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nursery and landscape


AGR-245

Nitrogen for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is required by turfgrass in larger quantities than any other mineral nutrient because the plant demand for N is high and the supply of N from the natural environment is normally low. In instances where N is not applied according to the University of Kentucky recommendations, applied N can increase the risk of surface and ground water contamination. The objective of this document is to describe the function of N in turfgrass, explain how soil and tissue tests can be used to manage N applications, and to describe the various N fertilizer sources available for application to turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 168 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-246

Iron for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/20/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Iron (Fe) is commonly applied using granular or foliar sources to enhance turfgrass color. Iron applications can result in darker green turfgrass as a result of increased Fe uptake or Fe oxidation on the leaf surface. In many cases, Fe results in no turfgrass response at all. Understanding the dynamics of Fe both in the plant and in the soil can enhance your nutrient management programs. The objective of this publication is to explain the function of Fe within the plant, describe the Fe sources available for turfgrasses, and identify which Fe fertilizers are most effective.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-242

Calcium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calcium (Ca) is the dominant cation in all soils of agronomic importance and Kentucky soils are no different. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Ca. Consequently, Ca deficiency in Kentucky turfgrasses is extremely rare, and the probability of observing a Ca response on golf courses, home lawns, sod production, or sports fields is very low. Applying Ca fertilizers to artificially increase soil Ca above the level necessary for proper plant growth normally does not result in an increase in plant uptake because Ca uptake is genetically controlled. Regardless, Ca is commonly applied in both granular and liquid forms.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 112 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-243

Magnesium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Magnesium is an essential element for all plants. Soluble magnesium (Mg) exists in soils primarily as Mg2+, a positively charged divalent cation. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Mg and, thus, Mg applications to turfgrass are normally unnecessary. However, turfgrasses grown in sand-based rootzones, such as golf course putting greens and sand-based sports fields, are prone to Mg deficiency. When Mg is necessary, it is essential to understand the function of Mg in the plant, the dynamics of Mg in the soil, and the forms of Mg fertilizers.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 826 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-244

Phosphorus for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and a common component of many turfgrass nutrition programs. Although P application can improve turfgrass quality in some soils, most soils of Kentucky already have adequate plant-available P to support healthy turfgrass growth. What is the function of P within the plant, and how much P is required to sustain acceptable turfgrass in Kentucky? Also, if P applications are necessary, when and how should P be applied?

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 481 kb
Pages: 4



HO-111

Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery and Greenhouse Crop Management

10/24/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss irrigation water quality factors and to present general guidelines for optimal ranges for measured factors in a University of Kentucky water analysis for nursery and greenhouse crop production.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 157 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-24

Bitter Rot of Apple

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-25

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 986 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-26

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 7



HO-123

What Is a Carbon Footprint and How Does It Relate to Landscape Plants?

6/10/2019 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a product or activity. The objective of this publication is enhance the reader's understanding of carbon footprint (CF) terminology and the science underlying its determination. Having such an understanding is necessary for managers and developers to minimize the negative environmental impacts of new product development and assess positive or negative cradle-to-grave life-cycle impacts. Life cycle assessment has been used to characterize the CF of representative field-grown and container-grown landscape plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-VG-24

Biological Products for Tomato Disease Management

6/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Disease management products with biologically-based active ingredients are often labeled for numerous diseases, but can vary markedly in their efficacy. This Extension publication summarizes factors to consider when choosing biological controls and data available pertaining to tomato disease management efficacy.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, nursery and landscape, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 268 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-239

Calibrating Boom Sprayers for Turf Applications

3/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved is too confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. Whereas, over applying can be bad for the environment, damage the grass, and wastes money. There are several methods for calibrating sprayers. Choose the one that makes the most sense to you. Three different methods are described below. All these methods are reliable and will provide very similar application accuracy.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 1.08 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-238

Establishing and Managing Bermudagrasses in the Transition Zone

11/12/2018 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Bermudagrasses have been successfully grown on athletic fields and golf courses in the transition zone for many years. Although each year some level of winterkill threat exists, bermudagrass remains an excellent surface for golf and sports. Seeded varieties of bermudagrasses have been the most common choices in Kentucky due to the availability of seed of good varieties as well as the ease of planting seed versus living plant material. There are, however, several outstanding vegetative bermudagrass cultivars that are adapted to the transition zone.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 3



ID-235

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of High Tunnel and Greenhouse Vegetable Crops in Kentucky

10/17/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Obrycki, Emily Pfeufer, Rachel Rudolph, Shubin Saha, Shawn Wright

Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur on vegetable crops grown in high tunnel and greenhouse structures in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter problems not included here. Please contact a local Cooperative Extension Service office for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: equipment and structures, farm crops, high tunnel, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.94 mb
Pages: 28



PR-741

2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report

10/11/2018 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Jennie Condra, Emily Dobbs, Win Dunwell, Bob Geneve, Dewayne Ingram, Brenda Kennedy, Katie Kittrell, Janet Lensing, Sara Long, Susmitha Nambuthiri, John Obrycki, Dan Potter, Nicole Ward Gauthier

The 2012 Nursery and Landscape Research Report includes research in the areas of production and economics, ecology, and pest control.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Progress Report (PR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, research
Size: 2.23 mb
Pages: 20



CCD-CP-135

Figs

7/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Figs are harvested for both fresh consumption and processing. There are three main types of cultivated Ficus carica: Common, San Pedro and Smyrna. Common figs produce fruit parenthocarpically, without any pollination. Smyrna figs require pollen transfer from male trees that produce small caprifigs for fruit growth. Pollen transfer is obtained by the fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.), a species unable to survive the southern U.S. winter temperatures. San Pedro figs are intermediate between the two; a minor summer "breba" crop will set without fertilization but the later main crop requires pollination by the fig wasp. The common fig is the only type suggested for cultivation in the southern U.S.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-134

Minor Fruit Lacking Commercial Potential in Kentucky

6/25/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Over the years, growers and county extension agents have inquired about a number of different small fruits, questioning if these crops could be grown in Kentucky. A few of these crops have potential, while many others are either completely unsuitable for production here or they are unreliable from year to year. This profile discusses some of the pros and cons of producing this latter group of small fruit. The purpose is to communicate the reasons these unique fruits are not generally recommended for commercial production in the Commonwealth.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-PFS-3

Dehydrating Fruits and Vegetables for Home Use

6/6/2018 (new)
Authors: Felix Akharume, Michael Montross, Paul Vijayakumar

Many farm-harvested or market-purchased fresh fruits and vegetables are consumed fresh or frozen, with little to none utilized as dry products; in general, dried fruits and vegetables are purchased directly from the market whenever needed. With the wide availability of tabletop kitchen equipment for fruit and vegetable processing (mechanical cutters, slicers, homemade dehydrators, blenders, etc.), consumers and small farmers with excess harvest or unsold fresh products can take the opportunity to process their fresh fruits and vegetables into dried snacks for direct use or sale at a farmer's market. The advantage of these dried products is their stable shelf life, versatility, and overall value addition. Dried products can be used at any time (6-12 months) with little or no loss in quality and can be used as intermediate goods in other products such as breakfast cereals. This publication presents easy-to-follow guidelines and conditions for processing selected fruits and vegetables into dried products.

Departments: Animal and Food Sciences, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
Series: Produce Food Safety: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-PFS series)
Tags: food and nutrition, food science, fruits, nursery and landscape, vegetables
Size: 693 kb
Pages: 8



CCD-CP-70

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

4/9/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-9

Starting a Nursery Business

3/14/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The nursery business involves the production and marketing of various plants including trees, shrubs, grasses, perennial and annual flowers, and fruit trees. A landscaping service, garden center, or sod farm may also be associated with a nursery enterprise. A successful nursery operator must be knowledgeable about all phases of plant production and be willing to work long, hard days. Good marketing and management skills are essential. A passion for ornamental plants and an entrepreneurial spirit add greatly to the chances for success.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 860 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-129

Pecans

3/7/2018 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

The pecan and Eastern black walnut are Kentucky's most significant nut crops. Commercial pecan plantings are located near Paducah and Henderson, and native pecan groves have long been harvested near the Mississippi River. Only northern pecan cultivars are recommended for cultivation in Kentucky, as the state's usual growing season is not long enough for southern pecan varieties to mature. The established popularity of pecans with consumers could offer potential for producers willing to carefully establish pecan plantings on appropriate sites.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nuts
Size: 647 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-237

Grass Options for Athletic Fields in the Transition Zone

3/2/2018 (new)
Authors: Nicole Mundell

There are several grasses that will grow in the transition zone, but none all that well. Our summers are often too hot for cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and our winters are often too cold for warm-season grasses like bermudagrass. Keep in mind, however, that the problem with most poor athletic fields is not grass selection, but rather over use, lack of maintenance, and/or use when field is wet or cannot recover.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 2.32 mb
Pages: 3



HO-119

Reducing Heat Stress to Container-Grown Plants

11/14/2017 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

Production of plants in containers offer many advantages over field production. Shorter production cycles, larger numbers of plants per acre, and the ability to continuously market and ship plants are among those advantages. However, there are some disadvantages including more intense cultural practices, a relatively short window of optimum marketability due to container size restrictions, and rapid daily temperature fluctuations within the container substrate (growing medium). This publication will provide information about plant response to high root-zone temperatures, identify critical temperatures, describe the factors that influence temperature fluctuations, and suggest cultural practices to reduce heat stress in container-grown plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.24 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-55

Stevia

9/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a small, herbaceous plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is a perennial in its native South America, but is grown as an annual in all but the warmest areas of the United States. Stevia is commonly called "sweetleaf" or "sugarleaf."

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 791 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-76

Woody Cuts

8/22/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 909 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-71

Garden Mums

7/13/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-63

Hydroponic Lettuce

6/30/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most commonly grown hydroponic vegetables. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Plants may be grown in a nutrient solution only (liquid culture) or they may be supported by an inert medium (aggregate culture). In both systems all of the plants' nutritional needs are supplied through the irrigation water.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: hydroponics, nursery and landscape, production practices, vegetables
Size: 1.30 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-SP-8

Propagation Nursery

6/5/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Propagation nurseries produce pre-finished plant material (liners), such as ornamental trees, shrubs, and grasses, fruit trees, and annual and perennial flowers. Plants are propagated either by seed or by vegetative means, such as by cuttings, grafting, or tissue culture. Some nurseries specialize in growing and selling pre-finished plants to other growers, making propagation their sole business. However, some wholesale nursery operations have their own propagation areas where plants are produced for in-house use.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.90 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-228

Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone

5/31/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Bermudagrass is an excellent choice for use on athletic fields throughout the transition zone (which includes Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and Missouri) because of its tolerance to close cutting heights, summer vigor, positive traction characteristics for athletes, resistance to divoting and ability to withstand and recover from significant traffic during active growth. The major limitation to successful bermudagrass persistence in transition zone locations is a general lack of cold tolerance and susceptibility to winterkill.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 6.63 mb
Pages: 10



CCD-CP-127

Lavender

4/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 897 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-5

Container Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The container nursery business involves the production and marketing of ornamental trees and shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers grown in aboveground containers. This production method has helped revolutionize the nursery business in the last few decades. Some of the advantages of container production include: less acreage required for production, handling convenience, and a nearly year-round harvest and planting season.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.70 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-SP-6

Field Nursery Production

4/17/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Field nurseries are the traditional method of producing and marketing ornamental trees, shrubs, fruit trees, and perennial flowers. Until the mid 1900s nearly all nursery crops were produced in the field. Even with the advent of aboveground container and pot-in-pot production, field nurseries are still widely used. Some of the advantages of field production over other production methods include: less maintenance and labor requirements during the growing period, ability of plants to overwinter in the field without additional protective measures, and lower start-up costs. In Kentucky, most field-grown trees and shrubs are sold as balled-and-burlapped (B&B), meaning that the soil surrounding the plant's root system is dug with the plant and wrapped in burlap.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 5



CCD-SP-7

Pot-in-Pot Nursery Production

1/31/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Dewayne Ingram

"Pot-in-pot" describes a nursery production system that uses containers (production pots) placed inside permanent in-ground containers (socket pots). Pot-in-pot is used for the production of caliper-sized shade trees, flowering trees, and large shrubs. The pot-in-pot system combines many of the benefits of field production with the marketing flexibility of container production. Container-grown plants can be sold at any time of year and with relatively short notice, whereas harvesting of field-grown plants requires more planning and is typically not done during the summer or extremely wet periods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Horticulture
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 918 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-225

Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017

1/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass, weeds
Size: mb
Pages: 96



CCD-CP-58

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

11/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, production practices
Size: 503 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-53

Ginseng

9/1/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ginseng is a perennial herb that has been used for medicinal purposes in China and other Asian countries for centuries. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is native to the rich hardwood forests of Canada and the eastern half of the United States, including Kentucky. Today Kentucky leads the nation in wild ginseng production. While wild American ginseng is not yet considered endangered, it is protected by federal and state laws. Because ginseng regulations are subject to change, the State Ginseng Coordinator in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) should be contacted for the latest laws and restrictions. Additionally, laws will vary from state to state; the information in this profile is pertinent to Kentucky only.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, specialty crops
Size: 967 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-54

Goldenseal

4/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 582 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-67

Christmas Trees

8/18/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 492 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-216

Turfgrasses of Kentucky

8/17/2015 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 8.50 mb
Pages: 12



AGR-218

Herbicide Recommendations for Weed Control in Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns for Professional Applicators

3/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gregg Munshaw

The best method to control weeds is to grow a dense and healthy lawn. This objective should be primary for turf professionals. Lawn weed control is facilitated by identification of the turfgrass and weed species present. Not all herbicides will control all weeds, and not all herbicides are safe on all lawn grasses. This publication contains herbicide recommendations for licensed professionals. For information on weed control for non-professionals, see AGR 208: Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 240 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-59

Hanging Baskets

11/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 631 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-64

Poinsettias

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 409 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-72

Ornamental Corn

4/24/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 643 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-75

Willows for Cuttings

7/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-SP-4

Selected Resources and References for Commercial Greenhouse Operators

4/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser

Books can be obtained from the publisher (known links are provided), by ordering through a local bookstore, or by ordering through an industry trade magazine (books are generally advertised in each issue). Book sources can also be located by searching the Internet using the title as the keyword.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: System Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-SP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape
Size: 553 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-69

Edible Flowers

9/5/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 396 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-6

Poinsettia Diseases

5/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias grown through the fall months for Christmas sales are vulnerable to destructive diseases from the time the cuttings are stuck into the rooting media until they are mature and ready for sale. A number of poinsettia diseases are favored by the same environmental conditions that promote propagation, making plant material at this stage particularly vulnerable. Diseases occurring in the later stages of production can be related to management issues or cultural problems, as well as the cooler temperatures needed for finishing. Some other diseases can be problematic to poinsettias at any phase of production. And finally, a phytoplasma organism found associated with poinsettias provides evidence that some host/pathogen relationships can actually be economically beneficial.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, plant diseases
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 6