Factors to Consider Before Starting a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise in Kentucky
1/25/2018 (new)

There are several things to consider before starting an egg production operation. The most important is market availability. Before you start production you need to have a market that your production can supply, in terms of both quantity of product and the price you need to get in order to be profitable. You will need to make sure that local regulations allow for poultry production on the land available to you. Cash flow is also an important consideration. A flock will require a considerable investment before the hens start to lay eggs to produce an income. You also need to have a way to deal with the manure produced, and any dead birds. You also need to have a plan for the hens after they have finished laying (referred to as spent hens). | ASC-230
web only | 4 pages | 2,113 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 126 kb

Breed Selection for a Small-scale Egg Production Enterprise
1/12/2018 (new)

Once you have decided you are going to go into egg production, you need to determine what breed of chicken will best suit your needs. A variety of different commercial breeds are available for use in small-scale commercial egg production operations. Most lay a brown-shelled egg, which is typically preferred by the people purchasing eggs produced in alterative production systems. Most of these commercial chickens are hybrids selected specifically for these systems. | ASC-231
web only | 5 pages | 1,023 words | 10 downloads | PDF: 1,280 kb

Marketing Regulations Affecting Small-scale Egg Producers in Kentucky
1/12/2018 (new)

It is important that you comply with all the laws and regulations with regards to the marketing of eggs. Eggs are capable of carrying bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis. As a result, eggs are considered a hazardous food and their sale is regulated. With regard to small-scale producers, if you sell more than 60 dozen eggs in any one week, you will require an egg handler's license. You will also need an egg handler's license if you sell to someone who sells eggs to someone else. This would include grocery stores, restaurants, or wholesalers. The same will hold true if you sell to a bakery, confectionary or ice-cream manufacturer. | ASC-229
web only | 4 pages | 1,756 words | 5 downloads | PDF: 267 kb

Fenceline Feeder Systems for Beef Cattle Production and Resource Conservation
11/21/2017 (new)

One of the most challenging and costly aspects of beef cattle production in Kentucky is winter-feeding. Many producers complain about the time required to feed stored forages, the mud, the drudgery that it creates for the operator, and the decline in production. The intense traffic associated with winter-feeding on unimproved surfaces causes mud, compaction, erosion, and loss of desirable vegetation, often resulting in annual pasture renovations to address areas impacted by winter-feeding practices. Fenceline feeding systems offer an alternative to traditional in-field bale feeding during the wet winter conditions that Kentucky often experiences. These structures can be utilized to reduce the impact of winter-feeding on pastures and improve the operational efficiency of a winter-feeding area. | AEN-134
web only | 13 pages | 3,535 words | 65 downloads | PDF: 2,430 kb

Appropriate All-Weather Surfaces for Livestock
10/16/2017 (minor revision)

Many livestock producers would say that mud is a natural part of livestock production. But the creation of mud costs producers money and makes them less competitive. Livestock that walk through mud require more feed for energy but actually eat less because walking in mud requires more effort to get to feed and water. Therefore, mud decreases average daily gains. Mud accumulation on the coat increases the amount of energy needed to generate heat in the winter or to keep cool in the summer. Also, it can lower sale prices due to hanging tags. The creation of mud also increases animal stress and leads to a variety of health problems, including protozoan and bacterial infections. It is essential that livestock producers understand that mud hinders cost-efficient livestock production and efforts should be made to limit the creation of mud. This publication explains how mud is created and describes different types of hardened surfaces and pads that agricultural producers should use to reduce mud creation and ultimately increase production efficiency and protect natural resources. | AEN-115
web only | 8 pages | 3,441 words | 175 downloads | PDF: 2,730 kb

Pastured Poultry
9/21/2017 (new)

There has been an increased interest in pasture-raising poultry for both meat and egg production in the last decade. Raising poultry on pasture was a common occurrence until the latter half of the 20th century. Fresh forage provided an important ration balancing factor during the years before poultry nutritionists fully understood the required essential vitamins and minerals for growth and optimum meat and egg production. With the development of balanced rations, poultry no longer require access to pasture and year-round production of meat and eggs is possible. However, there are still some benefits from the lush forage, invertebrates, and exercise that pasture provides. In addition, we continue to learn more and more about the positive influence that fresh grasses and legumes have on fatty acid profiles and general bird health. As a result, there is an increased interest in pasture-raised poultry for both meat and eggs. | ID-247
web only | 7 pages | 4,900 words | 19 downloads | PDF: 2,000 kb

Body Condition Scoring Ewes
8/25/2017 (new)

Body condition scoring is a system of classifying breeding ewes on the basis of differences in body fat. While it is subjective, with practice it can be accurate enough to indicate the nutritional status of individual ewes as well as the entire flock. Thus, it allows the shepherd to identify, record, and adjust the feed intake of ewes determined to be thin, in average flesh, or fat. In the long run, this can save money for producers and/or prevent problems attributable to ewe condition. | ASC-228
50 printed copies | 5 pages | 1,567 words | 14 downloads | PDF: 2,200 kb

Tire Tanks for Watering Livestock
8/8/2017 (new)

Kentucky's abundant forage and extensive stream system have helped the Commonwealth become the largest beef producing state east of the Mississippi River. While streams and ponds serve as a water source for many operations, livestock can quickly degrade soil and water quality by trampling streambanks and defecating and urinating in and around waterbodies. These actions increase sediment, pathogen, and nutrient loads to streams, rivers, and lakes which in turn can causes eutrophication. To help protect the health of Kentucky's soil and water, producers can implement best management practices (BMPs). These practices help reduce the sources of pollutants and/or the transport of pollutants to waterways. One such practice or BMP is limiting cattle access to streams and ponds. When producers exclude livestock access to stream and ponds and their associated riparian buffers, an alternative source of water is required. Automatic water fountains are one commonly used means of providing cattle with water from an alternate source. A water tank constructed using a heavy equipment tire may serve as a viable option for supplying livestock with an alternate source of water. | AEN-133
web only | 8 pages | 4,702 words | 84 downloads | PDF: 4,650 kb

Extending Grazing and Reducing Stored Feed Needs
11/21/2016 (reprinted)

For most livestock producers, extending the grazing season for their animals, or otherwise filling gaps in pasture forage availability to reduce stored feed needs, should be a high priority objective. This publication outlines strategies that can be used in some or many areas to extend grazing and reduce stored feed needs, thus increasing profit. | AGR-199
2,000 printed copies | 20 pages | - | 71 downloads | PDF: 1,512 kb

The Kentucky Beef Book
9/15/2005 (minor revision)

| ID-108
10,000 printed copies | - | - | 28 downloads | HTML: 3 kb