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ornamental plants


PPFS-OR-T-6

Necrotic Ringspot and Summer Patch in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns

9/11/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Necrotic ring spot and summer patch are two patch diseases that can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. In addition to bluegrass, certain fine-leaved fescues are susceptible.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 793 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-251

Quick Identification Tips for Turfgrasses Commonly Grown in Kentucky

6/19/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Species of both warm- and cool-season turfgrasses are grown in Kentucky. Identification of these grasses is critical for implementation of proper management practices. Grass identification is commonly performed by observing specific parts of the plant. For a review of the parts of the grass plant, see AGR-216: 'Turfgrasses of Kentucky'. The objective of this extension publication is to provide concise identification tips to properly identify Kentucky turfgrasses.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.10 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-248

The Fate of Nitrogen Applied to Kentucky Turfgrass

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The quality of Kentucky's surface and ground waters are of utmost importance to flora and fauna living in these waters. The growth of flora and fauna is directly related to the amount of available nutrients in these waters. In addition, we use these waters as the primary source of drinking water for ourselves and our families. A wide range of compounds may be found in these waters, the most common of which may be nitrate (NO3-). The sources of nitrogen (N) may include, but are not limited to, atmospheric deposition, septic tanks, effluent water disposal, agricultural fertilization, and landscape fertilization. The objective of this publication is to identify and describe the sources and potential fates of N applied to Kentucky turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 748 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-249

Potassium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/14/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Potassium (K) is an essential plant element and is the most abundant mineral, macro-nutrient in turfgrass after nitrogen (N). Sufficient concentrations of K are important to maximize turfgrass tolerance to stresses caused by temperature, drought, traffic, and salinity. Understanding the function, soil content, and fertilizer forms of K is essential to creating an efficient nutrient management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 286 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-245

Nitrogen for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is required by turfgrass in larger quantities than any other mineral nutrient because the plant demand for N is high and the supply of N from the natural environment is normally low. In instances where N is not applied according to the University of Kentucky recommendations, applied N can increase the risk of surface and ground water contamination. The objective of this document is to describe the function of N in turfgrass, explain how soil and tissue tests can be used to manage N applications, and to describe the various N fertilizer sources available for application to turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 168 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-247

Manganese for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Manganese (Mn) is a common component of micronutrient packages applied to turfgrass and has been documented to result in increased greening of turfgrass. In order to effectively manage Mn applications, it is important to understand the function of Mn in turfgrass, the dynamics of Mn in the soil, and the various forms of Mn available for turfgrass applications.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 879 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-T-4

Anthracnose in Commercial Turfgrass

2/13/2020 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of intensely managed turfgrass, such as creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass, on golf course putting greens. Outbreaks are generally induced by environmental conditions or cultural practices that result in stress to the turf. The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 527 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-246

Iron for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/20/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Iron (Fe) is commonly applied using granular or foliar sources to enhance turfgrass color. Iron applications can result in darker green turfgrass as a result of increased Fe uptake or Fe oxidation on the leaf surface. In many cases, Fe results in no turfgrass response at all. Understanding the dynamics of Fe both in the plant and in the soil can enhance your nutrient management programs. The objective of this publication is to explain the function of Fe within the plant, describe the Fe sources available for turfgrasses, and identify which Fe fertilizers are most effective.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-242

Calcium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calcium (Ca) is the dominant cation in all soils of agronomic importance and Kentucky soils are no different. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Ca. Consequently, Ca deficiency in Kentucky turfgrasses is extremely rare, and the probability of observing a Ca response on golf courses, home lawns, sod production, or sports fields is very low. Applying Ca fertilizers to artificially increase soil Ca above the level necessary for proper plant growth normally does not result in an increase in plant uptake because Ca uptake is genetically controlled. Regardless, Ca is commonly applied in both granular and liquid forms.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 112 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-243

Magnesium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Magnesium is an essential element for all plants. Soluble magnesium (Mg) exists in soils primarily as Mg2+, a positively charged divalent cation. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Mg and, thus, Mg applications to turfgrass are normally unnecessary. However, turfgrasses grown in sand-based rootzones, such as golf course putting greens and sand-based sports fields, are prone to Mg deficiency. When Mg is necessary, it is essential to understand the function of Mg in the plant, the dynamics of Mg in the soil, and the forms of Mg fertilizers.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 826 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-244

Phosphorus for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and a common component of many turfgrass nutrition programs. Although P application can improve turfgrass quality in some soils, most soils of Kentucky already have adequate plant-available P to support healthy turfgrass growth. What is the function of P within the plant, and how much P is required to sustain acceptable turfgrass in Kentucky? Also, if P applications are necessary, when and how should P be applied?

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 481 kb
Pages: 4



PPA-1

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2020

11/19/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 34



PPFS-OR-T-12

Brown Patch in Home Lawns and Commercial Turfgrass

10/21/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Brown patch, also known as Rhizoctonia blight, is a common disease of turfgrass. All cultivated grasses grown in Kentucky can be affected; however, this disease is usually only destructive in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Fine fescues (hard fescue, creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, and sheep fescue) are all moderately susceptible to the disease. Occasionally, Kentucky bluegrass lawns can be affected by brown patch, although this grass is less susceptible than others.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 3.00 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-241

Improved Turfgrass Varieties Can Reduce Your Environmental Impact

8/29/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Turfgrasses have many benefits, but oftentimes people question if pesticides, fertilizers, and water are justified to sustain a quality turfed area. Although these inputs have long been required to produce thick and dark green turfgrass, some turfgrass breeders have focused on improving the genetics of turfgrasses to produce high quality turf with fewer inputs. Improved turfgrass varieties with increased density, better color, deeper rooting, and improved disease resistance through improved breeding can reduce the overall environmental footprint. Many people select a turfgrass species and variety based on cost, but choosing an improved variety can reduce environment risk and overall maintenance costs in the long-run.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-52

Selecting the Right Grass for Your Kentucky Lawn

8/29/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

The best grass for your lawn is not necessarily the one you like the best, but the one that is best adapted to where you live and will take less work and fewer inputs (water, fertilizer, pesticides). Many people think that since Kentucky is the "Bluegrass State," it's best to grow Kentucky bluegrass across our state. Actually, Kentucky bluegrass is only marginally adapted to our climate and can require more inputs to keep an appealing lawn than some other choices. In general, Kentucky bluegrass can be an option for parts of central and eastern Kentucky, while zoysiagrass may be a better option in western Kentucky. Tall fescue is adapted to the entire state so is a good choice for most locations. Perennial ryegrasses and fine fescues are occasionally useful in different areas of the state, depending on specific conditions.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.46 mb
Pages: 7



HO-117

Guide to Landscape Appraisal of Tree Species in Kentucky Landscapes

8/26/2019 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain

This publication is intended to aid professionals in determining the value of species in Kentucky (the Commonwealth). This valuation method is not appropriate for valuation of shrubs, forest trees, pasture trees, trees being used for income (i.e. orchards, nursery production, Christmas tree production, etc.). It is solely for trees that are an integral part of a formal, managed landscape.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: mb
Pages:



ID-253

Species Failure Profile for Trees Common to the Ohio River Valley

8/23/2019 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Bill Fountain

Tree failures, especially in urban and recreational areas can result in harm to human life and property. While this is rare, it is important to recognize that the environmental and sociological benefits provided by trees significantly outweighs the limited risks presented by trees. This is especially true when defects and species profiles that increase the potential for failure can be observed or detected. Many of these defects are associated with certain species. This is referred to as the species failure profile.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 320 kb
Pages: 8



HO-123

What Is a Carbon Footprint and How Does It Relate to Landscape Plants?

6/10/2019 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a product or activity. The objective of this publication is enhance the reader's understanding of carbon footprint (CF) terminology and the science underlying its determination. Having such an understanding is necessary for managers and developers to minimize the negative environmental impacts of new product development and assess positive or negative cradle-to-grave life-cycle impacts. Life cycle assessment has been used to characterize the CF of representative field-grown and container-grown landscape plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-239

Calibrating Boom Sprayers for Turf Applications

3/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved is too confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. Whereas, over applying can be bad for the environment, damage the grass, and wastes money. There are several methods for calibrating sprayers. Choose the one that makes the most sense to you. Three different methods are described below. All these methods are reliable and will provide very similar application accuracy.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 1.08 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-238

Establishing and Managing Bermudagrasses in the Transition Zone

11/12/2018 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Bermudagrasses have been successfully grown on athletic fields and golf courses in the transition zone for many years. Although each year some level of winterkill threat exists, bermudagrass remains an excellent surface for golf and sports. Seeded varieties of bermudagrasses have been the most common choices in Kentucky due to the availability of seed of good varieties as well as the ease of planting seed versus living plant material. There are, however, several outstanding vegetative bermudagrass cultivars that are adapted to the transition zone.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-70

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

4/9/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-206

Lawn Management: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 15

3/5/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, A.J. Powell

Turf is the foundation of a quality landscape. It improves the beauty of other ornamentals and provides a safe recreational surface. Quality lawns greatly increase the economic and sociological value of urban homes. They beautify and reduce the often harsh urban environment by decreasing noise, glare, heat, dust, and mud. Lawns and other recreational turf areas are an integral part of our daily activities.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 22



AGR-237

Grass Options for Athletic Fields in the Transition Zone

3/2/2018 (new)
Authors: Nicole Mundell

There are several grasses that will grow in the transition zone, but none all that well. Our summers are often too hot for cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and our winters are often too cold for warm-season grasses like bermudagrass. Keep in mind, however, that the problem with most poor athletic fields is not grass selection, but rather over use, lack of maintenance, and/or use when field is wet or cannot recover.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 2.32 mb
Pages: 3



HO-119

Reducing Heat Stress to Container-Grown Plants

11/14/2017 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

Production of plants in containers offer many advantages over field production. Shorter production cycles, larger numbers of plants per acre, and the ability to continuously market and ship plants are among those advantages. However, there are some disadvantages including more intense cultural practices, a relatively short window of optimum marketability due to container size restrictions, and rapid daily temperature fluctuations within the container substrate (growing medium). This publication will provide information about plant response to high root-zone temperatures, identify critical temperatures, describe the factors that influence temperature fluctuations, and suggest cultural practices to reduce heat stress in container-grown plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.24 mb
Pages: 6



ID-244

Landscape Site Assessment

9/6/2017 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Rick Durham, Bill Fountain

The most common reason trees and shrubs fail to perform as anticipated is that their cultural requirements differ from the site characteristics. People often plant things they know and love from a distant state, purchase because they are on sale, or find attractive but don't understand the environmental requirements. In some cases, a site can be easily modified to make it more suitable for a desired species. Most of the time, it is difficult or impossible to change the site characteristics enough for the plant to thrive. Appropriate watering is essential for establishment of recently transplanted trees and shrubs. This becomes even more important (and challenging) for plants poorly matched to their sites. Selecting plant species that will thrive under particular site conditions is an easier and less expensive option. The first step in doing this is to understand the site where you plan to plant.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 125 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-76

Woody Cuts

8/22/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 909 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-26

Volutella Blight of Boxwood

8/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses
Size: 1.57 mb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-71

Garden Mums

7/13/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-25

Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine

7/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, trees
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 3



AGR-228

Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone

5/31/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Bermudagrass is an excellent choice for use on athletic fields throughout the transition zone (which includes Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and Missouri) because of its tolerance to close cutting heights, summer vigor, positive traction characteristics for athletes, resistance to divoting and ability to withstand and recover from significant traffic during active growth. The major limitation to successful bermudagrass persistence in transition zone locations is a general lack of cold tolerance and susceptibility to winterkill.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 6.63 mb
Pages: 10



PPFS-OR-H-1

Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals

5/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 19



CCD-CP-127

Lavender

4/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 897 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-225

Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017

1/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: mb
Pages: 96



ID-240

What Is Your Tree Worth?

12/22/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain

Occasionally, through no fault of your own, your valuable trees and landscape plants may be damaged. Landscape appraisers are called on to assess individual plants and entire landscapes as a result of storms, human damage, destruction, and failure. Appraisals are an estimate of the nature, quality, value, or utility of an interest or an aspect of real estate.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 903 kb
Pages: 5



ID-241

After Your Ash Has Died: Making an Informed Decision on What to Replant

12/22/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Bill Fountain, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Unfortunately the emerald ash borer is only the latest in a series of invasive pests that have recently decimated our trees. Here, we provide basic information on the death of our ash trees and what types of species are less likely to be impacted by invasive insects and diseases in the future.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 247 kb
Pages: 5



CCD-CP-58

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

11/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, production practices
Size: 503 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-50

Lawn Establishment in Kentucky

7/27/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

The methods you use, the grass you select and the time of year that you plant your lawn will often determine the quality and ease of maintenance. When it comes to establishing a new lawn, the key is to do everything properly from the start so you will not have to try to fix the lawn once it is established.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 3.04 mb
Pages: 6



AGR-55

Turf Care Calendar for Cool-Season Lawns in Kentucky

7/22/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Cool-season lawns include Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, fine fescues, and perennial ryegrass. This calendar identifies lawn management practices and the best times of the year to perform them.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 119 kb
Pages: 1



CCD-CP-54

Goldenseal

4/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 582 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-220

A No-math Method of Calibrating Backpack Sprayers and Lawn Care Spray Guns

4/7/2016 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved in the process is confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too much can be bad for the environment, injure the grass, and also wastes money. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. There are several methods that will calibrate sprayers but the no-math method is likely the most simple and reduces the chance of errors.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



CCD-CP-67

Christmas Trees

8/18/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 492 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-216

Turfgrasses of Kentucky

8/17/2015 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 8.50 mb
Pages: 12



AGR-218

Herbicide Recommendations for Weed Control in Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns for Professional Applicators

3/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gregg Munshaw

The best method to control weeds is to grow a dense and healthy lawn. This objective should be primary for turf professionals. Lawn weed control is facilitated by identification of the turfgrass and weed species present. Not all herbicides will control all weeds, and not all herbicides are safe on all lawn grasses. This publication contains herbicide recommendations for licensed professionals. For information on weed control for non-professionals, see AGR 208: Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 240 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-59

Hanging Baskets

11/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 631 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-115

Irrigation Tips to Conserve Water and Grow a Healthy Lawn

11/11/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw

The goal of water conservation in the landscape does not need to be as drastic as eliminating all irrigation, but we should choose plant material wisely and decide if and when irrigation is necessary. This publication is designed to promote a healthy lawn through watering while promoting water conservation through best management practices. One of the easiest things you can do to reduce the need for irrigation in your yard is to plant species that naturally need less water. When choosing plants, remember that just because a particular plant is drought tolerant does not mean that it is suitable for Kentucky's climate.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 892 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-51

Improving Turf Through Renovation

11/3/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Often a poor lawn can be improved by using proper maintenance practices, including mowing, fertilizing, watering, and pest control. In some instances, however, portions of the lawn must be reseeded. Usually one of two methods is used to re-establish a lawn: conventional or renovation. The conventional method involves killing existing vegetation, tilling the soil, and replanting. The advantages of conventional tillage include more complete control of weeds and undesirable grass, a smoother soil surface, and the opportunity to improve the existing soil by adding organic matter and sand. Renovation involves replanting without completely tilling the soil and often without destroying all existing vegetation.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 5



AGR-54

Aerifying and Dethatching Lawns

11/3/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Lawns in Kentucky will occasionally suffer due to compacted (hard) soils and excessive thatch layers. Although most lawns will not have problems with these issues, you may occasionally need to dethatch or aerify (core) to maintain a high quality lawn.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.40 mb
Pages: 4



ID-222

Considering the Environment in the Maintenance of Your Kentucky Lawn: A Season by Season Approach

7/30/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Most people do not realize the environmental benefits of lawns. Lawns are known to cool the air, reduce soil erosion, remove dust and pollutants (including CO2) from the air, reduce run-off of water and pollutants, create oxygen for humans, and improve soils over time by supplying organic matter. Lawns are also important aesthetically and have been shown to improve human well-being. However, to be 100 percent environmentally friendly, we could never fertilize or water our lawns and only mow with a self-propelled reel mower. Or, we could get rid of our lawn altogether. Neither of these options is particularly appealing for most people. We can, however, have a high quality lawn and reduce our impact on the environment by doing some very simple things at the right times of the year. The following guide will walk you through a series of steps that are important for keeping your lawn looking thick and healthy and at the same time reducing pests and the need for chemicals and other inputs.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 9.00 mb
Pages: 8



ID-50

Shade Tree Decline and Related Problems

7/1/2014 (major revision)
Authors: Jamie Dockery, Kristin Goodin, Cheryl Kaiser, Delia Scott, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Jeremy Williams

Woody plant stress has many causes that might ultimately lead to plant decline. Tree and shrub degeneration is often referred to as a "complex," meaning the condition is usually caused by multiple factors. Typically, one or more primary stresses cause deterioration of plant health, followed by secondary pathogens and/or insects that further decline or destroy plants. Determining causes of decline requires careful examination of plants and growing sites, as well as knowledge of site history. Nevertheless, diagnoses may be difficult, as the original cause(s) of plant stress may be obscure or no longer present. Some of the most common plant stresses are addressed in this publication. A wider range of possible causes of plant stress and decline should be considered during evaluation of woody plant material.

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 9.00 mb
Pages: 11



CCD-CP-64

Poinsettias

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 409 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-72

Ornamental Corn

4/24/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 643 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-75

Willows for Cuttings

7/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



ID-52

What's Wrong with My Taxus?

6/5/2013 (major revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser, Lee Townsend, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Taxus (yew) is an evergreen shrub commonly found in Kentucky landscapes. Numerous conditions can cause these shrubs to exhibit yellowing and browning symptoms. While diseases and insect pests can result in damage, Taxus troubles are often the result of adverse growing conditions. Pinpointing the specific cause requires a thorough examination of the affected shrub, an investigation of the surrounding area, and knowledge of possible stress factors.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses
Size: 2.30 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-209

Mowing Your Kentucky Lawn

4/15/2013 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Mowing is a recurring cutting of a portion of a grass shoot. Lawns are mowed to maintain topgrowth within a specific range, to control weed plants that are intolerant to mowing, or to sustain an ornamental turf. Mowing is usually thought of as the most simple of lawn maintenance practices; however, even though we perform it more than any other, it can result in mistakes.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 4.50 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-208

Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns

2/25/2013 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gregg Munshaw

The best defense against weed problems in home lawns is a healthy and dense lawn. In thick lawns, weed seeds may not germinate because light may never reach the soil surface. A thick lawn is competitive with weeds, keeping them from growing and reproducing. Developing a healthy and dense lawn comes from using cultural practices such as proper grass species and cultivar selection, proper mowing heights and fertilization, and other good management practices. The need for herbicides to control weeds in home lawns can be greatly reduced if the lawn is well maintained.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 390 kb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-69

Edible Flowers

9/5/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 396 kb
Pages: 3



ID-203

Trees, Turf, and People

8/6/2012 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Gregg Munshaw

The shade trees and fruit trees that we treasure in our landscapes were originally adapted to growing in forests in close association with other trees. In the forest they can remain small for many years. As soon as there is an opening in the canopy allowing light to reach the forest floor they grow rapidly. This great height allows trees to assume a place of dominance over other plants; their trunks lift their leaves high into the air, allowing them to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight before it reaches other plants. Thus, trees grow tall and provide us with their much-appreciated shade.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees, turfgrass
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 4



ID-88

Woody Plant Disease Control Guide for Kentucky

3/22/2012 (major revision)
Authors: Win Dunwell, Bill Fountain, Cheryl Kaiser, Kenny Seebold, Sarah Vanek, Paul Vincelli, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Management of woody plant diseases usually combines preventative and curative practices, including a focus on plant health, sanitation, cultivar selection, and pesticides.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses
Size: 3.70 mb
Pages: 16



HO-70

Preserving Flowers and Foliage

3/8/2006 (minor revision)
Authors: Sharon Bale

Dried flowers, pine cones, grasses, and seed heads are popular materials for decorative arrangements and craft projects. Using a wide variety of plant material gives the best results, and you may find an assortment of usable plants throughout the entire growing season. A preservation method exists for just about any type of plant or flower, depending on how much time and expense you are willing to commit to the project.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: crops and plants, flowers, garden and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 298 kb
Pages: 6



ID-68

The Flowering Crabapple

10/1/1999 (minor revision)
Authors: Rick Durham, Bill Fountain, John Hartman, Bob McNeil, Dan Potter

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 331 kb
Pages: 6



ID-55

Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree's Health

1/1/1996 (reprinted)
Authors: Win Dunwell, John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser, Bob McNeil, Mary Witt

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 200 kb
Pages: 3



ID-80

Transplanting Trees and Shrubs

11/1/1990 (reprinted)
Authors: Bill Fountain, John Hartman, Mary Witt

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 8



AGR-12

Weeds of Kentucky Turf

3/1/1961 (new)
Authors: J.W. Herron, Jim Martin, A.J. Powell

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: crops and plants, garden and landscape, ornamental plants, pests, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 2.19 mb
Pages: 24