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plant diseases


ID-260

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Peach in Kentucky

6/8/2020 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky peach plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, garden and landscape, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 20.77 mb
Pages: 28



PPA-1

Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases, 2020

11/19/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Turgrasses under intensive management are often subject to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Good turf management practices often greatly reduce the impact of disease by promoting healthy plants that are better able to resist infections. Even under good management, however, diseases sometimes cause excessive damage to highly managed turfgrasses. The proper use of fungicides in these instances, in conjunction with good cultural practices that promote quality turf, can be an important part of an overall disease-management program.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, turfgrass
Size: 1.10 mb
Pages: 34



PPFS-GEN-1

Crown Gall

10/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Embry, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Crown gall can affect a wide range of crops, including woody ornamentals, tree fruits and small fruits. Some vegetable and herbaceous ornamentals are also susceptible but these crops are less commonly affected.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Strawberry Diseases

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 398 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-2

Apple Fruit Diseases Appearing at Harvest

8/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases of apple fruits appearing at harvest can cause significant losses in yield and quality. To know what control measures to take next year to prevent similar losses, it is important to recognize what is being observed. In some cases, growers will need to cut the fruit open to identify the problem.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 306 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-24

Bitter Rot of Apple

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Madison McCulloch, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Bitter rot is the most common fruit rot of apple in Kentucky. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings can suffer devastating losses. Growers consider bitter rot the most important fruit rot and the second most destructive disease in Kentucky apple orchards. Yield losses can range from 10% to 100%.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-25

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Apple Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

egrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 986 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-26

Cultural Calendar for Commercial Peach Production

8/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated pest management (IPM) includes the combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in efforts to manage diseases and pests while minimizing risks associated with pesticides. Cultural practices are an integral part of an IPM program and should be incorporated into all commercial systems whether large or small, conventional or organic. This publication provides recommended practices at approximate growth stages and/or production periods. However, these timelines are approximate and may require adjustment for particular conditions. Growers who encounter situations that may not align with suggestions here should contact their county Extension office for assistance. Extension offices can also provide updated pest management recommendations. This cultural guide serves as a supplement to published spray guides and scouting guides.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: fruits, nursery and landscape, plant diseases
Size: 1.39 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-AG-C-9

Curvularia Leaf Spot

7/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Curvularia leaf spot is a corn disease that was reported for the first time in the United States in Louisiana in 2017, and was confirmed in Kentucky in 2018. While the impact of Curvularia leaf spot in Kentucky is not yet known, this disease causes yield loss in tropical areas, and is considered to be one of the most important diseases of corn in China. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and foliar diseases that have similar symptoms.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.78 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-5

Maintaining the Efficacy of Foliar Fungicides for Tobacco Disease Management

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer

Management of resistance to fungicides is based on alternating the use of particular modes of action, or FRAC groups, which essentially presents multiple different challenges to the fungal population. Overall, fungi that are naturally resistant to a mode of action are very rare in the environment. Challenging a population with multiple different modes of action will reduce the chance of developing widespread resistance, which will prolong the efficacy of these chemicals.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 473 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-18

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Grape Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 407 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-21

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Blueberry

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial blueberry growers (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-23

Simplified Backyard Grape Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson

A simplified backyard grape spray guide (table).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 351 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-24

Backyard Grape Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard grape production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.21 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-25

Backyard Berry Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard berry (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.04 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-26

Commercial Strawberry Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A fungicide spray guide and worksheet for commercial strawberry growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 230 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-15

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Apple Diseases

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 385 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-18

Simplified Backyard Apple Spray Guides

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Beth Wilson

Apple production requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Pulaski County
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 626 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-20

Simplified Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Spray Guide

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, and cherry are all stone fruits. Production of these tree fruits requires pest and disease management programs for quality fruit. Home orchards are no different. Homeowners, however, are generally more tolerant of aesthetic maladies or minor crop losses than commercial orchardists. Thus, homeowners may choose to limit numbers of insecticide and fungicide sprays. Disease resistant cultivars are the preferred method for reducing spray inputs.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 672 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-21

Backyard Apple and Pear Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard apple production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. While intensive culture may result in the highest quality fruit, reduced inputs can result in acceptable fruit with minor crop losses or aesthetic maladies. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 1.01 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-22

Backyard Peach and Stone Fruit Disease, Pest, and Cultural Practices Calendar

7/1/2019 (reviewed)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kimberly Leonberger, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Backyard stone fruit (peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry) production requires a proactive approach to disease, insect, and weed management. Preventative practices are recommended to minimize inputs. This guide focuses on preventative cultural practices with options of low-input pesticide applications. Refer to the homeowner fruit spray guide (ID-21) for a more complete pesticide spray schedule.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, organic production, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 890 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-23

Commercial Peach/Stone Fruit Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A spray schedule worksheet for commercial peach/stone fruit growers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 458 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GEN-15

Considerations for Diagnosis of Ornamentals in the Landscape

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Amy Aldenderfer, Adam Leonberger, Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diagnosing plant problems can be challenging. A site visit can provide the information necessary for a complete and accurate diagnosis. However, once on-site, it is important to know how to proceed. The following guidelines are intended to assist in the process of gathering pertinent information and determining a possible cause. Often abiotic conditions such as environment, mechanical damage, or living organisms like insects or wildlife may be to blame. Should the field site diagnosis be inconclusive and samples need to be submitted to the UK Plant Diagnostic Laboratories, the information gathered here can provide valuable supplementary information.

Departments: County Extension, Franklin County, Hardin County, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 3.38 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-2

Reducing the Risk of Resistance to Fungicides Used to Control Diseases of Turfgrasses

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Fungicides can be an important tactic in an overall integrated program for turf disease control. In order to insure that products available today remain available in the future, golf course superintendents should be aware of the need to use fungicides in ways that minimize the risk of fungicide resistance.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-1

Black Rot of Crucifers

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: David Davis, Emily Pfeufer

Black rot, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), can be a very destructive disease of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Other susceptible crucifers include: collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, turnip, mustard, radish, and rutabaga.

Departments: Clark County, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 227 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-10

Foliar Diseases of Cucurbits

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, gourds, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the foliage of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 327 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-11-QF

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits Quick Facts

7/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Steve Osborne, Kenny Seebold

Highlights from the publication Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits, PPFS-VG-11.

Departments: County Extension, Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 786 kb
Pages: 2



ID-254

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Grape in Kentucky

6/11/2019 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Patsy Wilson, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky grape plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.40 mb
Pages: 36



PPFS-FR-T-14

Effectiveness of Fungicides for Management of Stone Fruit Diseases

6/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications, including ID-232, or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 401 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-24

Biological Products for Tomato Disease Management

6/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Erica Fealko, Emily Pfeufer

Disease management products with biologically-based active ingredients are often labeled for numerous diseases, but can vary markedly in their efficacy. This Extension publication summarizes factors to consider when choosing biological controls and data available pertaining to tomato disease management efficacy.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, nursery and landscape, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 268 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-T-7

Kentucky Turfgrass Disease Calendar

5/1/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

A graphic representation showing the times of year that diseases of cool-season grasses are likely.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 161 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-19

Commercial Apple Fungicide Spray Schedule Worksheet and Sample Spray Guide

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample spray guide and spray schedule worksheet.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 337 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-7

Homeowner's Guide to Fungicides

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases in home gardens, orchards, and landscapes do not always cause total losses, but they can be serious problems if left unmanaged. As a rule, chemicals are not recommended as the only means of disease control for homeowners. Cultural practices such as sanitation, irrigation management, attention to plant health, rotation, and selection of disease-resistant varieties are usually enough to control diseases. Chemicals may be required, though, and should be used as a supplement to good management practices.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 491 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-GEN-8

Simplified Fungicide Guide for Backyard Fruit

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This fungicide spray guide is intended as a supplement to the more detailed spray schedule available in Disease and Insect Control Programs for Homegrown Fruit in Kentucky, Including Organic Alternatives, ID-21.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 431 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-19

Sustainable Disease Management of Cucurbit Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cucurbit vining crops include cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloupe, pumpkins, zucchini, and summer and winter squashes, and can be highly productive plants in small gardens. During wet summers, downy mildew and fungal leaf spot diseases tend to occur, while in drier summers, powdery mildew is the most common disease. Gardens with cucumber beetle pressure are much more likely to have plants affected by bacterial wilt, since striped and spotted cucumber beetles can carry the bacterial wilt pathogen.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 995 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-20

Sustainable Disease Management of Leafy Green Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Leafy greens are great garden plants as a result of their short seasons, ease of growing, and ability to be succession planted. In wet summers, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry summers. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden. Lettuce drop, caused by the Sclerotinia fungus, can become a multi-year problem and may spread to different families of plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 896 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-21

Sustainable Disease Management of Solanaceous Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Solanaceous crops, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes, may be the most popular garden plants, but many diseases commonly affect them. Early blight and Septoria leaf spot occur each year under even the best disease management, and bacterial spot may be spread easily under rainy conditions. A combination of approaches, such as using resistant varieties, record-keeping, cultural, and chemical management, is the best practice for minimizing vegetable garden diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 874 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-22

Sustainable Disease Management of Legume Vegetable Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Beans and peas, both legume crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens for multiple reasons. These plants are affected by few of the diseases that affect other popular garden plants. Beans and peas increase nitrogen fertility where they are planted, enriching the soil for the plants that are to follow them in a rotation. These plants can be extremely productive, and are a great source of dietary fiber and, in some cases, vegetable protein.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 460 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-23

Sustainable Disease Management of Cole Crops in the Home Garden

4/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Emily Pfeufer

Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts, all cole crops, are excellent plants to integrate into gardens. During wet seasons, bacterial diseases, fungal leaf spots, and downy mildew are common problems, while powdery mildew is more common during dry seasons. Bacterial diseases are also benefited by hot weather with occasional strong storms, which injure plants and spread pathogens in the garden.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, production practices, sustainabable agriculture, vegetables
Size: 788 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-27

Canker Sampling of Trees and Woody Ornamentals

3/1/2019 (new)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cankers on woody plants can result in dieback, decline, structural failure, or plant death. Cankers form when plant pathogens enter woody tissues. Plants stressed by poor planting practices, improper maintenance, extreme weather, insect damage, mechanical damage, or other wounds are at increased risk for infection by canker causing pathogens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.60 mb
Pages: 5



ID-232

Midwest Tree and Small Fruit Spray Guide, 2019-20

2/1/2019 (major revision)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

This guide provides pest management recommendations for commercial tree fruit, small fruit, and grape producers in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. These recommendations have been formulated to provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their application. This publication replaces two previous annual publications: The Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-168) and The Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-169).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 3.50 mb
Pages: 168



PPFS-FR-T-7

Plant Diseases of Fruit Prediction Models for Kentucky Counties

1/1/2019 (minor revision)
Authors: Kimberly Leonberger, Evan Tate, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Numerous plant diseases impact fruit crops throughout Kentucky. Factors such as plant growth stage, as well as rainfall, temperature, and other weather conditions, can be used to determine risk for plant disease. Prediction models are critical tools for growers, as they allow for protective management strategies to be deployed when disease risk is high. Use of these models can provide growers with cost savings, as unnecessary chemical applications are eliminated when risk of infection is low.

Departments: Hancock County, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.59 mb
Pages: 4



ID-251

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Brambles in Kentucky

9/13/2018 (new)
Authors: Daniel Becker, Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pathogen and pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pathogens and pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring for diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The images included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky blackberry and raspberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Mercer County, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, insect pests, plant diseases, weeds
Size: 2.50 mb
Pages: 32



PPFS-AG-C-8

Diplodia Leaf Streak

9/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Nolan Anderson, Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Diplodia leaf streak of corn is a disease that has become more prevalent in Kentucky in recent years. It is commonly observed in fields in western Kentucky and is easily confused with other corn foliar diseases. Small, round, dark brown-to-tan lesions are first observed on leaves. Dark concentric rings may be observed in the center of early lesions at the infection site on the leaf. These lesions expand lengthwise in long streaks from the infection point and form elongated elliptical lesions. In severe cases, lesions can coalesce to blight large areas of affected leaves.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-16

Southern Blight

8/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Southern blight affects hundreds of different plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals, and fruit. This disease is also known as southern stem blight, basal stem rot, Sclerotium blight, crown rot, and white mold (not to be confused with Sclerotinia white mold). Depending on host plant, production system, and environmental conditions, the severity of this disease can vary from a minor problem on isolated plants to extensive damage causing significant crop losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-20

Boxwood Blight

8/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Jamie Dockery, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Boxwood blight is a disease of boxwood (Buxus spp.), causing rapid defoliation and plant dieback. The fungal disease is particularly devastating to American boxwood cultivars, which can defoliate within a week and die within one growing season. Plants are eventually weakened by repeated defoliation and dieback, and resulting plant stress and consequent colonization by secondary invaders result in plant death.

Departments: Fayette County, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.44 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-AG-T-8

Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco, 2018

4/1/2018 (minor revision)
Authors: Will Barlow, Bob Pearce, Emily Pfeufer

The number of fungicides that are registered for use on tobacco in Kentucky is relatively small in comparison to the large array of products available to producers of other crops. Although growers have a limited number of fungicides from which to choose, those that are available are effective against most of the major diseases of roots, stems, and foliage.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 295.34 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-AG-T-2

Managing Rhizoctonia Damping-off and Target Spot in the Float System

3/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Damping-off and target spot occur each year in tobacco transplant crops in Kentucky. These diseases can cause significant levels of damage to tobacco seedlings. Once considered minor problems in float beds, both have increased steadily in importance in recent years. Sound management practices and early recognition of these diseases are keys to preventing serious losses during the transplant production cycle.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 727 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-T-3

Collar Rot in the Tobacco Float System

3/1/2018 (major revision)
Authors: Emily Pfeufer

Collar rot can be found in tobacco float beds each year in Kentucky, causing a great deal of concern when it makes its appearance. Severe losses to this disease tend to be rare but can occur if care is not taken to minimize risk of disease development and reduce spread after it appears.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 666 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-10

Possible Causes of Yellowing Alfalfa

2/16/2018 (new)
Authors: Chris Teutsch, Paul Vincelli, Kiersten Wise

During spring, several leaf spotting diseases--including Leptosphaerulina (Lepto) leaf spot and spring black stem/leaf spot--are common in alfalfa. Leaf spotting diseases result in distinct round to elongated spots that sometimes have a dark margin. Very wet weather in spring and early summer favor activity of leaf spotting diseases in first and second cuttings. Wet and humid weather during summer favor other leaf spotting and blighting diseases. All leaf spots and blights weaken plants, but alfalfa often outgrows the damage in later cuttings. Maintain a regular cutting schedule, cutting at 30- to 35-day intervals.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 754 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-7

Physoderma Brown Spot

2/1/2018 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Brenda Kennedy, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Physoderma brown spot can be a striking foliar disease that is periodically observed in field corn in Kentucky. This publication describes the symptoms and cause of disease, conditions that favor disease development, and options for disease management.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 743 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-C-5

Diplodia Ear Rot

10/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Diplodia ear rot can reduce yield and grain quality by damaging kernels, lowering grain test weight, and reducing grain fill. Incidence of affected ears in the field can vary from 1% or 2% to as high as 80%. Although mycotoxins have been associated with Diplodia ear rot in South America and South Africa, there have been no reports of livestock feeding issues due to mycotoxins linked to Diplodia ear rot in the United States.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 990 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-6

Holcus Leaf Spot

10/11/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Kiersten Wise

Holcus leaf spot, a bacterial disease, can be seen sporadically in Kentucky cornfields, and it is challenging to diagnose. This publication describes the disease symptoms, conditions that favor disease, and how to distinguish holcus spot from herbicide injury that can mimic this disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, production practices
Size: 889 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-48

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Wheat Diseases

9/28/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

The North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA-184) has developed the following information about fungicide efficacy for the control of certain foliar diseases of wheat for use by the grain production industry in the United States. The efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in this table were determined by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations by the members of the committee.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 1.40 mb
Pages: 2



PPA-49

Fungicide Efficacy for Control of Corn Diseases

9/28/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kiersten Wise

The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) developed ratings for how well fungicides control major corn diseases in the United States. The CDWG determined efficacy ratings for each fungicide listed in the table by field testing the materials over multiple years and locations. Ratings are based on the product's level of disease control and does not necessarily reflect yield increases obtained from product application. A product's efficacy depends upon proper application timing, rate, and application method as determined by the product label and overall disease level in the field at the time of application.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 1.12 mb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-26

Volutella Blight of Boxwood

8/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Adam Leonberger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Volutella blight (also called Pseudonectria canker) is the most common disease of boxwood in Kentucky landscapes and nurseries. This disease is caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen that attacks leaves and stems of damaged or stressed plants. Winter injury, poor vigor, and stem wounds increase risk for Volutella blight. All species and cultivars of boxwood are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses
Size: 1.57 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-6

Flowering Dogwood Diseases

8/1/2017 (major revision)
Authors: Sarah Stolz, Nicole Ward Gauthier

The flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-W-25

Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pine

7/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Walt Reichert, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Dothistroma needle blight disease afflicts some of the pine species commonly planted in Kentucky landscapes, resulting in needle browning and unattractive trees. Austrian pine and Mugo pine are most commonly affected. Dothistroma needle blight is infrequently observed on spruce. A closely related fungal disease called brown spot needle blight occasionally affects Scots pine or white pine, although this disease is less common in Kentucky.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, trees
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-H-1

Managing Diseases of Herbaceous Ornamentals

5/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Jay Hettmansperger, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Herbaceous landscape ornamentals can succumb to various adverse factors, including infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as fungi, fungus-like water molds, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and phytoplasmas. Abiotic or non-infectious diseases may be attributed to unfavorable growing conditions, which can include nutritional deficiencies, improper soil pH, extreme temperatures, excessive soil moisture, or drought. In order to determine the proper course of action for treatment, it is essential to accurately identify the specific cause(s).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: garden and landscape, plant diseases, shrubs and grasses, trees
Size: 3.14 mb
Pages: 19



PPA-30

Sampling for the Tall Fescue Endophyte in Pasture or Hay Stands

4/10/2017 (minor revision)
Authors: Ray Smith, Tina Tillery, Paul Vincelli

Most of the tall fescue growing in Kentucky is colonized by the tall fescue endophyte, a fungus which causes disorders in livestock that feed on the infected grass. The animal disease syndrome is called fescue toxicosis, which some researchers estimate may cost Kentucky producers over $200 million yearly. This problem can be greatly reduced by identifying the infected fields and replacing them with endophyte-free or novel endophyte tall fescue varieties or by managing them in a way to minimize the impact of the endophyte on herd productivity. One of the simplest ways to reduce toxicity symptoms in cattle is add red and white clover to existing tall fescue stands.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology, Regulatory Services
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, plant diseases
Size: 253 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-C-4

Stewart's Wilt of Corn

1/1/2017 (new)
Authors: Carl Bradley, Kelsey Mehl, Emily Pfeufer

Historically, Stewart's wilt of corn has resulted in losses for corn producers. Although this disease still occurs occasionally, it has become less prevalent in recent years in Kentucky and surrounding states. Stewart's wilt has been known by other names, such as bacterial leaf blight, Stewart's leaf blight, and maize bacteriosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 1.45 mb
Pages: 3



ID-238

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Strawberry in Kentucky

11/17/2016 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, Matthew Springer, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed (although rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders helps identify potential problems before serious losses result. This is essential to the IPM approach. The key to effective monitoring is accurate identification. The pictures included in this guide represent the more common abiotic and biotic problems that occur in Kentucky strawberry plantings.

Departments: Entomology, Forestry and Natural Resources, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 10.03 mb
Pages: 28



PPFS-MISC-7

Genetically Engineered Crops: A Review of Concerns and Benefits

10/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Genetically engineered crops are plants that have had their genetic material (DNA) purposefully manipulated in the laboratory to produce a particular beneficial outcome. These types of crops are often called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. Commercial genetically engineered crops are designed to have limited and precise genetic changes that provide one or more benefits to humans or the environment.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.26 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-24

Common Diseases of Spruce in Kentucky

6/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Spruce trees, particularly blue spruce (Picea pungens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies), are popular specimen trees and screening conifers in Kentucky landscapes. Unfortunately, they can present problems for homeowners as a result of poor vigor, dieback, or needle drop. A combination of infectious disease and environmental stress is often to blame.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.12 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-22

Sample Fungicide Spray Schedule for Commercial Bramble

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

A sample fungicide spray schedule for commercial bramble (table).

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 236 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GEN-13

Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control of Ornamental Plants

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included here as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and mention or listing of commercial products does not imply endorsement nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current STATE regulations and conforms to the product label. Examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 388 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-3

Fungicides for Management of Diseases in Commercial Greenhouse Ornamentals

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-14

Fungicides for Management of Landscape Woody Ornamental Diseases

4/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

This guide is a decision-making tool to help growers select fungicides from different chemical classes (FRAC). Additional information can be found in a number of UK Cooperative Extension Service publications or by contacting county Extension agents.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 118 kb
Pages: 3



PPA-46

Plant Diseases: Kentucky Master Gardener Manual Chapter 6

3/2/2016 (major revision)
Authors: Kelly Jackson, Kimberly Leonberger, Robbie Smith, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anyone who has ever planted a garden knows not only the rewards of beautiful flowers, fruit, and/or vegetables, but also the disappointment when plants become diseased or damaged. Many factors cause plants to exhibit poor vigor, changes in appearance, or even death. This chapter focuses on those living organisms that cause disease: fungi, water molds, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, and parasitic plants.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 5.00 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-FR-T-6

Cherry Leaf Spot

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Cherry leaf spot occurs on both sweet and sour cherry; however, it is considerably more serious on sour cherries. Premature defoliation from cherry leaf spot reduces flower bud set for the next year, weakens trees, and increases sensitivity to winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 500 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-GH-1

Managing Greenhouse and High Tunnel Environments to Reduce Plant Diseases

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Philip Konopka, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Greenhouse and high tunnel environments, which tend to be warm and humid, often create ideal situations for disease development. Environments favoring infection and spread of many disease pathogens include one or more of the following: high relative humidity (90% or above), free moisture (e.g., leaf wetness, wet soil), and/or warm temperature. Because diseases can cause extensive damage, their management is essential to production of high quality, marketable products. While challenging, these environments can be managed to simultaneously encourage plant growth and discourage pathogen spread.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.49 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-OR-T-13

Managing Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass

3/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Spring dead spot is the most destructive disease of bermudagrass in Kentucky. The most serious outbreaks occur under high maintenance conditions; e.g., high nitrogen fertility, low mowing height, and frequent traffic. Moderate to severe outbreaks can occur under low-maintenance conditions as well.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 816 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-3

Frogeye Leaf Spot, Black Rot, and Canker of Apple

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Paul Andrew Rideout, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot and frogeye are common names of an apple disease that occurs in three phases: (1) leaf infections result in frogeye leaf spot, while (2) fruit rot and (3) branch infections are referred to as black rot. All three phases can cause significant damage in Kentucky home and commercial orchards.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 1.00 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-14

Don't Eat Those Wild Mushrooms

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Ellen Crocker, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Mushrooms are strange and wonderful things--some are beautiful, some are ugly, some are delicious, and some are deadly. Mushroom hunting is a fun and rewarding hobby that can turn a hike through local woods into a puzzle-solving adventure. Many people are drawn to mushroom hunting and the potential to forage for food. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to mushroom foraging: poisoning. Each year, wild mushrooms lead to numerous illnesses and even a few deaths.

Departments: Forestry and Natural Resources, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.28 mb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-W-10

Black Spot of Rose

2/1/2016 (reviewed)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Black spot is the most common and serious disease of roses in Kentucky. It is a problem in greenhouse production and outdoor plantings.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 350 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-OR-W-23

Shade Tree Anthracnose

2/1/2016 (new)
Authors: Sharon Flynt, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose is the common name given to several fungal shade tree diseases with similar dark, irregularly-shaped leaf lesions. While they are primarily foliar diseases, damage on some hosts may extend to twigs, branches, and buds. In established trees, anthracnose usually does not cause permanent damage. However, resulting defoliation and dieback, especially if it occurs year after year, can weaken trees and make them more susceptible to environmental stresses and secondary pathogens.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 869 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-1

Peach Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Peach leaf curl occurs annually in commercial and residential orchards throughout Kentucky. The disease causes severe defoliation, weakens trees, and reduces fruit quality, fruit set, and yield. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines are susceptible to peach leaf curl. Plum pockets is a similar, but less common, disease that occurs on wild and cultivated plums.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 887 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-T-4

Black Knot

12/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Dennis Morgeson, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black knot is a common, often serious, disease of plums and cherries in Kentucky. Ornamental Prunus species, as well as wild plums and cherries, may also be affected. Trees in both commercial and residential plantings are susceptible.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 784 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-8

Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits

11/1/2015 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

Gummosis is a general, nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound, regardless of whether it is due to insects, mechanical injury or disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 207 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-4

"Wet Feet" of Ornamentals

11/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Brad Lee, Tracey Parriman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

"Wet feet" is the common term for a condition that affects plant species intolerant of wet growing conditions. This problem occurs when soils become saturated with water, which, in turn, displaces available oxygen. Roots require oxygen to function; when oxygen is deficient, roots suffocate. Once root damage occurs, plants decline and may eventually die. While "wet feet" is an abiotic disorder and is not caused by infectious organisms, declining root health and wet soil conditions can inhibit the ability of some plants to thrive. This also provides ideal conditions for many root and collar rot water mold pathogens, such as Phytophthora and Pythium.

Departments: County Extension, Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.36 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-1

Tree Wounds: Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi

9/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Bill Fountain, Traci Missun, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Wood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback, and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.

Departments: County Extension, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.95 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-T-5

Apple Rust Diseases

8/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Annette Meyer Heisdorffer, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Cedar-apple rust is the most common and economically important rust disease occurring on apple in Kentucky. Two other rusts, cedar-hawthorn rust and cedar-quince rust, are of lesser importance on apple, but can significantly impact ornamental plants. All three diseases occur on crabapple, hawthorn, mountain ash, pear, and serviceberry.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 813 kb
Pages: 5



ID-91s

Guia de Monitoreo de MIP para Plagas Comunes de los Cultivos Cucurbitaceos en Kentucky

7/15/2015 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Cheryl Kaiser, Kenny Seebold

Esta guia cubre los problemas abioticos y bioticos mas comunes que ocurren en cucurbitaceas (Familia Curcubitaceae) en Kentucky. Este grupo de plantas, al que tambien se refiere como enredaderas trepadoras, incluye al pepino, melon (cantalope), sandia, melones especiales, calabazas (o zapallos), calabacines, y cogordas (conocidas tambien como calabazas de peregrino, ayotes, jicaras, o porongos [gourds en ingles]).

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.74 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-FR-S-19

Blueberry Root Rot

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Blueberry is considered one of the most disease-free fruit crops in Kentucky. Many of the diseases that affect blueberry result in minor damage. However, the most common disease of blueberry, Phytophthora root rot, can cause severe dieback and often results in plant death. The causal agent of blueberry root rot is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soilborne water mold that occurs world-wide and can infect a wide range of hosts, including woody ornamentals. Under optimal conditions, the pathogen proliferates, and disease symptoms occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 702 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-H-10

Garden Mum Production: Diseases and Nutritional Disorders

5/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Ray Tackett, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Many Kentucky vegetable and greenhouse producers are beginning to include fall chrysanthemum production in their operations. Garden mums are usually planted in June and sold in September when fall color is in demand. Production can vary in size; small scale growers may produce as few as 200 plants per season. Size of the operation influences cultural practices, as well as initial investments in important practices (e.g., surface drainage, pre-plant fungicide dips, and pre-emergent herbicides); all of which can impact disease management.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.80 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-OR-W-22

When White Pines Turn Brown: Common Problems of White Pines in Kentucky

4/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is a popular conifer in many Kentucky landscapes, although its use may be limited to loose, well-drained, pathogen-free soil. Often, needle browning is the primary symptom that alerts homeowners and nursery growers of health problems. In Kentucky, brown needles on white pine are often caused by one of the following three conditions: white pine decline, white pine root decline (Procerum root rot), or Phytophthora root rot.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.17 mb
Pages: 4



PPA-41

Fundamental Principles of Plant Pathology for Agricultural Producers

3/9/2015 (major revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

All crop plants produced in Kentucky have the potential to become diseased under certain conditions. Diseases of crops can affect yield and/or quality of the harvested commodity, which can impact profitability and increase the risks of farming. A plant is diseased when it is affected by some agent that interferes with its normal development. Some disorders are caused by noninfectious factors, such as temperature extremes or nutrient deficiencies. However, this publication focuses on diseases caused by infectious microorganisms.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 3.80 mb
Pages: 7



ID-227

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Legume Vegetables in Kentucky

1/30/2015 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Shubin Saha, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" (but rarely eliminated entirely) to reduce their negative impact on the crop. Scouting and monitoring diseases, insects, weeds, and abiotic disorders in order to identify potential problems before they result in serious losses is essential to the IPM approach. Proper identification is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during bean and pea production in Kentucky. This manual is not all-inclusive, and growers may encounter a problem that is not included here. Please contact your county Extension service for assistance.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 33.00 mb
Pages: 32



PPFS-OR-W-21

Diplodia Tip Blight of Pine

1/1/2015 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, D.J. Scully, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Tip blight is a serious disease of landscape pines in Kentucky. Pines such as Austrian (Pinus nigra), Scots (P. sylvestris), and Mugo (P. mugo) are most commonly affected. Other landscape conifers occasionally may be affected by tip blight as well. Tip blight disease has not been found on eastern white pine (P. strobus).

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.27 mb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-9

Managing Diseases of Alfalfa

12/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Alfalfa can be a vigorous and productive forage crop for Kentucky farmers. Like all farm crops, however, alfalfa is subject to infectious diseases that can limit forage production. Managing these diseases is an important part of economical alfalfa production.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 756 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-T-12

Brown Patch Disease in Kentucky Lawns

12/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

Brown patch, also called Rhizoctonia blight, is a common infectious disease of turfgrass. All turfgrasses grown in Kentucky lawns can be affected by brown patch. However, this disease is usually destructive only in tall fescue and perennial ryegrass during warm, humid weather. While brown patch can temporarily harm a lawn's appearance, it usually does not cause permanent loss of turf except in plantings less than 1 year old.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 745 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-24

Soybean Cyst Nematode Management Recommendations for Kentucky, 2015

11/1/2014 (reviewed)
Authors: Don Hershman

SCN-resistant soybean varieties are an essential tool in the management of SCN. Although some of the early resistant varieties lagged behind susceptible varieties in yield, newer resistant varieties adapted for use in Kentucky do not suffer the same yield penalty. In fact, in the absence of SCN, it is common for modern SCN-resistant varieties to out-yield the best susceptible varieties in university research trials.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 546 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-T-11

Disease Management in the Home Lawn

11/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Gregg Munshaw, Paul Vincelli

This publication describes lawn management practices that can help control diseases of turfgrasses commonly used in home lawns--Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and perennial ryegrass. You can control diseases of turfgrasses most effectively by using as many of the following lawn management practices as feasible.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.02 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-T-6

Patch Diseases in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns

11/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

"Patch diseases" can be very destructive when Kentucky bluegrass is grown under intensive management. Two patch diseases with similar symptoms can occur. Necrotic ring spot often appears in early summer. Summer patch, the more common disease in Kentucky landscapes, develops in middle to late summer.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 793 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-F-8

Kentucky Plant Disease Management Guide for Forage Legumes

10/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Disease management in forage legumes relies heavily on using disease-resistant varieties and employing sound agronomic practices. It is important to integrate both of these strategies into a comprehensive disease management program. Failure to consider one or the other will compromise the success of your efforts. The appropriate use of pesticides sometimes plays a significant role in managing certain diseases, but it is secondary to sound cultural practices and proper variety selection.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 907 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-VG-18

Blackleg and Bacterial Soft Rot of Potato

10/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Blackleg and soft rot are bacterial diseases that cause heavy losses in Kentucky potato patches in some years. These diseases may result in missing hills when seed pieces are destroyed or the sprouts decay before they emerge from the ground. Serious rotting of tubers in potato hills and in storage can also occur.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 707 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-R-1

Winter Decline Syndrome of Canola

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Carrie Knott

Interest in producing canola in Kentucky has greatly increased in recent years. Many farming operations wish to diversify their production systems with different row crops that require little to no additional equipment or infrastructure costs; canola is such a crop. Additionally, newer canola cultivars have improved agronomic traits, including winter hardiness. Lastly, more stable markets in Kentucky have greatly increased the profitability of canola.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Canola Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-R series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-17

Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato

9/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Bacterial spot can result in severe damage to tomato, sweet pepper, and pimento crops. The bacterium attacks leaves, fruits, and stems causing blemishes on these plant parts. Outbreaks of leaf spotting have resulted in leaf drop and poor fruit set in the field. Defoliation due to leaf spotting can increase the incidence of sun scald on fruit. Fruit infections result in badly spotted fruit, which are of little market value. In addition, fruit injury from this disease allows entry of secondary fruit rotting organisms, causing further damage.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 636 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-16

Bean Diseases

8/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Anthracnose can reduce bean quality, as well as yield. Losses can be severe during cool, rainy weather. It is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which appears on all aboveground parts of the plant but rarely on roots. Lesions generally are dark brown and may contain pink spore masses during moist weather. Elongate, angular spots appear on lower leaf veins. As the fungus spreads into surrounding tissue, lesions eventually appear on the upper side of veins. Affected seeds become discolored. Plants grown from infected seed may develop lesions on the cotyledons.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.15 mb
Pages: 6



ID-184

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Sweet Corn in Kentucky

6/3/2014 (reprinted)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

In terms of acreage, sweet corn is the largest commercial vegetable crop grown in Kentucky. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs have played an important role in its production and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed" but not necessarily eliminated in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 1.05 mb
Pages: 16



PPFS-OR-W-11

Twig Blights of Juniper

6/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Twig and branch dieback is a common sight in many juniper plantings in Kentucky. While other factors can cause these general symptoms, two fungal diseases are frequently responsible for the dieback.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 600 kb
Pages: 2



ID-219

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Apple in Kentucky

5/7/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Cheryl Kaiser, John Strang, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Shawn Wright

The National Integrated Pest Management Network defines IPM as "a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." One of the key components of IPM is to continually scout and monitor crops to identify problems before they result in significant economic losses. Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter during apple production in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 2.60 mb
Pages: 20



PPFS-GEN-10

Root-knot Nematode in Commercial and Residential Crops

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Root-knot nematode (RKN) is a soil-dwelling microscopic roundworm. This nematode is parasitic on numerous plants, including vegetables, fruits, field crops, ornamentals, and common weeds. RKN can occur in commercial and homeowner plantings. Frequently, the nematode interacts with other plant pathogens to form a disease complex in which the resulting disease is much more severe than that caused by either component alone. Root-knot nematode is particularly serious when high populations are allowed to build up due to continuous replanting of susceptible plants on the same site.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 917 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-19

Transplant Shock: Disease or Cultural Problem?

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Mike Klahr, Nicole Ward Gauthier

When trees and shrubs are moved from one growing site to another (e.g. from nursery to landscape), they endure stress. If care is taken to minimize stress through proper transplanting techniques and maintenance, plants are likely to recover rapidly and become well-established in their new sites. Unfortunately, the opposite usually occurs.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.48 mb
Pages: 10



PPFS-VG-15

Tomato Wilt Problems

5/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are two fungal diseases that cause similar wilts in tomato. Fusarium wilt tends to be more common during warm weather, while Verticillium wilt is found more often when temperatures are cool. Both diseases share similar symptoms and can be hard to tell apart visually; laboratory tests are often needed for an accurate diagnosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 2.07 mb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-11

Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits

4/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold

Bacterial wilt is a common, often destructive, disease of cucurbits. This disease can cause nearly complete losses of a planting before the first harvest. Bacterial wilt primarily affects cucumber and muskmelon (cantaloupe). While squash and pumpkin are also susceptible, the damage to these hosts is usually less severe.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 575 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-11

Diagnosis of "No Disease"

3/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Extension Agents and growers may occasionally receive diagnostic reports from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory that indicate "no disease was found." One or both of the following explanations may account for the diagnosis of "No Disease."

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 867 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-9

Submitting Plant Specimens for Disease Diagnosis

3/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Sara Long, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the many ways that the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and UK Cooperative Extension serve the citizens of Kentucky. This publication is designed to help growers collect and submit the best plant samples for an accurate diagnosis.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 2.31 mb
Pages: 7



PPFS-AG-S-9

Sampling Soybean Fields for Soybean Cyst Nematode Analysis

1/1/2014 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) causes many millions of dollars worth of damage to Kentucky soybean fields each year. This occurs even though damage is mostly preventable and controls are inexpensive. This situation exists because a large number of soybean producers are unaware that cyst nematode is damaging their crops. In most cases soybean cyst nematode will cause significant yield reductions without producing any detectable symptoms in soybeans. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently thought to be associated with some other factor, such as soil compaction or low soil fertility.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, soybeans
Size: 679 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-MISC-2

Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance

1/1/2014 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Fungicides are important tools in modern crop production. Unfortunately, one of the risks of using these products is that fungi sometimes develop resistance to them. Resistance development is a concern because the products may become less effective--or even useless--for controlling resistant pathogens and pests. This is a concern for all pesticides, including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. This fact sheet is intended to help pesticide applicators better understand this process.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.33 mb
Pages: 10



PPFS-GEN-5

Fruit, Orchard, and Vineyard Sanitation

8/1/2013 (new)
Authors: David Koester, Faye Tewksbury, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home fruit plantings, resulting in premature leaf drop, fruit decay, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: County Extension, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 723 kb
Pages: 3



ID-216

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cole Crops in Kentucky

7/22/2013 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold

Cole crops are important as a group, particularly when all acreage of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are combined. Spring planted crops may have very different problems associated with them compared to fall crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs fill an important role in production of these crops and have enabled growers to improve quality and minimize input costs. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are employed in such a way as to minimize environmental risks, economic costs, and health hazards. Pests are "managed," but not necessarily eliminated, in order to reduce their negative impact on the crop.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 5.30 mb
Pages: 16



PPFS-AG-F-7

Rating Scale for Brown Stripe of Orchardgrass

7/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Leah Saylor, Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

As of right now, there is little published on how to assess foliar disease severity in forage grasses in order to determine the percentage which may be diseased. This publication provides a tool for visually determining the percentage of diseased foliar tissue in orchardgrass. It is based on the observation of individual leaves; however, it is hoped that eventually a rating system will be devised that provides disease percentages for entire plots.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, grasses, plant diseases
Size: 566 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-4

Landscape Sanitation

7/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Amanda Sears, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases can become a significant problem in commercial and home landscape plantings (Figure 1a), resulting in premature leaf drop, dieback, decline, and even plant death. When diseases do occur, it is often presumed that fungicides are the most important and effective disease management tools available. However, a good sanitation program can help reduce the need for chemical controls and can improve the effectiveness of other practices for managing disease. This often-overlooked disease management tool reduces pathogen numbers and eliminates infective propagules that cause disease.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 644 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-17

Leaf Scorch and Winter Drying of Woody Plants

6/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Rick Durham, Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Leaf scorch symptoms can develop whenever water needed for growth and health of plant foliage is insufficient. While symptoms are often due to unfavorable environmental conditions, leaf scorch can also result from an infectious disease. Symptoms, possible causes, and management of leaf scorch are discussed below.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 681 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-19

Soybean Foliar Spots and Blights

5/1/2013 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Soybean foliage is susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial pathogens. These pathogens cause leaf spots and blights and are generally common in Kentucky; however, few fields in any given year are seriously damaged by foliar diseases. Crop rotation and weather that is unfavorable to disease typically keeps foliar diseases at low levels. Occasionally an extended period of wet and humid weather in July to early August will result in significant amounts of foliar disease and yields may be seriously affected. However, this scenario is relatively uncommon in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 856 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-GH-4

Greenhouse Sanitation

3/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Diseases are a major concern for greenhouse growers and can be a key limitation to profitable plant production. Disease management in greenhouses is critical because the warm, humid environment in these structures provides optimal conditions for reproduction of many pathogens. When disease management is neglected, pathogen populations build-up and continue to increase as long as there is susceptible plant tissue available for infection and disease development. Infected plant tissue, infested soil, and pathogen inoculum (such as spores, bacterial cells, virus particles, nematode eggs) all serve as sources of pathogens that can later infect healthy plants.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 640 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-18

Verticillium Wilt of Woody Plants

3/1/2013 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Verticillium wilt can affect a wide range of ornamental trees and shrubs, as well as a number of tree fruits and woody small fruits. Over 400 herbaceous and woody plant species have been reported as hosts for this disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 534 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-16

Black Rot of Grape

10/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black rot is the most prevalent and one of the most important grape diseases in Kentucky. While this disease can affect all young developing plant tissues above ground, fruit infections are the most destructive. Without an adequate disease management program, both home and commercial vineyards suffer significant yield losses.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 555 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-3

Downy Mildew of Soybean

9/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Small, irregular spots on upper leaf surfaces are initially pale yellow in appearance, later becoming gray-brown with a yellowish margin. On the underside of the leaves, the spots have a gray, fuzzy appearance due to the presence of the pathogen. These fungal-like tufts are reproductive structures of the organism and their appearance is diagnostic for this disease. Symptoms frequently occur at low levels throughout the crop canopy. Early leaf spots are non-descript and are commonly confused with leaf spots and pustules caused by soybean rust.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 538 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-T-12

Fire Blight

8/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Fire blight is a highly destructive disease of apple and pear that can occur in commercial orchards and home plantings. Many landscape trees and shrubs in the rose family are also susceptible to this disease. Fire blight can cause severe damage in a very short period of time. Because precise conditions are needed for infection, disease appearance is erratic from year to year.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 650 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-T-13

Apple Scab

8/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Nicole Ward Gauthier

Apple scab is the most consistently serious disease of apple and flowering crabapple in Kentucky. This disease also occurs on hawthorn and mountain ash; a similar disease affects pear and pyracantha (firethorn). The most noticeable losses on apple result from reduced fruit quality and from premature drop of infected fruit. Scab also causes a general weakening of the host when leaves are shed prematurely. Summer defoliation of flowering crabapple due to scab invariably results in fewer flowers the next spring.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 486 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-S-4

Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot of Soybean

7/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRSR), caused by Phythophthora sojae, is infrequently encountered in Kentucky. However, where it does occur, the disease can be quite destructive. Soon after planting, P. sojae can cause damping-off of germinating seeds and/or young seedlings. Severe stand loss often necessitates replanting. Alternately, this pathogen can infect and kill established plants of susceptible soybean varieties any time during the season. Varieties that have some resistance to P. sojae may be stunted, but rarely die. PRSR is primarily a problem in poorly drained fields (due to high clay content, "hard pan," and/or soil compaction) or areas of fields that are prone to flooding.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 355 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-S-1

Brown Spot of Soybean

6/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines, is present in all soybean fields in Kentucky. In most years the disease causes little to no yield impact; however, up to 15% yield losses can occur in select environments. For example, brown sport tends to be worse where soybeans follow no-till soybeans, where early-maturing varieties are planted, and/or when fields are planted in late April. River bottom fields or fields subject to fog or morning shade are frequently impacted.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 420 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-8

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) in Kentucky

6/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a potentially devastating virus disease of wheat. In the United States, WSM is most prevalent in hard red wheat grown in the central Great Plains region. Soft red winter wheat produced in the mid-south and Midwest is infrequently impacted by WSM. Epidemics are rare in Kentucky with the only recorded ones occurring in 1989 and 2000.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 282 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-16

Rose Rosette Disease

5/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Rose rosette is a devastating disease that is a threat to virtually all cultivated roses (Rosa spp.) in Kentucky, regardless of cultivar. Even rose cultivars known for their exceptional disease resistance and hardiness are susceptible to rose rosette disease. Losses can occur in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and botanical garden plantings.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 383 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-W-3

Black Root Rot of Ornamentals

5/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Cheryl Kaiser, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Black root rot can affect a wide range of ornamentals in home and commercial landscapes, nurseries, and greenhouses. In Kentucky, this disease is commonly observed on Japanese and blue hollies, inkberry, pansy, petunia, and vinca. In addition to ornamentals, numerous vegetable and agronomic crops are susceptible.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 585 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-5

Strawberry Anthracnose

2/1/2012 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Anthracnose can be a serious problem in Southern and Midwestern strawberry plantings. The disease may appear as a fruit or crown rot, both of which severely reduce plant stands and yields. Fruit rot, the most common form of anthracnose, appears as fruit begins to ripen in late spring. Crown rots, on the other hand, can develop in young plants soon after planting or when weather warms in spring.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 293 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GEN-3

Damping-off of Vegetables and Herbaceous Ornamentals

2/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Damping-off can occur on any herbaceous crop grown from seed, including vegetables, ornamentals, and field crops. Seeds, seedlings, and young plants may be affected, resulting in poor stands in home gardens, greenhouses, and commercial fields. Losses to damping-off can be severe, especially when cool, wet weather prevails at seeding or seed emergence.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 288 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-15

Sample Submission Protocol for Diagnosis of Thousand Cankers Disease in Walnut

2/1/2012 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, Brenda Kennedy, Nicole Ward Gauthier

Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a fatal disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra), and most recently, butternut (Juglans cinerea). The disease complex involves a fungus that is carried to trees by the walnut twig beetle, causing numerous cankers on branches and killing trees 5 to 6 years after infection. The disease complex is widespread in the western U.S., and has recently been identified in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 361 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-MISC-6

Assessing Foliar Diseases of Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat: Principles and Practices

11/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli

This publication provides basic information on how to conduct disease assessments in on-farm trials. The focus is on foliar diseases, since root diseases are much more difficult to assess properly. The publication begins with fundamentals of proper design of field trials.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains, soybeans
Size: 719 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-GEN-12

Foliar Fungicide Use in Corn and Soybeans

10/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Cheryl Kaiser, Paul Vincelli

Interest in the use of foliar fungicides for corn and soybean has expanded dramatically in the U.S. over the past few years, resulting in a major change in how these crops are being produced on many farms. Until recently, foliar fungicides for soybeans and corn were reserved for seed production fields to protect seed quality in very specific circumstances or for specialty crops. Applications for the purpose of protecting crop yield were rarely economical. However, the current trend in Kentucky, as well as many other corn/soybean producing states, is towards an increased use of foliar fungicides on these crops as a means of maximizing yields.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, soybeans
Size: 1.09 mb
Pages: 9



PPFS-AG-SG-5

Fungicide Use in Wheat

9/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Disease management is a key component of high-yielding wheat production. In most years, it simply is not possible to produce high wheat yields without paying attention to disease control. Most diseases are best managed through the use of multiple tactics, both proactive (e.g., crop rotation, delayed and/or staggered planting plates, use of resistant varieties of varying maturities, proper fertility, and application of seed treatment and/or foliar fungicides) and reactive (e.g., application of foliar fungicides and timely harvest). Fungicides are just one tool in the disease management arsenal; however, growers often place too much emphasis on this one tool.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 459 kb
Pages: 8



PPFS-AG-SG-7

Black "Sooty" Head Mold of Wheat

9/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Each year, just prior to and during wheat harvest, the Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratories at Princeton and Lexington receive many samples with questions about severe head molding. This condition is known as black head mold or sooty head mold.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 264 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-12

Yellow Vine Decline of Cucurbits

8/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Kenny Seebold

Symptoms of yellow vine decline begin to appear approximately 2 weeks before fruit maturity. The disease may appear initially as stunting of plants and/or intense yellowing of foliage, followed by a slow decline in plant health. In some cases, a sudden collapse of vines may occur with no other symptoms. Vascular tissue (phloem) from crowns of affected plants is often discolored, appearing light brown rather than a healthy translucent green.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 454 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-T-4

Blackleg of Tobacco

6/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Blackleg becomes a concern whenever Kentucky experiences extended periods of warm, wet, overcast weather in the spring. This disease, also referred to as bacterial soft rot, is one of the most serious problems likely to be encountered on tobacco seedlings. Blackleg has the potential for destroying large numbers of plants in a relatively short period of time. As with other diseases in the float system, proper management goes a long way in preventing problems with blackleg.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 428 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-T-1

Pythium Root Rot in Tobacco Float Systems

5/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Pythium root rot is the most common disease found in tobacco float beds in Kentucky; it can cause severe losses or delays in transplanting. Damage caused by this disease can be minimized through a combination of sound management practices and timely application of fungicide.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tobacco Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-T series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, tobacco
Size: 883 kb
Pages: 3



ID-172

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky

4/29/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

Proper identification of pathogens and insect pests as well as nutritional and physiologic disorders and even herbicide drift is essential to determining the proper course of action. The pictures included in this guide represent some common pests or problems that growers may encounter when producing solanaceous crops (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and potatoes) in Kentucky.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 2.00 mb
Pages: 32



PPFS-AG-S-12

Seed Treatment Fungicides for Soybeans: Issues to Consider

4/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Kentucky soybean producers frequently ask the question "Is it advisable to treat soybean seed with fungicides?" There is no pat answer to this question because of the many variables involved. Historically, soybean has not been treated to the same extent that corn and wheat have in the U.S. There are many good reasons for this, and some of them are discussed below. However, the trend is toward greater use of fungicide seed treatment on soybean, both in Kentucky and nationally.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 400 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-SG-12

The Importance of Scouting Wheat for Plant Diseases

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman

For a variety of reasons, few Kentucky wheat producers place much emphasis on scouting their wheat diseases. Time and labor constraints (for do-it-yourselfers), the cost of hiring a crop consultant, and indifference to the need for scouting rank among the top reasons why this is the case. However, scouting is essential for those interested in managing diseases using an integrated approach.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 195 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-6

Preplant Decisions Greatly Impact Disease Potential in Wheat

4/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Kentucky wheat producers have a majority of their disease management program in place once the seed is in the ground. By that time, decisions have been made regarding the length of time since the last wheat crop, tillage method and seedbed preparation, variety selection, seed quality, seed treatment, planting date, seeding rate, seeding method, and fall fertility. Individually and collectively, these decisions play an important role in determining which diseases might develop, their severity, and their potential impact on crop yield, test weight, and grain quality. Because pre-plant and planting decisions are so important in the management of wheat diseases, you need to understand how they influence disease development.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 413 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-13

Late Blight of Tomato

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Late blight is an extremely important and damaging disease of tomatoes and potatoes, and can be found nearly anywhere these crops are produced. Total crop failures are common with this disease. In the United States, significant losses occur each year--mainly in northeastern and north-central states. However, serious outbreaks have been reported in the southeastern U.S. as well.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 565 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-14

Recognizing Late Blight on Tomato Seedlings

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Tomato seedlings that have late blight when transplanted can serve as sources of inoculum (spores) that can spread to nearby gardens and commercial plantings, so every measure should be taken to prevent these plants from making it to the field. The added threat is that sources of disease are introduced early in the tomato production season, magnifying the potential for heavy losses in seasons that favor late blight.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 436 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-VG-8

Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits

4/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Gummy stem blight is an important disease of cucurbits in many parts of Kentucky. Under conditions favorable to disease development, commercial growers and home gardeners may experience heavy losses. This disease can occur at any point in plant growth, from seedling stage to fruit in storage. Gummy stem blight is the name given to the disease when leaves and stems are infected. Muskmelon (cantaloupe), cucumber, and watermelon are most commonly affected by this phase of the disease. Black rot refers to the same disease on fruit; it is seen less often than the foliar phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 584 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-VG-4

Phytophthora Blight of Cucurbits and Peppers

3/1/2011 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Under ideal conditions, Phytophthora blight is an aggressive, fast moving disease that can cause extensive losses. This disease has become increasingly problematic on cucurbits and solanaceous crops in the United States. During the past decade, Phytophthora blight has been causing significant losses in several major vegetable production areas of the U.S. In Kentucky, serious outbreaks have been reported on summer squash, winter squash, cucumbers, watermelons, and peppers.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 544 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-AG-SG-4

Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV)

2/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Wheat spindle streak mosaic (WSSM), also known as wheat yellow mosaic, is a common virus disease that affects only wheat. In most years, WSSM has little to no impact on crops grown in Kentucky. However, significant yield damage can occur in highly susceptible varieties when conditions favor infection and subsequent disease development.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 308 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-SG-3

Barley Yellow Dwarf

1/1/2011 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman, Doug Johnson

Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is a virus disease that can cause serious yield loss when stunted and discolored plants are widely distributed in a field. Severe losses due to BYD occur state-wide about every five years or so, but individual fields are impacted to varying degrees each year. There are many diseases that can reduce wheat yields, but in the case of BYD, most of the disease management decisions (such as field selection, tillage practices, variety, and planting date) are made by the time the seed is actually sown in the fall.

Departments: Entomology, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 602 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-MISC-4

Real-time PCR Detection of Xylella fastidiosa is Independent of Sample Storage Time and Temperature

11/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Bernadette Amsden, John Hartman, Paul Vincelli

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, first associated with Pierce's disease of grapevines and alfalfa dwarf disease in 1973 (4) continues to be an economically important pathogen of several commercial crops. It also causes bacterial leaf scorch in urban shade trees such as sycamore, oaks, maples, mulberry, and elm (5). The usual course of action, in an effort to control the spread of this pathogen by insect vectors (9), is to prune out infected branches and vines or to rogue infected plants. Therefore, timely testing of suspect hosts is important.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Miscellaneous Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-MISC series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 236 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-VG-7

Fruit Rots of Cucurbits

11/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Vegetables in the cucurbit family include cucumber, muskmelon (cantaloupe), summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkin. The following diseases primarily affect the fruit of these crops and can result in losses in commercial fields and home gardens.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 315 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-OR-T-4

Turfgrass Anthracnose

8/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Anthracnose is primarily a disease of high maintenance turfgrass, such as annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) at golf courses. In Kentucky it can be a disfiguring disease of creeping bentgrass under putting green management conditions during summertime (June to September). The disease may make its appearance on intensely managed annual bluegrass somewhat earlier (April to September). The anthracnose pathogen can incite a foliar blight phase or the more destructive basal rot phase.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 527 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-10

Soybean Loss Prediction Tool for Managing Soybean Rust

7/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman, Joseph Omielan

Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a potentially devastating foliar disease of soybean. The disease was first detected in the Continental United States in the fall of 2004. Since that time, it has caused only sporadic yield losses in the U.S., primarily in the Gulf States. However, the potential still exists for devastating losses to occur in all soybean producing areas of the U.S. should the proper combination of weather conditions come together to support significant disease development by mid-summer. Currently, the only way to avert significant yield loss caused by SBR when disease risk is high is by applying foliar fungicides.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 656 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-23

Soybean Rust Fungicide Use Guidelines

6/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Effective use of fungicides to control soybean rust is not very complicated. The whole idea is to wait to spray until the soybean rust risk is at least moderate, and make a fungicide application before significant infection has occurred. This means applying fungicides when plant pathologists in and around Kentucky are "sounding the alarm," but before symptoms are evident. Many soybean producers in the deep South have been using fungicides to control soybean rust since 2005 with considerable success. I believe we will have the same experience if it ever becomes necessary to apply fungicides for soybean rust in Kentucky.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 473 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-1

Take-All of Wheat

5/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Don Hershman

"Take-all" is the common name of a root, crown, and basal stem (foot) rot that primarily affects wheat, but can also affect barley, oats, rye, as well as other grass crops and weeds. The disease has been known to destroy entire stands of wheat, thus the name. Barley, oats, rye, and other grass crops, however, have not been seriously impacted in Kentucky. Take-all is most common where susceptible crops are grown continuously without adequate rotation, or in fields where weedy grass hosts were not controlled in non-host crops, and were subsequently sown to wheat. The disease is rarely a serious problem in Kentucky due to excellent weed control practices, as well as the widespread adoption of cropping systems where wheat is produced, at most, every other year.

Departments:
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 248 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-SG-2

Wheat Bacterial Streak

5/1/2010 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Don Hershman

Occasionally, wheat leaves and spikes are invaded by the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens. When leaf tissue is affected, the resulting disease is known as bacterial streak. When the bacterium invades the head, the disease is called black chaff. While this disease has primarily been a problem in the lower mid-South, it is often found in Kentucky in fields that have been impacted by strong winds with blowing soil or following a damaging freeze.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Grains Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-SG series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains
Size: 247 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-GH-6

Poinsettia Diseases

5/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Poinsettias grown through the fall months for Christmas sales are vulnerable to destructive diseases from the time the cuttings are stuck into the rooting media until they are mature and ready for sale. A number of poinsettia diseases are favored by the same environmental conditions that promote propagation, making plant material at this stage particularly vulnerable. Diseases occurring in the later stages of production can be related to management issues or cultural problems, as well as the cooler temperatures needed for finishing. Some other diseases can be problematic to poinsettias at any phase of production. And finally, a phytoplasma organism found associated with poinsettias provides evidence that some host/pathogen relationships can actually be economically beneficial.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: flowers, nursery and landscape, ornamental plants, plant diseases
Size: 1.34 mb
Pages: 6



PPFS-AG-S-13

Soybean Diseases Control Series: Soybean Cyst Nematode

1/1/2010 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) exists virtually everywhere soybean is grown in Kentucky. The pest is insidious in that significant yield damage often occurs without the appearance of visible disease symptoms. This is an extremely important point because it suggests that farmers are frequently unaware that SCN is active and doing damage in a field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 336 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-S-20

Cercospora Leaf Blight in Kentucky

10/1/2009 (new)
Authors: Don Hershman

In most years, Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) is a minor disease problem in Kentucky soybeans. It is one of the more common "late-season" diseases, but usually comes in too little, too late to cause damage. However, in wet, late seasons like the one we experienced in 2009, significant yield and grain/seed quality losses can occur in fields that develop severe CLB before pod fill has completed.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 296 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-OR-T-1

Weather Favorable for Cottony Blight in Turfgrasses

8/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Hot, humid weather with occasional showers is favorable for cottony blight, caused by various Pythium species. This disease, also known as Pythium blight, can be very destructive in swards of creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass in a high-maintenance setting, such as golf courses, croquet courts, etc. Cottony blight can occasionally be found on other cool-season turfgrasses, though very infrequently.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Turf Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-T series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 267 kb
Pages: 2



ID-91

An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops in Kentucky

7/27/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Ric Bessin, Tim Coolong, Terry Jones, Kenny Seebold, John Strang

Long before the term "sustainable" became a household word, farmers were implementing sustainable practices in the form of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. IPM uses a combination of biological, cultural, physical, and chemical methods to reduce and/or manage pest populations. These strategies are used to minimize environmental risks, costs, and health hazards. Pests are managed to reduce their negative impact on the crop, although pests are rarely eliminated.

Departments: Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Interdepartmental (ID series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 1.86 mb
Pages: 24



PPFS-AG-F-5

Crown Rots of Alfalfa

5/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Crown rots are chronic disease problems of alfalfa throughout the world. Crown rots cause loss of stand and forage yield in several ways. If the crowns are rotted severely enough, infected plants will die simply by being choked off. Carbohydrates for winter survival are stored in the crown and upper taproot. By rotting this area, crown rots also make alfalfa plants more sensitive to winter kill. Some crown rot fungi produce toxins, thus weakening or even killing the plant.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 239 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-F-3

Common Alfalfa Seedling Diseases and Disorders

3/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Alfalfa seedlings are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic problems which can affect establishment. Several of the more common seedling diseases and disorders are described below. This information is being provided as a diagnostic aid; publications which provide specific management and production information can be found in the resource list.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 115 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-S-8

Value of Wheat Residue in Soybean Cyst Nematode Management

3/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is the most widespread and significant pest of soybean in Kentucky. SCN is managed primarily by rotating fields to non-host crops (such as corn) and using SCN-resistant varieties. However, for a variety of reasons, producers occasionally desire to plant a SCN-susceptible variety.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Soybean Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-S series)
Tags: farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases, small grains, soybeans
Size: 218 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-4

"Emergency" Inoculation for Poorly Inoculated Legumes

2/1/2009 (minor revision)
Authors: Garry Lacefield, Ray Smith, Paul Vincelli

Frequently, stunted and yellowed legumes are thought by growers to be diseased. Close examination often reveals that such "diseased" plants are actually just poorly nodulated.

Departments: Plant and Soil Sciences, Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 187 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-2

Risk Factors for Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot in Fall-Seeded Alfalfa

12/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Alfalfa seeded during late summer or fall is susceptible to the destructive disease Sclerotinia crown and stem rot. Fall-seeded stands are particularly vulnerable to this disease because the young seedlings have not had sufficient time to develop adequate resistance before infectious spores of the pathogen are produced in late October. In contrast, spring-seeded stands are able to develop larger, more resistant crowns prior to this infectious period. Thus, spring plantings are better able to withstand an attack, should these air-borne spores be present in the field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 280 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-F-1

Summertime Foliar Diseases of Alfalfa

11/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Warm, humid weather can favor development of foliar diseases of alfalfa during summer.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 194 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-AG-F-6

Alfalfa Diseases Caused by Rhizoctonia Fungi

11/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Rhizoctonia fungi, particularly Rhizoctonia solani, are found in most agricultural soils in Kentucky. These fungi are natural soil inhabitants that colonize and live on dead organic matter. Under the right environmental conditions, the Rhizoctonia organisms are often able to attack living plants, including alfalfa. When warm, wet conditions prevail, Rhizoctonia fungi can cause just about every conceivable type of alfalfa disease.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Forage Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-F series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 294 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-AG-C-1

Diseases of Concern in Continuous Corn

10/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli

Although most corn in Kentucky is planted following a rotation to other crops, individual producers are often interested in planting corn following corn. In these situations, one of the main concerns voiced by producers is increased pressure from diseases, and rightfully so. Crop rotation is one of the most fundamental disease control practices available. Rotating to other crops deprives pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) of a food source and exposes them to "starvation." Furthermore, as infested crop residues decompose, pathogens are exposed to antagonism by native soil microbes. These mechanisms have the effect of naturally reducing the populations of many pathogens in the soil.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 233 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-AG-C-2

Seed and Seedling Diseases of Corn

10/1/2008 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Corn seeds and seedlings are susceptible to infection by a number of soilborne fungi. When planted into cool, wet soils, seeds may decay before or after germination. Affected plants that survive past the seedling stage may go on to produce an ear if nodal roots develop normally, although stunting and reduced ear size can occur as a result of seedling diseases. Severely affected plants may die during stressful weather as the result of an inadequate root system.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Corn Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-AG-C series)
Tags: corn, farm crops, grain crops, plant diseases
Size: 160 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-14

Fruit Rots of Grape

10/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Kentucky's typically wet springs and warm, humid summers favor the development of several fruit rots of grape. These include anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, and sour rot.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 358 kb
Pages: 7



PPFS-FR-S-13

Downy Mildew of Grape

9/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Julie Beale, John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Downy mildew is an important disease of commercial and backyard grapes in Kentucky. This disease causes direct losses when flowers, clusters, and shoots decay and yields are reduced. Indirect losses result when premature defoliation predisposes grapevines to winter injury. It may take a vineyard several years to fully recover after severe winter injury.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 282 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-9

Poor Fruit Set in Brambles

9/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Poor fruit set and sterility commonly occur on bramble fruits (red raspberries, black raspberries, and blackberries) both in commercial and home plantings. Typically the fruit fails to develop or small misshapen berries form. When an insufficient number of drupelets fully develop, they tend to separate so that the fruit "crumbles" when picked. This symptom, referred to as "crumbly berry," is another common result of poor fruit set.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 234 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-FR-S-7

Phytophthora Root Rot of Brambles

7/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Brambles that are subjected to wet soil conditions or periods of flooding are often predisposed to Phytophthora root rot. Excess water not only promotes susceptibility of roots to this disease, but also aids the fungus in moving to new infection sites. Phytophthora root rot is primarily a disease of raspberries; however, it can also occur on blackberries.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 296 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-VG-6

Bacterial Canker of Tomato

7/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Kenny Seebold

Bacterial canker is a potentially serious disease of tomato that can occur in commercial plantings and home gardens. This infectious disease is capable of spreading rapidly, resulting in devastating losses. It is a particularly difficult disease to manage because not only is there no cure, but the pathogen can be hard to eradicate once it has been introduced into a greenhouse, garden, or field.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Vegetable Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-VG series)
Tags: farm crops, plant diseases, vegetables
Size: 392 kb
Pages: 3



PPFS-FR-S-8

Strawberry Fruit Rots

6/1/2008 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Cheryl Kaiser

Strawberry fruit rot diseases often make it difficult to obtain high yields of quality berries. Kentucky's typically moist springtime growing conditions favor these diseases, which often begin with infections of flowers at bloom. Diseases causing the decay of developing and ripe strawberries include gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 274 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-10

Blueberry Diseases

1/1/2008 (new)
Authors: Paul Bachi, Julie Beale, John Hartman, Sara Long

Kentucky blueberry growers sometimes experience plant and crop losses due to diseases. While most losses are due to root rot, or to stem and twig canker diseases, fruit rots and nutritional problems can also reduce yields. With good crop management, most blueberry diseases can be avoided.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 292 kb
Pages: 4



PPFS-OR-W-12

Bacterial Leaf Scorch

7/1/2007 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Bacterial leaf scorch has devastated many landscape and shade trees in Kentucky's urban forests in recent years. Especially hard hit have been the mature pin oaks lining many urban streets. First diagnosed in the U.S. in the early 1980s, this epidemic shows no signs of abating.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 249 kb
Pages: 6



PPFS-FR-T-9

Peach Fruit Diseases

6/1/2007 (new)
Authors: John Hartman

Peaches are grown in many Kentucky orchards for local fresh market sales. Fruit diseases, often resulting in decayed peaches, are a serious problem, especially during warm, humid, rainy weather conditions.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Tree Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-T series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 277 kb
Pages: 5



PPFS-FR-S-6

Orange Rust of Brambles

9/1/2006 (new)
Authors: John Hartman, Chris Smigell

Orange rust is a disease caused by one of two very similar fungi, Gymnoconia nitens in the Southeast, and Arthuriomyces peckianus in the Midwest. Both fungi, causing the same symptoms, may be active in Kentucky. In Kentucky, orange rust is severe on some wild and cultivated thorny blackberries. It infects black and purple raspberries and thornless blackberries somewhat, but is not known to infect red raspberries.

Departments: Horticulture, Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 232 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-6

Slime Mold, Lichens, and Sooty Mold Problems on Plants

8/1/2006 (minor revision)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman

Slime molds are amoeba-like organisms which feed on bacteria and yeasts in the soil. During cloudy, humid weather these molds grow out of the soil and creep onto whatever is available. Turfgrass, weeds, strawberries, bedded flowers, and ground covers, as well as mulches, sidewalks and driveways may become covered with masses of gray, yellowish or black dusty spores.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 208 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-FR-S-1

Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot and Eutypa Dieback Diseases of Grape

11/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Paul Bachi, John Hartman

"Cane and leaf spot" and "Eutypa dieback" were once thought to be the same disease. However, it is now known that each is a distinct disease caused by a different fungus. Grapes grown in areas where a moist environment persists are especially vulnerable to these fungal diseases.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 183 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GH-5

Controlling Phytophthora Root Rot in Greenhouse Ornamentals

5/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: Don Hershman, Paul Vincelli

Phytophthora fungi can attack a number of potted herbaceous ornamentals produced in greenhouses. The potted flowering plants reported as hosts include: begonia, bougainvillea, ornamental pepper, vinca, poinsettia, Persian violet, fuchsia, common gardenia, African daisy, kalanchoe, Lantana, African violet, holiday cactus, gloxinia, and Jerusalem cherry.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Greenhouse Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GH series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 615 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-W-5

Shoestring Root Rot: A Cause of Tree and Shrub Decline

5/1/2005 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman

Most woody landscape plants are susceptible to shoestring root rot, cause of dieback and decline in the landscape. Diagnosis of this problem requires close examination of the base of the trunk which often reveals loose or decayed bark and dead cambium. By peeling back the bark one can often observe dark brown rhizomorphs (thick strands of hyphae), resembling narrow "shoestrings."

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Woody Ornamental Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-W series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 337 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-GEN-2

Powdery Mildew

8/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman

Powdery mildew may affect numerous ornamentals, fruits, vegetables, and agronomic crops. In Kentucky, mildew diseases are most commonly observed on apple, begonia, crabapple, cherry, dogwood, lilac, phlox, pin oak, rose, sycamore, tuliptree, turfgrass, zinnia, squash, pumpkin, cantaloupe, wheat and barley.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: General Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-GEN series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 240 kb
Pages: 2



PPFS-OR-H-5

Oedema

8/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: Brian Eshenaur, John Hartman

Odema is a non-parasitic disorder which, under the right environmental conditions, can affect a wide variety of herbaceous plants. We most frequently observe this problem on indoor plants, such as dracaena, geranium and schefflera. Oedema tends to be more of a problem in greenhouses, but it may also occur on plants grown in homes and offices. Field and garden grown crops, such as cabbage, may also be affected.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Ornamental Plant Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-OR-H series)
Tags: plant diseases
Size: 150 kb
Pages: 1



PPFS-FR-S-4

Raspberry Fruit Rots

7/1/2004 (minor revision)
Authors: John Hartman

Rainy summer and fall weather in Kentucky can provide ideal conditions for fruit decay diseases of raspberries. The most damaging are the fungal diseases gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and soft rot, or leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.). Both diseases are favored by long periods of wet fruit and foliage, and by high humidity levels. During some parts of the season, fruit rots account for up to 50% loss of potential harvest, and additional losses after harvest.

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Small Fruit Disease: Plant Pathology Factsheet (PPFS-FR-S series)
Tags: farm crops, fruits and nuts, plant diseases
Size: 181 kb
Pages: 2



PPA-44

An Alfalfa Disease Calendar

5/1/2000 (new)
Authors: Paul Vincelli

Departments: Plant Pathology
Series: Plant Pathology (PPA series)
Tags: cover and forage crops, farm crops, legumes, plant diseases
Size: 168 kb
Pages: 4