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ornamental plants


AGR-245

Nitrogen for Kentucky Turfgrasses

2/13/2020 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is required by turfgrass in larger quantities than any other mineral nutrient because the plant demand for N is high and the supply of N from the natural environment is normally low. In instances where N is not applied according to the University of Kentucky recommendations, applied N can increase the risk of surface and ground water contamination. The objective of this document is to describe the function of N in turfgrass, explain how soil and tissue tests can be used to manage N applications, and to describe the various N fertilizer sources available for application to turfgrass.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 168 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-246

Iron for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/20/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Iron (Fe) is commonly applied using granular or foliar sources to enhance turfgrass color. Iron applications can result in darker green turfgrass as a result of increased Fe uptake or Fe oxidation on the leaf surface. In many cases, Fe results in no turfgrass response at all. Understanding the dynamics of Fe both in the plant and in the soil can enhance your nutrient management programs. The objective of this publication is to explain the function of Fe within the plant, describe the Fe sources available for turfgrasses, and identify which Fe fertilizers are most effective.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-242

Calcium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calcium (Ca) is the dominant cation in all soils of agronomic importance and Kentucky soils are no different. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Ca. Consequently, Ca deficiency in Kentucky turfgrasses is extremely rare, and the probability of observing a Ca response on golf courses, home lawns, sod production, or sports fields is very low. Applying Ca fertilizers to artificially increase soil Ca above the level necessary for proper plant growth normally does not result in an increase in plant uptake because Ca uptake is genetically controlled. Regardless, Ca is commonly applied in both granular and liquid forms.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 112 kb
Pages: 2



AGR-243

Magnesium for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Magnesium is an essential element for all plants. Soluble magnesium (Mg) exists in soils primarily as Mg2+, a positively charged divalent cation. Kentucky soils are naturally high in Mg and, thus, Mg applications to turfgrass are normally unnecessary. However, turfgrasses grown in sand-based rootzones, such as golf course putting greens and sand-based sports fields, are prone to Mg deficiency. When Mg is necessary, it is essential to understand the function of Mg in the plant, the dynamics of Mg in the soil, and the forms of Mg fertilizers.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 826 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-244

Phosphorus for Kentucky Turfgrasses

12/19/2019 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and a common component of many turfgrass nutrition programs. Although P application can improve turfgrass quality in some soils, most soils of Kentucky already have adequate plant-available P to support healthy turfgrass growth. What is the function of P within the plant, and how much P is required to sustain acceptable turfgrass in Kentucky? Also, if P applications are necessary, when and how should P be applied?

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, nutrient management, ornamental plants, production practices, turfgrass
Size: 481 kb
Pages: 4



HO-123

What Is a Carbon Footprint and How Does It Relate to Landscape Plants?

6/10/2019 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram, Josh Knight

Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a product or activity. The objective of this publication is enhance the reader's understanding of carbon footprint (CF) terminology and the science underlying its determination. Having such an understanding is necessary for managers and developers to minimize the negative environmental impacts of new product development and assess positive or negative cradle-to-grave life-cycle impacts. Life cycle assessment has been used to characterize the CF of representative field-grown and container-grown landscape plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 450 kb
Pages: 5



AGR-239

Calibrating Boom Sprayers for Turf Applications

3/12/2019 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Calibrating application equipment is something many people avoid because they believe it is too time consuming or that the math involved is too confusing. Calibration, however, is critical. Applying too little can result in poor pest control and can lead to pesticide resistance. Whereas, over applying can be bad for the environment, damage the grass, and wastes money. There are several methods for calibrating sprayers. Choose the one that makes the most sense to you. Three different methods are described below. All these methods are reliable and will provide very similar application accuracy.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 1.08 mb
Pages: 4



AGR-238

Establishing and Managing Bermudagrasses in the Transition Zone

11/12/2018 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Travis Shaddox

Bermudagrasses have been successfully grown on athletic fields and golf courses in the transition zone for many years. Although each year some level of winterkill threat exists, bermudagrass remains an excellent surface for golf and sports. Seeded varieties of bermudagrasses have been the most common choices in Kentucky due to the availability of seed of good varieties as well as the ease of planting seed versus living plant material. There are, however, several outstanding vegetative bermudagrass cultivars that are adapted to the transition zone.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 900 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-70

Field-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

4/9/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Cut flowers can be grown in open fields or in protected environments such as high tunnels or environmentally controlled greenhouses and sold fresh or dried. Non-flowering cut stems, such as seed heads, stalks and woody cuts, may also be grown for floral or decorative purposes. Cut flowers and cut stems are well-suited to small-scale production and are a good way to diversify or expand an existing farm operation. Specialty cut flowers can be sold by the stem, in bunches, or in mixed bouquets or value-added products.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 729 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-237

Grass Options for Athletic Fields in the Transition Zone

3/2/2018 (new)
Authors: Nicole Mundell

There are several grasses that will grow in the transition zone, but none all that well. Our summers are often too hot for cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass and our winters are often too cold for warm-season grasses like bermudagrass. Keep in mind, however, that the problem with most poor athletic fields is not grass selection, but rather over use, lack of maintenance, and/or use when field is wet or cannot recover.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 2.32 mb
Pages: 3



HO-119

Reducing Heat Stress to Container-Grown Plants

11/14/2017 (new)
Authors: Dewayne Ingram

Production of plants in containers offer many advantages over field production. Shorter production cycles, larger numbers of plants per acre, and the ability to continuously market and ship plants are among those advantages. However, there are some disadvantages including more intense cultural practices, a relatively short window of optimum marketability due to container size restrictions, and rapid daily temperature fluctuations within the container substrate (growing medium). This publication will provide information about plant response to high root-zone temperatures, identify critical temperatures, describe the factors that influence temperature fluctuations, and suggest cultural practices to reduce heat stress in container-grown plants.

Departments: Horticulture
Series: Horticulture (HO series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.24 mb
Pages: 6



CCD-CP-76

Woody Cuts

8/22/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Woody cuts are portions of woody ornamentals used for floral or decorative purposes. These include foliage, flowering branches, fruit and seeds, as well as bare stems and branches. Numerous shrubs, trees, and woody vines can be grown commercially for these purposes. Cut flower growers may want to add woody cuts to their production line to diversify their products, expand their markets, and extend the floral season. Growers will need to be familiar with the different production and harvest requirements of a diverse group of plant material.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 909 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-71

Garden Mums

7/13/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

The garden mum (Chrysanthemum spp.) is a popular herbaceous perennial flowering plant that is commonly grown for fall sales. While also referred to as 'hardy mums,' their actual hardiness outdoors (that is, their ability to survive the winter) can vary by cultivar, time of planting, and environmental conditions. Garden mums are generally container-grown in Kentucky, either in a greenhouse or outdoors in connection with a greenhouse business; there is also some field production in the state.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 1.50 mb
Pages: 3



AGR-228

Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone

5/31/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Bermudagrass is an excellent choice for use on athletic fields throughout the transition zone (which includes Virginia, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and Missouri) because of its tolerance to close cutting heights, summer vigor, positive traction characteristics for athletes, resistance to divoting and ability to withstand and recover from significant traffic during active growth. The major limitation to successful bermudagrass persistence in transition zone locations is a general lack of cold tolerance and susceptibility to winterkill.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 6.63 mb
Pages: 10



CCD-CP-127

Lavender

4/25/2017 (new)
Authors: Matthew Ernst

Large-scale lavender production in Kentucky is limited by climatic requirements (low humidity and low winter temperatures ), poorly drained soils and the scale requirements for essential oils processing. Lavender could be suited as a specialty/niche crop for some Kentucky farms, especially those with ongoing agritourism enterprises. Marketing constraints and the scale requirements for essential oils processing make lavender more likely suited as a crop for ornamental or on-farm agritourism potential (lavender festivals) in Kentucky.

Departments: Agricultural Economics
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 897 kb
Pages: 3



AGR-225

Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals, 2017

1/19/2017 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

This newly expanded guide provides weed identification and control information that turfgrass professionals can use to develop effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms, lawns, and other turfgrass systems. The recommendations apply to the majority of the United States, with input from experts in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Available for purchase from Purdue University.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass, weeds
Size: mb
Pages: 96



CCD-CP-58

Greenhouse-grown Specialty Cut Flowers

11/11/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

"Specialty cut flowers" generally refers to cut flower species other than roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums. Some of the specialty cut flowers that can be grown successfully in Kentucky greenhouses, or other protected environments such as high tunnels, include anemone (Anemone spp.), Asiatic or oriental lilies (Lilium spp.), bachelor button or cornflower (Centaurea spp.), celosia or cockscomb (Celosia spp.), coral bell (Heuchera hybrids), freesia (Freesia hybrids), larkspur (Delphinium spp.), lisianthus (Eustoma spp.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp.), pollenless sunflowers (Helianthis annus) and zinnias (Zinnia spp.), and sweetpea (Lathyrus odoratus).

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: equipment and structures, flowers, greenhouse, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, production practices
Size: 503 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-54

Goldenseal

4/15/2016 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky is a major harvester of wild goldenseal. Unfortunately, a decline in native populations has occurred as demand and harvesting pressure has increased. Like ginseng, goldenseal is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) agreement. As such, international trade of goldenseal is closely controlled to prevent over-exploitation that could lead to further endangering the species.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 582 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-67

Christmas Trees

8/18/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Christmas trees can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. This enterprise can fit in well with an existing farm or nursery operation. While Christmas tree production does have a high profitability potential, it is also a long-term, risky investment requiring periods of intensive labor.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, trees
Size: 492 kb
Pages: 4



AGR-216

Turfgrasses of Kentucky

8/17/2015 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw

Roughly 7,500 grass species are grown around the world, but only 14 species are adapted as turfgrasses that have been used extensively. Kentucky is situated in the transitional climatic zone of the United States, the middle point between the cool north and the warm south, with warm summers and cool winters. Because of its unusual climate, no single grass is suitable for all situations and locations. The majority of the turfgrasses that are appropriate for use in Kentucky are known as C3 grasses, or cool-season grasses. Cool-season grasses differ from warm-season grasses (C4) in many ways, but most notably in their photosynthetic pathways. Warm-season grasses can tolerate and even thrive during the warm summers while cool-season grasses may become heat-stressed. Conversely, winters in Kentucky may be too cool for warm-season grasses and greenup in the spring may be long and arduous. Warm-season grasses enter a dormancy period during the fall and winter and may stay in this state as long as six or seven months.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass
Size: 8.50 mb
Pages: 12



AGR-218

Herbicide Recommendations for Weed Control in Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue Lawns for Professional Applicators

3/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Mike Barrett, J.D. Green, Gregg Munshaw

The best method to control weeds is to grow a dense and healthy lawn. This objective should be primary for turf professionals. Lawn weed control is facilitated by identification of the turfgrass and weed species present. Not all herbicides will control all weeds, and not all herbicides are safe on all lawn grasses. This publication contains herbicide recommendations for licensed professionals. For information on weed control for non-professionals, see AGR 208: Weed Control for Kentucky Home Lawns.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences
Series: Agronomy (AGR series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, turfgrass, weeds
Size: 240 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-59

Hanging Baskets

11/26/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Incorporating hanging baskets in with bedding plant production enables growers to generate income from otherwise unused space above benches and in walkways. Hanging baskets can fetch a higher price (on a per plant basis) than small pots and can, therefore, enhance the profitability of greenhouse bedding plant operations. In some cases, growers may devote whole greenhouses or sections of greenhouses to hanging basket production.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 631 kb
Pages: 4



CCD-CP-64

Poinsettias

5/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima) are subtropical plants which originated in Mexico and Guatemala. In their native climate, poinsettias are small woody shrubs that may reach a height of over 10 feet. In the U.S. poinsettias are grown as indoor potted plants popular at Christmas time. While the showy bracts are suggestive of flower petals, they are really modified leaves. The actual poinsettia flowers are less conspicuous by comparison, forming a yellow to red cluster in the center of the bracts.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 409 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-72

Ornamental Corn

4/24/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Ornamental corn (Zea mays) production currently represents a new crop for Kentucky, in terms of limited University of Kentucky research. There are many kinds of ornamental corn, varying in ear size, kernel color, husk, and stalk color. Some cultivars have red or purple stalks and leaves that are sold for decorative purposes.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 643 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-75

Willows for Cuttings

7/18/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Willows (Salix spp.), well known for their flexible and vigorous growth, have long been popular in basket and furniture making. A versatile woody plant, various species can also be used for trellises, fencing, floral arrangements, and artistic sculptures. Its fast growth makes willow a popular landscape ornamental, as well as a potential bioenergy crop. This profile will emphasize the production of willows for live cuttings and dried rods.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, specialty items
Size: 430 kb
Pages: 3



CCD-CP-69

Edible Flowers

9/5/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Matthew Ernst, Cheryl Kaiser

Edible flowers can complement a cut flower or herb business, providing additional opportunities for value-added products. However, they require a specialized niche market that may take some time to develop. Flowers intended for human consumption must be grown without pesticides, providing organic growers a production edge. Plant material obtained from most commercial florists, garden centers, and nurseries is not pesticide-free and, therefore, is NOT suitable for consumption.

Departments: Agricultural Economics, Plant Pathology
Series: Crop Profiles: Center for Crop Diversification (CCD-CP series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants
Size: 396 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-6

Poinsettia Diseases

5/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias grown through the fall months for Christmas sales are vulnerable to destructive diseases from the time the cuttings are stuck into the rooting media until they are mature and ready for sale. A number of poinsettia diseases are favored by the same environmental conditions that promote propagation, making plant material at this stage particularly vulnerable. Diseases occurring in the later stages of production can be related to management issues or cultural problems, as well as the cooler temperatures needed for finishing. Some other diseases can be problematic to poinsettias at any phase of production. And finally, a phytoplasma organism found associated with poinsettias provides evidence that some host/pathogen relationships can actually be economically beneficial.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, plant diseases
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 6